Volume 13 - 2020



Constructing an Educational Programme Based on Active Learning Strategies and its Impacts on Developing Pivotal Thinking Skills

Muhsin Tahir Muslima, aCollege of Education, AL-Qadisiyah University, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Republic of Iraq, Iraq, Email: aMuhsen.muslem@qu.edu.iq

The present study aims to: 1.Construct an educational programme based on skills of active learning. 2. Identify the impact of the programme on  pivotal thinking skills  for a particular group of fifth year students of an applied branch in Physics. The study sample includes 56 students distributed over two equal sections (B, C). The two groups are equivalent in the variables that could affect the experiment’s results. The researcher prepared a scale for  pivotal thinking skills, which includes 105 items including eight main skills and 21 fifth scale secondary skills. After verifying the scale psychometric features, the experiment was applied to the two groups during the second course of the academic year (2017- 2018)  and the results were analysed. The results show that there are significant differences in favour of the experimental group that adopted the pivotal thinking skills. In light of the results, the researcher puts forward some conclusions, recommendations, and suggestions. Pages 1 to 17




Are Urbanisation, Trade Openness and Inward Foreign Direct Investment Alarming for CO2 Emissions in Malaysia? A Study Using the Time series ARDL Approach

*Irwan Shah Zainal Abidina and Muhammad Haseebb, Azrina Abdul Razakc, Munawar javed Ahmadd aSchool of Economics, Finance and Banking (SEFB),      Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), Sintok 06010 Kedah, Malaysia. bTaylor’s Business School (TBS) Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus, Jalan Taylor’s 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, C School of Creative Industry Management and Performing Arts (SCIMPA), Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), Sintok 06010 Kedah, Malaysia, Iqra University, Karachi Pakistan. Corresponding author’s email: irwanshah@uum.edu.my, bmuhammad.haseeb@taylors.edu.my, cazrina@uum.edu.my, dmunawar.javed@iqra.edu.pk

The growing rate of CO2 emissions in developing countries, especially Malaysia, is becoming an area of concern for policy makers as well as researchers, because the need for analysing different predictors of CO2 emissions has become so prominent. In response to this emerging need, the current study examined the impact of urbanisation, inward foreign direct investment (IFDI), and trade openness on the CO2 emission levels in Malaysia. For this purpose,  data was collected about  urbanisation, IFDI, trade openness, and CO2 emissions of Malaysia for the last 30 years and a time series ARDL approach was adopted to assess the short-term and long-term relationships between variables. The unit root test, co-integration and ARDL modelling led the researcher to find that urbanisation, IFDI, and trade openness have significant positive effects on CO2 emissions in the long run however, there is no significant short-term impact of trade openness and IFDI on CO2 emissions in Malaysia. Therefore, it has been suggested through the findings of this study that urbanisation, IFDI, and trade openness are alarming for CO2 emissions in the long-run in Malaysia. These findings will contribute to theory and practice by setting guidelines for researchers and policymakers regarding the part played by urbanisation, IFDI, and trade openness in enhancing the CO2 emissions of the country. Pages 18 to 36




Expanding the Oil and Gas Sector of Indonesia through Better Marketing Performance: Analysing the Role of Online Engagement, Interactivity and Brand Attachment

Tripitono Adi Prabowoa*, Rainier Hendrik Sitaniapesayb, Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendrac, Adi Santosod, Nurul Komaryatine, aMahasiswa program Doktor Ilmu Ekonomi Universitas Airlangga dan Universitas trunojoyo Madura, Indonesia, bUniversitas Pattimura Ambon, cFaculty of Engineering, Udayana University, dUniversitas Muhammadiyah Ponorogo, eStudent at Faculty of Economic and Business, Diponegoro University and lecturer at UNISNU Jepara, Indonesia, Email: a*tripitono.prabowo@trunojoyo.ac.id,  brhendrik025@gmail.com,  cacwin@unud.ac.id,  dadisantoso@umpo.ac.id,  enurul@unisnu.ac.id

The present study attempts to examine the role of online engagement and online interactivity in improving the marketing performance of the Indonesian oil and gas sector. Along with the direct relationships, the mediating role of brand attachment is also investigated. The primary data has been drawn from a sample size of 294. To examine the impact of incorporated variables on marketing performance, Confirmatory factors analysis and the Structural equation modelling approach is incorporated in the study. Several tests were applied including: descriptive analysis, KMO and Bartlett’s test, rotated component matrix, convergent and discriminant validity. The direct effects indicated that online engagement and online interactivity are the significant and positive drivers of marketing performance,  creating a significant impact on the improvement of marketing performance. Similarly, the indirect effects show that brand attachment acts as the significant mediator between online engagement and marketing performance. Also, brand attachment significantly mediated the relationship of online interactivity and marketing performance.  The study embraces several theoretical, practical and policy making implications for the marketing management practitioners and strategy developers to attain high levels of marketing performance and business expansion. Finally, various limitations have been given along with  recommendations for in-depth findings by  future researchers. Pages 37 to 56




Causality between Stock Market Development and Economic Growth: Evidence from Emerging Markets

Hadeel Yaseena, Asma’a Al-Amarnehb*, aThe University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, bMiddle East University, Amman, Jordan, Email: ah.yaseen@ju.edu.jo,  b*aalamarneh@meu.edu.au  

The stock market is an indicator of an economy’s financial health and it indicates the mood of investors in a country. As such, stock market development is an important ingredient for GDP growth. This paper studies the causal relationship between stock market development and GDP growth rate of a small emerging market, namely Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) over the period 2000 - 2018. The results revealed that stock market development affects GDP growth with a unidirectional causality relationship between stock market development and GDP growth in the short run. In addition, we confirmed a bidirectional causality relationship between the interest rate spread and the GDP growth in the short run. Moreover, this paper sheds some light on one of the most important developments taking place in the equities market; that is the initiation of the Over-the-Counter Market in 2016. A causality relationship between ASE liquidity and the OTC-market liquidity was conducted. Our results stress that there is a bi-directional causality between the liquidity of ASE and the OTC-market liquidity. Pages 57 to 78




English Borrowing on Internet Lexicon Used by University Students in Medan Indonesia

Nuzwatya, Rizki Amaliab, aFaculty of Arts, Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, bUniversitas Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Jakarta, Email: anuzwaty@fisip.uisu.ac.id,  brizkiamalia@upnvj.ac.id

This study conducts on the pattern of English borrowing on the internet lexicon as the internet code used by university students in Medan, Indonesia. The data collection is purposely done during one semester (four months in every Monday and Thursday). The amount of the data is 53 lexicons. To recheck the reliability and validity of the data, 100 of first-year students of Political and Social Science Faculty, University of Islamic Sumatera Utara participated. The result shows that sounds of English borrowing lexicon convert into the typical Indonesian sounds. Consonant [t] at the end position of the stem in a cluster [nt] automatically dropped, like print > prin.  Sound [v] replaced by [f] in all of the distribution. The passive form of the borrowing follows the Indonesian passive pattern, indicated by prefix di-. The borrowing ones adapt the Indonesian prefix me- to convey transitive verb forms, with the allomorph /mem-, men, meղ/, like mem-prin ‘to print’. The nasal sounds emerge in allomorphs influenced by the initial sounds of the stems based on the point of articulation of the sounds confronted. Pages 79 to 93




Mood System of Teacher-Student Interpersonal Utterance in the Class: A Study in Systemic Functional Linguistics

Liesna Andrianya, Muhammad Ali Pawirob, aFaculty of Teacher’s Training and Education, Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, bFaculty of Arts, Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, Email: aLiesna.andriany@fkip.uisu.ac.id,  bm.alipawiro@sastra.uisu.ac.id

This research aims to describe the form of mood system in classroom discourse. The analysis is conducted by studying the text according to the lexico-grammatical units that realise  interpersonal utterances by using the discourse analysis approach under the theory of Systemic Functional Linguistics. This research is a qualitative research paper supported by quantitative data. The data are collected from six teachers and 232 students from three schools in Medan. The results of the research indicate that the representation of the interpersonal meaning of lexico-grammatical in the studied text by clause system focus indicates that the using of mood (mode of IND-DEC, IND-INT, IMP and O) on each text is realised either by teachers or the students.  The teacher’s pronunciation is the reflection of the ideology that the teacher is the managerial power holder in the class, as well as the knowledge authority holder. Pages 94 to 106




Iraqi Diplomacy in a Turbulent Regional Environment: A Study in Determinants and Constraints

Amjad Taamaa, Mohammed Kadhim Abbas AL-Maeenib, Haider Ali Husseinc, a,cMustansiriyah Center for Arab and International Studies/ Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq, bAl-Nisour University College, Baghdad, Iraq, Email: aamjdzain@yahoo.com,   bamjadztatmsc@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq,  cbmohammed.kh.law@nuc.edu.iq

This study aims to analyse  Iraqi diplomacy in general, and to diagnose its weaknesses in recent times, as well as the determinants, which impede their performance with regard to a specific role in a troubled regional environment.  There are many reasons which still affect  the return of Iraq diplomacy to its optimal activity levels, although more than a decade and a half has passed since the changes in the political system, including  internal disagreements, as well as many external determinants.  Countries that have a great influence on Iraq,  have been affected by the general performance of Iraqi diplomacy regarding neighbouring countries. The problem of the study are based on: What are the internal, external determinants and factors facing the work of Iraqi diplomacy in general, and towards the neighbouring countries in particular, and is there a possibility to develop a role in the path of regional balance in light of the available data.  Pages 107 to 120




The Influence of Social Media on Organisational  Performance and Job Performance

Hamzeh Ahmad Mustafa Alawamleha, D.Narasimha Murthyb, aDepartment of Management, ISBR Research Center Banglore, University of Maysore, Mysuru, India, bWelingkar Institute of Management Development and Research, 102 Electronic City Phase 1, Banglore, 560100,

Social networking is gaining prominence, and is increasingly being used in many businesses' daily operations, from start-ups to small, medium and large organisations. Very few empirical studies have been performed to assess the effect of the use of social media on organisational  performance and job performance. The purpose of this research is to explore the effect of social media characteristics on organisational  performance and job performance. The study  samples   were collected from 500 managers and supervisors of industrial companies which are listed in the ASE (Amman Stock Exchange). The PLS SEM analysis  proved that social media,  social media conversations, and social media connectedness have a positive and significant relationship with organisational performance. Whereas social media communities and social media openness have an insignificant relationship with organisational performance. The results regarding job performance indicate that openness, community and connectedness have a positive and significant relationship with job performance. Meanwhile social media conversation shows a negative relationship, where it does not significantly influence job performance. It was suggested that these industrial companies be managed to maintain and pay adequate attention to their social media platforms,  use them heavily to render customer support, and to promote and market their products and services so as to increase their performance. Pages 121 to 140




The Power of Antecedent Factors of Service, System, and Information Quality and Their Effects on M-Commerce Consumer Perceiving Quality

Ibrahim A. Abu AlSondosa, Anas A. Salamehb, aAssistant Professor, Department of Management Information Systems, College of Administrative Sciences, Applied Science University, Bahrain, bAssistant Professor, Department of Management Information Systems, College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, 165 Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia, Email: aIbrahim.abualsondos@asu.edu.bh,  ba.salameh@psau.edu.sa

The main purpose of this research is to enhance new knowledge for a better understanding of the most powerful dimensions of the m-commerce quality that influences consumer perception, developing theories based on existing and previous literature on m-commerce quality for online shopping purposes. This research concentrates more on the three-dimensions of the e-service quality framework that  better predict consumer behaviour on responding to SQ afforded by e-services. The outcome is assumed to increase awareness about the various country cultures in return for the diverse relevance of e-service quality characteristics. Data was collected after distribution of a survey to 386 staff and students at Jordan University (JU), customers were utilised to examine the study framework using SEM-PLS. The analysis outcomes revealed that two dimensions of information and system quality, namely content adequacy, and perceived website innovativeness respectively had a significant influence on customer perceived quality. Meanwhile, the dimension of service quality perceived risk has no significant effect related to customer perceived quality. Indeed, overall m-service quality is statistically associated significantly with customer behaviour. An additional investigation must take into consideration a diversity of product and service segments and/or other businesses to determine whether the measurement goes fairly well. In another business setting, the measurement may be required to be modified.  Research in the  future might also utilise various methodologies, for instance, interviews, focus groups, and observations. Pages 141 to 159




Financial Risk and the Financial Performance in listed Commercial and Investment Banks in Bahrain Bourse

Basel J. A. Alia, Mohammad Salem Oudatb, a,bAssistant Professor at Accounting and Finance Department, Applied Science University, Kingdom of Bahrain, Email: abasel.ali@asu.edu.bh,  basil8011@gmail.com

Risk management is on the rise every day in the banking industry due to the rising uncertain economic climate. Despite the growing role of banks in the country's growth, the governing bodies of these institutions face numerous risks. Risk management is perceived to be the secret to the success and failure of any financial institution. The study explores the effect of financial risk on the performance of listed banks in Bahrain and the relative value of the most popular types of risk. The research covers 11 of the 18 banks in Bahrain from 2014 to 2018. Based on the availability of data, data was collected from the Bahrain Stock Exchange Database. Alternatively, the most common metrics, ROA, was used for bank performance and risk measures. Four forms of financial risk have been used, namely capital risk, exchange rate risk, liquidity risk and operating risk. Regression analysis reveals that there is an insignificant relationship between bank performance, exchange rate risk, liquidity risk and operating risk. The findings also indicate an important positive relationship between bank performance and capital risk. In addition, the findings indicate that capital risk is the most significant form of risk. The research advises that attention be paid to operational risk, which is primarily related to uncertainty about the earnings of a financial company due to computer system failures, mistakes, abuse by staff, or risk of loss due to unforeseen operating expenses. Pages 160 to 180




The Effect of Internal Marketing on Marketing Performance: a Survey of Workers Opinion in the Public and Private Banks in Duhok Governorate

Aree Mohammed Alia, aTechnical College of Administration Duhok Polytechnic University, Email: aaree.ali@dpu.edu.krd

This study analyses the relationships between internal marketing procedures and their reflection in enhancing marketing performance, which has become a vital and contemporary issue. Internal marketing in banks has increased in business, especially after the emergence of its role and importance. The recruitment of highly qualified and skilful individuals with responsibility to provide high-quality services to customers is important. The study problem focuses on the extent of the relationship between internal marketing procedures on marketing performance. A set of primary and secondary hypotheses to solve this problem is adopted. In order to achieve the objectives and prove the hypotheses, a default model is developed to clarify the nature of the relationship between the study variables and to achieve the results expected from the analysis. I have relied on the available studies, research and books on the variables used in the current study to build theoretical and methodological frameworks. Pages 181 to 200




Investigating Short and Long-term relationship between Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Performance: New Evidence from Brazil

Mohamed Ameen Saeeda, Aras A. Mihob, Bikhtiyar K. Alic, aDuhok Polytechnic University, Kurdistan region-Iraq, bAkre Technical College, Duhok Polytechnic University, Kurdistan region-Iraq, cMinistry of Education, Kurdistan region-Iraq.

This study aims to discover the relationship plus the impact of FDI on economic performance in both long and short term in Brazil from 1980 to 2019. An analysis of time series approaches: Vector Error Correction model and Johansen Cointegration test are used. The demonstration of results relating to the stationarity test indicates that the included variables are stationary in first difference and integrated into order one. Furthermore, cointegration test of Johnsen for detecting the association ship in the long run, indicated to all the variables are cointegrated, which implies the existence of long-run relationship between FDI and growth of the economy. Continuously, estimated results of an empirical model of VECM affirms that the FDI impact on economic performance is positive and statistically significant, in addition, these results showed the double effect of FDI and important in explaining the economic performance, and the causality only runs from one side (unidirectional causality) runs from FDI toward RGDP in the long run. Finally, the short-run dynamic (speed of adjustment) estimated to be (62%) for any annual deviation of last years toward long-run equilibrium. Such findings are a significant part of an open and efficient economy, which suggests that foreign direct investment is a significant driver to the development of the economy. Pages 201 to 219




The Effects of Financial Performance on Firm Value and Good Corporate Governance: Evidence from Indonesia

Ririh Dian Pratiwia, Imang Dapit Pamungkasb*, a,bFaculty Ecomonic and Business, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, Semarang, Indonesia, Email: b*mangdapit.pamungkas@dsn.dinus.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of financial performance on the value of manufacturing companies in Indonesia, as well as to find out whether good corporate governance can be a moderating variable on the effect of financial performance. The population used is manufacturing companies on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2017-2018. In this study, a sample of 129 was obtained. The analytical method used was MRA analysis. The results of this study are the financial performance proxy by return on asset proven to affect the value of the company. However, good corporate governance which is proxy by managerial ownership and independent board of commissioners has no effect on the relationship of financial performance to firm value. In other words, the good corporate governance variable which is proxy by managerial ownership and independent board of commissioners is not proven as a moderating variable on the relationship between financial performance variables and firm value. Pages 220 to 233




A Strategic Planning in Combating the Crime of Money Laundering

Sameer Raheem Attallaa, Mazen Dawood Salmanb*, aHeat Police Centre, Anbar Governorate Police Departments, Ministry of Interior, bLecturer at Department of financial and Banking Sciences, College of Administration and Economics, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email: b*Mazin@coadec.uobaghdad.edu.iq

The research aims to analyse the reality of the strategic planning process and the extent of applying that process towards reducing Money laundering crime in economic crime offices at the Baghdad governorate level. This study will provide an intellectual framework at the theory level describing the crime of money laundering and its direct and indirect negative effects in the Iraqi economy. It will also reveal the expected positive role that strategic planning plays in tackling the crime of money laundering. The development of a planning program is based on realistic statistical results, and lessons are drawn from global experiences to reduce the problem of money laundering. Pages 234 to 249




An Interrelationship between the Macroeconomic variables and the Exchange Rate in Iraq for the Period (2004 - 2006)

Ahmed Hafedh Hameed Altaiea, Ahmed Ayad Ibrahimb, aProfessor Assistant at Mustansiriyah University, College of Administration and Economics Department of Economics, Iraq, bLecturer at Mustansiriyah University, College of Administration and Economics Department of Economics, Iraq, Email: adr_ahmed_al@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq,  bmahmadayad1980@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

This study focuses on the interrelationship between the Macroeconomic Variables (MV) and the Exchange Rate (ER) in Iraq for the period of 2004-2006. There are two concepts that will be considered in this study. The first concept is the budget deficit, and the other concept is the current account deficit in the balance of payments. Furthermore, the internal debt m inflation and the (ER) have verified the validity of this interrelationship and its impacts on economics. Therefore, an economic explanation for the weaknesses and chronic structural imbalances in the Iraqi economy has been undertaken especially during the period of the research. Pages 250 to 265




Detection of Academic Dishonesty: A Perspective of the Fraud Pentagon Model

Tarmizi Achmada, Imam Ghozalia, Imang Dapit Pamungkasb*, aFaculty of Economic and Business, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia, bFaculty of Economic and Business, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, Indonesia, Email: b*imangdapit.pamungkas@dsn.dinus.ac.id

This study examines the dimensions of Crowe's Fraud Pentagon Theory such as pressure, opportunity, rationalisation, capability and arrogance to detect students conducting academic dishonesty. This study also examines the influence of pressure, opportunity, rationalisation, capability and arrogance on academic dishonesty. The data collection method uses a questionnaire with a purposive sampling method. Research samples were 222 students of the Accounting Study Program at the Faculty of Economics and Business, University in Indonesia. The regression model used in this study is a multiple linear regression model with the help of SPSS version 25.0. The results of this study indicate that pressure, opportunity, rationalisation and capability have a significant positive effect on academic dishonesty. However, arrogance does not significantly influence academic dishonesty. Pages 266 to 282




Comparison of Learning Style between Engineering and Non-Engineering Students in Vocational Education

Nizwardi Jalinusa, Ganefrib, Syahrilc, Rizky Ema Wulansarid, Rahmat Azis Nabawie*, Jailani Md Yunosf, Tee Tze Kiongg, a,b,c,d,eFakultas Teknik, Universitas Negeri Padang, Padang, Indonesia, f,gFaculty of Technical and Vocational Education, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Email: e*raazna@ft.unp.ac.id

In some countries, there was inconsistency quality of learning outcomes and teaching input. There were others increase these in the many forms; one of the forms that used was a need to understand the learning process that focused on the learning style. It is important for the teachers to understand students' learning style so that they can implement the best practice strategy in learning activities. The learning style that commonly used was Kolb Learning Style based on the learning experiences theory. Therefore, this study aimed to describe engineering and non-engineering students' learning style. The population of this study was students of Vocational Education Program Universitas Negeri Padang. This study used a special mix method design that is using a survey approach and document analysis that concentrated on the deep systematic matrix analysis method. The result of this study described that the engineering student more dominant to adopt the accommodator learning style (feel and do), the second place, the dominant to adopt diverger learning style (feel and watch). While, the non-engineering students more dominant to adopt the accommodator learning style (feel and do), and the second place, the dominant to adopt the converger learning style (think and do). Pages 283 to 294




The Influence of Hindi Cinema on Fashion and Society in India and Vice Versa

Kumar Anketaa, Rajantheran Muniandyb*, Silllalee S.Kandasamyc, Paramasivam Muthusamyd, Thilakavathy Rajagopale, aResearch Scholar, Department of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Assistant Professor, National Institute of Fashion Technology, Raebareli, Uttar Pradesh, India, bProfessor, Department of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malay, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, cAssistant Professor, Department of Modern Languages, Faculty of Creative Industries, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Sungai Long Campus, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras 43000, Kajang, Selangor, dProfessor, Department of  Foreign Languages, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia, eResearch Scholar, Department of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Email: b*rajanmun@um.edu.my

There is no time recorded when human started adorning themselves for better presentation. As admiration of beauty is an innate quality of human, to make himself look neat and attractive in tidy, pleasant appearance is also natural to humankind. In modern, it has become the most important fact of once appearance, which influences the opinion of others. To present oneself most appropriately and suitably to impress upon encouraged various developments, including fashion. According to Merriam-Webster fashion is to give shape or form to make, construct, or create, usually with careful attention or by the use of imagination and ingenuity. The appearance does not confine to the individual. It has to be presented or showcased, and there is no better medium than films which transacts to the largest society across the globe. The individual gathers and forms a group for persistent interaction; thus, a society evolves with major of dominant cultural expectations. The different Societies are characterised by patterns of relationships between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions. For sharing some kind of medium is required, which has evolved from sound, sign, and hieroglyphics to structured language. Cinema is a nineteen-century invention that has provided the opportunity to use both audio and visual senses, including emotion. In modern period cinema has become the mirror of the society. The paper is an attempt to understand the influence of Hindi films on fashion and society in India and vice versa. Pages 295 to 309




Development of a Construction Instrument of Post Occupancy Evaluation for High–Rise Residential by Using Industrialised Building System

M. A. A. Rahmana, M. K. Musab*, M. N. A. Azmanc, Septian Aji Permanad, a,bFaculty of Engineering Technolgy, Pagoh Campus, UTHM, 84600, Muar, Johor, Malaysia, cFaculty of Technical and Vocational Education, UPSI, 35900, Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia, dUniversitas PGRI Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: b*mnazhari@ftv.upsi.edy.my

Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) is an activity of the building evaluation process with a focus on quality, operational performance and satisfaction of the occupants. The POE is essential to evaluate completed and occupied buildings to identify weaknesses and potential for future improvement. To date, there have been various variations of POE instruments and tools for assessing occupied buildings, particularly POE for residential buildings such as POE for public housing, POE for low-cost housing and POE for student residential colleges. However, the POE instrument for assessing high-rise housing constructed using the industrialised building system (IBS) method has not explicitly developed. In this regard, this study aims to discuss the construction of an effective POE instrument to measure the quality and performance of high-rise housing built using the IBS method. For this purpose, the three-round of Delphi method adapted by involving 15 experts selected based on their background and experience related to IBS. The results of the third round of Delphi found that 33 out of all sub-constructs are dropped because of low mean scores (<4.2 in two rounds) while 75 sub-constructs identified as final items. The results of the Delphi study also found that all ten constructs are 1) Spatial; 2) Design and aesthetics; 3) Physical; 4) Building materials; 5) Quality of work; 6) Comfort and well-being; 7) Environment and health; 8) Maintenance; 9) Value and 10) Cost are the most significant construct for developing POE instruments. Therefore, an effective Post-Occupancy Evaluation instrument for measuring the quality, performance and value of a home built using the IBS method should include all of these ten component constructs. Pages 310 to 330




Patients' Response to Early Stages Chronic Kidney Disease: Learn To Recognise the Illness

Irsanty Colleina, Ratna Sitorusb*, Krisna Yettic, Sutanto Priyo Hastonod, aDoctoral Nursing student Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia, bFaculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia, cFaculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia, dPalu Health Polytechnic of Health Ministry, Palu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, Email: b*ratnasit@hotmail.com

Objectives: Early stages of chronic kidney disease may have no symptoms; therefore, the identification and treatment of these manifestations early possibly help in preventing a transition into kidney failure and subsequently prevent the risks of progression. This study aimed at exploring the experience of self-management conducted by patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A descriptive phenomenological qualitative design was used, which required the recruitment of fifteen participants, using a purposive sampling technique. Furthermore, the data collection instruments employed consisted of in-depth interviews, field notes, and tape recordings. In addition, interview guidelines were prepared based on the objectives of the research which were further translated into a number of questions, to explore the experiences of patients, and the Colaizzi method was applied in data analysis. The results characterised the decisions to perform self-management, dealing with a health condition and social support as important aspects. This study identified several themes in the experiences of patients with decreased kidney function, suggesting that patients distinguish factors that facilitate and inhibit self-management, acknowledging its characteristics and readiness. Pages 331 to 342




The Implementation of Occupational Health Nursing Practice in Indonesia-Papua New Guinea Borders: Present and Future Challenges

Isak Jurun Hans Tukayoa*, Frans Manangsangb, Moh. Saljanc, Jems KR Maayd, a,b,c,dNursing School, Health Polytechnic Ministry of Health Jayapura, Papua, Street Padang Bulan 2, Hedam, Districk Heram, Jayapura City, Papua, Indonesia, Email: a*tukayoisak123@gmail.com

Occupational Health Nursing (OHN) is a well-established nursing practice known in many western and developed nations around the world. However, it is still considered as a new field in the less industrialised countries, including Indonesia. This research study the implementation of occupational health nursing practice, with the comparison of international recommendations from WHO, AAOHN and OSHA, in four centres of borders (Jayapura, Merauke, Boven Digul and Keerom) between Indonesia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). This study aims to measure the level of nurses' awareness of occupational health nursing services and to stimulate new thinking, linkages and collaboration among occupational health nurses, in public health centres, hospitals, nursing colleges and industrial settings. This study is conducted to measure the roles and responsibilities of 150 nurses in Papua New Guinea from different areas. A Qualitative method through a cross-sectional survey was conducted in the border between Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, in January and February 2020. The qualifications of nurses practising at the border are 74.6% Diploma of Nursing holders, 20.6% are Bachelor Degree holders, 2.66% Post Graduate holders and 2% doctorate level. In the view of OH training, 17% have attended OH-related training, and 83% never attended it. Only 37% knew the tasks of OHN. The averages of OHN activities across the border is 15%, with the least involvement is on Health Promotion (35%), Case Management (29%), Health Surveillance program (31%), and Fitness to Work (15%). The number of nurses working in a pure industrial setting is only 6%. Meanwhile, the averages of nurses aware and practice OHN activities are 27.6%. Pages 343 to 351




Formation of Cognitive Competence based on the E-learning System

Gulzhaina K. Kassymovaa*, Aigerim N. Kosherbayevab, Bruri M. Triyonoc, Ospan S. Sangilbayevd, Aigul I. Akhmetovae, a,b,d,eInstitute of Pedagogy and Psychology, Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University, 050010, Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Dostyk аve, 13, cGraduate School, Yogyakarta State University (Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta), Jl. Colombo No.1, Karang Malang, Caturtunggal, Kec. Depok, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia, Email: a*zhaina.kassym@gmail.com

This article studies e-learning possibilities and extra teaching skills needed to be developed in the industrial revolution 4.0 since online educational programs are made for easy use. It provides a brief review of ancient learning from the philosophical perspective of some countries. The authors believe that cognitive competence should be developed because the e-learning system is like eye-catching candy and digital era where almost everything is under fingertip in comparison with the past education system where students had to attend lessons. The research question is to test if e-learning environments develop students' cognitive competence. A goal of this study is to identify a method to implement e-learning environments well to develop students' cognitive competence and to achieve learning outcomes of students in higher education. To measure students' cognitive competence, a diagnostic map was used in the experiment conducted at three universities. The result of this study was satisfied to develop students' cognitive competence based on the e-learning system in higher education. Different methods and approaches were used in teaching to achieve the research objectives. Pages 352 to 370




The Impact of Imagination and Affective Creativity on University Students' Creative Thinking: A Verification through Structural Equation Model

Ibnu Siswantoa*, Mingchang Wub, Chenju Koc, aUniversitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia, bNational Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC, cNational Taichung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC, Email: a*ibnusiswanto@uny.ac.id

Both imagination and affective creativity were identified to instigate individuals' creative thinking separately. However, the interaction effect of these factors may overwhelm their single-factor effects while simultaneously occurring. This study purports to validate the moderating effects of affective creativity on the influential power of imagination to creative thinking. Validated instruments were employed to examine the performance of 402 students in the National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (NYUST), Taiwan. Taking a moderation model analysis, this study revealed that students' affective creativity and imagination individually created a single-factor effect on their creative thinking; their interaction effect occurred and dominated the effects. The effective creativity moderated the impact of imagination on creative thinking: that is, students with average and higher levels of effective creativity would possess better creative thinking according to their imagination. Conversely, for the student with a low level of affective creativity, their imagination could not inspire creative thinking. These findings further clarified the factor effects on and influential approaches to youngsters' creative thinking development. Pages 371 to 389




The Drafting of Awig-Awig in Bali Traditional Villages: Understanding Form and Content

Gede Marhaendra Wija Atmajaa, aProgram Studi Ilmu Hukum, Fakultas Hukum Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia, Email: ahaen.wia@gmail.com

This paper addresses the drafting of Awig-Awig, a central, customary law in traditional Balinese villages, explained below. Currently there is a paucity of guidance regarding this matter. To guide the discussion, the problem is formulated into the following questions: (1) How should the lettering of Awig-Awig stage fit with the qualifications of the traditional village as a society that upholds the unity of traditional law?; (2) What should be done in each stage of drafting an Awig-Awig, in accordance with the qualifications of the traditional village, as a society that upholds the traditional law society? The materials used are library materials and primary legal materials. They are discussed by the descriptive-analysis method. The analysis is carried out using a systematic interpretation and history of statutory law. The results of the study show: starting from the Krama Traditional Village, Prajuru Traditional Village, Sabha Traditional Village, Kerta Traditional Village, Banjar Traditional, Labda Pacingkreman Traditional Village, Baga Utsaha Padruwen Traditional Village, and Traditional Institutions. Pages 390 to 404




A New Theory of Cybercrime: A Comparative Study between Jordanian and French Law

Alshible Mohamada, Abu Issa Hamzab, aAssociate Professor at Jadara University, Faculty of Law, bAssistant Professor at Applied Science University, Email: asoramohamad@yahoo.com,  bhamza_abuissa@msn.com

The theory of an attempt to commit a crime is one of the most important in criminal law. Traditionally, the legislator may adopt into the penal code a specific theory, when punishing the person who attempted to commit a crime. However, this approach may change in the face of cybercrime. This study deals with theories about attempts to commit cybercrime, by explaining provisions and penalties according to their types and conditions. It also compares Jordanian and French legislation, regarding such theories. The study concludes that there is somewhat of a difference between the two approaches. The Jordanian approach needs a comprehensive review, to provide an integrated framework for their legislators’ theory of attempt in cybercrime.Pages 405 to 423




Control over the Constitutionality of International Treaties (A comparative study)

Osama Ahmed Alnaimata, Khalid Khalaf Al-Droub, aAssociate Professor of Public Law Dean of the Faculty of Law, Philadelphia University, bAssistant Professor of Public Law Faculty of Law – Jadara University, Email: a*O_alnimat@philadelphia.edu.jo

International treaties are a source of Public International Law. Control over their constitutionality is of great importance. It is concerned with the protection of the supremacy of the constitution, and its priority over all other legal norms in the State, specifically its sanctity before international legislation. In addition, such control constitutes an impervious barrier to any encroachment on the sovereignty of a State, which may be prejudiced by certain international treaties, threaten its interests and prejudice its independence and sovereignty by some treaties it has concluded. Based on this, we will discuss constitutional control over international treaties, and highlight the positive or negative role of the Constitutional Council in France and the Constitutional Court in Jordan, and their role in protecting constitutional provisions. The main research problem lies in the supremacy of international treaties over the constitution and ordinary laws, and control of the extent of their constitutionality in maintaining constitutional supremacy.Pages 424 to 440




The Effects of Cultural Restraint on Social Media Motivation, Relationship Benefits, and Relationship Commitment among Young Adults in Jordan: A Conceptual Study

Islam Habis Mohammad Hatamleha, Izzal Asnira Zolkeplib, Jamilah HJ Ahmadc, a,b,cSchool of Communication, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Email: aeslamx2011@gmail.com,  bizzalasnira@usm.my,  cjahmad.usm@gmail.com

Aim: This paper studies the effects of cultural restraint on social media motivation, relationship commitment, and relationship benefits among young adults in Jordan. Material and methods: This paper is based on a review of the literature and takes a conceptual approach. It suggests the framework for examining social media motivation, relationship benefits and trust among young Jordanian adults, while focusing on the moderating effects of cultural restraint on online relationship commitment. Findings: It was expected that the findings would build on the significance of integrating social media motivation, relationship benefits, cultural restraint, and online relationship commitment among young adults in Jordan, as social media appears to be the main element of dedication to online relationships. Implications: Due to Jordan’s social media engagement radically improving in recent years, it is urged that the impact of its motivation on relationship commitment is conducted, to prevent adverse effects. Young adults are the most important segment of society. Therefore, understanding the benefits and harms of their online relationship commitment to social media motivation is essential. Novelty: To date, no studies examine the effects of cultural restraint on social media motivation, relationship benefits, and relationship commitment among young adults in Jordan. Furthermore, this study will help university students understand their online relationship commitment, as to the benefits or harms of social media motivation.Pages 441 to 462




Legal Security and Administrative Judge: A Comparative Study between Jordanian and French Law

Osama Alnaimata, aDean of the Faculty of Law, Philadelphia University, Email: O_alnimat@philadelphia.edu.jo

This research sheds light on the principle of legal security as a contemporary legal concept.  It is an independent concept that includes many things, including the need to develop the quality of laws and administrative decisions and facilitate access to justice. In fact, the French experience is considered the pioneer in putting this principle into practice through the so-called principle of the necessity of facilitating access to the law. This research addresses the need for legal norms to be clear, understandable, not surprising to those involved and not subject to permanent change and alteration, whereas there is a minimum level of commitment to the principle of non-transformation of legal norms, taking into consideration not to fall into a deadly deadlock. This research also deals with the issue of legal security before the administrative judge in particular, where we find that this principle means the necessity of facilitating the procedures before the administrative judge and enforcing the provisions, especially in cases of an urgent nature. There is no doubt that there is a fundamental relationship between this principle and the principle of the ex post facto laws, which is one of the general principles. Pages 463 to 480




A Right to Fair Trial

Osama Alnaimata, aFaculty of Law, Philadelphia University, Email: aO_alnimat@philadelphia.edu.jo

This paper addresses the issue of the right to a fair trial. This right has become the standard of the Legal State. Numerous texts establish this concept, but fundamentally we find Article (6) of the European Convention on Human Rights, which provides for the right of every person to consider his case impartially and in public within a reasonable period of time. Access to justice is one of the pillars of this right: there is no respect for the individual if he is not able to bring cases before an honest judge who accepts his request and "strives" to accept his request. This is the responsibility of the state, the primary guarantor of access to justice. Our research addresses the basic judicial decisions that established this right, such as Golder's decision: The  court  should  be   impartial  and  independent,  and  judges should not be subject to any political or financial influences. We then address one of the issues of the right to a fair trial; the right of litigants to make judgments within a reasonable time. Equality must prevail between litigants on the one hand, and between litigants and the court on the other hand. This is called the equality in arms, that is, the litigants must have the same capabilities during the course of the procedures. This paper will also highlight the issue of application i.e.  how things work in practice. One might find that in a country like France, which is in the race in the field of law and legal democracy, so to speak, there are many problems and countless obstacles to applying the principle of the right to a fair trial, whether in the matter of access to justice, delay in issuing judgments or even equality in arms. This was confirmed by the rules of the Jordanian constitution and various legislations in force. Pages 481 to 497




The Legal Adjustment for COVID19 Transmission Crimes in Jordanian Law

Ali Jabbar Saliha, Alshible Mohamadb, aDean of the Faculty of Law. Jadara University – Jordan, bFaculty of Law. Jadara University – Jordan, Email: adr_alijabbar@yahoo.com, bsoramohamad@yahoo.com

The seriousness of the pandemic of Corona Virus (COVID19) lies in its rapid and ease of spread. Therefore, all international and national bodies and institutions at various levels have taken all possible measures to prevent their spread. From a criminal point of view, national legislation, whether in the Penal Code or the Public Health Law, often provides for the transmission of infection with a disease or an epidemic as a crime against public health. By examining the approach of the Jordanian legislator, it was found that as epidemic crimes stipulated in Public Health Law No. 47/2008, the penalties stipulated in this law are not commensurate with the seriousness of criminal acts, especially for intentional crimes. However, this law states that any more severe punishment can be applied in any other law. Here it can be said that the Penal Code is applicable upon these crimes, but it did not stipulate these crimes as they are in the Public Health Law. Therefore, the question arises about the extent to which the provisions of the crime of murder and harm in the Penal Code are applied to these crimes if their penalty is more severe than that stipulated in the Public Health Law. So, if the act constitutes a murder (according to the free mold) or the harm crime because the penalty is more severe than that stipulated in the Public Health Law, the Penal Code will be the applicable law, not the Public Health Law. Pages 498 to 507




Do Comics Improve Social Care Characters for Elementary School Students?

Vera Yuli Ervianaa*, Sukirno Sukirnob, Jupriyanto Jupriyantoc, Rasmitadilad, Achmad Samsudine, a,bDepartment of Primary Education, Yogyakarta State University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, cDepartment of Elementary School Education, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang, Indonesia, dDepartment of Elementary School Teacher Education, Universitas Juanda, Bogor, Indonesia, eDepartment of Physics Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: a*verayuli.2019@student.uny.ac.id, a**vera.erviana@pgsd.uad.ac.id,  bsukirno@uny.ac.id

Students look less interested in reading textbooks, but more enthusiastic when reading the available storybooks in the reading corner. One of the learning media in which the way of presentation can attract the attention of students is comics. This research aims to develop a comic in improving the character of social care. Social care characters are still least owned by students. This is a research development using ADDIE research model (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation). The subject of the research was grade 3 elementary schools. Data product assessment, observation, tests, and interviews were used. The media effectiveness was tested with One-Group Pretest and Post-test. The results showed data normally distributed with a significance value of pretest is 0.63, the post-test is 0.136. This value is greater than the significance of 0.05. In conclusion, it is feasible and effective to use a comic learning media to develop the social care characters for elementary school students. Pages 508 to 525




Mobile Addiction and Interpersonal Relationship of Adolescents in Higher Education in Malaysia

Chan Yuen Fooka, Suthagar Narasumanb, Syarifah Muzlia Syed Mustafac, Cheong Tau Hand, Norazah Abdul Azize a,b,c,d,e Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Email: yuenfook@uitm.edu.my

This study has employed a descriptive correlational research design to collect data from a total of 150 young adults who have responded to an online google form distributed through a WhatsApp link. The questionnaire items were adapted and adopted from various previous studies. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as t-test and correlation. The study found that adolescents in Higher Education in Malaysia have a moderate level of mobile addiction and interpersonal relationship. There was no significant difference between mobile addiction and gender. Besides, there was a significant relationship identified between mobile addiction and interpersonal relationship. The study implies that mobile addiction is associated with interpersonal relationships, and addicted adolescents experience more negative emotions than non-addicts. The study found that people with high levels of anxiety or depression are often uncomfortable with face-to-face communication and face much more interpersonal difficulties. Pages 526 to 541




Patent Rights of the Defence and Security Equipment in Indonesian National Armed Forces

Ateng Karsomaa, Ahmad. M. Ramlib, Eddy Damianc, Marni Emmy Mustafad, a,b,c,dResearcher at the Postgraduate Doctoral Program in the University of Padjajaran Bandung, Jalan Banda Number 42 Kantaatmadja Komar Building 40115, Email: aakarsoma96@gmail.com,  bahmadramli@yahoo.com,  ceddydamian13@gmail.com,  dem_syd2000@yahoo.com

The form of protection provided by the state through the Law No. 13 of 2016 concerning Patent towards the Defense and Security Equipment (DSE) related to the state defence and security, explicitly and implicitly regulates the Government's role to execute its patent in Indonesia under the consideration of "related to the state defence and security" as defined in the Article 109 of the Patent law Paragraph 1 alphabet A. Since the implementation of patent by the government with respect to the state defence and security, the patent holder 'cannot' use its exclusive rights. Indonesia needs patent management hosted under the Ministry of Defense, as practised in China and South Korea, in order to keep the confidentiality of DSE as a patent object and to provide moral and economic protection towards the inventor of DSE as a patent, since the government has taken the ownership of DSE's patent. Pages 542 to 553




Effectiveness of a Training Program on Critical Thinking Skills in Developing Meta-comprehension Judgments among Middle School Students

Khaled Ahmed Abdel-Al Ibrahima, aAssistant Professor of Educational Psychology College of Education - Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Email: aka.ibrahim@psau.edu.sa

The study aims to reveal the effect of training on critical thinking skills in developing meta-comprehension judgments among middle school students in Al-Kharj Governorate, and to determine whether the effectiveness of training differs across the genders. To achieve these goals, the author designed a training program based on critical thinking skills consisting of a total of 30 activities. The sample consisted of 117 male and female students from the first class of a middle school at Al-Kharj governorate, whose ages ranged between 13-14 years. Two schools were randomly chosen, one male and one female. Two classes from each selected school were also chosen again randomly. One of the two classes in each school was chosen to be an experimental group, and the other was a control one.  The results showed that there are statistically significant differences between the mean of the responses of the experimental group and the control group in the meta-comprehension judgments based on individual experience and judgments based on performance expectations in favour of the experimental group. The results also indicated that the training program is highly effective in developing meta-comprehension judgments and that there are no statistically significant differences between the means of male and female responses in developing meta-comprehension judgments based on the experience of the individual. At the same time, there were differences between the means of male and female responses in developing meta-comprehension judgments, which is a statistical indication of judgments based on performance expectations for females. Pages 554 to 572




Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Practices on Financial Performance in Iraqi Commercial Banks

Muna Kamel Hamada, Kareema Abbas Jealob, Wisam Hasan Ahmed zainic, a,cAccounting and Financial Control department, College of Business Economics  AL Nahrain University, bAccounting department, College of Administration and Economics AL Mustansiriyah University, Email: amuna@eco.nahrainuniv.edu.iq,  bima@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq,  cWzaini59@yahoo.com

The study aims to examine the impact of social responsibility practices on financial performance and to demonstrate the interaction between social performance through the costs of banking social activities in three domains including personnel, community, customer domain. Financial performance through ROI, return on assets ROA and based on a sample of ten listed commercial banks on the Iraq Stock Exchange. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationships between social responsibility and financial performance. Results show that social responsibility at its total costs negatively affects ROI while the areas of responsibility are related individually (workers, community, customer) to a positive relationship with ROI. ROA is negatively affected by total social responsibility costs as well as their respective areas. The relationship between social and financial performance could be rationalised by the adoption of other financial indicators to illustrate the impact on different stakeholders. Pages 573 to 593




Appealing the Disciplinary Judgement before the Board of Grievances

Abdelbaset Ali Abouelez Haresa, aDepartment of Law, College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, 173 Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia, Email: aa.hares@psau.edu.sa

This research deals with the disciplinary judgement, the manner and duration of the objection and the procedures to file the objection. This research also deals with those who have the right to object to disciplinary judgement and the terms of appeal to the Administrative Court of Appeal. It also discusses that appeal at the Supreme Administrative Court against the judgement may be issued by the administrative courts of appeal after reviewing the disciplinary judgement, its reasons and procedures, and how to hear the appeal and present the defences.  Pages 594 to 607




Timber Theft: Examining the Factors of Illegal Logging

Muhammad Nur Haniff Mohd Noora, Rokiah Kadirb, Suriyani Muhamadc, a,b,cFaculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu

Illegal logging has become an issue of global importance. Efforts to achieve sustainable forest management can be hindered by illegal logging activities. The negative impacts of illegal logging are significant on the environment, economy and forest-dependent communities. This conceptual paper examines the causes of illegal logging and identifies an appropriate policy response to overcome the issue. The paper is written based on extensive reviews of illegal logging-related articles published by global forestry organisations. The factors involved in illegal logging are examined with reference to motives, means and opportunities that can result in the occurrences of illegal logging. The findings identify factors relating to bureaucratic issues, demand for logs, corruption, violation of forestry law, and document falsification amongst the causes of the offences. The paper provides input in understanding how illegal logging takes place and how to control or reduce the problem through legislative and other approaches. Pages 608 to 620




Determinants of Creative Product Performance, Competitiveness, and Well-Being of Small and Medium Enterprises in Denpasar

Putu Eka Juliana Jayaa, Made Suyana Utamab, I G. W. Murjana Yasac, Ni Nyoman Yuliarmid*, aDoctorate Candidate of Economics and Business Faculty, Udayana University, Bali – Indonesia, b,c,dLecturer of Economics and Business Faculty, Udayana University, Bali – Indonesia, Email : d*nyuliarmi@unud.ac.id

This research aims to study factors which affect the SME’s performance, competitiveness, and well-being in Bali. Data was collected from non-behavioural observation, structured interview, and in-depth interview with a sample of 126 SMEs in Denpasar. Data analysis techniques with descriptive statistics and structural model equations using Partial Least Square were used. Three main findings are: (1) Quality of human resources and mounting product requirements have a positive and significant effect on product performance, product competitiveness and well-being; (2) ICT does not have any direct significant impact on competitiveness, but becomes significant through product performance as a mediator; (3) Local wisdom moderates the effects of product performance on competitiveness. The author concluded that the most important factors affecting the Bali SMEs’ competitiveness are local wisdom generated from skilful human resources and mounting product requirements. SMEs should utilise ICT more for marketing, as well as actively participate in Governmental development programs to achieve better performance, competitiveness, and well-being. Pages 621 to 635




Consumer Emotion Changes on Online Advertisement Case (Experimental Research on Online Advertisement that used Online Behaviour Advertising Approach)

Rina Astinia, Erwin Panigorob, a,bManagement Doctoral Program, Post Graduate, Mercubuana University, Jakarta, Email: arina_astini@mercubuana.ac.id,  berwin.agustian@student.mercubuana.ac.id

The trend of online advertising is increasingly in demand by business personnel, along with the growing development of internet technology this form of advertising provides wide opportunities for all users to interact with each other. The advancement of internet technology allows advertisers to design advertisements with unique features that can help attract consumers' visual attention, forcing consumers to see advertisements with the aim of influencing their psychological conditions such as attitudes and emotions. Advertisers monitor the behaviour of people and use their information to manage the information they obtain to target their advertisements accurately to potential customers with the method of advertisement impressions provided by daring channels. This phenomenon is called daring behaviour advertising (OBA). This study found a process that connects consumer awareness and knowledge about daring behaviour advertising with their attitude towards daring behaviour advertising, especially on YouTube ads, which shows that there is a feeling of annoyance from the consumer's side when exposed to these advertisements. The feeling of being disturbed does not change the image of the product to the consumer but has an impact on consumers' reluctance to recommend the product to others. Pages 636 to 648




Food Security and Sustainable Food Consumption in Nigeria

Chioma Dilichukwu Ifeanyichukwua, Chukwudi Ireneus Nwaizugbob, Subarsyah Subarsyahc*, Yusep Ikrawand, a,bNnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria, c,dUniversitas Pasundan, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: c*tediesubarsyah@gmail.com

This study centres on food security and sustainable food consumption in Nigeria. The study is aimed at ensuring if the four pillars of food security actually determine sustainable food consumption in Nigeria. The four pillars of food security (availability, affordability, utilisation, accessibility) were tested empirically to determine if they actually predict food consumption in Nigeria. The sample size is made up of 250 academic staff which were selected from five universities in the south eastern part of Nigeria. Multiple regression aanalysis was used to test for the significance of the hypotheses generated for the study and also to determine the variance in the dependent variable which is due tothe results of independent variable. Results show the significance of availability, accessibility and utilisation. However, affordability was not significant, thus contradicting previous research. Recommendations were made. Pages 649 to 660




Enhancing Electronic Word of Mouth through Customer Satisfaction for Young Customers' Mobile Phone Banking Applications

Wasutida Nurittamonta, aMarketing Department, Faculty of Business Administration and Information Technology, Rajamangala University and Technology Suvarnabhumi. 60 Moo 3 Asian Highway, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya,13000, Thailand, Email: awasutida_9919@hotmail.com

Information technology is a major customer sector. Entrepreneurs, corporations, organisations and government bodies adaption of information technolog will lead to dynamic changes. This study is aimed to examine the influence of e-service quality and corporate image through electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) regarding commercial banks targeting of young customers. The questionnaire was used as an instrument to collect primary data from 271 young customers shopping in the night market in Chang Mai and these participants were selected by purposive sampling technique. The regression analysis was used for evaluating the hypothesis with an enter method. The study findings indicated that e-services quality and corporate image had a positive direct and an indirect influence on e-WOM. In addition, the study highlights revealed that the mediation of customer satisfaction relates to e-service quality, corporate image and e-WOM. Lastly, this research provided outlook on e-service quality and corporate image literature, a test model of drives and outcomes, and helped to formulate guidelines to build commercial banks' online service banking. Pages 661 to 673




The Mediating Impact of Supply Chain Performance on the Relationship of Supply Chain Management Practices and Business Performance of the Textile Sector in Indonesia

Hamsinah Baharuddina*, Luh Putu Mahyunib, Imas Masriahc, Ugeng Budi Haryokod, a,c,dUniversitas Pamulang, bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Pendidikan Nasional, Bali, Indonesia, Email: a*hamsinahbaharuddin12@gmail.com,  bmahyuniluhputu@undiknas.ac.id,  chimasriah68@gmail.com,  ddosen00962@unpam.ac

The aim of the current study is to investigate the mediating impact of supply chain performance (SCP) in the relationship of supply chain management practices (SCMP) and business performance (BP) of the textile sector of Indonesia. To achieve this objective, the data was collected from the supply chain managers of the textile sector of Indonesia. The key findings of the study have shown that SCMP directly and indirectly through the SCP effect the BP of the textile sector of Indonesia. These findings indicate that the textile sector of Indonesia has a greater importance on the SCMP to increase the BP. The findings of the study could also provide help to the supply chain managers to know about the importance of SCMP and SCP to increase their BP. In addition, the empirical findings of the study could also have added a body of knowledge which could become a new area of research in future. Based on the findings of the study, there are some limitations which could become a new area of research in future. Pages 674 to 694




The Impact of Health Supply Chain Management Activities on the Health Service Qualities of the Indonesian Health Industry

Chauliah Fatma Putria*, Wahyudin Rahmab, Rini Hadiyatic, Eny Astutid, aTeknik Industri - Universitas Widyagama Malang, b,cUniversitas Muhammadiyah Luwuk, dKeperawatan STIKES William Booth Surabaya, Email: a*chauliah@widyagama.ac.id,  bwahyu@unismuhluwuk.ac.id,  crinihadiyati@unismuhluwuk.ac.id,  denyastutiserang@gmail.com

The aim of the current study is to investigate the impact of health care supply chain management (HSCM) activities on the health service quality (HSQ) of Indonesia. For this purpose, data was collected from 500 supply chain managers which yielded a 68% response rate. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) has shown that there is positive and significant relationship among the specification, after service supply, standard and health service quality in the Indonesian health service sector, while two components, supplier and delivery have insignificant association with the HSQ in the Indonesian health industry. These findings provide information about the importance of health care supply chain management activities to increase the HSQ. These findings could have added a body of knowledge which could provide help to conduct research in future.  The research limitations and future directions were also discussed at the end of the study. Pages 695 to 710




The Internal Control Moderating Effect on the Relationship of Supply Chain Integration and Firm Performance of Indonesia’s Banking Sector

Aang Munawara*, Novi Yantib, Fitrianic, Hadi Supratiktad, aInstitut Bisnis dan Informatika Kesatuan, bProgram studi Manajemen Universitas Ekasakti Padang, cUniversitas Muhammadiyah Luwuk, dUniversitas Pamulang, Email: a*aangmun@yahoo.com,  bdienqu955@gmail.com,  cfitriani@unismuhluwuk.ac.id,  dsupratikta@gmail.com

The aim of the current study is to investigate the moderating effect of Internal control (INTC) on the relationship of supply chain integration (SCI) and firm performance (FP) of the banking sector of Indonesia. For this objective, the data was collected from 450 middle managers by using s stratified sampling technique which yielded a 75 per cent response rate. The SEM analysis of the study has shown that internal integration (INI) and supplier integration (SUI) have a positive and significant integration along with the FP, while customer integration (CUI) does not have a significant relationship with the FP. The indirect effect findings have shown that internal control (INTC) significantly moderates the relationship of INI and SUI, whereas it does not significantly moderate the relationship of CUI and FP. These findings indicate that INTC is an essential variable because it significantly moderates most of the SCI indicators and FP. Therefore, this moderating effect is considered to a big contribution of this study that could become a new area of future research. Pages 711 to 733




A Debt You Can Debt on: Creditor Protection in the Field of Non-Performing Loans of Banking with the Rights of Liability Associated

Budi Untunga, aFaculty of Law, Janabadra University,

This study examines the legal cases of non-performing loans due to collateral agreements defaults associated with legal protection and encumbrance. The method used is a normative juridical and qualitative approach which will examine the subject matter through legal sources concerning treaties and the constitution or the Banking Act that specifically examines encumbrance through literature approaches and interviews. Results of research can be concluded that encouraged related parties, namely debtors, creditors, notaries, the Land Office, the District Court, to be able to carry out their duties and rights properly as well as their obligations to avoid non-desirable outcomes.Pages 734 to 743




Managing Innovation Process in the Real Estate Sector: Case study from UAE

Ahmad Ghandoura, aAssociate Professor, College of Business Al Ain University, UAE, Email: aahmad.ghandour@aau.ac.ae

Innovation in the real estate sector is rarely discussed although it can bring an overwhelming number of advantages to all stakeholders. Like any other industry, the real estate sector must too evolve to ensure better efficiency and increased profitability across the entire sector. This paper is focused on evaluating the innovative process associated with a leading real estate firm in the United Arab Emirates. Based on the cyclic innovation model, different types of data was collected for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The case exemplifies that innovation in the real estate sector is developed by meeting both market and technology factors. Pages 744 to 753




Spatial Analysis of Traffic Accidents in the AL-Anbar Governorate for the Period (2012-2018)

Huda Abdul Qadir Aziza, Mohammad abed algany settamb, aDep.Geography and Geographic Information Systems, The Iraqia University, Iraq, bCollege of Islamic, The Iraqia University, Iraq, Email: aa.prhudaaziz1245@gmail.com,  balanimohmad64@gmail.com

The current research deals with spatial analysis of traffic accidents in Anbar province for the duration (2012-2018), as traffic accidents are one of the most important problems which human societies in the world suffer from. It carries in its aspects human, economic, social and psychological characteristics, as it wastes many human energies and money, even if the losses resulting from it are estimated to be spent on other development projects to bring great benefit to society in the study area. The research has adopted the use of (ARC GIS V.10.5) in the analysis of spatial variance of accidents, to determine the levels of variability of accidents and to try to reach the appropriate solutions and radical manners that are consistent with the development of this era. Pages 754 to 771




Cost Accounting Management in M/S Millennium Appliances India Ltd (Vidocon Group)

Hawraa Nadhim Algalwa*, Ali Awadh Atshanb, Bassim Mohammed Merhejc, aDepartment of accounting, College of Administration and Economics, Al-Muthana University, Samawah, Muthanna, Iraq, bCollege of veterinary medicine, Al-Muthana University, Samawah, Muthanna, Iraq, cCollage of Arts, Al-Muthana University, Samawah, Muthanna, Iraq, Email: a*hawraazeayd@gmail.com

The current investigation is expected to give an incorporated way to deal with overseeing key expenses considering rivalry to fortify the intensity of industrial companies locally and globally in utilising the diagnostic methodology. The idea of the research lies in how to manage the costs of raw materials or materials involved in production at the lowest cost and of the highest quality in the company Vodocon Ltd. The levels of cost values were analysed for each model of each product of the company, where the study included three categories of products, televisions, refrigerators and washing machines, and each category has more than one model. The results indicated that it turned out that quality is the most important factor in achieving competitive advantages in industrial companies in light of competition strategies that depend on the value chain achieved by customers. The integrated entrance could combine the cost administration apparatuses by using prompt and adaptable production to accomplish high quality production. This would ensure customer search and guarantee cost decrease and returns through the integration of confirmed costs and registration cosst and the cost of control and accounting revenue. Iin addition to the integration of the target costs and activities costs to plan and design products and analyse activities to ensure re-engineering value, cost development, analysis, assessment and correlation with contenders to arrive at cost and greatness of individual management strategies that define the value chain of products that the customer is satisfied with and will search for in the future. Therefore, we recommend that industrial companies should concentrate on execution quality to ensure the company's competitive advantage under competition strategies through the value chain achieved by the customer. Industrial companies should refresh the incorporation of cost of the board instruments to give creation prerequisites, item arranging and configuration, diminish costs, and assess items and contrast them with contenders. Pages 772 to 794




The Effect of Ownership Structure, Leverage, Firm Size, and Audit Quality toward Earnings Management: An Indonesian Case

Toto Rusmantoa*, Agitha Juniaty Pasallib, a,bDepartment of Accounting, Faculty of Economics and Communications, Bina Nusantara University, Indonesia, Email: a*trusmanto@binus.edu

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of ownership structure, leverage, firm size and audit quality on earnings management. This study used the discretionary accruals of the Jones model in calculating earnings management. Fourteen companies in the consumer goods industry sector listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during 2013-2017 were used as samples in this study. The samples selected were based on certain criteria and the data analysis was done using the SPSS version 23 . Multiple regression testing is used to test the hypothesis such as the Classical Assumption Test (Normality Test, Multicollinearity Test, Heteroscedasticity Test, and Autocorrelation Test), Multiple Linear Regression Analysis and Hypothesis Test (t-Test, f-Test, and Determination Coefficient Test). The results of this study indicate that ownership structures (managerial ownership and institutional ownership) and leverage have no significant effect on earnings management. In contrast, firm size and audit quality have a significant effect on earnings management. Pages 795 to 808




Dynamics of Innovation in the Informal Settings

Oluseye Oladayo Jegedea, aDHET-NRF South African Research Chair in Entrepreneurship Education, College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, Email: aoluseyej@uj.ac.za

Using first-hand data collection from enterprises in the informal sector and their stakeholders, this study argues that enterprises in the informal sector are innovative however their innovation activities follow a different undercurrent. The study puts forward that indicators for capturing innovation activities as well as the actors involved in innovation activities are very different from those identified in the literature as informed by the Frascati and Oslo manuals used for capturing innovation and innovation activities. Also, the nature of the relationship among the actors and stakeholders in the innovation system follows a soft (informal) approach. These alternative patterns include learning by doing, using, interacting, imitating, producing and searching for business innovation. The study also advanced the importance of tacit knowledge acquired through on-the-job learning, the traditional apprenticeship system, indigenous knowledge system, amongst others. Finally, the study identified a high prevalence of innovation in the informal sector in Nigeria. Pages 809 to 828




Politics of Education in Indonesia: The Era of Soekarno, Soeharto, and Reformation

Sunarso Sunarsoa, aYogyakarta State University, Indonesia, Email: asunarso@uny.ac.id

This research was conducted with the aim of describing the development of education politics in Indonesia in the Sukarno Era, the Suharto Era, and the Reformation Era. This type of research was a literature study using a qualitative approach. A literature study was carried out by inventorying, examining, or testing written materials in the form of reference books, related legislation, journals, magazines, newspapers, and other written materials related to the problem under the study. Data that has been collected was first verified. In this study, the technique of checking the validity of the data was taken through confirmation between documents. The results showed that (1) The education politics of the Sukarno era in the early independence period 1945-1950 was coloured by the spirit of revolution, and the education aimed to instil the soul and spirit of patriotism. The education politics in the 1950-1959 period was coloured by liberal democracy, and education aimed to shape capable human beings and democratic citizens who are responsible for the welfare of the people and the motherland. The politics of education in the 1959-1966 period was coloured by Guided Democracy and the Manipol USDEK (Political Manifesto/1945 Constitution, Indonesian Socialism, Guided Democracy, Guided Economy, and Personality), and education aimed to encourage deceptive Indonesian socialist citizens. (2) The education politics of the Suharto era was marked by a passion for implementing Pancasila purely and consistently, as well as a passion for carrying out economic development. Education aimed to shape human development with the spirit of Pancasila, which can support the success of economic development. (3) The politics of education in the Reformation era was marked by a spirit to create a democratic society that obeys the law. Pages 829 to 847




Protecting the Marginal: Innovative Policy for Indonesia's Isolated Indigenous Communities

Moh. Dahlana*, Irwan Abdullahb, Sirajuddinc, M.Nasrond, Imam Mahdie, Intan Permata Sarif, Saepuding, a,c,d,e,f,gState Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Bengkulu, Indonesia, bGadjah Mada University Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*dahlanbkl20@gmail.com

This study depicts the objective conditions of Indonesia's isolated communities, who live in precarity, poverty, and desolation. Their interests as indigenous people are ignored as their community is perceived as a security threat. At the same time, globalisation has incorporated them into the 'global village', subjecting them to the systems, policies, and influences of other countries. This has threatened the security and sovereignty of the state, as the blurring of geographic, social, and cultural boundaries has undermined nationalism. This study seeks to map the structural positioning of traditional communities and their potential to promote change through innovative policy. Humanist and welfare-oriented policies will transform indigenous communities from objects of development into beneficiaries. This article recommends the implementation of innovative people-oriented policies that position indigenous communities as policy subjects. In this manner, development will not only serve to improve communities' economic welfare but also to recognise the dignity and rights of indigenous communities. Pages 848 to 862




Entrepreneurship Development and Open Educational Resources: A Bibliometric Analysis

Tayyab Amjada*, Yong Salmah Nasirb, aSchool of Business Management, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia, bMAS, Cooperatives Bhd, Menara Glomac, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: a*tayyab_amjad@oyagsb.uum.edu.my

Entrepreneurship development is highly pivotal to economic growth. Therefore, higher education institutions are continuing to upgrade entrepreneurship education (EE), and entrepreneurship research has rapidly grown in recent years. However, open educational resources, such as open access academic publishers have not yet acknowledged EE could have an exclusive outlet for publication. Therefore, although rapidly growing in numbers, the scholars of EE are having only one Scopus indexed journal that is specifically focused in this domain. Therefore, based on these wide gaps, a bibliometric analysis has been done in the broader research domain of entrepreneurship to understand its growing importance. Accordingly, the implications are given to the publishers. Pages 863 to 879




The Effectiveness of an Online Learning Platform in Collaboration with Virtual Technology using a Digital Ecosystem to Develop Information, Media and Technology Skills of Undergraduate Students

Charinthorn Aumgria, aDepartment of Computer Education, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Thailand, Email: acharinthorn@webmail.npru.ac.th

This research aims to study the results of an online learning platform in collaboration with virtual technology using a digital ecosystem to develop the information, media and technology skills of undergraduate students who learnt with a digital ecosystem. The sample group was 79 undergraduate students who were randomised with a cluster sampling method. The participants were divided into two groups, with 40 students in the experimental group and 39 students in the control group. The research tools used were (1) the teaching plan for online learning platform in collaboration with virtual technology using digital ecosystem, in accordance with the Dick and Carey Model; (2) an academic achievement evaluation form and (3) the student's information skill evaluation form. The data was analysed using mean (X), standard deviation, and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). The research found that, with significance level of 0.5, the academic achievement and information skills of the students who learned using online learning platform in collaboration with virtual technology using a digital ecosystem was higher compared to the students who using the normal learning method. Pages 880 to 895




Servant Leadership and Its Relationship to Organisational Commitment in the College of Applied Studies and Community Service at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University

Khalid Alshehria, Mohammed Sarhan Al-mekhlafib, a,bDepartment of Educational Management, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia,

This study aimed to identify the degree of academic leadership practice for the dimensions of the servant leadership in the College of Applied Studies and Community Service at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University. It also aimed to determine the degree of organisational commitment among college staff while identifying the nature of the relationship between the practices of servant leadership dimensions by the college leaders and the organisational commitment of college staff. The research relied on the descriptive-analytical method. The number of the sample population was 95, which is at a percentage of 44% of the original study population. The study reached several results, the most important of which are: the degree of practicing the dimensions of service leadership from the employees' viewpoint reached 72.6% with a weighted average of 3.63, which represents a high degree of practice. While the degree of organisational commitment among college staff was 77% with a weighted average of 3.85, it represented a high degree of practice. Also, there is an average direct correlation of 0.567 between the servant leadership practices and the organisational commitment of college staff, and significant differences were found between the male and female attitudes toward both the servant leadership dimensions and the overall questionnaire and the difference was in favour of males. There were no significant differences between male and female responses towards the organisational commitment measures. There are significant differences between the responses of both administrators and academics at 5% level of significance. It was found that academics have a higher attitude than administrators towards servant leadership practices and the organisational commitment measures. Pages 896 to 919




Should the Modern Idea of Individual Autonomy Continue to Influence Understandings about the Goal of Education? A Critical Discussion with Reference to Paulo Freire’s Critical Pedagogy

Sherwan T. Ameena, aResearcher at Research Center Nawroz University, Kurdistan region, Duhok, Iraq

Lately there has been renewed interest in the idea of individual autonomy in this ever-changeable world. The modern societies that believe in pluralist and democratic life influence economic and social life by considering individual autonomy. This means giving freedom of choices to children and considering their abilities to choose and follow their conception of life that they hope to be suitable for themselves in ‘flourishing conditions’ Kant (1784). This perspective has not only been the view of liberal societies but many conservative societies as well. For societies that do not consider individual autonomy, it will be hard to continue towards their desire of reaching flourishing conditions. Dearden believes education is the key to ensure individuals gain individual autonomy. Thus, the modern idea of individual autonomy in the enlightenment time of Immanuel Kant until the present time influences several societies and especially education. A much-debated question is whether it should be applied in the education system. In this paper, I will argue that people can have autonomy yet additionally they need a critical realisation to request and alter exploitive conditions. I will discuss that a critical pedagogy as defined by Freire (1972) and modernised by Giroux (2004), is what is needed within modern education. I start by defining Freire’s (1972) proposal of critical pedagogy as a mean for social alteration and equality in education by giving an alternative to the ‘banking concept’ of education and will relate it to my professional context as an English speaker for other languages (ESOL) teacher from Iraq. Pages 920 to 930




Counterterrorism and Human Rights Violations in Northeast Nigeria

Ravichandran Moorthya, Gabriel Tyoyila Akwenb, Sity Daudc, Sarjit S. Gilld, a,b,cResearch Centre for History, Politics and International Affairs, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia, dFaculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Email: adrravi@ukm.edu.my,  bakwengab123@gmail.com,  csitydaud@ukm.edu.my,  dsarjit@upm.edu.my

This research investigates counterterrorism and human rights violations in Nigeria. It examines the types and the contributing factors of human rights abuses, as a result of Boko Haram activities and the Nigerian counterterrorism initiatives undertaken by security agencies. Employing both secondary and primary data, this study adopts the qualitative research approach. Semi-structured interview questions were used on a total number of 29 informants, selected purposively. This study reveals evidence of human rights violations in the conduct of the Nigerian counterterrorism operatives, which also breaches the United Nation’s counterterrorism standards. The findings also show that the lack of human security conditions, corruption, inadequate training, and attitudes of the local communities have contributed to violations of human rights. This research postulates that to reduce human rights violations during counterterrorism activities, there is a need to incorporate non-military approaches and confident building measures to gain the support of the people. Pages 931 to 947




The Role of Collegial Supervision of School Supervisors and Head of Developing Teacher's Pedagogic Competence in Rejang Lebong Regency

Jumira Warlizasusia, Heldy Ramadhan Putrab, Ifnaldic, Lukmand, Dewinofritae, a,c,dAssoc. Profesor Education, Islamic Education Management Study Program Postgraduate Faculty, IAIN Curup, Indonesia, bAssoc. Professor, Islamic Education Management Study Program  Postgraduate Faculty, IAIN Surakarta, Indonesia, eAssoc. Profesor Islamic Education Management Study. IAIN Fattahul Muluk Papua, Indonesia, Email: ajumira.warlizasusi@iaincurup.ac.id,  bheldyramadhan@iain-surakarta.ac.id,  cifnaldi@iaincurup.ac.id,  dlukman.asha@iaincurup.ac.id,  ednsjafri@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is the implementation of supervision as an important activity in the administration of education. Supervision is intended as a control activity for all educational activities to direct, supervise, foster and control the achievement of Islamic religious goals and objectives. So the quality of education can lead to a better direction. This type of qualitative research was a descriptive approach. Data collection methods used were observation, documentation and free (non-structured) interviews. The analysis technique in this study uses the analytic deduction approach according to Milles and Habermen's theory. The results of the study and the implementation of collegial supervision by supervisors has not been maximised because only one supervisor has had to face such vast field realities both in the area of guidance and the number of teachers that must be guided. However, according to teachers the supervision provided was very helpful to the teachers in developing their pedagogical competencies. Many school principals are stuttering with education technology and supervision systems so that the supervision process is still not maximised. The success of supervision carried out by supervisors and school principals has made the pedagogical competence of teachers good but it still needs to be improved. The ideal obstacles in implementing collegial supervision are categorised in two aspects, namely structure and culture. Pages 948 to 961




Identity Movements, Religious Organisations and Social Harmony in North Sumatra

Muryanto Amina*, Muhammad Arifin Nasutionb, a,bFaculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Sumatra Utara, Medan, North Sumatra, 20155, Indonesia, Email: a*muryantoamin@usu.ac.id

This article aims to analyse the roles of religious organisations in political participation and the electoral patterns through a case study of two elections in North Sumatra; the 2018 Governor election and 2019 Presidential election. The authors approached the research qualitatively using critical network analysis to explain the values system and political motivations of religious organisations. Religious leaders influenced the level of religious activism and radicalism through various activities. Social harmony played an important role in preventing activism and radicalism, albeit in ways difficult to predict. The findings provide a deeper understanding of how the religious identity movement through religious organisations increased, while at the same time, the social interest in politics decreased. This study contributes to analysing the relationship between religious organisations' roles and the influence of social harmony on political participation, innovatively and systematically, and can be used as a reference in managing subsequent elections. Pages 962 to 983




The Relationship of Life Stress to Adjustment Among Poor Female Breadwinners in Saudi Arabia

Maryam A. Alanazia, aThe Centre for Promising Research in Social Research and Women's Studies, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University,

The study identifies the relationship of life stress to adjustment among poor female breadwinners in Saudi Arabia. It applies the social survey approach to an intentionally selected sample of (320) female breadwinners benefiting from social insurance and women's charities in Riyadh. Results reveal that life stress and adjustment of the participants is high, with a negative statistically significant correlation. Economic stress is ranked first, family stress is ranked last. The role of women's charities in adjustment is intermediate. The study recommends the partnership between the civil society institutions and the government to create jobs for female breadwinners. Pages 984 to 1006




A Study on the Categorisation of Basic Job Competency for Middle-Aged People in Korea

SooJeong Leea, Yun-Jeong Kimb*, aKorea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training, Republic of Korea, bDept. of Heath, Counseling and Welfare, Hanseo University, Seo-San City, Republic of Korea, Email: acrystal@krivet.re.kr,  b*twoyun21@hanmail.net

The purpose of this study is to target middle-aged Korean people aged 40 to 64 to categorise basic job competency and to identify the connection with vocational education, job-seeking skills, and career transition status. To this end, the data from Lee SooJeong et al., (2020), targetting middle-aged people aged 40 to 64 who had the will to find a job (change jobs) was used. The quota sampling method by profession, gender, and age was used and the data collection was conducted for a month in February 2020. The collected data was used for a total of 1,224 analyses through the data cleaning process. First, the basic job competency of middle-aged people in Korea has divided into three groups. Second, a total of 579 (47.3%) people belonged to the 'high-ranking group' of basic job competency. People perceived to be in good health in this case are incumbents, managers/experts, paid workers (regular workers), college graduates, or higher, living in a large city, and in middle-class economic conditions. Third, 496 (40.5%) people belonged to the ‘mid-ranking group’ of basic job competency. There were many paid workers (regular workers) in other professions and they were in low-class economic conditions with normal health conditions: they had the characteristics of the moderate degree between the high-ranking and low-ranking groups. Fourth, 149 (12.2%) people belonged to the ‘low-ranking group’ of basic job competency. There were many unemployed and temporary or daily workers, both economic and health conditions are low, and material status is also unstable, unlike other groups. Pages 1007 to 1022




Learning Management by Using Design Thinking Blended with Gamification

Achah Binheema, Paitoon Pimdeeb, a,bKing Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Email: aachah.b@pkru.ac.th,  bpaitoon.pi@kmitl.ac.th

This research aimed to synthesise knowledge on learning management by using design thinking blended with gamification. This research analysed and synthesised assorted content from documents and researches, as well as reviewed literature. The results indicated that design thinking is a thinking process for solving problems. It is a user-centred process focussed on understanding problems and new solutions in order to form desirable guidelines and innovations for users. There are 5 steps in learning management comprising the following: understand the problem, define the problem, ideate, prototype and test. Gamification is the technical and mechanical integration of a game which consists of rules, scoring, game levels, player cooperation, coins, and feedback. These components are implemented in the first 3 steps of learning management in order to motivate students with enjoyment, learning support, challenges, and stimulation in problem-solving. Pages 1023 to 1035




A Review: Readiness for Change towards Organisational Change

Ratna Wardania, Dian Ekowatib, Indrianawati Usmanc, Fendy Suhariadid,  Sri Suhandiahe, a,b,c,d,eUniversitas Airlangga, IIK Strada Indonesia, eUniversitas Dinamika. Email: aratna.wardani-2018@feb.unair.ac.id, bd.ekowati@feb.unair.ac.id,  cindrianawati@feb.unair.ac.id,  dfendy.suhariadi@psikologi.unair.ac.id ,esri.suhandiah-2018@feb.unair.ac.id

Objective: To conduct a theoretical and literary review of the readiness for change at the individual and organisational level by identifying limitations in prior research that is not a stratified analysis of the perceptions of profit/loss as antecedents of the readiness for change. Design/Methodology/Approach: Based on a systematic review of the literature, this paper develops antecedents using four key elements: readiness for change, organisational, employee or individual, and limits only to the fields of business, management and accounting with the limited article search period in 2010-2019, we obtained 35 articles in accordance with readiness for change. Limitation/Scope: This literature review focusses on research on antecedents that affect readiness for change only at the individual and organisational level, because from the reviews conducted there was no group readiness found, namely the antecedent of individual/ collective character,  context (internal and external), process, and perceived benefit/harm. Benefits/Implications: A review is conducted to assist researchers on the readiness of changes in determining antecedents by identifying the variables to be selected. Besides, the review conducted can provide benefits for researchers to help provide decisions in researching by replicating existing variables or finding new variables. Novelty/Value: Provides a review for future researchers to consider the antecedents of readiness for change at the individual level and at the organisational level in the developing countries in ASIA, especially the perception of profit/loss as an antecedent for readiness for change. Pages 1036 to 1058




State Management on the Marine Economic Development in a Sustainable Direction in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam

Tran Thi Quynh Gianga, aUniversity of Economics – Technology for Industries, Vietnam, Email: attqgiang@uneti.edu.vn

In recent years, Khanh Hoa province has focused on investing in developing a strong marine economy and gained significant achievements, making marine economy become a key economic sector. Khanh Hoa province has guidelines, strategies, planning and policies to develop the marine economy sustainably. However, these guidelines, strategies, planning and policies are not comprehensive, consistent, and do not create a favourable environment for the marine economy to develop sustainably. The management organisation is still limited; the inspection and supervision work still face many shortcomings and are not strictly implemented. Inheriting previous studies, basing on collected data and expert interview results, through surveys with lecturers, researchers on marine economics, the board of directors enterprises on the marine economy in Khanh Hoa province, this study analyses and assesses the state management on the development of Khanh Hoa marine economy. From these results, we propose a number of solutions to improve the marine economy in Khanh Hoa province sustainably. Pages 1059 to 1077




Strange Circulation in Iraqi Art and Contemporary European Art Alaa Bashir - Salvador Dali: A Comparative Study

Zahraa Mahood Mohammeda, aUniversity of Baghdad / College of Fine Arts / Department of Fine Arts,

The speech, as a physical structure of the encoded fabric, is launched, on a communicative intent, between its product and then swinging between its recipients in an endless interpretive game based on the phenomenological text. The text as a semiotic system is based on the relational of its formal elements as well as colour and its referral meanings with a generative approach based on the plurality of meaning that has become under the authority of language. The text has been edited in the arts of modernity and its aftermath to be captive to it. According to the communicative deliberations, those begin to address the relationship of both the producer, the textual text, and the reader together. The signs move within the framework of their users. The meaning gives up its historical centrality, as a foundational axis for building the text. The formative icon resolves its differential and coalition relations in the body of the rhetoric that must be in place, and gives the recipient the first initiative Interpretive model building semantic proposed by the artist, Fimars discourse to do with the impressionist receiver, which in turn interact with the proposed discourse of cultural orientation, as it is not the role of the plastic mark in reporting, but are effective communication, and toward a renewed Tdoual variable. Since surreal art is based on formal structures escaped from the dominance and centralisation of the mind, towards distinctiveness stemming from a feeling of ambiguity and existential anxiety, which removed the reality of the form towards irrationality and incomprehensibility, so this art was not without the circulation of my signs of its instinctive forms.Pages 1078 to 1094




The Effect of the Tarsia - Mental Triangles and the Sand Clock Scheme Strategies in the Achievement of Chemistry and Cognitive Failure for Female Students of the Fourth Scientific Preparatory Stage

Wasan Maher Jalila, aUniversity of Baghdad / College of Education for Pure Sciences - Ibn Al-Haytham (Department of Chemistry),

The aim of the research is to examine the impact of the two strategies of the mental triangles and the hourglass chart in the academic achievement of chemistry and cognitive failure among students of  fourth grade science. The research was applied to a sample of 180 female students of junior high school students for girls within the second Karkh Education Directorate for the morning study. To achieve the aims of the research, the three-group experimental approach was used, where the research sample was divided into three groups (a control group studied according to the usual method, a first experimental group studied according to the strategy of Tarsia, and a second experimental group studied according to the Hourglass chart strategy); in order to apply the research, the researcher developed the research tools represented in the achievement test in the chemistry course, the Arabisation and codification of the cognitive failure scale of Broadbent and his colleagues in 1982. The tools were applied to the experimental groups and the control group, then the grades of the students were analysed on the test and scale. For the appropriate statistical means to reach the differences of statistical significance, the research reached a number of results, the most important of which are: the positive impact of the two strategies of the mental triangles and the hourglass chart in improving and raising academic achievement in chemistry and in reducing cognitive failure of the fourth grade students. Pages 1095 to 1118




The Efficiency of Hospitality Experiential Education from Hotel Industry Perspectives

Khaled, Alsardiaa; Mohammad Al-Laymounb; Albattat, Ahmadc*

a,b Ammon Applied University College, 950271 Amman 11195, Jordan. cPost Graduate Centre, Management and Science University, University Drive, Off Persiaran Olahraga, Section 13, 40100, Selangor, Malaysia. *Corresponding Author’s Email: ahmad_rasmi@msu.edu.my

The aim of this study is to review experiential learning in hospitality education through its implementation and also to explore industry perceptions, regarding the effectiveness of the adopted experiential learning methods. There are many focus group discussions that have been conducted amongst the hotel industry. A qualitative method for the hospitality industry professionals has been used in this research. Describing the meanings of central themes in the life of the subjects is what the qualitative research interview seeks to do. According to this research, understanding what the interviewees have to say is the main task at the interview stage. This study also reveals wide utilisation of experiential learning activities in hospitality education. Generally, it is said that experiential learning is more effective than traditional classroom learning in accordance to lectures, it is also believed that the hospitality industry with experiential learning activities is being effectively implemented. The researchers give many suggestions in this paper to provide support to hospitality educators to introduce ways to improve the utilisation of experiential learning methods to facilitate student learning. Pages 1119 to 1133




The Effect of Quality Assessment of Knowledge Sharing Behaviour in Convention Attendees: The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment

Wilawan Jansria, Shiva Hashemib, Shaian Kiumarsic, aFaculty of Economics and Business Administration, Thaksin University 90000, Songkhla, Thailand, bHospitality and Tourism Management،UCSI, Malaysia, cGraduate School of Business (GSB), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang, Malaysia, Emal: awilawan@tsu.ac.th,  bshhashemi4@gmail.com,  ckiumarsi78@gmail.com

Research in regard to knowledge sharing behaviour in convention attendees, as well as its efficiency, is currently limited. Despite that, knowledge sharing is utilised as a means of encouraging decision making and practice based on evidence as well as promoting the exchange of knowledge among researchers. Hence, for a deep comprehension of international convention attendees' knowledge sharing behaviour as well as related influencing factors, a conceptual research framework is proposed in this study. The basis of this framework is the theory of a planned behaviour model which includes social network, self-congruity, efficiency and personal branding in affective commitment in the direction of knowledge sharing behaviour. In 2018, a survey was carried out among the attendants of 8 international conventions in Malaysia, containing 275 samples. In addition, an empirical test was performed on the research model and hypothesised relationships. This was done via the structural equation modelling (SEM) approach which is supported by version 3.0 of the Smart PLS software. The findings of this study demonstrate that affective commitment acts as a mediator conceptualised in relationships among social network, self-congruity, efficiency, personal branding and knowledge sharing behaviour. Moreover, according to the results, the relationships between social network, self-congruity, efficiency and personal branding are impacted significantly and directly as well as particularly and indirectly by the mediating variable. Therefore, this study presents brilliant ideas and an improved comprehension in regard to the significance of encouraging international convention attendees to contribute further to practices concerning knowledge sharing behaviour. Pages 1134 to 1157




Champasak: Dhammayuttika Nikaya and the Maintenance of Power of the Thai State (Buddhist Decade 2390-2450)

Kiattisak Bangpernga, aDepartment of Sociology and Anthropology Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Mahasarakham University, Email: akiattisak.b@hotmail.com

This article is intended to analyse the time during Siam's reign in Champasak, when Siam exercised the colonial power to collect tributes and taxes, resulting in the local Lao’s burdens. This caused rebels to be formed under the culture of local Buddhists combined with indigenous beliefs. Siam therefore attempted to connect the local Lao and culture to the central power. One of the important policies was to send Thammayut monks to remove the local beliefs and to disseminate pure Buddhism, according to Thai Dhammayuttika Nikaya. Later, French colonies wanted to rule the Lao territory in the name of Indochina, resulting in that the monks of Dhammayuttika Nikaya were drawn to be part of the political mechanism, in order to cultivate loyalty in the Siamese elites and spread the Thai ideology. This aimed to separate Laos from the French’s claiming of legitimacy for a colonial rule. However, even if the Dhammayuttika Nikaya was accepted and supported by the Lao rulers, but it was not generally accepted by the local people, because it was the symbol of the power of Siam who oppressed them, and appeared to have ideological differences with their local culture. Dhammayuttika Nikaya, as a state mechanism, was not successful in maintaining the power of the Thai state. Pages 1158 to 1174




The Resource Pool System on a Rice Farm Based on Pumping Irrigation from Tempe Lake, Indonesia

A. Majdah M.Zaina*,  Rahim Darmab, Musliar Kasimc, Awaluddin Yunusd, Andi Kasirang T. Basoe, A.Tenri Darhyatif, Rida Akzarg, a,d,eDepartement of Agribusiness, University of  Islam Makassar, Indonesia, bDepartment of Agricultural Socio-economics, University of Hasanuddin, Indonesia, cDepartment Agronomy, University of Andalas, Indonesia, fCenter of Tempe Lake and Costal Area, University of  Islam Makassar, Indonesia, gPhD student, Centre for Global Food and Resources, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Email: a*majdahmzain.dpk@uim-makassar.ac.id

The resource pool is a model that helps to meet water needs in rice farming. Each production factor has incentives and risks based on the value of resources. The research objective is to value the production factors used on a rice farm. The research method used to achieve this includes a case study on a group of rice farmers around the edge of Tempe Lake. Financial analysis is also used as a basis for valuing the resources incorporated into rice farming. Farmers as owners of labour, capital and skills have a higher benefit and risk, followed by land owners and providers of irrigation services. Risks faced by landowners include the opportunity cost of land, rent and high land values. The risk for irrigation service providers is the total operational costs and the depreciation of equipment, which is equivalent to land rent. Break Event Point (BEP) productivity is inversely proportional to business risks and incentives. BEP for productivity is 1.8 for farmers, 2.37 for land owners, and 2.27 for irrigation service providers. The share of water resources can be used as a reference for water fees for conventional irrigation. Pages 1175 to 1189




The Effect of Strategic Planning on Students’ Argumentative Writing Performance

Maria Cholifaha, Moh. Adnan Latiefb, Nur Mukminatienc, Niamika El Khoirid, Subarie, a,c,d,e,fState University of Malang, bKanjuruhan University of Malang, Indonesia, Email: amaria.cholifah.1702219@students.um.ac.id,  bmaria_cholifah@unikama.ac.id,  ca.adnanlatief@gmail.com,   dnurmukminatien.fs@um.ac.id,  eniamika.el.fs@um.ac.id,  fsubari.1705519@students.um.ac.id

This study aims at measuring the effect of strategic planning in different formats: guided strategic planning, unguided strategic planning and acting without planning in terms of local and global aspects. This study was conducted in a university in Malang, Indonesia in which 21 students majoring in English Language all in their fourth semester took part actively in this study. The students were given three different topics in three meetings to write argumentative essays. The results show that by using counterbalanced effect of order, the students who got the treatment of guided strategic planning obtained better performance marks than those that used unguided strategic planning and those that performed without planning. This study suggested that the students should be more familiarised with the planning time in order to get better writing performance, teachers need to be trained in the activities of planning. Pages 1190 to 1202




The Impact of Supply Chain Finance on the Financial Performance of the Pharmaceutical Industry of Indonesia

Tomy Fitrioa*, Lucky Kartantob, Irwan Moriduc, Nurcahya Hartaty Posumahd, aSekolah tinggi ilmu ekonomi indragiri, bUniversitas Widya Kartika Surabaya, c,dUniversitas Muhammadiyah Luwuk, Email: a*tomy@stieindragiri.ac.id,  bkkplucky@gmail.com,  cirwanmoridu@gmail.com,  dnurcahya@unismuhluwuk.ac.id

The aim of the current study is to examine the effect of supply chain finance (SCF) on the financial performance (FP) of the pharmaceutical industry of Indonesia. For this purpose, data was collected from 2009 to 2018 when the pharmaceutical industry has made a positive recovery after the global financial crisis. With the objective of examining the non-linear impact of SCF on the performance of the pharmaceutical industry of Indonesia, the model was analyses by employing the Pooled regression (POLS), fixed effects model (FEM) and random effects model (REM). Regression analysis is performed to address potential endogeneity, heteroskedasticity, and autocorrelation issues. The key findings of the study have shown that that SCF exerts a U-shaped non-linear impact on the performance, so the optimal threshold in the impact can be defined by the minimum of CCC*. In addition, the paper reveals that FP is significantly related to firm-specific variables like firm size (SIZE) and capital structure (CAP) and other macroeconomic (economic growth (EG)) determinants. In short, SCF does not frequently exert a positive impact on how its participants perform. Their restructuring occurred by the lowest threshold (CCC*) this makes this correlation under go considerably large changes. Therefore, this empirical evidence is essential in giving the management and scholars a comprehensive perspective on the relationship between SCF and FP. Pages 1203 to 1216




The Impact of Internal and External Supply Chain Integration on Business Performance of the Banking Sector in Indonesia

Dwi Santosa Pambudia*, Luh Putu Mahyunib, Listya Sugiyartic, Effriyantid, aUniversitas Ahmad Dahlan, bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Pendidikan Nasional, Bali, Indonesia, c,dUniversitas Pamulang, Email: a*dwi.pambudi@pbs.uad.ac.id,  bmahyuniluhputu@undiknas.ac.id,  cdoden01444@gmail.com,  deffriyanti.kurniawan@gmail.com

The aim of this study is to examine the impact of internal and external supply chain integration impact on the business performance of the banking sector of Indonesia. The data was collected from the 250 supply chain mangers which yielded an 80 percent response rate. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) of the data has shown that both supply chain integration indicators namely, internal and external supply chain integration have both apositive and significant association with the business performance of the banking industry of Indonesia. These findings have shown that banking sector of Indonesia has a great importance on supply chain integration to increase their firms performance. The findings of the study could also help supply chains to know about the importance of supply chain integration to increase their performance. The research limitations and future direction has also beendiscussed at the end of the study. Pages 1217 to 1234




The Influence of Local Startup Companies’ Brand Equity on the Consumer Trust in Digital-Based Umrah Travel

Aisyah Rahmawatia, Sucherlyb, Asep Mulyanac, Sutisnad, a,b,c,dPadjajaran University, West Java, Indonesia,

This study is aimed at knowing the influence of local digital startups’ brand equity on the consumer trust in Umrah travel through Umrah digital enterprise. The method used here is distributing questionnaires to 50 respondents domiciled in Jakarta who have ever performed Umrah, to see whether behaviour shifting from offline transaction to online transaction occurs. The result of this study shows that there is an influence of brand equity on consumer trust in the digital-based Umrah travel organised by local startups. Future research can be conducted to study the influence of the trust of Umrah travel service users on the purchase decision toward digital-based Umrah organised by local startup companies. Pages 1235 to 1245



The Effectiveness of the MAIL (Math Assessment, Instruction, Learning) Cycle in Mathematics Achievement and Reflective Thinking among Intermediate Third Grade Students

A.S.D. Basim Mahammad Jasim Al- Dulaimya, aUniversity of Baghdad - College of Education for pure Science\ Ibn AlHaitham, Email: aDr.basim.math@gmail.com

The aim of the research is to identify the effectiveness of a modern teaching model based on constructivist learning represented in the course (evaluation, teaching and learning in mathematics) in increasing mathematical achievement and developing contemplative thinking skills for the selected group of intermediate third grade students. In order to achieve the research goals, the researcher used the experimental approach with two groups (experimental and control), by applying two tests in mathematical achievement before and after, as well as  using the meditative thinking scale for the same purpose. The research sample consisted of 60 students from the third intermediate grade, where the research sample was divided into two equal groups. The control group studied the subjects in the usual way, and the experimental group studied using the MAIL evaluation course. The experiment was applied in the second semester of the academic year 2018/2019. The researcher taught the two research groups. The experimental group was taught according to the six stages of the evaluation cycle, teaching and learning in mathematics MAIL (Preparation and participation-Deriving previous knowledge- Sounding and discovery-Development Concept and skill-transfer of concept and skill-self-evaluation and reflection), and the control group  studied according to the usual method. The achievement test and the meditative thinking scale were applied to the research groups before and after test. To test the validity of the assumptions, data was collected and then statistically analysed using appropriate statistical means, the most important of which are the arithmetic averages and the standard deviations of the two groups ’scores to determine the statistical differences between the two groups. The results of the research revealed the effectiveness of the MAIL evaluation and teaching course in increasing students' achievements in mathematics and raising their level of contemplative thinking compared to the usual way.  In light of the results of the research,  several recommendations are suggested, the most important of which is to highlight the course of evaluation, teaching and learning in mathematics (MAIL), and to increase awareness of it, as  according to the researcher’s knowledge,  it has not been applied in the Arab environment prior to this research. It would also be useful to apply the stages of the evaluation course, teaching and learning in mathematics MAIL in maths classes, as it combines several strategies for constructivist learning within all stages and through all school stages. Pages 1246 to 1267

Insights on the Components of Smart Governance for Government Units in Iraq

Ihsan Deab Abida, Istiqlal Jumaah Wajarb, aMiddle Technical University, Iraq, bAccounting Department, College of administration and economics, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, Email: adr.ahsanabid@mtu.edu.iq,  bIstiqlalrashid@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

The research aims to diagnose the components of smart governance and the extent of its contribution to the effectiveness and efficiency of government units and to evaluate their components in government units and their work environment in Iraq. The research identified the components of smart governance for government units as accounting standards, unconventional policies for budget preparation, government finance statistics manual (GFSM), electronic accounting information systems, intellectual capital. The research concluded that the Accounting and Control Standards Council in Iraq did not establish any accounting standard for government service units, and that the use of the cash basis in the government accounting system and preparing the budget in accordance with the traditional trend in Iraq contributed to reducing performance efficiency and increasing cases of financial and administrative corruption. The research identified the components of smart governance for government units as accounting standards, unconventional policies for budget preparation, government financial statistics manual (GFSM), electronic accounting information systems, and intellectual capital. The research showed that the Accounting and Control Standards Council in Iraq did not establish any accounting standard for government service units, and that the use of the cash basis in the government accounting system and preparing the budget in accordance with the traditional trend in Iraq contributed to reducing performance efficiency and increasing cases of financial and administrative corruption. In addition, electronic accounting was not applied, which was the reason for the delay in the presentation of the final accounts, the settlement of advances granted, and distortions in reports after their approval. Pages 1268 to 1282

The Role of the Auditor in Measuring the Operational Performance of the Internal Audit

Nahla Ghalib Abdul Rahmaa, Jalil Ibrahim Salihb, Hakeem Hammood Flayyihc, aSouthern Technical University, Technical Institute of Basra, Iraq, bSouthern Technical University, Technical College of Administration, Basra, Iraq, cLecturer at Department of financial and Banking Sciences, College of Administration and Economics, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email: anahla.jalee@stu.edu.iq,  bJaleel_kanan@yahoo.com,  chakeem.hmood@coadec.uobaghdad.edu.iq

The research aims to study the role of the auditor in measuring the operational performance of internal auditing, by reporting operational activities known as the operational triad of internal auditing, which are economic, efficiency and effectiveness, through the report of one of the auditing companies in the Minawi Pasha Hotel in Basra province, and that because this city has commercial importance and considered as an attractive destination to a large number of locals, with the intention to trade. The research sample was the financial statements of the hotel for the fiscal year 2017 and 2018, in addition to the report of the auditor. The researchers concluded that the results of the report do not reflect the opinion of the auditor on the operational results, and his opinion was limited to expressing the neutral technical opinion in his report on the study sample (the hotel). Pages 1283 to 1296

The Role of Intra-Cost Management in Supporting Internal Auditing Based on Risks

Hussein Ali Mohaisea, Thamer Kadhim Al-abedib, Khalid Obaid Ahmedc, a,cLecture, Control and Internal Audit Department, Presidency of Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, bLecture at Accounting Department, College of Administration and Economics, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, Email: aHussein_aslan85@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq,   bthamer_kadhim@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq,  cdr.khaled.cpa1@gmail.com

This paper aims at showing the importance of Intra-Cost Management in providing information that supports Internal Auditing Based on Risks. It also aimed at showing the theoretical analysis for Intra-Cost Management and its primary stages. This study has been conducted on 30 samples of employees that have been employed in the Industrials companies in Iraq. Statistical Package for Social Sciences has been used, which is known in abbreviation (SPSS) edition 22, which is one of the modern and important statistical programs in analysing data and extracting results. The scope of correlation between Intra-Cost Management and Internal Auditing Based on Risks has been tested through analysing minor regression. It was found out that Intra-Cost Management has a correlation on the Internal Auditing Based on Risks in order to provide proper information for decision-makers. Pages 1297 to 1314

The Effects of Good Corporate Governance, Independent Boards, and Firm Size on Bank Financial Performance in the Digitalisation Era: A Capital Structure as a Mediation Variable

Moeljadia, Kartika Hendra Titisarib, Yusuf Iskandarc, Sherlinda Octa Yuniarsad, aLecturer, Department of Management, Brawijaya University,  bLecturer, Economic Faculty of Islamic Batik University, cDoctoral Student in Management Department, Brawijaya University, dDepartment of Management, University of Brawijaya, Email: amoeljadip@yahoo.combkartikatitisari@gmail.comdsherlindaocta33@gmail.com

Financial performance is important for banks. Determinant financial performance remains a concern for bank management. This study examined how good corporate governance, independent boards, and company size can improve financial performance. This study also examined capital structure in the relationship framework. A total of 30 banks reporting on the Indonesian Stock Exchange were a sample, observed between 2015-2018. Path analysis tested the hypothesis. The test results show that good corporate governance does not affect financial performance, while independent boards and company size have a positive effect on financial performance. The capital structure also mediates the influence of independent board and bank size on financial performance. Further, this study provides empirical evidence that capital structure is directly proportional to bank financial performance in this digitalization era. The implication is banks must pay more attention to the supervising, independent board structure, to  improve the operational performance and financial performance of companies. An increase in the size of bank assets can increase financial performance, thereby increasing the bank's operational performance. Pages 1315 to 1326

An Implementation of HOTS Based Learning Strategy in Vocational High Schools

I Made Sudanaa, Nina Oktarinab, Delta Apriyanic, Taofan Ali Achmadid, a,c,dFaculty of Engineering, bFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati 50229, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, Email: a*sudana@mail.unnes.ac.id

One way to produce graduates with good quality is by increasing the quality of learning. The learning process must be able to produce the competencies required in the current era, which is needed for the business and the industrial world (DUDI). Particularly, Vocational High Schools are in high need of graduates who have a good level of critical thinking, creative thinking, communication, collaboration and confidence, as well as the capability to solve problems independently. Learning process in Vocational High Schools is expected to have used Higher Order Thinking Skill (HOTS) based learning since it can help train and stimulate student's abilities to solve the problems given in the learning process independently. Based on the field activity findings, which was done by taking a sample of 15 schools using a purposive sampling method. There have been several teachers who applied learning method but still experienced errors in applying the HOTS based learning evaluation process. The pre-test results showed that 49.30% of teachers still did poorly in the application of HOTS learning in the classroom. After the treatment, which was proper and correct HOTS based learning, the post-test result showed an improvement that was only 4.23% of teachers who still did poorly in the application of HOTS based learning. Through the significant changes during the training, the teacher began to understand the details of HOTS based learning evaluation system so that they can apply it in the teaching and learning process and produce graduates required by HOTS learning itself, which is to produce students or graduates who are capable of thinking creatively, innovatively and independently and can solve problems well. Pages 1327 to 1340

Behaviour on Repurchase Intention in a Moslem Ethnic Store in Indonesia

*Sudaryanto, Sudaryantoa, Anifatul Hanimb, Woro Utaric a,b Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Jember, Indonesia.cFaculty of Economics and Business, Wijaya Putra University, Surabaya, Indonesia.
*Corresponding author’s Email: sudaryanto.feb@unej.ac.id

This study aims to investigate consumer behaviour on repurchase intention in the Basmalah ethnic Moslem store in Indonesia. Researchers used Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA) to analyse the data with the following results; (1) Brand Image is a significant influence on customers’ Repurchase Intention, (2) Store Atmosphere is a significant influence on customers’ Repurchase Intention before employing a moderator, (3) online promotion is not a moderating variable on strengthening the regression model and does not influence customers’ repurchase intention. Research implies that brand image and store atmosphere are essential factors in maintaining and influencing customers’ repurchase intention. Moreover, online promotion does not moderate customer repurchase intention in the Moslem ethnic store in Indonesia. Pages 1341 to 1355

A Needs Analysis on the Development of Learning Applications Based on Science, Al Qur’an and Nature

Budiyono Saputroa*, Muh Zuhrib, Mansurc, Muh. Saerozid, aAssoc. Prof, Science Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, Indonesia, bProf., Islamic State Law Faculty, State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, Indonesia, cProf., Education Faculty, State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, Indonesia, dProf. Magister Program of Islamic Religious Education State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, Indonesia, Email: a*budiyonosaputro@iainsalatiga.ac.id

This research aims to obtain the levels of need and to describe the need of development of learning application based on science, Al Qur’an, and nature. This research uses the descriptive method applying survey approach. Subjects of this research are 40 lecturers at the study program of Natural Science in Indonesian Natural Sciences Lecturer Association. Research instrument used is questionnaires with Likert scale of 1-5. Data is analysed using statistic descriptive method. The results of research show that the need analysis using questionnaires applies four indicators. Those indicators are (1) the average score of the learning model of the digital era is 3.61 (much needed); (2) the average score of learning strategy based on science, Al Qur’an, and Nature is 3.41 (needed); (3) the average score of the implementation of learning based on science, Al Qur’an, and nature is 3.53 (much needed); and (4) the average score of the compatibility of the application in the social religious field is 3.54 (much needed). Description of needs analysis shows that respondents need (1) interactive learning applications between lecturers and students for reflection, communication, and learning feedback; (2) a problem-based learning model, which is a project learning model to create meaningful learning and student activity; (3) interpretation material based on the theme of integration that facilitates the classification of material; and (4) the concept of material that can be used in campus, social, and religious communities. Therefore, the results of the needs analysis strengthen the basis of development of learning applications based on science, Al Qur’an, and nature with interactive updates, connection with problem-based learning models, and material that is accessible for students and the public. Pages 1356 to 1370

The Effect of Online Learning Based on the Glee Tradition on Students’ Environmental Knowledge in Higher Education

Zukya Rona Islamia*, Sumarmb, Singgih Susiloc, Syamsul Bachrid, aState University of Malang, Indonesia, and Samudra University, Aceh- Indonesia, b,c,dState University of Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*zukya.rona.islami@unsam.ac.idbsumarmi.fis@um.ac.idcsinggih.susilo.fis@um.ac.iddsyamsul.bachri.fis@um.ac.id

The declining of environmental quality is now a global issue that needs to be discussed and to find solutions. One of the solutions is through education, especially higher education. There is a subject aimed at environmental preservation, which is environmental geography. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of online learning based on the glee tradition with environmental knowledge and concern. This study used a quasi-experimental method and equivalent control group design. The subjects in this study were students in geography education major of 2017 at Samudra University, Indonesia. The data was collected through tests and questionnaires that had been issued. The data were analysed using parametric statistical measurements, namely t-test and ANCOVA test. The results showed that learning based on the glee tradition has significant value (0.0000) on students' environmental knowledge and concern. Also, there are interactions on all variables, especially environmental knowledge, which has more effect on concern than on learning. Pages 1371 to 1394

The role of Excellence Human Resources Management in Contemporary Learning Environments, in an Approach to Enhance E-Learning Practices

Dr.Oday Zuhair Mahmoud Nadeema, Aida A Saleh Al-Hasanb, Dr. Muayad Abdulkareem ShakircaMiddle Technical University / Iraq, bUniversity of Baghdad, College of Education for Women , cAl-Mamoun University College Email: aoday_zuhair@mtu.edu.iq, baida64@coeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq , cMuayedalnaqib@gmail.com

Designing e-learning environments for quality professional education through excellence human resources is a challenge for education designers, as the continuing practice of simply moving courses online can be surprisingly disabling. We argue that as universities strive to educate for excellence in professional practice, design approaches for the e-learning components must be conceptualised in a broader view of a contemporary learning environment involving integrated virtual dimensions. Our paper aims to provide more flexible, immediate and evolving virtual experiences, and test the relationship between the excellence human resources and e-Learning at the Al-Mamoon University College.  The Education Studies Online project newsroom simulation project exemplified elements of the approach  recommended in addressing the challenges of quality professional education. We highlight the generative role of the education designer in adopting an integrative and strategic stance when creating such environments. Implications for the selection and use of various e-Learning resources and corporate e-learning systems becomes evident as we highlight the role of excellence human resources management for instructional industrialism allowing courses to “move online”. The analytical descriptive approach was adopted in analysing the research problem. The research was conducted on an available sample of 78 members. The research recommended a set of recommendations, from these, to increase the utilisation of available and effective excellence human resources that will make future changes in e-learning support. Pages 1395 to 1411

Unraveling Cultural Code in Junoon:  A Narrative through Costumes

Kumar Anketaa, Rajantheran Muniandyb*, Silllalee S.Kandasamyc, Saravanan Sandaramd, Sivagamy Kanniahe, aResearch Scholar, Department of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Assistant Professor, National Institute of Fashion Technology, Raebareli, Uttar Pradesh, India, bProfessor, Department of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malay, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, cAssistant Professor, Department of Modern Languages, Faculty of Creative Industries, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Sungai Long Campus, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras 43000, Kajang, Selangor, dScholar, Department of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, eResearch Scholar, Department of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Email: b*rajanmun@um.edu.my

In this paper, a materiality-based approach for analysing film narratives through costumes is examined. Indian film director Shyam Benegal's Hindi film Junoon (1979) is pursued crystallising costume as a significant feature for reading the movie. The article argues that costumes, on a symbolic level, work as agents. It thus focuses on the interdependence between costume and interpretations of the screenplay's main character. A theoretical notion of costumes and materiality are explored, and the idea is further developed in relation to stylistics constituted as emotions materialised in costume. As costumes are the main object for analysis, the discussion immediately centres on costumes made for the moment: for a specific narrative and aesthetic expression. In this study, we make a semiotic analysis of costumes and how they express the user's socio-cultural attributes. We demonstrate the phenomenal role that costume as a form of communication plays within the cultural and social society, specifically in period films. This paper makes use of semiotic theory and film analysis through qualitative methodology in order to analyse Junoon directed by Shyam Benegal. This form of analysis will allow costume a distinct voice in words dominated film. It reinforces costume as communication through motifs, lines, shape, colour, fabric and texture. This work has been able to create a semiotics distinction of costumes in films using the socio-cultural and conventional interpretations of colours, fabrics, styles and textures of clothes and accessories. It has attempted to understand how colours, fabrics and textures convey meaning in the film. We discover that costume aids us to form individual opinions about characters and at the same time reconstruct their socio-cultural realities. In this study, Junoon is read through a theoretical framework deeply rooted in theatrical and film costumes, and a comprehensive methodology that focuses on the application of Roland Barthes 5th Code i.e Cultural Code is evaluated as the intervening mediations between interpretation and meaning of colours, lines, fabrics, textures, and styles of costumes in Junoon is unravelled with historical reference. Pages 1412 to 1430

Recent Non-Compliance as to Medication in Lung Tuberculosis Sufferers in Timika, Mimika, Indonesia

Andreas C. Ayomia, Arwam Hermanusb, Marlin Jaronac, Yelli Mardonad, Jems KR Maaye, a,b,c,d,eEnvironmental Health Polytechnic School, Ministry of Health Jayapura Papua, Padang, Bulan 2, Hedam, District Heram, Jayapura City, Papua Province, Indonesia, Email: a*andreas.ayomi@yahoo.com

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a health problem globally. Not one country is free from it. In 1993, the World Health Organisation declared TB a “Global Emergency”, because the situation is worsening particularly for 22 “high burden” countries. Directly Observed Treatment Short-course has proven effective at controlling TB, yet the societal TB burden is still high. There have been many improvements since 2003. However, there are still 9.5 million TB new cases, causing approximately 0.5% of deaths in the world (WHO, 2009). Additionally, around 75% of TB patients are of an economically productive age (in the age group 15-55). This research investigated factors affecting non-compliance as to medication in lung TB sufferers in the work area of Community Health Centre Timika, Mimika Regency in 2017. A cross-sectional study approach was used. The sample was 78 TB sufferers who followed medication at the centre. The data analysis used the statistic test of lambda correlation coefficients. Based on the characteristics of the respondents, the variable of the group at the age of 31-45 was 46.15%; the male percentage showed 52.56%. No-school graduation was 30.77%, whereas unemployment was 47.44%, and family income lower than the regional minimum wage was 91.1%. Bivariate analysis showed some factors affecting the non-compliance medication of lung tuberculosis sufferers. Those factors were related to treatment observers (p: 0.00), health talk (p:0.00), knowledge (p:0.00), attitude (p:0.00), action (p:0.00), distance from house to the community centre (p:0.00), transport availability (p:0.00), and travel expenses (p:0.00). Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that the most affecting factor was knowledge (significant value 0.02), and action (significant value 0.05). So, it can be concluded that the factors affecting non-compliance medication in lung tuberculosis suffers, were treatment observers, health talk, patients’ knowledge, patients’ actions, distance from patients’ house to the centre, transport availability, and travel expenses. The most affecting factors were knowledge and action. Suggestions are made for the lung TB program officers at the centre to do health talks, use a family approach to lung TB noncompliant patients, and to activate treatment observers. Pages 1431 to 1443

The Relationship of Maternal Knowledge about Nutrition, to Toddlers’ Growth and Development, in Public Health Waena Perumnas I, Jayapura, Indonesia

Jems K. R. Maaya*, Mohd Arifinb, Siti Roshaidaic, a,b,cNursing School, Health Polytechnic Ministry of Health Jayapura, Papua, Padang Street, Bulan 2, Hedam, Districk Heram, Jayapura City, Papua, Indonesia,  Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: a*jemskrmaay@yahoo.co.id

‘Toddler’ is a general term for children aged 1-3 years (toddlers). Children this age are still heavily dependent on parents when completing important activities, such as bathing, eating and cleaning themselves after defecating. Their speaking and walking has improved, but other abilities are still limited. This study aims to identify the relationship of maternal knowledge about nutritional status, to growth and development in toddler-age children in Puskesmas Waena Perumnas I. This study used a descriptive analysis design, employing a cross-sectional approach. The subjects were mothers who had toddlers with the nutritional status of fewer than two people and good nutrition as many as 50 people. Univariate analysis with frequency distribution was undertaken, and bivariate analysis with the Spearman correlation test. The analysis related maternal knowledge about nutritional status to growth and development obtained p values (0.01). There is a correlation between the mother's knowledge about the nutritional status of growth and development. Pages 1444 to 1454

An Analysis of Biscuit Nutrition Substitution of Eel Flour, Given to Children in Elementary School

Maxianus K. Rayaa, Nia Budhi Astutib, Endah Sri Rahayuc, I Ray Ngarditad, a,b,c,dJayapura Ministry of Health Poltekkes, Indonesia. Email: pageepa_anggita@yahoo.com

Biscuits are a processed food products, made from flour. They have high carbohydrate and fat content, whereas protein content is relatively low. Eels are a fish with a very good protein content. In addition, their content of minerals such as calcium exceeds that of some other fish. This study aims to determine the nutritional content of biscuits to which eel flour (Monoptherus albus zuieuw) has been added. It is purely experimental research. The sample is a biscuit with eel flour which consists of three formulas, namely the addition of eel flour 10, 20 and 30 grams. The analysis was conducted by the Laboratory of Analysis and Measurement Unit of the Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya Malang, Indonesia. The results of this research are the components in biscuits containing for eel flour ranged as follows: Carbohydrates, 29.71 - 39.16; protein, 18.99 - 24.88%; fat, 14.29 to 14.79; ash, from 1.14 to 1.79%; water, 6.44 to 8.41; iron, 1.06 - 1.65%; and calcium, 33.0 - 51.03%. Biscuit F3 has higher nutritional and mineral content, compared to F1 and F2 formulas. Eel flour has a high content of protein, Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn). Pages 1455 to 1465

The Influence of Monopoly Game Simulations on Adolescent Attitudes and Knowledge about Basic Threats to Reproductive Health

Suryati Romaulia*, Flora Niub, Jems Kifen R Maayc, a,b,cMidwifery Diploma Study Program, Nursing Diploma III Program at the Ministry of Health Jayapura, Jalan Padang Bulan II, Heram Village, Heram District, Jayapura City, Papua Province, Indonesia, Email: a*romaulisuryati@gmail.com

Adolescence is critical in the development of individuals. Adolescents "targets" who are very vulnerable to the Basic Threats of Reproductive Health (Sexuality, HIV/AIDS and Drugs). More than 850 cases of adolescents have been counted with HIV/AIDS in Jayawijaya district, also has high risks as to sexuality and drugs. This made researchers interested in conducting research titled "Research Methods Monopoly Simulation of Adolescent Knowledge and Attitudes about Basic Threats of Reproductive Health (Sexuality, HIV/AIDS, Drugs) at Wamena 1 High School, Jayawijaya Regency. The True Experimental Design was used for research, with Pre-test‒Post-test Control Group Design. The study was conducted at Senior School Wamena, from January to March 2020. The research sample was 138 students of class XI, selected using the Simple Random Sampling technique. The instruments were Monopoly games, questionnaires and secondary data. Data were analysed using the Chi Square statistical test. Chi Square statistical test results showed a p value of 0,000 (p <0.05). The assessment of statistical test results using the chi square test results showed a p value of 0,000 (p <0.05). Research Methodology (Sexuality, HIV/AIDS, Drugs) at Wamena 1 High School. Pages 1466 to 1478

Proposed Internship Information System (IIS) for Private Universities in Bahrain: A Case Study on the  Applied Science University-Bahrain

Ahmad Saleh Shatat1, Ibrahim A. Abu-AlSondos2, Moaiad A. A. Khder3, Amal Albaba4, 1Assistant Professor, Department of Management Information Systems, College of Administrative Sciences, Applied Science University, Bahrain. 2Assistant Professor, Department of Management Information Systems, College of Administrative Sciences, Applied Science University, Bahrain. 3Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, College of Arts and Science, Applied Science University, Bahrain. 4Alumnus, Department of Management Information Systems, College of Administrative Sciences, Applied Science University, Bahrain. Email: ahmad.shatat@asu.edu.bh1, Ibrahim.abualsondos@asu.edu.bh2,    moaiad.khder@asu.edu.bh2, , amal.kuzbar86@gmail.com4

Most  universities provide undergraduate students with capstone courses, in particular internships or industrial training courses, where the student links  theories with practice and experiences  working life i prior to  graduating. The Applied Science University - Bahrain (ASU) recognised the importance of internship courses at  an early stage, and all undergraduate programmes in ASU featured an internship course in their programme curricula.  After completing prerequisite courses, students at the Applied Science University -Bahrain (ASU) register for the internship program, which is considered one of the graduation requirements in any department. Then they are required to get connected with their supervisors until the final assessment. This study aims to design an information system that computerises the whole process and makes it more accessible. This system will provide advantages to students, their supervisors and other parties involved in the process. Qualitative data are collected by conducting many interviews with different parties to focus on the main requirements of the system. The research flows starts from requirements analysis then moves on to designing interfaces for implementation. The system is based on four major components, namely academic supervisor, intern students, head of the unit, and secretary. The information system contains many features that facilitate coordination to implement the internship program. This system is integrated with the database system that assists supervisors to monitor and manage the applications of their students. One of the key functions of this system is that it reduces  effort and wastage of time. Thus, in a general aspect, this system will benefit not only the students but also all those participating in this process. Pages 1496 to 1518

The Role of School Leaders in Enhancing the Intellectual Security of Secondary School Students in Saudi Arabia

Amal Ali Alzahrani, Maha B. Bin Bakr, Educational Leadership & Policy Studies, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Email: mbakr@iau.edu.sa

The aim of the research is to identify the role of school leaders in enhancing intellectual security among secondary school students, and the challenges that limit their contribution to enhancing intellectual security (IS), and to reveal the differences according to the variables: (gender, educational qualification, years of experience). The descriptive method was used in order to achieve the study’s objectives; the study population encompassed of all secondary school teachers (n=2032) in Dammam city, Saudi Arabia. A simple random sample of (n=323) was selected and a survey was distributed via e-mail, and the recovered responses were (n=275) representing (85%) response rate. The study findings concluded that the role of school leaders in enhancing the IS of secondary school students came to a “high” degree with (m=4.11) and (SD=0.87) for all study dimensions, where the “teacher” dimension” ranked first, followed by the “student activities” dimension, then the dimensions of “family” and “community” in the same rank. The findings also indicated that the challenges that affect the role of school leaders in enhancing the IS of students came to a “high” degree with (m=3.93) and (SD=0.71). Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that there were no statistically significant differences in the responses related to leaders’ role in enhancing IS (P>0.05), nor in the responses related to the challenges faced by these leaders(P>0.05), which attributed to the study variables (gender, educational qualification, and years of work experience. The study recommends that school leaders may consider developing a strong partnership with the local community to initiate and support various IS programs, and recommends periodical revisions to the curricula and teaching strategies to employ social media and other technological tools to secure the enhancement of IS. Pages 1519 to 1545

Challenges of Rehabilitation Among Patients with Substance Use Disorder: Professional Perspectives

Dr. Wahida Anjum1, Dr. Anila Sadaf Mubashir2, Dr. Saeed Ahmad Watto3, Dr. Shazia Habib4, Dr. Muhammad Ramzan5, Dr. Sarfraz Mahmood6, 1*HOD, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Lahore Leads University, https://orcid.org/0009-0003-9709-2801, 2HOD, Department of Psychology, National University of Modern    Languages Rawalpindi.  3Deputy Director, Planning, Monitoring & Evaluation, Staff Welfare Organization, Establishment Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 4Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Psychology, G.C. University Faisalabad, 5Principal Law College, Institute of Southern Punjab, Multan, Pakistan. 6MBBS, PG, Jinnah Hospital Lahore

This qualitative research study explored the challenges of rehabilitation among patients with substance use disorder: Professional perspectives. The phenomenological method, inductive reasoning, an emic approach, a purposive sampling technique, and thematic analysis were used. Twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with the professionals (psychiatrists, general physicians, psychologists, owners of the rehabilitation centres, lawyers, police officers, members of anti-narcotic drugs, educationists, policymakers, and researchers). Participants aged 35 to 50 years, with 5-10 years of professional experience. The thematic analysis showed rehabilitation is complex since drug abusers' relatives have not realized it takes time. They escalated this issue until it threatened families, society, and themselves. Families did not comprehend that this problem could be controlled (not cured) with proper follow-up and supportive family and social surroundings under expert supervision. Easy availability of drugs, affordability, insufficient resources to deal with the drug Mafia, unavailability of a clear constitution, faulty strategies of law enforcement agencies to deal with the drug Mafia, and indifferent attitude of the government and society can exacerbate problems. Surprisingly, drug rehabilitation centres have no affiliation mechanisms, and drug addicts run most drug rehabilitation centres. The lack of expert supervision of treatment in centers worsens the situation. The solution to this problem required a holistic approach to rehabilitate them, including active participation from the government, law enforcement agencies, and physical-mental health professionals. Social skill-based training workshops, awareness, interpersonal conflict resolution strategies, and good earning opportunities can help them to manage their problem. Implications of the study will add to knowledge in the scientific literature. Pages 1546 to 1562



Creative Technologies: A Retrospective

Andy M. Connor

Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Wellesley Street, Auckland, New Zealand. Email: andrew.connor@aut.ac.nz

This paper undertakes an analysis of articles published in the area of Creative Technologies to inform the future development of the field. Articles were collated in a corpus and analysis conducted around keywords, content and authorship. The observations arising from the analysis is that there is some empirical evidence to support that Creative Technologies is an interdisciplinary field of research, with individuals having expertise across multiple domains having the potential to connect otherwise disparate disciplines. The results of the paper support some assertions around the nature of Creative Technologies, however it also suggests that more work is required to scope the field and change is required to secure a future for the Creative Technologies communities of practice. Pages 1 to 23




The President’s Contribution to Dissolving Parliament in the Parliamentary System

Arkan Abbass Hamzaa, Yasir Otaiwi Abboodb, Hussein Jabbar Abed Alnaylic, a,cBabylon University-College of Law, bKarbala University-college of Law, Email: aarkan_khafaji@yahoo.com,  byasir.arri@yahoo.com,  ch.alnaeli@yahoo.com

It is possible to reconcile the position of the President of the Republic with the principle of the duality of the executive branch in the parliamentary system, if it is independent of the Council of Ministers. The Iraqi constitution took the dissolution of parliament, but in the form of a ministerial solution, while adhering to that by the House of Representatives vote on it, and this is contrary to the characteristics of the parliamentary system. The constitutional legislator in Iraq did not explain the reasons for dissolving the parliament, and this is a welcome approach. The Iraqi legislator did not restrict the dissolution of the parliament by not permitting the dissolution again for the same reason or other reasonable restrictions. The role of the President of the Republic in the stage of proposing the dissolution of the Parliament is dependent on the Prime Minister submitting a request for dissolution. The role of the President of the Republic in the stage of separation in dissolving the House of Representatives depends on the members of the House itself. The Iraqi constitution lacked adequate guarantees that compel the President of the Republic to call elections during the period prescribed in the constitution. Pages 24 to 35




Students’ Progress in Integrated Thematic Learning with Scientific Approaches

Yeni Eritaa, Riyadhil Jannahb, Yanti Fitriac, Rifda Eliyasnid, a,b,c,dUniversitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia, Email: ayenierita@fip.unp.ac.id,  briyadhil_jannah94@yahoo.com,  cyanti_fitria@fip.unp.ac.id,  drifdaeliyasni@fip.unp.ac.id

This study describes the improvement of integrated thematic learning with a scientific approach in Bukittinggi City Primary School. The approach used in this study was a qualitative and quantitative approach to classroom action. The results of research in planning the first cycle learning was 83.4% and increased in the second cycle to 93.1%. The results of the implementation of the actions of the first cycle teacher was 72% and increased in the second cycle to 90.6%. The results of the implementation in terms of the activities of students in cycle I, was 72%, and increased in cycle II to 96%. Pages 36 to 48




Investment Analysis of Rattan Farmers in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

Ali Supriadia, Rajindrab, Mohd. Nasir Bin Nawawic*, Rasmi Nur Anggraenid, a,b,cUniversiti Malaysia Terengganu, dUniversitas Muhammadiyah Palu, Indonesia, Email: c*nasir@umt.edu.my

This study aims to determine the production of rattan, financial analysis, sensitivity, and monetary policy. The location of this research was conducted in Sigi Regency, Central Sulawesi Province and the object of research was rod rattan, rattan symbol, bitter rattan, noko rattan, and wood. The sampling method uses a stratified random sampling system. To find out the financial feasibility, an analysis is carried out using the Pay Back Period, Net Present Value, Net B / C, Internal Rate of Return, and monetary policy models. After sensitivity analysis, all types of rattan combined with Suren wood at a 5% discount are still feasible. Bank interest rate policy given to farmers is not more than 5%. The results also showed that optimum rattan production was achieved at 33 years old while optimum suren wood production was reached at 25 years old. Pages 49 to 58




Assets as Welfare Instruments: The Interpretation in Local Financial Management Perspectives

La Ode Antoa*, Unti Ludigdob, Alimuddinc, Grace T. Pontohd, aHalu Oleo University, Indonesia bBrawijaya University, Indonesia cHasanuddin University, Indonesia dHasanuddin University Indonesia, Email: a*laodeanto@gmail.com

This study discusses the interpretation of local government assets. This study aims to uncover the interpretation of local government assets in the actors’ perspective. Researchers use the interpretive paradigm with a phenomenological approach. This study was conducted in Kendari City with local financial management officials as research informants. The study results showed that assets were interpreted as welfare instruments, both individual, organisational and society welfare. The assets usage to improve the society welfare was more important than the individual and organisations’ welfare. It was indicated that the value of social welfare exceeds the personal interest. Efforts to realise the ideals of prosperity in assets’ usage were a reflection of leadership norms to always adhere to principles of prevailing legal norms and systems, and these all come from God teachings through religion and customs. This study was expected to contribute to enrich the concept of public sector assets, especially local government assets and can be utilised by local governments to develop a more effective and efficient asset management and reporting system. Pages 59 to 77




The Enhancement of Fishers’ Economic Community: A Case of Gorontalo, Indonesia

Frahmawati Bumuloa*, Sri Umi Mintarti Widjajab, Budi Eko Soetjiptoc, Hari Wahyonod, aDoctoral Program in Economic Education, Universitas Negeri Malang/Faculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo, Indonesia, b,c,dFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*frahmawatibumulo@ung.ac.id

This study aimed to develop an enhancement economic-based model for fishers in the coastal area in Gorontalo of Indonesia. The variables studied were a model of economic development based on fishing communities, social conditions of fishing communities, fishing community education, fisheries and processed products, and tourism objects. This paper applied a development study using a design-based research approach. The data were gathered through in-depth interviews with fishers and related agencies. There are several stages to develop a model, including identifying problems and analysing needs, developing product prototypes, testing, and the evaluating of economic-based fisheries community. From this study, it can be found that with the application of various stages of appropriate development and cooperation from various parties, related institutions, financial institutions, and private and coastal fishing communities, it is expected it will increase the income of the coastal fishing communities in Gorontalo of Indonesia. Pages 78 to 90




Evaluation of Educational Supervisors of Primary School Teachers in Relation to Effective Teaching Skills

Raheem Abd Jassim Alzamilia, Fatima Hawan Mohammedb*, aDepartment of Quranic & Linguistics, College of Islamic Sciences, The Islamic University, Najaf, Iraq, bUniversity of Al-Qadisiyah, Email: b*fatimah.hawan@qu.edu.iq

The study aimed to identify the opinion of educational supervisors in the use of the three teaching skills (planning, implementation and evaluation) in evaluating the performance of primary school teachers in the city of Diwaniyah. It also aimed to know the opinion of the educational supervisor in the arrangement of these skills in terms of importance and to indicate the extent of the views of supervisors in evaluating the performance of teachers by gender and specialty. To achieve the objectives of the research, a tool was made up of 42 items distributed on the three fields of study (planning, implementation and evaluation) applied to a sample of supervisors, who are 74 in number.  The researchers have investigated the psychometric properties of the scale from validity and consistency and the data has been statistically processed through using the mean, standard deviation and the second test. The research came out with a set of results, reached a number of conclusions and made a number of recommendations and suggestions. Pages 106 to 126




The Identification of the Morphological and Hydro-Oceanography Characteristics of Kaledupa Island

Al Azhara*, Ario Damarb, Dietriech G. Bengenc, Agus S. Atmadipoerad, aLPPPTK KPTK, Ministry of Education and Culture, Indonesia, bDepartment of Aquatic Resources Management, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine, cDepartment of Marine Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia, dCenter for Coastal and Marine Resources Studies, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia, Email: a*rahzala023@gmail.com

This study aims to identify the morphology and hydro-oceanography characteristics of Kaledupa Island as small island management input. Data used were Landsat 8 OLI Imagery (2016) and Worldview 2 (2013) to define beach typology; SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data was obtained from ftp:/topex.ucsd.edu/pub/srtm30_plus/srtm30/data/ to determine land elevation and its slope, and seafloor topography; and dataset (in 2017) downloaded from http://marine.copernicus.eu/ to illustrate hydro-oceanography parameters (currents, waves, and sea level temperature). Data processing applied were Global Mapper 18, Surfer 13, and ArcMap 10.3 (to analyse SRTM data); Ferret version 6.02 and WRPlot View (for currents, waves, and sea level temperature). Results showed that the northern part of the island consists of sandy and vegetated beaches (mangrove), whereas the beach on the southern part are dominated by rocky and sandy beaches; land elevation ranges between 0-180 m; land slope ranges between 0 to 53.7o; bathymetric value ranges from 0 to -1,800 m; the current speed reaches 0.2 m per second in July; the highest waves occurred in June at the range of 0.70-0.80 m; while the highest surface temperatures (around 30.5oC) occur from April to May and November. Pages 127 to 153




Factors Affecting the Implementation of the Teaching Factory in Vocational High Schools of Mechanical Engineering in East Java Indonesia

Dani Irawana*, Haris Anwar Syafrudieb, Dwi Agus Sudjimatc, Isnandard, a,b,c,dFaculty of Engineering, State University of  Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*the_boymaster2@yahoo.com

This study aims to find out the factors that significantly influence the model of the Teaching Factory (Tefa) implementation in terms of management, workshop, learning, human resources, marketing, industrial relations, and products in Vocational High Schools of Mechanical Engineering in East Java Indonesia. Data was taken from 105 teachers in 7 schools. Data analysis techniques used SEM (Structural Equation Modelling) with SPSS version 23 and AMOS 21. The results showed that the factors that significantly affected the product were management, workshop, learning and human resources. Factors that significantly influenced the implementation of Tefa were management, workshop, marketing and products. The interpretation of this relationship structure is that management, the availability of proper workshops, the availability of marketing and the presence of high products or productivity results, determines the determinants in the implementation of Tefa. Pages 154 to 174




Teachers’ Reflection; A Critical Classroom Discourse Analysis

Aprilia Susantia, Pratiwi Retnaningdyahb, Ahmad Munirc, Slamet Setiawand*, a,b,c,dUniversitas Negeri Surabaya; 1Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Sunan Giri, Indonesia, Email: d*slametsetiawan@unesa.ac.id

Reaching out to parents is challenging, especially for teachers. However, dominance, oppression, control or negligence is the issue in the home-school connection activity. Through a two hour reflective practice, five English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers share the personal experiences they have encountered during a home-school connection activity. The framework of classroom critical discourse analysis (CCDA) and multimodal discourse analysis (MDA) are carried out to reveal: what EFL home-school connection looks like; the biggest challenge the teacher encounters; and how meaning is made around EFL home-school connection across semiotic modes of teachers’ reflection. This study found that: 1) every participant indicates a different way of reaching out to parents; 2) the biggest challenge for each participant is different from one another, meaning that it is personal and context-based; and 3) verbal and non-verbal text such as semiotic devices indicate how participants make meaning of the home-school connection activity, particularly when dealing with parents. Pages 175 to 192




Examining the Student Entrepreneurship Intention using TPB Approach with Gender as Moderation Variable

Andi Muhammad Sadata, Mei-Lan Linb, aDepartment of Business and Management, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, bDepartment of Hospitality Management, Southern Taiwan University of Science & Technology, Taiwan, Email: aandims@unj.ac.id,  bmllin@stust.edu.tw

The purpose of this study is to find factors that influence student entrepreneurial intention by examining variables in the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991), that have been widely used in predicting behavioural intention namely: attitude toward behaviour; perceived behavioural control; and subjective norm; by placing gender as a moderating variable between subjective norm and behavioural intention. A total of 306 students from several departments within the Faculty of Economics-Jakarta State University were involved in filling out the questionnaire by performing convenient sampling techniques. The analysis was carried out using the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method with PLS v2.0 M3. The results indicate that attitude toward behaviour and perceived behavioural control significantly influence the entrepreneurial intention, while gender has a quasi-moderation role in a negative direction. It means that gender has the reducing effect of subjective norms on students' entrepreneurial intention. Pages 193 to 207




Online Evaluation and Tourist Purchase Behaviours for Urban Homestay Selection

Jing Yua*, Kuo-Yan Wangb, a,bGuangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, China Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: a*yujing789@126.com

Homestays are an accommodation option many tourists are willing to consider. Compared to rural tourism online purchase behaviours, tourists place more emphasis on the location, environment and facilities at urban homestays. This study analysed the influencing factors for urban homestay accommodation based on online tourist ratings and comments to explore the impact of urban homestay purchase behaviours. Tourists intending to book homestay accommodation online were interviewed and analysed using descriptive analysis to assess the degree to which they paid attention to and trusted online evaluations. It was found that tourists tended to pay attention to online evaluations when making their homestay accommodation selections and paid particular attention to negative reviews. Therefore, it was concluded that online evaluations played a significant role in online purchase behaviours for urban homestay accommodation. Pages 208 to 219




The Effect of Range of Motion Exercise on Blood Pressure, Pulse and Sleep Quality among Hypertensive Patients

Nursalam Nursalama*, Yotide Aventus Irwindib, Lailatun Nimahc, Ferry Efendid, a,c,dFaculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Mulyorejo Street, Campus C Unair, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60115, bStudent Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Mulyorejo Street, Campus C Unair, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60115, Email: a*nursalam@fkp.unair.ac.id

Range of motion exercise is a simple nursing action that has many benefits and is easy to do independently. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of range of motion exercise on the blood pressure, pulse and sleep quality of hypertensive patients. This study used quantitative research with a quasi-experimental research design, including pre-test and post-test with a control group approach. The total population was 139 patients. A sample of 70 respondents was determined by stratified random sampling according to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the range of motion exercise conducted for seven consecutive days. The dependent variables were blood pressure, pulse and sleep quality. Data was obtained through the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) instrument and observation sheet. Research data were analysed using paired t-test and MANOVA. The results showed that the differences between the treatment and control groups were changes in blood pressure (p = 0.00), pulse (p = 0.00) and sleep quality (p = 0.00). MANOVA hypothesis test results obtained p = 0.00. Range of motion exercise affects the blood pressure, pulse and sleep quality of hypertensive patients at Primary Health Care. Pages 220 to 234




Determinants of Organisational Commitment on Nurse’s Performance

Sirajudin Noora, Nursalam Nursalamb*, Tintin Sukartinic, aDoctoral Program of Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya,  Indonesia, 60115 b,cFaculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Mulyorejo Street, Campus C Unair, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60115, Email: b*nursalam@fkp.unair.ac.id

The role of organisational commitment is significant to improve the quality of nurse performance to achieve high patient satisfaction. This study aimed to identify the determinants of organisational commitment on nurse’s performance. The research method used was a descriptive-analytic design with a cross-sectional approach. The population was clinical nurses in four hospitals in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.  The total sample was 105 respondents obtained by purposive sampling. Independent variables were organisational characteristics, nurse’s characteristics, job characteristics, work experience characteristics, and beliefs. The dependent variable was the nurse’s performance. The data was obtained by questionnaire and analysed by logistic regression.  The results showed that organisational characteristics (T = 3.776; p = 0.000) and beliefs (T = 2.030; p = 0.045) have a significant correlation with the nurse’s performance. This research concluded that good nurse performance can be improved through strengthening organisational characteristics namely: reward; management by objectives (MBO); selection; training and development; leadership; and organisational structure. As well it can be improved through beliefs namely: perception of vulnerability and seriousness; benefits: resistance; and self-efficacy. Pages 235 to 248




The Lived Experience of Women with Breast Cancer

Tintin Sukartinia*, Lingga Curnia Dewib, Hanik Endang Nihayatic, Nadia Rohmatul Lailid, I Ketut Tirka Nandakae, Anita Nugrahenif, a,b,c,dFaculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Mulyorejo Street, Campus C Unair, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60115 eDepartment of Psychiatric, Dr. Ramelan Navy Hospital, Wonokromo, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60244, fDr. Ramelan Navy Hospital, Wonokromo, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60244, Email: a*tintin-s@fkp.unair.ac.id

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Women with breast cancer face many psychosocial and physical problems. In addition, such women have to deal with treatment problems, physical changes, feelings of loss and uncertainty, self-reconstruction, and changes in social interaction and support. This study aims to explore and identify their life experiences while undergoing chemotherapy. A phenomenological approach was used to explore the meaning of life with breast cancer for women undergoing chemotherapy at Surabaya, Indonesia. The patient's feelings and life experience with breast cancer were explored by using in-depth interviews with 30 women between 26 and 65 years. The results of this study reveal that the diagnosis of breast cancer produces various emotional responses. Participants explained their experience of living with breast cancer as losing something important, lack of self-confidence, living with fear, emotional dizziness and the need to be supported in the negative aspects of breast cancer and helping to explore new aspects of life as a positive aspect of this event. These findings have the potential to lessen health disparities in increasing utilisation of psychosocial treatments by Indonesian women with breast cancer.Pages 249 to 262




Mirror Therapy using Cylindrical Grip Muscle Strength and Extremity Range of Motion

Nursalam Nursalama*, Iqlima Dwi Kurniab, Bernadetta Germia Aridamayantic, aProfessor of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya,  Indonesia, 60115, bLecturer of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Mulyorejo Street, Campus C Unair, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60115, cStudent of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Mulyorejo Street, Campus C Unair, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60115, Email: a*nursalam@fkp.unair.ac.id

Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the world, after heart disease and cancer. The main disability in productive age is caused by stroke. This study aimed to analyse the effect of the mirror therapy combination of cylindrical grip muscle strength, upper limb range of motion and post-stroke client self-care, at the two hospitals in Banjarmasin. A quantitative research design was used, with a quasi-experimental research design. The sample comprised 66 respondents. Interventions involved giving mirror therapy combined cylindrical grip three times a week for four weeks. Researchers used a handgrip dynamometer to measure limb strength over post-stroke clients. A goniometer tool assessed a joint range of motion and questionnaire as to the modification of the level of independence of patients, in fulfilling post-stroke client self-care. Analysis of the data in this study used normality tests with Kolmogorov Smirnov. Analysis of each group pre-test and post-test used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, while the post-test value of each group using MANOVA. The results showed that Muscle Strength (p=0.000) and Range of Motion (p=0.000) have a significant effect with  Mirror Therapy of Cylindrical Grip Combination. The effect of mirror therapy combined cylindrical grip muscle strength and upper limb range of motion. It can be applied to nurses and physiotherapists to carry out complementary therapy. It can also be used as a support for pharmacological therapy to increase muscle strength and upper limb range of motion.Pages 263 to 275




Combining Essential Ginger Oil and Acupressure Relaxation Techniques for Cancer Patients, Post-Chemotherapy

Tintin Sukartinia*, Gustini Gustinib, Ilya Krisnanac, a,b,cFaculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60115, Email: a*tintin-s@fkp.unair.ac.id

An intervention with the aroma of ginger essential oil and relaxation techniques, upon acupressure meridian PC6, could reduce nausea and vomiting,  and increase comfort and decrease anorexia. However, the research has not been found to prove effectiveness if these two interventions are combined. This research explains the effect of combinations of the aroma of ginger essential oil and relaxation techniques, upon acupuncture meridian PC6, on nausea, vomiting, comfort and anorexia. Quantitative research was designed for a Quasi- Experiment with pre-post-test control group design (four groups pre- post-test). This research was upon a population of cancer patients post chemotherapy, who experienced nausea and vomiting. Non-probability consecutive sampling was used to select 30 respondents for each group, according to inclusion criteria. The research variables were essential ginger oil aroma, relaxation technique acupressure upon meridian PC6, nausea, vomiting, comfort, and anorexia. The instruments used were a nausea and vomiting questionnaire, an anorexia questionnaire, and a shortened general comport questionnaire (GCQ) analysed using MANOVA. There was a decrease in nausea and vomiting p=0,000, an increase in comfort p=0,000, a decrease in anorexia p=0,000 before and after the intervention of a combination of ginger essential oil and relaxation technique upon the acupressure PC6 meridian. The combination of essential ginger aroma and relaxation techniques for acupressure meridian PC6 were one of the alternative interventions that was effective in reducing nausea and vomiting, increasing comfort, decreasing anorexia in cancer patients.Pages 276 to 290




The Role of Value Stream Costing in Reducing Product Costs: An Empirical Study

Laith Mahdi Azeeza, Nidhal Mohammed Ridha Mohsinb*, a,bAccounting Department, Faculty of Administration and Economics, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq, Email: b*nadalkalaf@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Economic units have begun to realise an important fact. Traditional cost accounting systems may not be consistent with the administrative tools and techniques produced by lean thinking, a concept that economic units are trying to apply. This research explains the theoretical foundations of value stream technology, and the most prominent lean accounting techniques. It distinguishes activities that add value from those that do not, to exclude the latter. It is hypothesised that the application of value stream technology reduces costs, and enhances the perceived value of the customer. This study shows that the value stream cost approach deals with a specific number of value streams, unlike traditional cost systems that deal with a large number of products. Consequently, the volume of planning, preparing, measuring and controlling costs is less than the value of current costs.Pages 291 to 304




Determinants of Firm Value and Earnings Management in Indonesian Sharia Stock Companies

Sari Khalidya Putria, Azhar Maksumb*, a,bUniversitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, Email: b*azhar@usu.ac.id

The objective of the research was to analyse the impact of Good Corporate Governance (GCG) (institutional ownership, independent commissioners, audit committees), profitability, financial leverage, and firm size on firm value, with earnings management as a moderating variable. Data are collected from the financial statements of manufacturing companies listed in ISSI in the period of 2014-2018. The result showed that, GCG (institutional ownership, independent commissioners, audit committee), profitability, financial leverage, and firm size significantly influenced firm value. Institutional ownership did not have any influence on firm value. Audit committees negatively influenced firm value. Independent commissioners, profitability, financial leverage, and firm size positively influenced firm value. Earnings management as a moderating variable could not moderate the correlation of GCG (institutional ownership, independent commissioners, audit committee), profitability, financial leverage, and firm size on firm value.Pages 305 to 324




Informing Wetland Management: An Economic Valuation of Tam Giang - Cau Hai Lagoon, Vietnam

Hong Chuong Phama, Ha Thanh Leb, Mau Dung Nguyenc, a,bNational Economics University, Hanoi, Vietnam, cHanoi Agriculture University, Hanoi, Vietnam, Email: achuongph@neu.edu.vn,  bthanhlh@neu.edu.vn,  cmaudung@vnua.edu.vn

Natural wetlands are ecosystems. They provide numerous goods and services for the local population inside a wetland or its periphery, and for communities in the wider landscape. Commonly the intrinsic and economic values of goods and services provided by wetlands are insufficiently considered in planning and decisions on socio-economic or sectoral development, to guide the conservation and wise use of wetland resources. This paper estimates the total economic value (TEV) of ecosystem services provided by the Tam Giang-Cau Hai (TG-CH) wetland lagoon in Vietnam, at US$77.291 mill. The estimate is based on various methods, for specific ecosystem services. Two wetland management options, including: (i) “Business as Usual” and (ii) Establishment of wetland conservation area (WCA) are formulated, to conduct a quantified benefit analysis. The option of establishing a TG-CH WCA is able to bring the significantly higher TEV (around US$178 mill.) than the “Business as Usual” over a 20-year time horizon 2016-2035. Our findings add to the empirical evidence suggesting that wetland conservation is not only good ecologically, but also viable economic policy. The study’s results reinforce the significant economic value of wetland, and seek to support decision-making on wetland management strategies selection. Pages 325 to 344




Assessing Visitor Preferences as to Sustainable Heritage Tourism

Dyah Maya Nihayaha, Fafuridab*, Nurjannah Rahayu Kistantic, Agung Wahyu Handarud, a,b,cFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, dFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Email: adyah_maya@mail.unnes.ac.id,  b*fafurida@mail.unnes.ac.id,  cnurjannah.rk@mail.unnes.ac.id,  dagung_1178@yahoo.com

The tourism industry can be an economic multiplier for regional economic growth. Kota Lama is cultural heritage that must be preserved. Good planning is needed to develop it as a tourist destination. This study assesses tourist preferences, to evaluate the market for heritage tourism. This research is exploratory. It uses both primary data obtained from interviews and questionnaires from tourists. Data was taken by purposive random sampling method and analysed by quantitative descriptive method. A region becomes a tourist destination in five aspects; attractions, accessibility, facilities, promotions and information. The result show that Kota Lama fulfils all aspects as a heritage destination. Tourists’ perceptions will support its development policy. Coordination with the community and tourism stakeholders is needed, because tourist satisfaction is a determinant of Kota Lama becoming a sustainable, heritage tourism destination.Pages 345 to 358




A Musical Note: An Audio Gaming Aid for Listening to Traditional Thai Alto Xylophones

Pongsakorn Kingsuwankula, Thanakorn Uiphanitb, Thatsanan Chutosric, Pongpisit Liengyud, Wannarat Bunchongkiene, Yutakorn Sarikkaganonf, Kitsana Khengthongg, a,b,c,d,e,Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, fDepartment of Music, Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, gBumrungrad International Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: apongsakorn.ki@ssru.ac.th,  bthanakorn.ui@ssru.ac.th,  cthatsanan.ch@ssru.ac.th,  dpornpisit.li@ssru.ac.th,  ewannarat.bu@ssru.ac.th,  fyutakorn.sa@ssru.ac.th,  grapnew9138@gmail.com

In modern times, Thai musical study gets serious after secondary school where it is compulsory for students to learn both theory and practice. Playing Thai musical instruments has always been a privilege for musicians. They are taught to respect the instruments. Ranat ek or “Thai Alto” xylophone is a lead Thai percussion instrument. Learning to play alto xylophone can be difficult initially, especially when remembering the tone of notes. This research has the following objectives: 1) To develop a game that promotes listening to traditional Thai music via the sound of Thai xylophones, among first year college students; 2) To determine that experience; 3) To know the satisfaction of students towards the game. The sample group is students in Year 1, in Wat Bangbon school. The students are from three classes, 84 students in total. The research tools are questionnaires on the experience of listening to traditional Thai music. The researcher developed the tools. The result reveals that the efficiency of the system is, overall, high at = 4.43 and S.D. = 0.83. Further, the satisfaction level of users towards the system is, overall, high at = 4.42 and S.D. = 0.21.Pages 359 to 371




A Job Recommendation Machine Learning Model Using Elderly Lifestyles

Nichamon Sithiponporna, Uthai Tanlamaib, Achara Chandrachaic, Sipat Triukosed, a,cTechnopreneurship and Innovation Management Program, Graduate School Interdisciplinary Program Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, bDepartment of Accountancy, Chulalongkorn Business School Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, dResearch Group on Applied Computer Engineering for Medicine and Healthcare (ATM) Chulalongkorn University Big Data Analytics and IoT Centre (CUBIC) Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, Email: ansithiponporn@gmail.com,  buthai@cbs.chula.ac.th,  cachandrachai@gmail.com,  dsipat.t@chula.ac.th

One of the most significant social transformations nowadays is the aging society. The Baby Boomer generation is now becoming the majority segment of our society. This group seems to have different lifestyles and diverse characteristics from past generations of senior citizens. They tend to continue working into their older years. When recommending a job for this group, assessing their demographics may be insufficient. This paper suggests job recommendations, according to elderly lifestyles, using a machine learning process. Senior citizens living in Bangkok served as the sample for the study. The machine learning model was formulated in R programming language by a logistic regression algorithm to enhance accuracy. The model can recommend a job for seniors with 91.20% accuracy. The study provides the concept and empirical model for job recommendations for the elderly based on their background, lifestyles, and current quality of life norms.Pages 372 to 396




Using STSE-Model Learning to Examine Students’ Environmental Awareness of the Risk of Environmental Disaster

Rungtiwa Kongsona, aSchool of Education, University of Phayao, Thailand, Email: arungtiwa05.s.ppk@gmail.com

The objective of this work is to study the environmental awareness of students in areas at risk of environmental disaster. STSE-model learning is used, to compare students who are experienced and inexperienced as to the effects of such disasters. Students in year suksa 4 and year 5, under the Office of the Basic Education Commission in Thailand, were studied; in total 134 students. The data was analysed to find mean, standard deviation, and t-test independent. This work found that a high level of in-depth knowledge, appreciation, love and cherishing of the environment, through its examination and evaluation of learning. However, the aspect of anxiety and concern, and being able to act or solving various environmental problems by oneself and working group at the highest level. The data analysis of mean, standard deviation, and t-test independent indicate a difference in the environmental awareness of students, between pre and post learning, with statistical significance, from 41.75% to 89.50%. Students experienced and inexperienced affected to environmental disasters. Awareness toward environmental of students in the area at risk to environmental disaster by using STSE-model learning not different. Pages 397 to 414




Analysing The New Public Service of Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand

Thussaneeya Boripisa, Teeraphat Kitjarakb, aSchool of Political Science and  Law, Walailak University, Thailand, bPublic Administration Program in Faculty of Humanities and social sciences, Phetchabun Rajabhat University, Thailand, Email: aThussaneeya.bo@wu.ac.th,  bTeeraphat.kit@pcru.ac.th

This research aims to perform two roles. It aims: (1) to analyse the New Public Service of the Office of Nakhon Si Thammarat Municipality, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province in Thailand; (2) To suggest new public service guidelines for that Office. The purpose of the study on the basic service provision by Mueang Nakhon Si Thammarat Municipality, is to improve "Lard Na Phra That" Mueang District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province in Thailand. This research is qualitative research using in-depth interviews with relevant persons and content analysis from relevant documents. The research  shows that the public services of Mueang Nakhon Si Thammarat Municipality and the basic services provision of Mueang Nakhon Si Thammarat Municipality i.e. water supply, electricity, waste gathering, security, mobile toilet provided for tourists comply with the idea of Denhardt and Denhardt  (2000 p.554). The public service management method of the local government organisation is mainly responsible for Mueang Nakhon Si Thammarat Municipality.Pages 415 to 425




Hotel Website Quality Factors Influencing High-Quality Tourists’ Online Purchasing Intentions: A Luxury, Boutique Hotel in Bangkok

Prach Punnasuparoma, Therdchai Choibamroongb, aPhD candidate of the Integrated Tourism and Hospitality Management Graduate School of Tourism Management, National Institute of Development Administration Bangkok, Thailand, bAssociate Professor of Graduate School of Tourism Management, National Institute of Development Administration Bangkok, Thailand, Email: alimbo_prach@hotmail.com,  bted-choibamroong@hotmail.com

Websites have become a medium for hotel enterprises to sell their services online. High-quality tourists are significant to hotel sellers. They are passionately into online purchasing, making this segment a dominant, topical online market. Therefore, it is crucial to identify quality factors in hotel websites; the influencers of high-quality tourist’s online purchasing intention for luxury boutique hotels in Bangkok, Thailand. This research utilises a quantitative approach. Online questionnaires were distributed to 455 high-value tourists, people who have stayed in 13 luxury boutique hotels in Bangkok. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) related a set of observed variables to the construct. This research discovered that information content, website interactivity, website responsiveness, and website design were organised into functionality group, then ease of use, website viable substitute. Online processes were organised into usability groups. Those two groups were significantly influencing online purchasing intention. However, innovation of website, website visual appeal, and hotel image were not significant in predicting the variance in online purchasing intention. This study concluded that hotel website quality was significant in predicting online purchasing behaviour. Websites are a direct marketing tool for improving success, and hotel customers’ needs should be fully considered in the digital age.Pages 426 to 441




Milestones in Intellectual Property Rights Promotion (Trademark) and OTOP Business in Thailand under the Public Concept of “Pracharat”

Thepparat Phimolsathiena, aFaculty of Administration and Management, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Email: athepparat@hotmail.com

This research has three objectives. They are 1) to study promotion levels of Trademark and One Tambon One Product (OTOP) Business in Thailand under the concept of Pracharat, 2) to study factors influencing the promotion of Trademark and OTOP Business in Thailand under the concept of Pracharat, and 3) to study and propose guidelines for promoting Trademark and OTOP Business in Thailand under the concept of Pracharat. The study was conducted by qualitative and quantitative research methods.  The sample group was OTOP entrepreneurs in five pilot provinces from four regions, totalling 2,000 people. The key informants were those who played an important role in managing the OTOP product. Research tools were questionnaires and interview forms. The research revealed that opinions on promoting Trademark and OTOP Business in Thailand under Pracharat concept were at a moderate level. When considering each ground, the first opinion was about the rights of OTOP trademark owners. Other factors were also found including accessing production factors, administration, knowledge management, communication and awareness for sustainability, respectively. Such variables can presumably foresee the promotion of Trademark and OTOP Business in Thailand under the concept of Pracharat, by 74.5 percent.  Milestones in Intellectual Property Rights Promotion (Trademark) and OTOP Business in Thailand under the Public Concept “Pracharat” include value added creation and product development, and improvement of trademark protection regulations in the current situation.Pages 442 to 457




Innovative Communication Mechanism for the Psychological Well-being of Caregivers and Elderly with Dementia in the context of Thailand

Taksaya Watcharasarnsapa, Uthai Tanlamaib, Rajalida Lipikornc, aTechnopreneurship and Innovation Management Program, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand, bDepartment of Accountancy, Chulalongkorn Business School Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand, cMathematics and Computer Science Department, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand, Email: ataksaya.w@gmail.com,  buthai@cbs.chula.ac.th,  crajalida.l@chula.ac.th

The present research aims to develop an innovative communication mechanism to promote the relationship between caregivers and people with dementia. A mobile application system was developed based on the Reminiscence therapy framework in conjunction with an effective interpersonal communication method using enabling technology, which is the Speech to Text and Natural Language Processing (NLP).  Thirty pairs of caregivers and their counterparts with dementia were the experimental subjects with another thirty pairs as the control. The results indicated a better relationship and psychological well-being after the use of this mobile application. The experimental group also has a higher rating score on both counts than the control group. Pages 458 to 474




Value Creation of Local Identity in Thailand: Marketing Promotion for Enhancing Community-Based Cultural Tourism

Thanarat Ratanapongtraa*, Thong Khamkerdb, Sukhum Kongditc, Tharanee Nawatnateed, a,b,c,d Tourism Program, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Rajamangala University of Technology Suvarnabhumi, Thailand, Email: a*thanarat.r@rmutsb.ac.th

This research aims at defining a strategy to develop marketing promotion for community-based cultural tourism of the Bang Mae Mai community in the central part of Thailand and analysing a model of marketing promotion used to enhance community-based cultural tourism through value creation of local identity. The study was conducted by using qualitative focus group discussion which found that in order for a community to be able to attract tourists it is required to analyse the distinction of resources and tourist attraction capacity as a fundamental factor in defining marketing strategy for cultural tourism. For the case study of the Bang Mae Mai community, 7 strategies have been defined, which consist of organising tourism promotional activities, advertising community’s tourist attractions, conducting online marketing, improving tourism-related skills for community’s members and personnel, encouraging the participation of a new generation, developing offline advertising media for community’s tourist attractions, and developing cultural market of the community to become more distinctive. These will be used for analysing a marketing promotional model for enhancing community-based tourism in order to be applied to other communities with the corporation of five parties including tourism group leaders in the community, public sector, tourism association, tourism enterprise, and mass media. This study can be utilised as a guideline in supporting community-based tourism for other places. Pages 475 to 488




Indonesian Young Moslems in a New Social Movement in the Post Reformation: Sahabat Hijrahkuu Community

Rizabuana Ismaila*, Sahran Saputrab, Muryanto Aminc, T Ilham Saladind, a,b,c,dUniversitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, Email: a*rizabuana@usu.ac.id

This paper discusses the migration movement by Sahabat Hijrakuu community as a new social movement of young Muslims in Medan. The objective of the research was to find out the patterns through some articulation typology of Islamic social movement and the aim of socio-political change, using the Islamic perspective of populism and post-Islamism. The data were gathered using qualitative methods by conducting observations, interviews, and library research. The result of this paper shows the development of the migration movement in the series and the collective awareness of young Muslims in Medan in the post-Islam Defence Action movement. In the polarisation of the movement and the objective of socio-political change which is wanted in the Sahabat Hijrakuu community, it can be said that this movement is Islamic populism, and that Post-Islamism movements split into two perspectives. First, the objective of the socio-political change in the Islamic populism perspective is identified by the existence and the representation of a middle class of Moslems as Ummah. Secondly, the objective of the socio-political movement through the perspective of Post-Islamism is identified by the adaptation and the negotiation of middle-class Moslems in democracy. Pages 489 to 504




Improving Students’ HOT and Literacy Skills in the context of Indonesia

Nana Sepriyantia*, Sasmi Nelwatib, Wan Nasirc, a,bUniversitas Islam Negeri Imam Bonjol, Padang, 25153, Indonesia, cBalai Diklat Keagamaan Padang, 25173, Indonesia, Email: a*nanasepriyanti@uinib.ac.id

The results of some research indicate that a student’s Higher-Order Thinking (HOT) skills and literacy skills are low in Indonesia. This is thought to be because students tend to do the learning process mechanistically. Through this research, 21st century competency-based learning has developed a valid, practical and effective set of Education Statistics courses to improve the HOT Skill and Literacy Skills of FTK UIN Imam Bonjol Padang students. This research was conducted through a cyclical process: preliminary phase, prototyping phase, and assessment phase. Data collection methods used were observation, interviews, checklists, videotaping, analysis of student work, validation sheets and HOT Skill tests and Literacy Skill students. The collected data were analysed with descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The results showed 21st Century Competency-Based learning improved HOT Skill and Literacy skills of UIN Imam Bonjol Padang Students as a valid, practical and effective tool.Pages 513 to 529




The Rise of the Mediation Method in Wealth Management

Nur Khalidah Dahlana, Ruzian Markomb, Rozlinda Mohamed Fadzilc, a,b,cFaculty of Law, The National University of Malaysia,

Alternative Dispute Resolution, or ADR, is a process for resolving conflicts - one that respects the dignity of individuals while creating mutually satisfying solutions. ADR uses communication skills, collaboration, negotiation, and mediation to produce an agreement that meets the interests of the parties involved. Alternative disputes resolution method has appeared to be more in line with Islamic precepts that consist of consultation (shura), mediation and conciliation (Sulh), as well as arbitration. When participating in Alternative Dispute Resolution, parties maintain the right to seek agreement and settlement. Mediation enjoys consistently high satisfaction rates by participants. In Malaysia, the organisation bodies for mediation are the Malaysian Mediation Centre, Securities Industry Dispute Resolution Centre (SIDREC) and the Ombudsman Financial Service (OFS). All these centres are focusing on banking and financial instruments.  There is an indication that ADR options can lead to more efficient use of resources by the courts, saving time and money for litigants, and reducing levels of subsequent litigation. This paper will focus on some of the organisation bodies that practice mediation which and have been successfully undertaken in the past. Thse practices are examples of those that can also be similarly applied in the future. Pages 530 to 544




The Role of Technology in Shaping the Future of Oil Production and Consumption

Maan Abood Alia, Khawla R. Hassanb, Hasan Rasak Ghyadhc, Rajaa Abdullah Esa Alsalimd, aFaculty of Administration and Economics, University of Misan, Misan, Iraq, bFaculty of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq, cImam Ja'afar Al-Sadiq University, Misan, Iraq, dFaculty of Administration and Economics University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq, Email: amaanabood3@gmail.com,  bkhawla.hassan@uobasrah.edu.ig,  crshkhsn0@gmail.com,  dRajaa_essaa@yahoo.com

This study aims to explore the impact of modern technological innovations in the field of oil on the levels of global production and consumption of oil through the use of a descriptive and analytical approach. The results show that oil technologies led to a real revolution in changing the course of events during the past few years, especially in the field of production and consumption of oil squarely on the throne of energy, through increasing oil reserves, using three-dimensional exploration techniques (D3 and D4) that reduced the failure rate in drilling wells up to limits (8/10). In addition, it helped to find other oil basins, as well as in the discovery of oil reserves in the Atlantic Ocean and the coasts of Mexico, Brazil and West Africa, such as the Republic of Guinea and others, as well as reservoirs in deep waters. The technology is merited with increasing production from existing fields, through the development of drilling and production techniques, and enhanced production that added new energy estimated at two thirds (2/3) of the primary production capacity of the well, and the technologies helped in the production of unconventional oils, such as shale oil, shale oil and bottoms oil oceans. In addition, technology also is greatly credited with reducing oil consumption, by improving the efficiency of engines in energy production and reducing the level of fuel consumption, as it brought the car to run at 57.1 kilometres / gallon. Pages 545 to 560




Needs Analysis of Regional Potential-Based Vocational High School Development

Wagirana*, Pardjonob, Yudha Yanti Cahyaningrumc, a,b,cUniversitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*wagiran@uny.ac.id

This study aims to reveal vocational high schools’ (VHSs’) areas of expertise and expertise programs that are feasible to be developed based on regional potential. As an  exploratory descriptive research conducted in Berau Regency, it employs documentation and interviews to collect  data. Quantitative data analysis is carried out through principal component analysis, location-quotient method, Sprague multiplier method and  exponential method. Qualitative data analysis was carried out by using data reduction, data presentation, and verification. The results reveal that the sub-districts that need VHSs in Berau Regency include Kelay, Tabalar and Maratua. The areas of expertise needed at Kelay include agribusiness and agrotechnology with the agribusiness program of estate crops and estate crop processing. Tabalar necessitate agribusiness and agrotechnology with agribusiness plant expertise program and agricultural product processing. Maratua require the fields of tourism with hospitality and tourism services, as well as food engineering. Pages 561 to 574




The Effect of Marketing Deception on Consumer Purchasing Decisions -An Analytical Study of the Opinions of a Sample of Baghdad University Students

Alaa Nabeel Al-Healia, aMarket Research and Consumer Protection Center, University of Baghdad, Iraq.

The study aims to discover the effect of  marketing deception practised by mobile phone companies in after-sales services, whether they are providing guarantee services, after-sales service price, promotion or distribution regarding the decision for  consumer purchase. A descriptive analytical method has been selected. Data was collected through a questionnaire that was distributed electronically to  random individual samples, represented by graduate students in both the Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology for Post-graduate studies  and the Higher Institute for Financial and Accounting Studies / University of Baghdad. The sample size consisted of (60) students while the data analysis showed that there is a correlation between  marketing deception of  after-sales service and  consumer purchasing decision. Marketing deception related to  price significantly affects  consumer purchase decisions, however  marketing deception in service, promotion and distribution does not significantly affect  consumer sparks decision. This result is due to the nature of  consumer culture, the studied sample and the extent of their understanding of the questions. Amongst the most important recommendations of the study is the necessity of working to activate the role of the Consumer Protection Association to monitor the market in the after-sales services sector by conducting awareness campaigns for consumers of their rights to enhance their ability to test the quality of services provided to them and impose penalties on marketing companies that demonstrate the practice of marketing deception in order to reduce unethical practices. Pages 575 to 595




Evaluating Laboratory Skills of Students in the Department of Electromechanical Engineering according to  Suggested Standards

Sahira Al-saadia, Shawq Azizb, Haidar Al-ijrshc, aProfessor, Educational Sciences, University of Technology, Baghdad, Karada, Iraq, bLecturer, Methods of Teaching Science public, University of Babylon, Babylon, Hella, Iraq, cProfessor, Methods of Teaching Social, University of Babylon, Babylon, Hella, Iraq,

This study aims to evaluate the laboratory skills of students in the  Department of the Electromechanical Engineering–Systems Branch according to  suggested standards. The research tool consists of the (22) standard observation cards   presented by researchers to a group of experts and specialists in the method of teaching Science and  the ability to express  opinions and observations in order to verify confidence and objectivity. The descriptive method was  selected as appropriate to achieve the research aim . The sample  consists of (65) students of the Department of Electromechanical Engineering- Systems Branch. Statistical analysis is conducted through  IBM® software SPSS 25.0.The results indicate that the laboratory skills of electromechanical engineering students in the systems branch at the University of Technology, did not fully meet the suggested standards (NGSS-STEAM-GLP), when compared to the hypothetical mean. The researchers recommend the need to review the content of laboratory courses to take into account the standards, and activate the role of laboratory supervisors as well as the need to train professors who prepare practical experiments and teach  practical aspects  within the laboratory concerning  necessary laboratory skills and familiarise students  with laboratory teaching methods and  standards . Pages 596 to 605




Understanding Medication Errors as Leading Factors amongst Nursing Staff Working at Basra City Hospitals, Iraq

Utoor Talib Jassima, Samira Muhammed Ebrahimb, aDepartment of Basic Science, College of Nursing, University of Basra, Iraq, bDepartment of Nursing Science, College of Nursing, University of Basra, Iraq , Email: adrutoortalib67@gmail.com,  bsamiraebrahim7@gmail.com

Background: Medication errors are one of the most common medical errors that threaten health services and lead to disorder in the treatment process. Aims: To determine the main leading factors that contribute to medication errors from the perspective of nurses, to assess the nurses’ understanding about the factors related to medication error and to estimate the relationship between nurses’ understanding of factors that contribute to medication errors with demographic characteristics. Methods: the present study contains descriptive methodology; a structured questionnaire was given to 100 nurses working in various departments in three Basra city hospitals. Results: Tiredness resulting from overwork (56%), department environmental noise (60%), insufficient number of nurses in relation to patients (83%) and physicians’ illegible handwriting in patient files (55%) are the leading causes for medication errors from the nurses’ perspectives. It has been found that 11%, 45%, 44% of respondents had good, medium and poor understanding respectively regarding factors related to medication errors. Conclusions: The main factors contributing to medication errors are insufficient numbers of nurses compared to number of patients, environmental department noise, tiredness resulting from overwork and physicians’ illegible handwriting in patient files. A considerable percentage of nursing staff have poor awareness about factors leading to medication errors. There is a significant negative correlation between nursing staff awareness age and duration of employment. Furthermore, there is significant correlation between understanding and formal education as well as participating in training courses related to the subject.Pages 606 to 615




The Mediating Role of Team Perspective between Paradoxical Leadership, Innovative Work Behaviour and Team Innovation

Ali Isam AlSoltanea, Hussein Adnan Issa ALallaqb, a,bDepartment of Business Administration- Faculty of Administration and Economics- Al-Muthanna University-Iraq, Email: ateme-2009@mu.edu.iq,  bHussein.easa@mu.edu.iq

Team innovation and performance are a major concern for  management. Paradoxical leadership can assist in sharing and obtaining knowledge from team members to enhance innovation and management needing to develop innovative team behaviour  to share information amongst team members to improve innovation. The purpose of the current study  is the mediating role of team perspective between paradoxical leadership, innovative work behaviour and team innovation. The sample size consists of  73 team members of University Departments  at Qadisiyah. The 5 point Likert scale was used to obtain  responses and PLS (AMOS) 3.0 was used to analyse the response. The study findings show  that the role of paradoxical leadership needs to improve in assisting knowledge sharing and team  innovation . However, team members have a strong sense of innovative work behaviour to share and obtain information from other members to enhance their sense of innovation. This study conducted was conducted at the University departments of . Respondents were  taken from a large area. The study also suggests that team learning behaviour and a high-performance work system can assist the team perspective  to enhance team innovation. Pages 626 to 642




The Mediating Effect of Employee Engagement between Sustainable HRM Practices and Job Performance

Asmaa Abdul Wahid Malik Alghnimia, Liqaa Miri Habeebb, Rabab Ibrahim Kadhimc, aAL-Furat Al-awasat Technical University Al-Dewaniyah Technical, bCollege of Administration & Economics University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq, cFaculty of administration & Economics Department of Finance and Banking, Email: aAssmaali666666@gmail.com,  bLiqaa.miri@qu.edu.iq,  cRabab.Ibrahim@qu.edu.iq

This study examines the role of sustainable HRM practices on job performance through engagement. The study measures the effect of participation and employee empowerment on job performance. The population was all the employees in the Diwaniyah General Hospital of Iraq. By using a random sampling technique, 200 sample participants were selected as the target population. The 5-point Likert scale was used to collect the responses. The findings of the study by using PLS 3.0 are to examine the role of practices of HR on performance and the mediating effect of employee engagement between HR practices and job performance. The findings of the study show that HRM practices, such as participation and employee empowerment, have a positive effect on employee job performance. Specifically, the study confirms that employees’ engagement significantly mediates between HR practices, such as employees’ participation, employees’ empowerment and the performance of employees, and the sustainability of HRM practices have a great impact on job performance. Furthermore, a future research direction is presented. Pages 643 to 659




The Social Function for University Youth Use of Internet Techniques in Jordanian Society

Alaa Zuhir Al Rawashdeha, Asma Rebhi Al Arabb, Noura Nasser algahtanic, Mooza Isa Aldoyd, a,bAjman University– UAE) / (Al Balqaa Applied University-Jordan, cKing Saud University-KSA, dDepartment of Social Sciences, University of Bahrain, Email: aalaa_rwashdeh@yahoo.com,  cahtani@KSU.EDU.SA,  dm.aldoy1@hotmail.com

The study aimed at identifying the social function for university youth use of internet techniques in society, according to some variables, by using a questionnaire. The study sample consisted of 450 Jordan university students. The study found that there were no significant differences (α = 0.05) attributed to the effects of all variables except for the place where the internet was used and the website type. The study recommended that the youth should be appreciative of the importance of the internet, that they should activate the role of social sciences, rehabilitation and training of social specialists and workers to use the internet and be appreciative of its recent developments to be employed for the benefit of the youth and society Pages 660 to 681




A Study on Foreign Direct Investment Flows in Vietnam

Van Su Haa*, Thu Thuy Nguyenb, aAssociate Professor, Faculty of Economics & Law, Thuongmai University, Vietnam, bAssociate Professor, Faculty of Financial & Banking, Thuongmai University, Vietnam, Email: a*hvsdhtm@tmu.edu.vn,  bthuy.nt@tmu.edu.vn

Integration is forecasted to have a substantial impact on not only import and export activities but also on the ability to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) into Vietnam. Our regression results show that trade openness has a positive impact on Vietnam’s inward FDI (an increase of 1.0% in trade liberalisation can result in an increase of 0.23% in FDI inflows to Vietnam). Notably, our simulation results reveal that the CPTPP will increase the growth rate of FDI into Vietnam from 2.0% -2.4%/ year compared to the base scenario. However, the degree of impact will vary over time. Between 2019 and 2025, FDI inflows will tend to increase faster than in the following period 2026-2035. This shows that CPTPP will have a faster and stronger impact in the first 6 years (2019-2025) (with a steeper impact curve) when the agreement officially takes effect for Vietnam. Then the impact will decrease gradually in the following years. Pages 682 to 700




The External Factors Affecting the Dividend Policy: The Case of Listed Companies on the Hanoi Stock Exchange

Anh Le Nguyen Dieua, aUniversity of Economics - Technology for Industries, Vietnam, Email: alndanh@uneti.edu.vn

This paper is conducted to investigate the impact levels of external determinants on the dividend policy of listed companies on the Hanoi Stock Exchange (HNX). Data was collected from getting 155 questionnaires from listed companies on the HNX. Based on the data collected, we use Cronbach’s Alpha, EFA and run regression model to find the impact levels of each independent variable on the dependent variable of the dividend policy. The results show that three external determinants, including tax policy (TP), inflation and interest rates (IIR) and legal environment (LE) have relationships with the dividend policy. Based on the findings, some recommendations are given for improving the dividend policy of listed companies on the HNX to ensure sustainability. Pages 701 to 719




The Construction of Corporate Waqf Models for Indonesia

Miftahul Hudaa, Lukman Santosob, aFaculty of Sharia, Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Ponorogo, Indonesia, bDoctoral Program, Faculty of Law Indonesia Islamic University (UII), Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: amiftahul.huda@iainponorogo.ac.id,  blukmansantoso4@gmail.com

This study aims to explore the management and development models of waqf assets of companies in Malaysia and Singapore, as well as their relevance for the development of corporate waqf constructions that are in accordance with Indonesian waqf law and the wisdom of traditions that have been developed in keeping with the culture. By using an interpretative exploratory type qualitative approach, this study yields findings that the construction of management and development models of corporate waqf assets in Indonesia that are in accordance with Indonesian legal endowments and traditional wisdom are business entities, banks, universities, foundations, hospitals, and cooperative companies. This study aims to demonstrate the strengthening of the holistic corporate waqf model in Indonesia, as it is necessary to strengthen regulatory stakeholders as well as an integrative and holistic understanding among scholars. Pages 720 to 734




The Role of Batam Island during the Period of the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation

Bunaria, Nina Herlinab, Mumuh Muhsin Zc, Kunto Sofiantod, a,b,c,dPadjadjaran University, Email: abunari17001@gmail.unpad.ac.id,  bnina.herlina@unpad.ac.id,  cmumuh.muhsin@unpad.ac.id,  dkunto.sofianto@unpad.ac.id

This article discusses the role of Batam Island during the period of Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation (1964-1966), which in Indonesia was propagandised under the slogan “Ganyang Malaysia” (“Crush Malaysia”). The discussion focuses on why Batam Island was chosen as the command centre of the volunteer army in its mission to “Crush Malaysia”. The study shows that Batam Island’s strategic location was the main reason for its selection as the volunteer army’s base. The choice was also based on the island’s proximity to Sambu Island as the command centre of the KKO (the Indonesian Marine Corps). The two islands were prepared as the starting point of a planned attack against Singapore, then still part of the Federation of Malaysia. For Indonesia, Singapore was the most crucial part of the confrontation, and as part of the plan was to to sabotage it, Indonesia chose Batam Island as the volunteer army’s base due to its proximity to Singapore. Pages 735 to 743




Factors Influencing Process Structuring in IT Risk Management

Urairat Maneerattanasaka*, Nitaya Wongpinunwatanab, Chainarong Kaeowaranonchaic, Metha Suvanasarnd, aThammasat Business School, Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bDepartment of Business Administration (Management Information Systems) Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand, cFreelance IT Auditor, Bangkok, Thailand, dIT GRC consultant, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: a*urairat-man59@tbs.tu.ac.th,  bwongpinn5@gmail.com,  cCkaeowaranonchai@gmail.com,  dsuvanasarn@gmail.com

Information technology risk management (ITRM) is being enforced by regulators on strategic and complex organisations such as financial institutions. This research paper investigates risk management problems uncovered while doing case study analysis with selected organisations. This study revealed that factors most impacted by organisation size are tools, interdependence and expertise of the three lines of defence. The findings imply that risk management tools need development to fit with the interdependent working of the three lines of defence structure. Also, people in the organisation need training to improve risk management expertise and to drive the three lines of defence to work effectively. Size of an organisation also impacts ITRM practice. Furthermore, the results of this research reveal problems different from previous ITRM research as most of the prior research suggested improving ITRM processes and models. The theoretical contribution of this research is the framework of principles and practice fit focusing on process structuring. Pages 744 to 760




Individual Characteristics and Job Characteristics on Work Effectiveness in the State-Owned Company: the Moderating Effect of Emotional Intelligence

Henry Aspana*, Etty Sri Wahyunib, Ari Prabowoc, Ami Natuz Zaharad, Ika Novita Sarie, Mariyanaf, aUniversitas Pembangunan Panca Budi, b,c,dUniversitas Sumatra Utara, e,fUniversitas Batam, Email: a*henryaspan@yahoo.com

PT. Jasa Marga is a company that specialises in the service business sector thats main business is managing roads and bridges. To carry out its duties and responsibilities, PT. Jasa Marga needs employees who play a large role in carrying out all activities of the company with a variety of individual characters and various existing work characters. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of individual and work characteristics on work effectiveness and which is moderated by emotional intelligence. Analysis tools using SPSS Version 22.00 with the analysis model Moderated Regression Analyze (MRA). The results showed that individual characteristics and job characteristics partially had a positive and significant effect on work effectiveness. Emotional intelligence acts as a moderating variable in testing the effect of individual and work characteristics on work effectiveness. Pages 761 to 774




Development and Validity of an Environmental Knowledge Instrument

Aynin Mashfufaha*, Joko Nurkamtob, Sajidanc, Wirantod, aDoctoral Program of Education Science of Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia, b,cFaculty of Teacher Training and Education of Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia, dMath and Science Faculty of Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*ayninn@student.uns.ac.id

This research aims to develop an environmental knowledge instrument. This research employs qualitative and quantitative methods. Five experts check the developed instrument based on evaluation, content and language aspects. The respondents consist of 120 pre-service biology teachers. The test results are analysed from the difficulty level and distinguishing power index. Test items that meet both aspects are analysed using the confirmatory factor analysis, to measure construct validity, and estimated for its coefficient of reliability. The result shows that all items have a medium difficulty level and a good distinguishing power index. The confirmatory factor analysis shows that the items met the construct validity from factor loading of higher than 0.07 and t-value of higher than t-table. The coefficient of reliability, according to Cronbach alpha, is higher than 0.70. Based on the analysis results, the developed instrument to measure environmental knowledge has met the criteria for a valid and reliable instrument. Pages 775 to 793




Corporate Governance Mechanism and Cost of Capital to Firm Value

Bernardus Y. Nugrohoa, aFaculty of Administrative Science, Universitas Indonesia, Email: anugroho_yuliarto@yahoo.com

This study examines the use of corporate governance to the cost of capital and corporate value. Corporate governance is a set of rules which manages the relationships between stakeholders, government, internal and external parties, employees and management that are related to their rights and obligations. The proxies used for corporate governance variables are independent commissioners, board size, managerial ownership, institutional ownership and non-institutional ownership. The research method used is panel data regression. The sample used in this study is non-financial listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) in the period 2008-2018. The results of this study indicate that variables of corporate governance, such as independent commissioners, board size, managerial ownership and institutional ownership, have a significant influence on capital costs. The results of this study also found that variables of corporate governance mechanism such as board size, institutional ownership, and non-institutional ownership significantly influence the firm's value (Tobin's Q). Pages 794 to 807




Navigating Through Domestic Impediments: Suharto and Indonesia’s Leadership in ASEAN

Darwisa, Bama Andika Putrab*, Abdul Razaq Cangarac, a,b,cDepartment of International Relations, Universitas Hasanuddin, Email: adarwis.hi@unhas.ac.id,  b*bama@unhas.ac.id,  cacacangara@unhas.ac.id

This paper focuses on the implementation of Indonesia's free and active foreign policy in Southeast Asia, during the presidency of Suharto. It looks at a wide range of study cases from 1967-1998 that reflect how Indonesia’ free and active policy has shaped most of its interaction in the Southeast Asian region during the Cold War. The research adopts analytical-descriptive research methodology in interpreting Suharto’s policies in responding to the Southeast Asian political landscape. The paper concludes that the success of Indonesia’s free and active foreign policy in Southeast Asia during Suharto’s rule is based on (1) historical aspects of Indonesian kingdom dominance in Southeast Asia, (2) the political culture of Javanese ethnicity, (3) increasing military support that strengthened the regime’s power, and (4) aligned policies with dominant domestic institutions in Indonesia. Pages 808 to 824




Viewpoints of Teachers of Natural Science Subjects on STEM Education at the Secondary School Level in Vietnam

Nhi Thi Nguyena, aVinh University, Vietnam, Email: ahongnhi1076@gmail.com

STEM education (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) is an educational orientation that of interest to Vietnam as well as most countries in the world. However, how STEM education should be implemented, especially in the context of developing countries like Vietnam that have certain restrictions on economy and facilities, is still a matter of concern and needs to be studied and investigated. Currently, there are still many different interpretations of STEM education, which lends itself to a very diverse and inconsistent  implementation of STEM education. In order to implement STEM teaching effectively and comprehensively, it is necessary to understand the perceptions of STEM education by educators, and thereby find an appropriate way to implement this educational orientation so as to contribute to improving training effectiveness. This paper presents the ideas of 200 teachers of natural science subjects at the secondary school level in Vietnam on STEM education, from which the orientation for implementing STEM education is appropriate. Pages 825 to 843




Patient Satisfaction in a Rural Health Facility: Reliability, Responsiveness and Assurance

Tusy Novita Dwi Wardania, Aulia Ramadhanib, Nadia Rifqi Cahyanic, Hanifiya Samha Wardhanid, Windhu Purnomoe*, a,c,dGraduate Student of Policy and Health Administration Department , Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, bDepartment of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, eDepartment of  Biostatistics and Population, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Email: e*purno.win20@gmail.com

Background: Puskesmas are the health service facilities in Indonesia that organise public health efforts and first-level individual health service. Patient satisfaction is very important for Puskesmas to assess its quality service towards the public by measuring the level of patient satisfaction from the dimensions of reliability, responsiveness, and assurance. Purpose: This study is to determine whether the performance of health services in the Community Health Centre can be considered good or not by measuring the level of patient satisfaction from the dimensions of reliability, responsiveness, and assurance Method: The sampling technique was accidental sampling with a sample size of 138 people. This study used a questionnaire instrument. The data analysis conducted in this research was descriptive analysis and bivariate analysis with the chi-square test. Result: the results of this study found that the level of satisfaction obtained from the three dimensions was low. Reliability has a low result with a percentage of 55.1%, responsiveness has a low result with a percentage of 71.7% and an assurance assessment has a low-value percentage of 88.4%. Conclusion:  From this study, Puskesmas’ health services were considered insufficient by the community, according to the level of patient satisfaction specific to reliability, responsiveness, and assurance. Pages 844 to 854



Big Banana Cultivation: Agricultural Productivity and Return Analysis

Arus Kongrungchoka, Sarapee Chanatupb, Atcharawan Rattanaphanc, a,b,cFaculty of Management Science, Suratthani Rajabhat University, Thailand, Email: aarus.kon@sru.ac.th,  bsarapee.cha@sru.ac.th,  catcharawan.rat@sru.ac.th

This study aims to ascertain factors for enhancing productivity and analysing return in terms of big banana cultivation.  The research asked how to obtain the sustainable return and productivity for big banana cultivation. Questionnaires were responded to by 157 Thai agricultural households including 33 volunteered agricultural households who were interviewed through semi-structured interviews for collecting data.  Statistical techniques were used for analysing questionnaires while interview transcripts were analysed using content analysis with a phenomenological research approach.  The result discovered that agriculturists’ competency; appropriate cultivated processes; demand and supply equilibrium for agricultural products; selection for sustainable agricultural product market; investment for cultivation; and agriculturists’ resources management approach, these crucial factors must be concentrated to enhance the productivity and economic return including reducing cultivated costs by Thai agricultural households especially agriculturist’s competency which has been important, as partially transmitted from their ancestors, and impacted the agricultural productivity and the rate of cultivated returns on investment. Another result revealed all factors impacting cultivated operation have directly and positively influenced the successful big banana cultivation of agricultural households whether higher agricultural products targeted price and returns; increasable quantity and quality of target agricultural productivities; and their happily well-beings.  This study can be used for assessing farmers’ decision-making for cultivated investment. Pages 855 to 871

Needs Assessment of Electronics Shops in the Rinconada Area of Camarines Sur: Basis for an Extension Program

Arly B. Balingbinga, aCollege of Education, Arts and Sciences, Camarines Sur Polytechnic Colleges, Camarines Sur, Philippines, Email: aarlybalingbing@gmail.com

This study aims to determine the needs of electronics shops in the Rinconada area of Camarines Sur. It aims to determine the following: business address, capital, services offered, number of technicians with or without a national certificate, educational qualification, business permit and licenses, and number of years in business operation; the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the electronics shop in the Rinconada area; the extent of identified weaknesses that affect the operation; and the extent of the proposed program to improve the operation. The study uses descriptive quantitative research to gather data from 58 electronics shops in the Rinconada area through a questionnaire. Based on the analysis of the results statistically treated using percentage and weighted mean, a SWOT analysis was considered as a basis in the preparation of the extension program. It was found out that most of the electronics shops in the Rinconada area are operating, even though there is a lack of training and exposure to technological advancements demanded in the market and the great competition with other shops in the business centre. Based on these findings, the researcher prepared an extension program to address the needs of electronics shops in Rinconada using SWOT analysis. Thus, the researcher recommends implementing this extension program to solve the problem. Pages 872 to 889

The Impact of Speech Training with Symbolic Modelling Technique on Students’ Speech Competence

Syafryadina, Noermanzahb, Wisma Yunitac, Dian Eka Chandra Wardhanad, Reni Kusmiartie, a,b,c,dBengkulu University, Bengkulu City, Indonesia, eUniversitas Muhammadiyah Bengkulu, Bengkulu City, Indonesia, Email: asyafryadin@unib.ac.id,  bnoermanzah@unib.ac.id,  cwismayunita@unib.ac.id,  ddec.wardhana@unib.ac.id,  erenikusmiarti@umb.ac.id

This study was designed to investigate whether Speech Training with Video Modelling Technique is more effective than Speech Training with Systematic Desensitisation and ABC Model Technique, to teach speaking  for low and high anxiety students in alleviating students’ speaking anxiety and speaking competence hindrances; it was also designed  to investigate whether the students having high level anxiety have better speaking competence than the students who have low level anxiety by using Symbolic Modelling Technique, Systematic Desensitisation Technique and ABC Model Technique. This study used Solomon Three-Group design. The population of this study was all fourth semester students in the English Department of Universitas Muhammadiyah Kendari. Three classes were used as the samples of this study. The instruments of this study were speaking or a speech test, an observation checklist, an interview guideline and note taking. The data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative data were analysed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA), two ways in SPSS 22, while the qualitative data were analysed by using thematic analysis or coding.  The findings of this study were that Speech Training with symbolic Modelling Technique (A1) was more effective than Speech Training with Systematic Desensitisation Technique (A2)  and ABC Model Technique (A3) in enhancing the students speaking competence. It was proved that A1 (81.22) was higher than the students trained by using A2 (79.08) and A3 (78.15). Pages 890 to 910

Economic Literacy and Financial Studies in Higher Education: A Theoretical Approach to the Learning Model and Its Impact

Neti Budiwatia, Eeng Ahmanb, Suparnoc, a,bFaculty of Economics, Universitas pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia, cFaculty of Economics, Universitas negeri Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: anetibudiwati@upi.edu,  beengahman@upi.edu,  csuparno@feunj.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to examine economic and financial literacy in aspects of the learning process and its impact to provide a reference for effective learning. Economic literacy in Indonesia is still low, so the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Financial Services Authority, and the 2035 National Development Strategy make literacy a part of 21st-century learning and the 4.0 Industrial revolution. This research is a qualitative study using the literature study method with grounded theory, to provide concept mapping in the development of economic literacy. Literacy is an important part of individual development in economic and financial behaviour because it forms a lifestyle and future economic success. The Learning Constructivism Theory is studied comprehensively with Bruce Joyce's models of teaching. The findings of this study are that economic and financial literacy influence consumer behaviour, investment, individual welfare, and organisational performance. Economic and financial literacy learning is carried out by teaching early in the family environment, learning formally and informally; also teachers can choose and develop essential material to be applied to a family of scientific-based information processing learning models. Pages 924 to 939

Impacts upon Non-Performing Loans in Commercial Banks: A Vietnamese Case Study

Nguyen Kim Quoc Trunga*, Bui Quang Hungb, Nguyen Thanh Bec, aFaculty of Accounting – Auditing, University of Finance – Marketing, Vietnam and PhD candidate at Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, bCollege of Statistics (COS) II, Vietnam and PhD candidate at Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, cHo Chi Minh Tax Department and PhD candidate at Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Email: ankq.trung@ufm.edu.vn,  bkingsnake2310@gmail.com,  cbenguyen.01041975@gmail.com

This article examines and builds a model of the factors affecting non-performing loans in Vietnam's joint-stock commercial banks from 2009 through 2017. The theory and empirical research related to some macro and microeconomic factors affecting non-performing loans are also mentioned, in this research paper. System generalised method of moments (SGMM) is used to model the major impacts on non-performing loans. The results demonstrate two models with the following results. The first model has six statistically significant variables. The second has only five statistically significant variables. Pages 940 to 959

The Evaluation of State University Remuneration Policies for Increasing Performance

Siti Nurjanaha, Margunanib, aFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia, bFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, Email: asnurjanah@unj.ac.idbmargunani@mail.unnes.ac.id

This study evaluates remuneration at the State University of Jakarta (UNJ) in 2016. The 2008 remuneration policy is intended for all civil servants in all government agencies. This research uses an exploratory research method, with the following research sample: (1) students, consisting of diploma students - stratas one, two and three; (2) lecturers; (3) education personnel; (4) graduate students (5) the leadership of  UNJ. The SWOT (described below) analysis show that UNJ is in quadrant one. It has strong strength and opportunity as well as quadrant two, which has strength although challenges remain. Results of balance scorecard analysing show four perspectives. There is financial perspective, learning and growth perspective, internal business process perspective and customer perspective. The results of key performance index analysis generate a strategic program on each of the perspectives, adjusted with an objective strategy chosen by priority. Suggestions for UNJ involve a socialisation and system development for remuneration. Pages 960 to 973

Promoting Good Governance in Labour Relations, among Thailand’s Public Higher Education Institutions

Aree Phasansinthuwonga, Chokchai Suttawetb, a,bFaculty of Social Science & Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand, Email: aaphasansinthuwong@gmail.com,  bcsuttawet@gmail.com 

This paper studies good governance in human resource management of public higher education institutions in Thailand. It then suggests developing the labour relations system. Qualitative data were collected from in-depth interviews with 58 informants, and a focus group discussion with seven participants. Questionnaires collected quantitative data from 83 public higher education institutions. The results revealed 1) a patronage system used in every process of human resource administration in universities, and 2) human resource administration, especially as to university employees, is based on each university’s regulations. This paper suggests that guidelines for promoting good governance in such matters consist of two key mechanisms. They are a joint consultation system, by establishing a joint consultation committee of the university staff, and management representatives with roles comparable to those of a trade union in a company’s consultation body. The State should review labour relations laws, to ensure the rights of all university employees and other workers. Measures should be announced that integrate labour relations at organisational and national levels. The universities should practically promote the roles of lecturers and staff council as a workers’ democratic organisation, to negotiate and consult with management. Pages 974 to 990

The Development of Public Policy and Administration on Social Security in ASEAN: A Case Study of Social Insurance for Thai Migrant Workers

Wilailak Yoosamrana, Chokchai Suttawetb, a,bFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand,

This research was aimed at studying the development of public policy and social security administration, including the study of operational conditions and problems of protecting social insurance benefits for Thai migrant workers working abroad (Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei) along with developing schemes and guidelines on protecting social insurance benefits for such migrants. This study was a mixed-method research that employed concurrent procedures using a qualitatively-driven core component coupled with the simultaneous QUAL+quan method. Qualitative data were collected using in-depth interviews with 55 key informants and focus groups with 30 Thai migrant workers in Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei. Quantitative data were collected from 275 Thai migrant workers working in those three countries by using questionnaires. The results revealed that development of social security protection policy and administration for migrant workers in ASEAN had no clear measures for cooperation between ASEAN member countries. In the meantime, work conditions and problems of the social insurance protection for Thai migrant workers were found to have numerous limitations, especially on the topic of benefits, which were usually short-term benefits, including obstacles imposed by different countries. This created inferior treatments for Thai migrant workers as compared to the country own citizens. Regarding protection schemes and social security benefit protection guidelines for Thai migrant workers who work abroad, unilateral measures of Thailand or the country of origin had the highest suitability and likelihood of implementation, followed by bilateral measures of countries in dispute and multilateral measures in the name of ASEAN. Pages 991 to 1012

Development of an Investability Prospect Score in Indonesia: Early Stage Digital Startup

Deny Rahardjoa, Sugiartob, Gracia Shinta S. Ugutc, Edison Hulud, aDoctoral Program, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Indonesia, bFaculty member of Universitas Prasetiya Mulya, Indonesia, cDean of Business School, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Indonesia, dLecturer, Graduate School, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Indonesia. Email: aDR70020@student.uph.edubProf.sugiarto@gmail.comcgracia.ugut@uph.edudedison.hulu@lecturer.uph.edu

Research shows that radical innovation is more likely to come from smaller companies such as ‘startups’. Startup is drawing a lot of attention given the growth potential for both entrepreneurs and investors. One of the most challenging aspects in this venture is the investability readiness level of the startup as it is difficult to assess the usual financial aspect such as cash flow in the initial loss-making company with no or limited financial data. The authors developed an Investability Prospect Score (IPS) based on a similar approach from Altman’s Z-score by using a Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA) method. Responses to questionnaires from a cross sectional online survey were then used to identify factors such as industry structure, product readiness, founders’ background and management structure, financial robustness and risk management towards investment readiness in Indonesia and the early stage digital startups ecosystem. The contribution aspect of this article is to provide a structured approach in identifying the readiness status of startup for investment. This could also be used as additional determinants towards a valuation model such as real options which is deemed to be more suitable in dealing with the flexibility and uncertain nature of digital startups. Pages 1013 to 1038

Evaluating the Role of a University in the Development of a “Pedestrian Walk” In Palembang

Muhammad Juliansyah Putraa, Bambang Hermantob, Bukman Lianc, a,bUniversitas Padjajaran, Indonesia, cUniversitas PGRI Palembang, Indonesia, Email: ajuliansyah.pgri@gmail.com,  bbambang.hermanto@unpad.ac.id,  cdrbukmanlian@univpgri-palembang.ac.id

Palembang City is the capital of South Sumatra Province which has great potential for the development of tourism. Geographically Palembang City is divided by the Musi River into two parts, the crossing of Ilir in the north and the opposite of ulu in the south. There is Ampera Bridge which is the icon of Palembang City in the middle of these two regions. This paper was qualitative. The paper evaluated the role of Universitas PGRI Palembang as a stakeholder for the development of the “pedestrian walk” in Palembang and it was analysed through the dimensions of Context, Input, Process, and Product. The evaluation concluded that collaboration of Universitas PGRI Palembang with the government continues and public trust for the Universitas PGRI Palembang is increasing. Pages 1039 to 1055

The Effect of Service Quality in an Indonesian hospital: Patient Satisfaction in a Coastal Emergency Department

Amaliyah Ardilaha, Vien Anggarani Prasetyanab, Aulia Ramadhanic, Windhu Purnomod*, a,bGraduate Student of Policy and Health Administration Department, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia. cStaff of Dental Public Health Department, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, dDepartment of Biostatistics and Population, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia. Email: d*purno.win20@gmail.com

Health workers are directed to provide services that fulfil high standards for improving public health. Poor service quality can affect the number of patient visits, because the level of patient satisfaction is determined by the quality of service components available. The hospital is one of the health service providers in which there are health service units such as an emergency room. The Emergency Department provides patient care first, then triage is performed. Objective: This study aims to reveal the quality of service to patient satisfaction in the Hospital Emergency Department. Method: The study design used a cross sectional study design. The study sample was 118 respondents. Data collection involved questionnaires and data analysis with chi-square. Results: The results showed that the overall service dimension, namely the suitability between tangible quality, reliability, responsiveness, assurances, and empathy to patient satisfaction with a P-value of 0.000. Conclusion: The quality of service has a significant effect on patient satisfaction at the Hospital Emergency Installation. Pages 1056 to 1066

The Availability of Quality Assurance Standards in the Curricula of Basic Education Colleges

Ali Abdul Karim Al-Saffara, Qasim Ismailb, Haider Hatem Falih AL.ijrishc, aScientific supervision and evaluation device, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Iraq, bDiyala University College of Basic Education, Iraq, cCollege of Basic Education, Babylon University, Iraq,

Determining  the statistically significant differences between the averages of  responses of  categories of the study sample (specialists, specialists in  educational departments, supervisors, and supervisors in  teaching  Arabic ) on the importance of comprehensive quality standards for educational decisions that are attributed to gender. Setting a general concept for adopting the comprehensive quality system for educational curricula for students of the Faculty of Arabic Language at Umm Al-Qura University in each  previously identified field. Pages 1067 to 1080

Factors Affecting Creative Accounting Practices and Means Used to Limit their Effect on the Credibility of Financial Statements

Alaa Miran Husseina, Hayder Oudah Kadhimb*, Raheem Abed Mohammadc, aAssistant Lecturer, Collage of Management and Economics, University of Al-Qadisiayah, Iraq, bLecturer, Collage of Management and Economics, University of Al-Qadisiayah, Iraq, cAssistant lectures, Karbala Technical Institute, Al-Furat Al-AwsatTechnical University, Karbal, Iraq, Email: aalla.miran@qu.edu.iq,  b*hadeir.saidy@qu.edu.iq,  cinkr.rah@atu.edu.iq

The research aims to study the foundations of knowledge for creative accounting and factors influencing their practices and means. These means are used to reduce the effect of these practices on the credibility of the data contained in the financial statements of Iraqi government banks.  Two main hypotheses were formulated. To test these two research hypotheses, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to a sample of accountants and auditors working in Iraqi government banks. The research concluded that the factors chosen as indicators in the practices of creative accounting in Iraqi government banks had a significant effect and this effect varied from one paragraph to another. In addition, the means or methods that have been tested, had a significant effect on reducing or preventing the practices of creative accounting and minimising their impact on the credibility of the data contained in financial statements. Pages 1082 to 1100

The Violation of the Principle of Equality in the Iraqi Penal Code

Mazin Khalaf Nasera, aDepartment of public law - Criminal Law Al-Mustansiriyah University- College of Law- Iraq, Email: aDr.mazin.khalaf@gmail.com

The concept of criminal equality is highly associated with the development of criminal law function; it has acquired a new concept that goes in line with the diversity of methods and objectives of criminal law. Equality is no more referring to only that kind of solid equality which is limited to criminalisation and punishment, but its content has expanded to include, in addition to punishment, social qualification by seeking to achieve best methods of reforming and qualifying the convicted in order to redress him, which leads us to think that not achieving equality in some cases is, in fact, the achievement of its real equality. The legislator made it sure to set many guarantees that achieve equality in criminal law, but there are cases that depart from the equality principle in criminal law which the legislator did not interfere in or fix. This raises the questions about the reasons why he corrects some cases of equality violation in order to achieve specific considerations that can be justified in specific cases and cannot in others. Violation of the principle of equality in some cases can be intentionally acceptable for the legislator to achieve particular purposes, and it can happen unintentionally, which would be unacceptable in other cases. Pages 1101 to 1109

The Visual Language of Photomontage in the Works of El Lissitzky

Darraji Khalid Fakhir Abdullaha, Mamonova Victoria Alexandrovnab, a,bSaint-Petersburg State University of Industrial Technologies and Design, Russian Federation, Email: akhalidfnon@yahoo.com,  bvict.mamonova@gmail.com

El Lissitzky's talents diversified into many artistic fields including graphic design, drawing and photography, making him one of the most important artists in the avant-garde field. The theoretical and visual works of Lissitzky presented to us during his short life encompass various styles facilitating the use of technologies, including the use of photomontage. This article concentrates on analysing the artist's works in the 20th century, by reading his theoretical texts published in the avant-garde magazines of the period and through analysis of his visual works. Based on the results, the diversity of visual messages and speeches is highlighted in his works, specifically through the use of photomontage techniques. Pages 1110 to 1123

Motivation and the Millennial Generation

Aris Setiyania, Ahmad Sutawijayab, Lenny Ch Nawangsaric, Setyo Riyantod, Endri Endrie, a,b,c,d,eDoctoral Management, Universitas Mercu Buana, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: asetiyani.aris@gmail.com,  bahsuta69@gmail.com,  clenny.nawangsari@gmail.com,   dsetyoriyanto@gmail.com,  eendri@mercubuana.ac.id

This fast changing world increases competition in the business world and is linked with the increase in technology. The modern company strives to find new sustainable alternatives so that it can sustain business, especially concerning its human resources. The purpose of this study is to see whether 3 variables, namely employer branding, compensation and flexible working hours, can increase employee motivation. Employee motivation is essential so that the company's vision can be achieved. As the workforce has begun to be filled with generations of millennials it is not easy to maintain employees. From the results of this study, it was found that compensation, employer branding and flexible working hours can increase employee motivation. Of the three variables, flexible working hours have the biggest loading factor, the second is compensation, and the last is employer branding. After we know that flexible working hours can motivate employees, it is hoped that the human resources department can consider whether this can be implemented in the modern company. Pages 1124 to 1136

Development of Batik Crafts using Natural Colourants Mixed with Cow Powder in Bantul, Special Region of Yogyakarta

aRahmawati Rahmawati, bSoenarto Soenarto, cFitri Susilowati, dSarah Rum Handayani, eArdi Gunardi*, aUniversitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia, bUniversitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia, cUniversitas PGRI Yogyakarta, Indonesia, dUniversitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia, eUniversitas Pasundan, Indonesia, *Email: ardigunardi@unpas.ac.id

Batik is a feature product in Bantul Regency, which is a special region of Yogyakarta. batik has the unique characteristics of using natural dye and has been marketed overseas as an export commodity. Batik Small to Medium Enterprises (SME) in Bantul have now developed their own unique motifs and have increased their technological capabilities. Amid the booming batik industry which a key feature is theuse of synthetic colour materials, one of Batik SMEs in Bantul, ‘UKM Batik Wongso’, still maintains the use of natural dyes, derived from plants and animals. This paper will discuss the implementation of science and technology in the batik production service includes discussion, workshop/studio work, factory operations, training and mentoring (groups and individuals). Training activities are carried out with assistance both individually, and within groups to be able to improve management aspects, which have been carried out conventionally. The application of science in mixing natural colourant and cow bone powder and the innovation of mordan basin, slide basin and other production enhancements that can improve efficiency, production quality and capacity will also be discussed and analysed. They will be discussed particularly with relevance to the ability to meet export demands, increase the assets and turnover of SMEs, which will have an impact on improving people's welfare. Pages 1137 to 1156

Vulnerability of Stock Returns and the effects of Covid-19: An Event Study from the Energy Sector of USA

Hafiz Waqas Kamrana, Muhammad Atif Nawazb, Muhammad Rizwan Ullahc, aAssistant Professor, Faculty of Business Administration, Iqra University, Karachi, Pakistan, bSenior Lecturer, Department of Economics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan, cLyallpur Business School, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan, Email: ahafiz.waqas@iqra.edu.pk,  batif.nawaz.baloch@gmail.com,  cmrizwanullah77@gmail.com

The outbreak of COVID-19 creates serious distress for the world economy due to an increasing economic, financial and health related response to the pandemic. The purpose of this paper is to examine the reaction of the energy sector in the USA toward the outbreak of COVID-19, which reportedly began on 20th January, 2020 (event day). This study uses a sample of 33 listed firms from the energy sector of USA during the period of January 2019 to March 2020, with daily observations. The reaction of the stock return is observed through event study methodology while calculating the cumulative average abnormal return (CAAR). The study findings show that out of 33 sampled firms, only five significantly reacted against the outbreak of COVID-19 on the event day, whereas for the first event window (-3,3) the stock return (CAAR) for the ten energy firms is found to be statistically significant (in normality assumption), providing that only 30.30% sample firms are reacting against this pandemic. The results of this research would be of reasonable support to industry experts, investors and other stakeholders while making some strategic decisions on the basis of disease outbreaks and trends in stocks return, specifically in the energy sector. As an extension to this research, expanding the regional boundaries, sample period, and adding those firm-related variables which may serve as risk mitigating factors against disease epidemics and stock return relationship would provide a good output. Pages 1157 to 1174

Public Attitudes towards News Processing of Events and Events of Basra Governorate in Iraqi Satellite Channels

Mohsen Glob Alkanania, Alaa Jasab Ajeel Al-Abd Alaalib, a University of Baghdad, bMiddle Technical University / College of Applied Arts,

The crisis of the demonstrations in the province of Basra, which began on 8/7/2018, was one of the most prominent events that preoccupied the Iraqi media in general, and satellite channels in particular, as this event was the focus of media attention, despite the divergence of views on it. As part of their efforts to interact with this event, satellite channels worked to provide a variety of press treatments that dealt with its various aspects. The follow-up of news by satellite channels processing this event noted that it was represented in three levels: the first level of adoption, promotion and amplification of the event; the second with the event, impartially, and; the third level is ignored and passed by. This research attempts to find out the public's attitudes toward this news processing provided by Iraqi satellite channels for this event and crisis. The importance of this research is attached to the increasing attention to this crisis. The research aims to monitor and analyse the exposure of the sample to the media messages in all its forms and contents, which were broadcast by the Iraqi satellite channels concerning the crisis, and to monitor and analyse the direction of sample count. We look for the news processing of the Iraqi satellite channels for the Basra demonstrations. This research is based on correlational research and uses the analytical survey method. The researchers designed a three-dimensional measure consisting of gradients. The researchers used the statistical methods of repetitions, simple percentages, relative weight, arithmetic mean, standard deviation and the Pearson correlation coefficient. The relationship between the educational level of the researchers and the sample towards the treatment of Iraqi satellite channels for this crisis was reached.  Findings reveal the existence of a weak positive relationship between the intensity of the subject's exposure to the news processing channels (the cognitive effect) and (emotional impact) and a very strong positive relationship between the intensity of exposure of the subject to the treatment of the news of demonstrations and events of Basra by Iraqi satellite channels and between the sample trends towards this crisis (the behavioural impact). Pages 1175 to 1190

Analysis of Regulations Gap Related to Village Funds in Indonesia

Mailinda Eka Yunizaa, Muhammad Jibrilb, Fajar Muhammad Nashihc, a,b,cFaculty of Law Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Sosio Yustisia No. 1, Bulaksumur, Kab. Sleman, D.I. Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia, Email: amailinda@ugm.ac.id,  bmuhjibril.law@gmail.com,  cfajarnashih@gmail.com

The Jokowi Government launched the Village Fund program in 2014. The village fund aims to equalise village development and improve the welfare of village communities. Although in terms of the amount of funds distributed the fund increases every year, research shows that the use of village funds has not been effective. This paper analyses regulatory gaps on village funds, believed to be one of the sources causing ineffectiveness in the implementation of village funds. The type of research used is evaluative research. This paper found that there are several problems faced by existing regulations, namely: contradictory provisions among regulations regarding the village fund, regulations are scattered and easy to change, and the shift of paradigm toward the expected use of the village fund. At the end of this paper, several recommendations are given to improve the existing village fund regulations. Pages 1191 to 1207

Assertion and Negation: Restrictions on the occurrence of the post-verbal Enclitic –š in Jordanian Arabic

Imran Alrashdana, Essa Salemb, Mohd Nour Al Salemc, a,b,cThe University of Jordan, Email: ai.alrashdan@ju.edu.jo,  bes.salem@ju.edu.jo,  cmo.alsalem@ju.edu.jo

This paper accounts for the complementary distribution found in Jordanian Arabic between the post-verbal negative enclitic –š and elements from two categories: (i) expressions used, prima facie, in oaths such as wħyaatabooy 'by my father' and (ii) Negative Sensitive Items (NSIs), particularly when they occur in a preverbal position. The study shows that these elements from the two categories have one characteristic in common, i.e. assertivity. The use of either category asserts the positive or negative value of the accompanying proposition. We argue that such assertive operators are similar in function to the post-verbal negative enclitic–š which is also assumed to have an assertive function. The account of the complementary distribution of either category with –š is that both compete for the same position (at LF), namely Assertive Projection (AssP). Pages 1208 to 1235

Pire Teu in the Native Society of Dai Mau Enga Nanga Aewora Ende Regency

Zainur Wulaa, aFaculty of Social Science and Political Science, University of Muhammadiyah Kupang, Email: awulazainur@gmail.com,  zainur_wula@yahoo.com

This study aimed to understand the pire teu culture in the native society of dai mau enga nanga in Aewora, Ende Regency. The study was qualitative and data were collected through observation and in-depth interviews with snowball sampling to obtain appropriate informants. Pire teu (abstinence/taboo from rats) is one of the cultures in native society of mau enga nanga which becomes one of the rituals prior to the growing season and started with the jengi soko ceremony (burning green weeds) and pire teu. Pire teu is conducted in 3 consecutive days, the first day is called pire teu (abstinence from the whole body of rat), the second day is called pire ngii teu (abstinence from rat teeth), and the third day is called pire tai teu (abstinence from rat droppings). The customary sanctions imposed to those who violate the rules of the first day pire teu are adjusted to the religions and beliefs, for Catholics, the fine for the first day violation is two (2) pigs weighing two people who carried it (bei rua), while for Muslims, it is goats weighing two people who carried it (bei rua). The second and third penalties for the offender, who is catholic, is one pig weighing one person who carried it (sabei) and for a muslim one goat weighing one person who carried it (sabei). The bill of pire teu is not only about restraint, prohibition, and sanctions imposed by violators, but it also has religious-magical value and spirituality in maintaining close relationships between humans, their environment and Almighty God, and the fear of the community that they will get the damage if violating the rules, either failure in harvesting crops, crops damaged by rats, or even death. Pages 1236 to 1248

Top Management Positions in the Airline Industry: The Role of Gender Differences

Sanhakot Vithayaporna, aFaculty of Business and Technology,

Stamford International University, Thailand,

E-mail: aSanhakot.vithayaporn@stamford.edu

The objective of this study is to determine the role of gender and to examine the impact of gender on leadership roles in top management positions in the airline industry. This article focuses on airline industry management concepts in order to discuss the role of gender diversity. In the methodology, a qualitative research method with case studies and a documentation analysis technique was used, which involved collecting and analysing data obtained from more than 50 articles discussed in the literature review. Furthermore, two informal interviews with human resources managers were conducted for an examination of the recruitment of women’s representation in the leadership roles of top management positions. Gender role theory was applied to examine the role of gender in predicting top management positions. As a result, the article reveals important empirical data on gender and managerial perspectives regarding the hiring of females for top management positions to run companies, the broader culture of gender equality, and the elimination of gendered job promotion inequality. The implications of this study are related with the investigation of airline business management literature, through the lens of those in top management positions, and the role of gender in the relationship between the airline industry and leadership. The academic perspective is also discussed using gender role theory through academic literature. Conclusions are then summarised, and suggestions for further research are also provided. Pages 1249 to 1263

Spiritual Education of Syekh Muhammad Arsyad Al Banjari's: Implications for Religious Character Education

Jarkawia, Edris Zamronib*, Akhmad Rizki Ridhanic, a,cUniversitas Islam Kalimantan Muhammad Arsyad Al Banjari, bUniversitas Muria Kudus, Email: ajarkawi.uniska@gmail.comb*edris.zamroni@umk.ac.id

Sheikh Muhammad Arsyad Al Banjari is a scholar who has extensive and in-depth knowledge, he gives a lot of thoughts and views in educating the people; until now his thoughts remain in the local, regional, national and even international community. The view of Sheikh Muhammad Arsyad Al Banjari: Education is a learning process to educate the community, so that people avoid ignorance. This article aims to describe the perspective of spiritual and religious education of Sheikh Muhammad Arsyad Al Banjari. The method used is descriptive qualitative with the hermenuetic method. The results found that the focus of Sheikh Muhammad Arsyad Al Banjari's education was to overcome the weakness of faith, and to make a prosperous society physically and mentally, save the world and the hereafter with a group and assembly learning system, observance of worship, building self-awareness through strategy and education bil hal, bil lisan and bil kitab. Pages 1264 to 1281

Regulatory Focus and Employee Creativity: The Role of Individual Participation and Intellectual Stimulation

Jovi Sulistiawana*, Dian Ekowatib, Poppy Sagita Putric, a,b,cDepartment of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Email: a*jovisulistiawan@feb.unair.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to examine how regulatory focus, which consists of promotion and prevention, affects individual creativity and how the interaction effect between two contextual factors, intellectual stimulation and individual participation, will strengthen the effect of promotion focus to individual creativity. Employees in a radio station were used as our respondents with total 142 respondents. The authors tested the hypothesis by using hierarchical regression analysis and moderated regression analysis in order to test the moderating effect of intellectual stimulation and individual participation. The results of this study showed that promotion focus is positively related to creativity, whilst prevention focus is negatively related to creativity. Our interesting findings was only intellectual stimulation has a moderate effect on promotion focus and creativity. Pages 1282 to 1298

The Effects of Organisational Support on SMEs’ Perceived Performance: The Role of Human Resource Development, Innovation, and Information Technology

Chanongkorn Kuntonbutra, Natnarong Jaturusb, Manfred Kulkenc, a,bRajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Thanyaburi, Pathumtani, Thailand, cWestfalische Hochschule Gelsenkirchen Bocholt Recklinghausen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, Email: achanongkorn_k@rmutt.ac.th, bnatnarong@rmutt.ac.th

This quantitative study clarifies how organisational support and the adoption of information technology (IT) can impact a firm’s performance. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) operating in industries were investigated. This paper focuses on human resources development and information technology, each of which mediate. Structural Equation Modelling explains multivariable effects. Our findings reveal that both organisational support and IT do influence firms’ performance, through human resources development in SMEs. The crucial measurement of the impacts is innovation arising from human resources development within these firms. Pages 1299 to 1314

A Supervision Model for Enhancing Private School Teacher Competency in English Language Learning Management

Patchanee Daensenaa, Tharinthorn Namwanb, a,bFaculty of Education, Maha Sarakham University, Email: apook1975_@hotmail.com,  btharinthorn.n@gmail.com

This research has two purposes. They are 1) to develop a Supervision Model for enhancing English language learning management, of private school teachers; and 2) to study the results of applying that model. The findings revealed the supervision model which consists of six elements: (1) principles; (2) objectives; (3) content; (4) a process consisting of planning, conducting supervision, reflecting self-learning management, and supervision evaluation; (5) an evaluation of the model; and (6) conditions for success. The results of the supervision model comprise appropriateness, possibility, and usefulness at the highest level. Applying the model gave the following five results: (1) the knowledge and understanding of teachers in English language learning management of private school teachers tested higher than before the supervision was provided; (2) the design of lesson plans by the supervising teachers was higher than before the supervision; also, teachers gained more knowledge; (3) the teachers' satisfaction towards supervision, when enhancing English was of the highest level, overall; (4) overall, assessment of students' opinions on English language learning was at the highest level; and (5) the results of suitability, possibility, and usefulness evaluation of the supervision model were at the highest level, overall. Pages 1315 to 1336

Intrapreneurial Behaviour of Employees in the Era of Transformative Marketing: A Multidisciplinary Approach

Nagina Kanwala, Muhammad Farooqb, Valliappan Rajuc, Temoor Anjumd, Aneeqa Zreene, a,b,c,d,eLimkokwing University of Creative Technology, Malaysia, Email: anks_qureshi@hotmail.com,  bfarooq.buzdar2@gmail.com,  cvalliappan.raju@limkokwing.edu.my,  dtamooranjum@yahoo.com,  eZreen.aniqa@gmail.com

Improving company performance is the top priority of every executive. Before digitalisation and globalisation, the increase in assets and financial performance were counted as top indicators of  company performance. However, innovation as well as understanding and meeting customer performance are considered top priority for companies today. This era has been named as the period of transformative marketing. In transformative marketing, companies are required to transform themselves with changes in the business landscape. These changes are dependent on employees. Only  highly motivated and entrepreneurial  employees can help  companies in this transformation. The transformation is not routine  and  employees cannot be formally pushed to participate. Transformation needs the highest level of employee involvement  . Therefore, this study uses a multidisciplinary approach suggesting a framework for improvement of company performance in the era of transformative marketing. The study concludes that  transformative marketing and entrepreneurial behaviour of employees can result in better company performance. Future researchers are recommended to use this framework and validate it across various cultures.  Pages 1337 to 1353

Creativity in the Performance of University Professors and its Relationship towards the Profession

Ali Jarad Yousefa, aCollege of Education for Girls, University of Kufa, Iraq, Email: aalij.yusuf@uokufa.edu.iq

This research aims to identify the level of creativity in the scientific performance of University professors and its relationship towards the profession according to the variables of specialisation (medicine- engineering - agriculture - pure - social - human) and gender (male-female), while  the researcher has prepared a measure of creativity in scientific performance and inclination towards the profession.  By using appropriate statistics, the research obtained the following results: (University professors have a satisfactory level of creativity in scientific performance, and there is no statistically significant difference according to the variable of type, specialisation and bilateral interactions, as the University professors feel positive tendencies towards their professions. There is no difference based on  the variable of type  and bilateral interactions except for a  difference in favour of specialisation and specialisation (engineering),  also showing a significant positive statistical correlation  between creativity and tendencies. Pages 1354 to 1370

Using Modern Cost Techniques in Achieving Competitive Advantage: An Empirical Study in Iraqi Industrial Companies

Aqeel Shamkhi Jebur Al Bdairia, Hayder Oudah Kadhimb, Mayida Hasan Madhi Mnaa AL -Graitic, aMinistry of education the general directorate of dewaniya education Iraq, bDepartment of Accounting College of Management and Economics, cAl-Furat Al- Awsat Technical University Babylon Technical Institute, Iraq, Email: aaqeel.shmke39@gmail.com,  bhadier.saidy@gu.edg.ig,  cmayda@atu.edu.iq

In light of the rapid changes and successive developments that have accompanied the modern era, the business environment has faced many challenges, including growing intensity of competition.  Iraqi industrial economic units suffer from numerous  problems, the most important of which are high costs and low quality of  products as well as increase in the duration  of design, manufacturing, assembly and marketing in addition to  lack of adequate flexibility  in response to the needs and desires of customers. Despite these problems, there are several administrative and cost techniques that will help solve these challenges. The most important of these techniques is value analysis and concurrent engineering. Value analysis focuses on improving project or product performance and analysing the start of its components down to its functions in order to exclude jobs that do not add value from the customer's perspective. Competitive advantage either refers to characterising the economic unit to any item unique to competitors in the market, and it can be achieved if you follow this unit to any strategy aimed at achieving a competitive advantage. Concurrent engineering technique focuses on conducting simultaneous product design in addition to synchronisation in the manufacturing and assembly operations in order to achieve savings in design, manufacturing and associated costs. Competitive advantage refers to characterising the company to any item unique to competitors. Pages 1371 to 1388

The Pragmatics of Truth and Fact: Mind Realisations and Knowledge   Manifestations

Wasan Abdali Ateeiy Al Khafijya, Nuha Hussein Kndooh Alismaelb, Khalid Hwaer Shamsc, a,bUniversity of Al-Qadisiyah, College of Education, Dept. of Arabic Language, cUniversity of Thiqar, College of Arts, Dept. of Arabic Language, Email: aWasan.abdali@qu.edu.iq,  bnuhaa.hussin@qu.edu.iq,  cKhaled.Hewair@uta.edu.iq

The paper discusses a dichotomy that some scholars consider as a concept, and they lay the limitations for it, while others consider it as a problem that should be solved through setting up certain differences between truth and fact, and how they will be understood in texts. The paper aims to tackle these two concepts by analysing them pragmatically, since it will refer to the context of semantic meanings relating to the conditions of use in the text, the psychological dimension of the author, and the effect of the text on the receiver, which makes the poetic text the field of application. This paper is an attempt to discuss the stages of realising these concepts in an Arabic mind and how the cognitive awareness develops. The research includes three readings: the first is the concept of truth and fact and the differences between them. The second reading is the cognitive realisation of an Arabic mind, and the third one is the poetic gift and the effect of culture on it. Pages 1389 to 1396

Expiry of the Interim Bank - An Analytical Study

Ahmed Hamid Abdul Hassana, Huda Sadoon Laftab, Hussein Obai Shawatc*, aImam Jaafar Sadiq University, Iraq, b,cAl-Qadissiya University College of Law, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq, Email: c*Hussein.ali@qu.edu

This summary looks at the interim bank which, according to the provisions of the Iraqi bank 94 for the year 2004, was the most important means of rehabilitating the faltering private banks. This kind of reserve now has its own medicine, which differs from the other banks stipulated by the Iraqi banks in terms of the establishment and in terms of Sunset. What concerns us in our study of the subject is the expiry of the bank in progress, as the bank in question ends normally by either carrying out its tasks, which is rehabilitating the troubled private bank and returning it to normal, or finalising the expiry of the specified period under the law. It is set to be three years in any case. The other way to finish the bank is to close the progress bank, based on the impossibility of implementation, where in some cases the administrators of the interim bank consider that it is impossible for them to carry out the duty assigned to them, which is to rehabilitate the troubled private bank, as well as to end it by a decision of the Minister of Finance at any stage of rehabilitation. We will therefore address this research on the expiry of the interim bank and reach several conclusions and proposals. Pages 1397 to 1406

The Validity of Technical Work in the Legal Protection Prescribed to an Artist

Aqeel Sarhan Mohammeda, aLaw College, Al-Qadisiyah University, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Iraq,

The legal protection order for this work depends not only on the validity of the physical characteristics of the work, but is also related to the integrity of the physical integration of the work of art, which is intended to bring the art work in the same position produced by the artist without change, restoration or amputation in the physical construction of this work, considering the integrity of the work. A fundamental element in the validity of that work, and in this context, the Court of Versailles ruled in its decision summarising its summary that someone had bought a painting signed by the artist entitled "Popular Celebration" and after the painting was examined during the exhibition and with the beginning of the auction. Pages 1407 to 1418

The Interests Considered from the Placement Decision

Hayder Hasan Shatawia, aAl-Muthanna University College of Law 2020, Email: adr.hayder1985@gmail.com

The research of the Iraqi legislator in the laws of the civil service, as the specific legal provisions of the decision of placement, are scattered between laws and regulations. The competent authority to amend the laws, which is undoubtedly the legislative authority, represented by the House of Representatives in Iraq, must draw up legal texts. In the Civil Service Act, placement, and the mechanism of doing so, are specified for fear of abuse of the administration with its discretion in placement, considering that the basic law for the functional service. Pages 1419 to 1430

Differences in Religious Understanding and Social Integration

Ahmad Sarbinia, aUniversitas Islam Negeri, Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung, Indonesia, Email: aahmadsarbini@uinsgd.ac.id

The complexity of different religious understanding in society, especially among the Islamic community, is considered as an undeniable reality. This complexity has influenced their social relationship, including their social integration. This research is intended to describe and formulate empirical evidence about the dynamic reality of social relationships in one society which is various in religious ideology espoused. This study utilised the explorative-comparative method because the primary goal of this study is to get an objective and actual description of the research variables. Then, the variables were compared and contrasted with clear differences and similarities as well as the characteristics of religious understanding, response to different religious understanding, and social integration reflected in types of interactions of each group of participants. This integration is reflected in their forms of social relationship, especially in communication, humanitarian cooperation and social solidarity, love and affection, and tolerance in social life. Functionally, the phenomenon of different religious understanding in society had a positive relationship with social integration. The study contributes to providing a model of social integration that can be used as a guideline for social life where society has a different religious understanding background to develop harmony in society. Pages 1431 to 1448

The Impact of Virtual Enterprise on Sustaining an Agile Manufacturing System

Mahmood Fahad  Abd Alia, Emad Wahabb, Amjed Hameed Majeedc, a,bCollege of Administration and Economics Karbalah University, Iraq, cAl Mustaqbal University College/  Al hilla, Email: amahmod.fahad@Uokerbala.edu.iq,  bEmadwahab54@yahoo.com,  cAmjed_hasoon@yahoo.com, Amjed_hameed@mustaqbal-college.edu.iq    

The main objective of this study is to identify the nature of the relationship between Virtual enterprise and agile manufacturing systems. It proposes modelling the dimensions of virtual enterprise which could impact sustaining an agile manufacturing system. The research targets elaborate  the field of virtual enterprise by encompassing a wide range of virtual dimensions to find  the best variable which  has a significant impact on AGs. study  uses  an investigative approach through  a questionnaire approach, including 100 respondents. The data is processed using  statistical analysis, including descriptions of analysing processes, and copies of scientific  articles. The research offers experimental visions into how the dimension of virtual enterprise influences the sustaining of an agile manufacturing system. It highlights that there is a positive and  significant relationship amongst variables. In addition, there are  production capabilities such as information sharing which has a higher correlation with AGS. Due to  the chosen study approach,  the results cannot be popularised. Hence, researchers are encouraged to further test the proposed propositions. The article contains implications for the choice of virtual enterprise dimensions that could sustain an agile manufacturing system. This article  determines the need to examine how virtual enterprise can contribute to the sustainment of an agile manufacturing system. Pages 1449 to 1469

The Diasporic Home of the Displaced Youth in Susan Abulhawa’s ‘Mornings in Jenin’

Riham Alhadhouda, Deema Ammarib*, a,bUniversity of Jordan, Email: b*deemaammari@yahoo.co.uk

This paper explores the question of a diasporic home as pertaining to the younger members of diaspora; why the displaced youth’s perception of home diverges from that of the older generation, and what understandings of various home experiences in the diaspora lead the displaced youth to. To address these questions the experiences of different generations projected in Susan Abulhawa’s ‘Mornings in Jenin’, with specific focus on Amal the protagonist’s journey, will bring to light a new scope for post-colonial studies. The paper investigates the main dimensions that play vital roles in deciding the younger displaced subject’s degree of attachment to or detachment from both people and places. It concludes that one’s belonging depends solely on the circumstantial journey within the wider frame of diaspora, which leads the young diasporic family member to question the projected image of home and construct their own subjective one. A feminist dimension will be added, thus fixating the study particularly on dislocated women, and how their resilience becomes their urgency to create, from within their bodies, authentic perceptions that transcend the geographic allocation of a home. Pages 1470 to 1486

Effect of Training and Development on the Turnover Intentions of Faculty Members in Universities of Pakistan

Altaf Hussain*1, Nazim Ali2, Asghar Ali3, Itbar Khan4, Mohib Ullah5, Mohammad Hanif Khan6, 1,2Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce and Management Sciences, University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 3,4Assistant professor, Department of Education, University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 5Assistant Professor, IBL, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pabbi, Campus, 6Assistant Professor, Department of Tourism and Hotel Management, University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Email: 1altafhussain@uom.edu.pk, 2nazimali100@yahoo.com, 3asghar5290100@yahoo.com, 4itbarkhan@uom.edu.pk, 5muhib@awkum.edu.pk, 6hanifyousafzai@uom.edu.pk

The study investigated the effect of training and development (T&D) on the turnover intention of faculty members in public sector universities in Pakistan. A questionnaire was administered for collecting data from 306 from university teachers. Confirmatory factor analysis, using structural equation modeling (SEM), was applied to validate the relationships among the variables.The findings showed that T&D are vital for improving the knowledge, skills, and abilities of the academic staff, and equally reducing staff turnover intentions. Moreover, the research highlighted that all the three dimensions of T&D- professed availability of training, motivation to learn from training, and professed benefits of training were statistically significant with turnover intention, hence confirming the findings of the earlier studies on the topic.  Moreover, the findings confirm social exchange theory. The implications of the study for stakeholders have been given. Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan has provided T&D programs to the faculty at universities for improving the KSAs of faculty members; however, the amount of research available to know the views of faculty members regarding T&D programs is equal to naught. Therefore, little is known about the nature of T&D programs directly from the viewpoint of the faculty members. Pages 1487 to 1510



The Role of Construction of Learning Models: Analysis of Learning Outcomes and Student Competencies

Aditya Pratamaa*, Christian Wiradendi Wolorb, Mardic, Nadya Fadillah Fidhyallahd, Hengky Pramusintoe, a,b,c,dFaculty of Economics, Jakarta State University, Jakarta, eSemarang State University, Semarang, Email: a*adityapratama@unj.ac.id

This experimental research with quasi-experimental design investigates the achievement of competencies and student learning outcomes through the role of learning models. Construction in the learning model acts as an important prerequisite for achieving competence in accounting. The samples of this study were all students of SMK Negeri 40 Jakarta. Samples were taken using the Non-Equivalent Control Group Design technique. The results of testing the requirements analysis state that in the normality test the two classes are normally distributed. Homogeneity data variance test results are homogeneous. Hypothesis testing results indicate that: 1. Obtained, t-count of 2.955 with t-table of 1.667 means there is an influence in the cooperative learning model Type Numbered Head Together (NHT) on learning outcomes. 2. The competency of students in trading company accounting practicums with special journal material increases. Based on the results of the test model, using the learning model has an impact on improving learning outcomes and on increasing the competence of trade accounting practicums. Pages 1 to 12




Does the Age of Islamic Banks Matter? A Case Study of Pakistan

Ali Burhan Khana, Misbah Noreenb, Ehsan Ul Hassanc, Ammara Sarward, Most. Asikha Aktare, Muhammad Hatimf*, Furrakh Abbasg, a,bPhD. Scholar, School of Economics, Finance and Banking University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, cPhD. School of Economics, Finance and Banking University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, dPhD. Scholar, Lahore School of Accountancy and Finance The University of Lahore, Pakistan, eAssistant Professor, Department of Economics Comilla University, Bangladesh, fPhD. Scholar, School of International Studies University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, gPhD. Scholar, School of Languages, Civilization and Philosophy, University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: aaliburhan963@gmail.combmisbahnoreen343@yahoo.comcehsanulhassan786@gmail.comdammara.sarwar@sgd.uol.edu.pkeasikharita@gmail.comf*mohammed.hatim.uk@gmail.comgfurrakh.abbas@gmail.com

The objective of the present study is to analyse the impact of Islamic banks’ age along with other firm specific variables (size, liquidity and leverage) on their performance in Pakistan. For this purpose, the empirical investigation was made through Fixed Effect Model (FEM) by selecting the annual data period from the years 2006 to 2018. It was found that an increase in age of Islamic banks has a negative relationship with their performance. However, size and liquidity contribute positively towards Islamic banks’ performance, whereas, no effect of leverage was observed. Overall, the study concludes that the firm-specific variables explain the Islamic banks’ performance in Pakistan. This study also provides useful insight to managers and Islamic banks’ customers regarding firm-specific determinants of the Islamic banks operational in Pakistan. Pages 13 to 24




The Antecedents and Consequences of Country Reputation Management (CRM): An Agenda for Future Research

Zulhamri Abdullaha, Bahtiar Mohamadb, Raji Ridwan Adetunjic, aCommunication Department, FBMK, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia, bAdvanced Communication Research Unit (ACRU), School of Multimedia Technology and Communication, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, cCollege of Communication and Media Sciences, Zayed University, United Arab Emirates (UAE)

The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a proposed conceptual framework on country reputation in an organisational context. A literature review was analysed to identify the key variables of country reputation. It is believed that a reliable and valid multidimensional framework was obtained to measure country reputation. Three main antecedents of country reputation are effective government, an appealing environment, and an advanced economy. In addition to this, the purchase intentions of imported products are the consequences of country reputation. The study is among the first attempt to develop a proposed conceptual framework of country reputation. The study contributes to Malaysia's reputation of literature in the sense of improving national development for the critical inquiry of impression management. Pages 25 to 38




Prototypical Features and Practices of Romanised Arabic in Computer-mediated Communication

Essa Salema, aUniversity of Jordan Department of English Language and Literature, Email: aes.salem@ju.edu.jo

Advancements in computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools have had a great impact on the language used in interactions via these tools. This study explores recurrent features and patterns used by Jordanians on Facebook and WhatsApp in their Romanised Arabic interactions. To this end, a corpus of 200 Facebook posts/comments (collected from 36 randomly-selected informants representing different age groups, gender, and socio-economic backgrounds), transcripts of interactions in three WhatsApp groups, and dyadic WhatsApp text messages was compiled. The analysis was intended to find patterns in the use of language on the two social media platforms and required the occurrence of the same feature in both genres to be regarded as recurrent. The results reveal that there are two innovative recurrent practices related to Romanised Arabic (RA): transliteration of RA characters, and stereotypical code-switching (CS) practices that aim at establishing an online social identity. The findings also show that RA representation has three aspects: orthographic, linguistic and paralinguistic. The study provides insights into understanding how technological tools have changed language use in virtual communications. Pages 39 to 57




The Right of Self-determination by the Free Papua Movement through International Law Analysis

Adelia Putri Zulkarnaina, Arie Afriansyahb, a,bFaculty of Law, Universitas Indonesia,  Email: azulkarnainadelia@gmail.combarie.afriansyah@ui.ac.id

This paper calls the question of the right of self-determination under International Law. The issue of self-determination in Indonesia was re-triggered in December 2018, when the Free Papua Movement shot the employees of PT Istaka Karya, and 16 out of 28 people died in that tragedy. The Free Papua Movement, also known as OPM, is the first group to have echoed the independence for Papua since 1965. The Papua, known as West Papua by international society, has been a never-ending debate among scholars. The purpose of this study is to find the concept of self-determination, and peoples who are entitled to that right. The research method used is normative legal research and uses a historical approach and a doctrinal approach. The result shows that the concept of the right of self-determination is related to the context of decolonisation, which reveals the type of self-determination – not limited to external self-determination, but internal as well. Such context is not present in the Papua circumstances, whatsoever. Pages 58 to 73




Scenarios and the Delphi Method - A Perspective from the Contributions of North American Authors

Jhon W Zarthaa, William E. Halalb, Juan C Palacioc, Juan C Oviedod, aSchool of Engineering, Faculty of Agroindustrial Engineering.  Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, bGeorge Washington University, cDirector Faculty of Agroindustrial Engineering. Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, dResearch profesor. Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Email: aJhon.zartha@upb.edu.cobhalal@gwu.educjuan.palacio@upb.edu.codjuan.oviedo@upb.edu.co

This article seeks to identify the North American contributions to the foresight framed in studies on scenarios and the Delphi method. For this purpose two search equations were made in the Scopus database, with the keywords “foresight,  “Delphi Method” and “Scenarios.  In order to find papers on Delphi applications and scenarios, based on the results obtained, an in-depth analysis was carried out on the documents of authors from the United States and Canada. In the search equation one, focused on scenarios, 66 papers were found, and 50 papers in the search equation focused on the Delphi method. From these 116 papers, 20 were studies conducted by authors from North America. Among the most important results, the contributions against methods and techniques used for Delphi such as Delphi policy, focus groups and WEB Tool for Delphi in real-time are highlighted. In scenarios, they made contributions in serious games, game cards, imaginative narratives, and sensitivity analysis. It was also found that North America, in the sample analysed, has collaborated with 17 percent of the total of papers for scenarios, and in Delphi, 14 percent. In scenarios that take into consideration the top five countries, North America contributes 30 percent – a figure higher than the 20 percent of France, which is considered the country of origin of the scenarios. Whereas with Delphi in the top four countries, North America is the region that contributes the most, with 25 percent, equal with Japan.  Pages 74 to 95




The Influence of Religiosity on the Consumption of Eco-Friendly Food in Indonesian Muslim Millennials

Taufik Fahrur Rozi Sonya, Mukhamad Najibb, Kirbrandokoc, a,cSchool of Business, IPB University, bDepartment of Management, IPB University, Email: asonytfr@yahoo.combnajib@apps.ipb.ac.idcdenmas.kiko@gmail.com

The purpose of this research is to analyse the influence of religiosity among Muslim millennial generations on consumption intention of environment friendly food products. This study uses modified Theory of Planned Behaviour as the framework of analysis. The method used in this study is variance-based analysis of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), specifically Partial Least Square (PLS) using Smart PLS 3.0 software. Respondents of this study are only Muslim between 20-40 years olds. Respondents filling the questionnaire via online numbered 154 persons.  The results of the analysis conclude that all elements in the theory of planned behaviour influence significantly the intention of Muslim millennials to consume environment friendly food. Religiosity is the only influence significant in the attitude of Muslim millennials to consuming environment friendly food. These findings will be important for the food industry and marketing decision makers choosing the millennial Muslim market as their target market. It is also important for following research to study other characteristics affecting millennial Muslim choices about environmentally friendly food products. Pages 96 to 118




Face-to-Face and E-Learning: Lessons Learned from the Forced Shift to E-Learning during the COVID-19 Outbreak

Diena Dwidienawatia*,Sri Bramatoro Abdinagorob, David Tjahjanac, Dyah Gandasarid, Munawarohe, a,bBinus Business School, Bina Nusantara University, Indonesia, cUniversitas Multimedia Nusantara, Indonesia, dPolbangtan Bogor, Indonesia, eSwiss German University, Indonesia, Email: a*diena.tjiptadi@gmail.com

The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak is not only affecting human health, it is also affecting other aspects of human life. In the education sector, the recommendation of health authorities in many countries has forced the education sector to find an alternative to face-to-face delivery methods.  In this critical situation, the smooth and easy alternative to face-to-face education is distance learning. Distance learning or e-learning has increasingly gained popularity in higher education. Even though e-learning is a hot topic, e-learning is still more of a supplement to education in normal conditions. During the COVID-19 outbreak in Indonesia, almost all universities in Indonesia are delivering lectures through e-learning. This is a good opportunity to find out student's perceptions of e-learning.  This study aimed to see what students like and dislike about e-learning and what their preferences are after experiencing un-intentioned e-learning. A qualitative study using questionnaires as an instrument was conducted with University Students at 4 campuses in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia.  They were asked to answer questions about their e-learning experiences, what they like, and what they dislike.  One hundred and fifty-three questionnaires were analysed. The findings of the study showed that things that students like about e-learning were the flexiblity; that it can be done anywhere; is easy, less time consuming and relaxing. The things that they dislike were an unstable internet connection; unclear lecture delivery; less interaction with lecturers and friends; and the inability to ask a question in detail or to have a discussion. Most students still preferred face-to-face learning compared to e-learning. This study contributes to e-learning literature.  This study also contributes to e-learning practice. Pages 119 to 134




Teacher Competence, Commitment and Work Motivation: What Influences Performance in Yogyakarta

Abd. Madjida, Fitriah M. Suudb*, Siti Bahirohc, a,b,cDoctoral Program of Islamic Educational Psychology, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Jln. Brawijaya, Tamantirto, Kasihan, Bantul, Yogyakarta, 55183 Indonesia, Email: b*fitriahmsuud@gmail.com

This paper aims to analyse the influence of competencies, motivation and commitment on teacher performance in Madrasah Aliyah, Yogyakarta. Data were collected through questionnaires distributed to 161 teachers selected in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The analysis employed Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The research found that, partially, competence, commitment and motivation have a significantly positive influence on teacher performance. Simultaneously, competencies, commitment, and motivation have a significant, positive influence on teacher performance in Madrasah Aliyah Yogyakarta. Pages 135 to 147




The Contribution of Non-Governmental Organisations to Labour Issues, through Global Governance Modelling

A. Rina Herawatia, Dian Indriyanib, a,bSTIA Lan Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: aaugustin.rina@gmail.combdian.indriyani@stialan.ac.id

Indonesia has faced global economic issues which impact its national situation. These include issues as to human development, the environment and natural resources, peace and security, and global governance. This paper proposes a governance model to answer the global governance challenge, one which is suitable for Indonesia. It develops and evaluates a governance model that fits recent situations. Several aspects are analysed in this study; e.g. public participation, transparency, responsiveness, consensus-orientation, equity and inclusiveness, effectiveness and efficiency, and accountability. Through a qualitative approach, the study tried to understand the aspects of global governance which occurred in Indonesia. The participants were representative samples from a higher education background, local government, NGOs, and private parties. Several approaches were compared, to manage globalisation issues. They ranged from neoliberal, Marxist / anti-globalisation, to agency-centred approaches. They were reformulated to understand better the conceptualisation of global governance, and how it shaped society-state relations in the democratic system. The study found that Indonesia has implemented global governance imperfectly. Pages 148 to 165




Gender Equality of Women Workers in Development

Beby Masitho Batubaraa, Syafruddin Ritongab, Nina Siti Salmaniah Siregarc, a,b,cUniversitas Medan Area, Indonesia

Development plays an important role in reducing gender inequality. This paper examines the role of women workers in development, to achieve a sustainable policy commitment for gender equality in Indonesia. This research uses descriptive qualitative research. The data collection techniques used are survey methods; namely interviews and document analysis. Researchers analysed data in stages, such as data reduction, data presentation, and data conclusion. This study found that the potential of women in development is very strategic. They are involved in heavy and light work in the formal and informal sectors. Women have the same opportunity to work. Women play a major role in development, through productive economic activities such as the service and manufacturing sectors. They aim to support households to survive and facilitate the economy. Pages 166 to 181




A Better Approach to Internalising Nationalism in Higher Education

Farida Hanuma, Suyatab, Lalu Sumardic, a,bGraduate School, Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia, cFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia, Email: afarida_hanum@uny.ac.idclalu.unram@gmail.com

Many ways have been pursued by universities to instil student nationalism, but not all methods are effective. This research aims for a better approach. A mixed-method type of explanatory sequential research is used. The steps are: Firstly, collecting qualitative data through interviews, FGDs, and documentation techniques, and then analysing it using interactive models. Secondly, collecting quantitative data using a questionnaire and analysing it using ANOVA. The findings of this study indicate there are two approaches to internalising nationalism in higher education, namely; the partial approach and the integral approach. The integral approach is more effective than the partial approach. Therefore, universities are encouraged to use an integral approach in developing student nationalism. Pages 182 to 197




Applying Excel Accounting Software to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Vietnam

Dang Van Sanga*, Nguyen Thi Thuy Hongb, aHo Chi Minh City Polytechnic College, Vietnam, bHanoi Open University, Vietnam, Email: a*anhsang7176@gmail.combhong12@hou.edu.vn

Excel accounting software has numerous uses. Enterprises can design, make, as well as operate, maintain, update and upgrade the software. At the same time they can use accounting information extracted from the software. Excel accounting software has brought certain utilities and efficiencies to enterprises. Therefore, it is increasingly popular among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), especially microenterprises in Vietnam. This study was conducted to evaluate and measure its attributes. Data was collected from SMEs in Ho Chi Minh City in 2019. Based on data used for analysis of 399 observations, the authors used descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s Alpha scale analysis, and ANOVA analysis to measure the properties of Excel accounting software. The study results show it has seven (7) attributes including: (i) Organising and managing data; (ii) Complying with the accounting standards of the software; (iii) Software flexibility; (iv) Information safety and data security; (v) Quality in accounting books and reports; (vi) Convenience and (vii) Practicality. Based on the research results, the authors propose a number of recommendations to support SMEs and micro-enterprises, based on selecting Excel accounting software to computerise accounting work. Pages 198 to 216




Exposure to Different Supply Chain Risks: What Matters the Most to Supply Chain Resilience and Supply Chain Performance?

Arsalan Zahid Piprania, Noor Ismawati Jaafarb*, Suhana Mohezarc, a,cDepartment of Operations & MIS, Faculty of Business and Accountancy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, bDeputy Dean (Research & Development), Faculty of Business and Accountancy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Email: aarsalanzp@gmail.comb*isma_jaafar@um.edu.mycsuhanamohezar@um.edu.my

Supply chain risks (SCRs) are a critical managerial issue. Their recurrence is elevated, with extreme ramifications for the existence and survival of the firm and its supply chain. This study focuses on how different SCRs influence supply chain resilience (SCRES) and ultimately supply chain performance (SCP). A quantitative methodology was chosen, with 182 respondents from large scale manufacturing organisations in Pakistan. The results show that, except for customer-oriented risk exposure, all risk types significantly influence SCR, while SCRES has a massive influence on SCP. Further, SCRES significantly mediates all other risk factors towards SCP. The results also pointed to the importance of investing and having certain resilient capabilities which enable firms to improve capability in anticipating, responding and recovering, at times of disruptions, and facilitating the enhancement of SCP. Pages 217 to 238




Issues and Challenges to Professional Development for Language Proficiency among Indonesian EFL Teachers

Him’mawan Adi Nugrohoa, Utami Widiatib, Sri Rachmajantic, aPost Graduate Student of English Education and Teaching, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, b,cUniversitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Email: ahimmawan_95@yahoo.co.idbhimmawannugroho@unesa.ac.idcutami.widiati.fs@um.ac.iddloeksr@gmail.com

This study investigated Indonesian EFL (English as Foreign Language) teachers’ issues, and challenges to professional development (PD), particularly as related to language proficiency. One critical proficiency in teaching English is teachers’ language. It holds a key role in facilitating learning. PD is essential for supporting teachers’ goals and responsibility in learning and working towards fulfilment as professional English teachers. This qualitative study used an in-depth interview as the main data collection instrument. The study participants were six professional EFL teachers, with five to 30 years of English teaching. The participants were found to view professional development for language proficiency as important. It is part of their life-long or career-long learning, influenced by the pedagogical environment and individual language proficiency awareness. The study also revealed some issues and challenges regarding PD for language proficiency, such as language proficiency, were rarely offered by the government. Teachers had to autonomously and individually join and participate in such events. The article recommends that Indonesian EFL teachers must have self-awareness of the importance of improving their language proficiency, by participating in PD for language proficiency, despite the issues and challenges they might encounter. They have to make use of any chances to help them keep their professionalism high, by becoming good EFL teachers. Pages 239 to 256




Role and Measurement of Employee Resilience in the Organisation: A Systematic Review on the Empirical Studies

Sri Suhandiaha, Dian Ekowatib*, Fendy Suhariadic, Praptini Yuliantid, Ratna Wardanie, a,b,c,d,eUniversitas Airlangga, aUniversitas Dinamika, eIIK Strada Indonesia.

Email:  asri.suhandiah-2018@feb.unair.ac.id, b*d.ekowati@feb.unair.ac.id, cfendy.suhariadi@psikologi.unair.ac.id, dpraptini-y@feb.unair.ac.id, eratna.wardani-2018@feb.unair.ac.id

Recent studies on resilience showed that organisational capacity to build resilience in facing the changes depends on an organisation’s ability to integrate the cores practices and procedures through its employees’ contribution. Employees’ resilience becomes a very important matter because employees are the agents of change. This study is a literature review on employee resilience empirical research that discuss variables in the organisation related to employee resilience, roles and measurements used. There are 48 variables found in the literature which show how important the role of employee resilience is in the organisation. These variables are then mapped into 9 groups and their role in employee resilience. Further, the study indicates what variables have been rigorously investigated and which have not. Next, the concept of employee resilience is discussed, both as personal capacity and developed resources acting as antecedent, mediator, moderator and outcome. 14 scale measurements on employee resilience are also mapped with quantitative approaches conducted by the previous studies, in the context of work and non-work. Those measurements are then adopted in the context of working, be it as a whole, in part or in a shorter version than the previous ones. Finally, results of the study could be used as to rationalise and consider further studies related to employee resilience in the future. Pages 257 to 279




The Acceleration Program of Academic Rank to Improve the Quality of Lecturers

Nur Sayidaha, aFaculty of Economics and Business, University of Dr. Soetomo Surabaya, Email: asayidah36@gmail.com

The purpose of this research is to develop and implement a project action plan. The acceleration program of academic ranks is implemented as an effort to improve the quality of lecturers. This study was conducted at a private university in Surabaya, Indonesia, in the faculty of economics and business. The researcher collected data by distributing open questionnaires and facilitating focus group discussions. The results of the data analysis show that academic ranks in this faculty are low. The proportion of academic ranks is 40% Instructor, 35% Assistant Professor, 13% Associate Professor, 4% Professor, and the rest are undefined. 70% of Lecturers are not promoted in academic rank for more than ten years. Most lecturers do not increase academic rank because of a lack of scientific publications and complicated  institutional bureaucracy. The researcher has arranged a procedure to accelerate the rise of academic rank which involved Deans, the Acceleration Team, and lecturers. A lecturer must have creative and innovative thinking in learning and research to be able to achieve high academic rankings. Creativity in learning models and innovation in research will have significant benefits for the community.  Pages 280 to 294




The Influence of Macroeconomics and Social Variables on Economic Growth: A study of ASEAN Countries

Nano Prawotoa, aEconomics and Business Faculty Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Email: ananopra@umy.ac.id

This research aims at discovering the influence of macroeconomic and social variables on economic growth in 5 ASEAN countries. It uses time series data from 1986 to 2015. The approach used is an Error Correction Model (ECM). The research results indicate that gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) has a positive and consistent influence for both long and short runs for the five ASEAN countries. Inflation has a negative influence in Indonesia, yet it has positive effect on other countries. The Rupiah exchange rate has had a negative influence in all ASEAN countries. The total trading value has negative influence in most ASEAN countries, yet it has positive influence in Singapore. The value of Indonesia's disequilibrium coefficient ECt is the lowest, thus, the adjustment of the actual value to its equilibrium is done faster than other countries. Pages 295 to 311




Factors that Enhance the Innovation Mindset:  A Quantitative Approach

Gromyko Bongsoa, Maruf Akbarb, Wibowoc, aPost Graduate Program, Human Resource Management, State University of Jakarta, Indonesia, b,cJakarta State University, Email: agromyko19b@gmail.combmarufakbar.90@gmail.comcwibowounj.90@gmail.com

This research aims to find the influence of employee perception on organisational forgetting, organisational culture, competitive intelligence, organisational learning, and knowledge management to increase innovation mindset. Workforces in the electrical manufacturing industry in Indonesia need an innovation mindset to be able to change and face the technological era. This research uses structural equation modelling with data obtained from 338 employees working in electrical manufacturing companies. Results show that organisational forgetting, organisational culture, competitive intelligence, organisational learning and knowledge management have a positive and significant influence on the innovation mindset. Noticeably, this study shows that there is no direct influence of organisational forgetting on knowledge management. The implications of this study reveal that electrical manufacturing companies in Indonesia must eliminate the status quo and strive to create new rules that are more adaptive with environmental changes and further research opportunities are domain keys identified. Pages 312 to 334




The Role of Leader Assessment in Developing Teacher Teams in the Industrial Revolution 4.0

Endin Mujahidina, Ending Baharuddinb, Rudi Hartonoc, aAssoc. Profesor Education, Departement of Community Education, Faculty of Teaching and Education, University of Ibn Khaldun Bogor, Indonesia, bAssoc. Profesor, Departement of Islamic Education, Faculty of Islamic Studies, University of Ibn Khaldun Bogor, Indonesia, cAssoc. Profesor, Departement Educationional Management, Faculty Pascasarjana, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: aendin.mujahidin@uika-bogor.ac.idbbahruddin@uika-bogor.ac.idcrudihartono_mp16s3@mahasiswa.unj.ac.id

This study aims to determine the role of assessment in building teacher work teams in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0 and the role of education stakeholders in supporting the success of elementary school teacher achievement programs. This study uses a multisite approach and survey with research respondents consisting of teachers, principals, supervisors, Teacher Working Groups and education. The schools included in this study are Bandung Pajagalan 03 Primary School, Tangerang 7 Sukasari Primary School, Menteng 1 Primary School, Jakarta, Al-Azhar Primary School, Al-Salam, and Jakarta Pondok Labu Elementary School. Data collection was carried out through interviews, questionnaires, documented observations, and group discussion forums. Data analysis techniques used included data reduction, data presentation, and verification. The results of the study stated that the indicators of primary school teacher achievement evaluation consisted of portfolios (20%), teaching videos (10%), written tests (20%), scientific papers (20%), presentation of scientific papers (20%)), and role models (10%). While educational stakeholders play a role with their respective duties and functions. Pages 335 to 349




Public Service in the Environment Sector in Indonesia

Nawir Rahmana, Umi Faridab, Chuduriah Sahabuddinc, Mustakingd, Yusriadi Yusriadie, aSekolah Tinggi Ilmu Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Pembangunan Indonesia, Makassar, Indonesia, bSekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Amkop, Makassar, Indonesia, cAl Asyariah University, Mandar, Indonesia, dUniversitas Puangrimaggalatung, Makassar, Indonesia, eSekolah Tinggi Ilmu Administrasi Puangrimaggalatung, Makassar, Indonesia,

The Online Based Environmental Information System Program (SIMAS-LH Online) aims to realise excellent service through the ease of the community to get environmental data and facilitate business actors in reporting the implementation of the environment in Indonesia. This study aims to analyse and explain the application of bureaucratic reform from aspects of public service and its implication in Indonesia. This research was carried out within the Makassar City Government of the South Sulawesi Province. The type of analysis used is a case study. The data sources in this study are primary data. Primary data is data obtained by researchers directly, while secondary information is data collected by researchers from existing sources. The determination of informants is determined sequentially. Informants in this study amounted to seven people, consisting of four service users and three service providers. Data collection techniques are carried out by document study, observation, and interviews. The results of the study show that the community can also participate in providing services with information technology. The district does not have to come directly to the Environmental Management Service to submit the file to the complaint. At present, the community participates in giving advice and claims that have been carried out. The application of information technology has also created efficient services to be able to take advantage of information technology and positively support infrastructure. Pages 350 to 360




The Nexus between Job Burnout and Emotional Intelligence on Turnover Intention in Oil and Gas Companies in the UAE

Anas Abudaqaa, Mohd Faiz Hilmib, Norziani Dahalanc, a,b,cSchool of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia,

Currently, job satisfaction and turnover intentions are the significant issues for oil and gas companies in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). These issues  need to be addressed soon for the performance of the oil and gas companies. Thus, the aim related to the current study is to examine the impact of job burnout, emotional intelligence, and job satisfaction on the turnover intentions of the oil and gas companies in the UAE. The goals of this research also include the examination of mediating the influence of job satisfaction alongside the nexus of job burnout and turnover intentions of the oil and gas companies in the UAE. The questionnaire method was adopted to collect the data from the respondents, and Smart-PLS were employed to analyse the data. The results show that job burnout, emotional intelligence, and job satisfaction have a positive association with turnover intentions. In contrast, job satisfaction positively mediates the nexus between job burnout and turnover intentions. These results provide the guidelines to the policymakers that they should enhance their focus on job satisfaction and turnover intentions of the employees that improve the firm performance. Pages 361 to 380




Factors Affecting Farmers Decisions to Convert Pepper Garden into a Coal Mining Area

Achmad Zainiaa*, Andi Siddikbb, Mariyahac, aAgribusiness Department, Agricultural Faculty, Mulawarman University, bMagister Program of Environmental Science, Mulawarman University, Email: a*ach.zaini@gmail.com

The present study aims to analyse factors that affect a farmers decisions to convert pepper gardens into a coal mining area. This study will also explore the relationship between the characteristic of the respondents residing in Batuah Village in Los Janan, Kutai Kertanegara. This study was conducted over 2 (two) years. T Primary data for this study was obtained through observation and direct interviews with 31 respondents that were performed by giving questions. Secondary data was obtained by reviewing papers and data from related institutions that would support this study. Analysis of farmers perception on shifting the function of their land from pepper gardens to a coalmining area was performed in an ordinal manner using a Likert scale. A Spearman correlation test was used to measure the closeness of the relationship between respondents characteristic in making decisions (to changing the function of the land). Based on the findings, the aspects that dominantly affect the decision of the farmers on converting their pepper garden into a coal mining area can be seen from a technical aspect, socio-cultural, and economic aspect. It was found that a farmer’s gender has a close relation with farmer’s motivation from a socio-cultural perspective. It also has a close relation with farmer’s motivation in the technical aspect. A farmer’s age also has a close relationship with the attribute of income structure. The number of farmer’s family members had a close relationship with a farmer’s intention to developing business and the width of their land. It is only the factor of farmer’s education that is insignificantly correlated with socio-cultural, technical, and economic aspects. Pages 381 to 399




Organic Foods: What Are the Driving Factors of Purchase Intention?

Cuong Nguyena*, Yen Nguyenb, Trong Quyc, aIndustrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, b,cFPT University, Vietnam, Email: a*nguyenquoccuong@iuh.edu.vn

The main objective of this study is to understand the behaviour of organic food consumers and their intention to purchase. The study aims to determine the driving factors influencing consumer behaviour towards organic food in the Vietnamese market.  The method used for  data collection includes a face-to-face interview and using a structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions. In total, there are a total of 243 valid respondents who are  actual consumers of  organic products participating in the survey. It has been decided to use various multivariate analyses such as multiple regressions, factor analysis, and cluster analysis with a large sample size. The results indicate that price, taste, environmental concern, nutritional value, certification, and labelling as well as subjective norms positively influence the Vietnamese consumers’ intention to buy organic foods. The findings make an empirical contribution  to the literature of organic consumption studies worldwide. Pages 400 to 418




The Impact of IAS on the Accounting Quality of Vietnamese Enterprises

Nguyen Van Hoaa, aHoaBinh University, Email: anvhoa@daihochoabinh.edu.vn

The study aims to examine the impact of international accounting standard (IAS) adoption on the accounting quality of Vietnamese entrepreneurs between 2013 and 2016. The measurements of accounting quality include  earnings management, timeliness of loss recognition and value relevance. Post IAS adoption, firms are likely to decrease earnings management but provide more value relevance, revealing the positive impact of IAS adoption and accounting quality. However, there is no relationship between IAS adoption and timeliness of loss recognition in Vietnamese enterprises. Pages 419 to 432




The Role of Leaders in Encouraging Organisational Learning with Modelling System Thinking

Dadang Hartantoa, aUniversitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Utara, Indonesia, Email: adadanghartanto@umsu.ac.id

Implementation of organisational learning and designing learning organisations can be completed through five disciplines which include mental models, personal mastery, team learning, building shared vision and systems thinking. The role of leaders in the practice of discipline and leverage in learning can produce metanoia using the concept of organisational learning by Peter Senge. This study uses a mixed-method with method thinking systems and system dynamics. Systems thinking was applied to obtain the format of Causal Loop Diagram (CLD). Criminal Investigation Division is a public organisation, law enforcement and part of The Indonesian National Police. The police accommodates the principles of hierarchy, chain of command and mechanisms that apply to The Indonesian National Police organisations even though in practice they are flexible and organic. The Criminal Investigation Division of The Indonesian National Police accommodates the principles of hierarchy, chain of command and mechanisms that apply to Indonesian National Police organisations even though in practice they are flexible and organic because legally Criminal Investigation Division members as law enforcers have discretionary authority. Pages 433 to 450




The Reconceptualisation of Turkish Identity:  Foreign Policy between Grand Strategy and Pragmatism between 2002 and 2019

Ayman Saleh Al-Barasneha, aPrince Al Hussein Bin Abdullah II School of International Studies,  University of Jordan, Email: aa.albarasneh@ju.edu.jo

Since the AKP ascendancy to power in 2002, Turkey’s foreign policy has been reshaped emphasising a new set of foreign policy tenets. The APK elite has been working assiduously to accentuate Turkey’s geostrategic significance and historical depths to play a more influential regional role based on the mantra of zero problems via pursuing soft power tools and economic interdependencies. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of  Turkish foreign policy and how it interacts with national identity. Moreover, it explains the changing environment in the Middle East and how it impacts on the attitudes and identity of Turkish foreign policy. The study borrows some insights from realist theory to understand the states’ motivations and inspects role theory which provides useful interpretation about changes in participants’ behaviour in foreign policy. This paper argue that domestic politics in Turkey and the changing environment in the Middle East, as shown by Arab uprisings, have turned the Turkish emphasis from soft power to hard instruments built on using military capabilities. Simultaneously, the AKP leadership’s active involvement in the Middle East does not signal a dramatic shift in Turkey’s state identity. Rather, Turkey remains part of  western identity and alliance. Pages 451 to   468




Strategic Procurement Model for Electric Company in Supply Chain Management

Ari Wasonoa, Sam’un Jaja Raharjab, Muhammad Rizalc, Iwan Sukocod, a,b,c,dBussiness Administration Department, Padjadjaran University, Bandung – Indonesia, Email: aari16002@mail.unpad.ac.idaariw_jp@ymail.combs.raharja2017@unpad.ac.idcrizal.unpad@gmail.comdwansukoco@gmail.com

The purpose of this research is to identify and explore various procurement activities for electricity companies in supply chain management and suggest their models. The study discusses the opinions of researchers regarding procurement processes in various countries that are currently warm where they’re more applicable and helps supply chain practitioners assess various procurement activities before it is too late to revise decisions regarding their use in electricity companies. The model was developed based on a systematic mapping study of articles related to procurement, and was examined by semi-structured interviews with state-owned electricity companies that carry out procurement activities. The findings suggest that Procurement Strategy is very important for electricity companies to meet their electricity needs. Proper, fast and efficient procurement will provide a large profit impact for Companies in order to support economic growth. This study is limited by the availability of applied cases. Therefore, it cannot be considered a case study, but rather a literature review followed by a number of interviews. However, it produced a model that forms the basis for further exploratory studies with more empirical data. Pages 469 to 482




The Effect of Labour Union Advocacy as a Determinant in Creating Harmonious Industrial Relations: An Indonesian Case Study

Liosten Rianna Roosida Ully Tampubolona*, Edy Widayatb, Ulul Albabc, Totok Hendartod, aFaculty of Economics and Business,Dr.Soetomo University, bFaculty of Teacher Training and Education,Dr.Soetomo University, cFaculty of Administration, Dr.Soetomo University, dFaculty of Agriculture,Dr.Soetomo University, Email: a*liostenully@yahoo.com

This research has a purpose about work relation is a relation between labour and employer that was established after work contract signed. For the relationship between labour and employer are not always harmonious as sometimes disagreement arises when dealing with labour law. It begins with a work contract that individualistic between labour and employer. Although, labour and employers strive together for well-being and company growth, there are also potential conflicts of interest due to both sides interpret and perceive labour law differently. Advocacy on Law No. 21 of 2000 is necessary to resolve conflicts in the company due to not harmonious industrial relations. This research purpose find out and analyse determinant influences to help labour unions achieve harmonious industrial relations.  Moreover, to identify determinant factors that influence labour union to achieve a harmonious industrial relations. This research was used phenomenology approach and follows such as labour union, company management, and head of labour department. This research also used descriptive qualitative analysis with interactive models.  The results are labour union advocacy has a significant effect on increasing labour union performance through sustainable professional development, bipartite, tripartite,  and PHI advocacy. Eventually,  advocacy determinants consist of education level, communication, openness, infrastructure facilities and industrial relations. This research has limited scope and focuses on labour union advocacy; therefore the subject can be developed with further research. Pages 483 to 499




Enhancing Transformational Leadership Behaviour of School Principals by Implementing Integrity, Professionalism, and Entrepreneurship

Nerita Setiyaningtiyasa, Ibrahim Bafadalb, Burhanuddinc, F. Danardana Murwanid, aPostgraduate Program of State University of Malang, Indonesia, b,cFaculty of Education, State University of Malang, Indonesia, dFaculty of Economics, State University of Malang, Indonesia, Email: aneritasetiyaningtiyas@gmail.combibrahim.bafadal.fip@um.ac.idcburhanuddin.fip@um.ac.id,  df.danardana.fe@um.ac.id,

This study aims to develop the concepts of entrepreneurial culture in schools through transformational leadership.  It uses qualitative methods with case studies in Citra Berkat School Surabaya Indonesia. Data was  collected through interviews, observation and documentation. A descriptive and comparative study was conducted on the component behaviours used to influence followers and the effects of  leaders on followers. Information from principals and teachers was content analysed to measure school principals of Citra Berkat School Surabaya in using transformative behaviours based on IPE characters. The descriptive study looks for common attributes amongst school principals identified as transformational. The comparative study compares school principals in different situations. The results were mostly consistent with the theory. School principals with  goal orientation exhibited more  transformational leadership behaviours and were more likely to be viewed as transformative by teachers. Moreover, transformative school principals used more direct action to deal with problems and were rated higher in performance. Pages 500 to 511




Reliability of Creative Thinking Module on the Creativity Level of Engineering Undergraduates in Malaysia

Yaw Long, Chuaa, Balamuralithara Balakrishnanb, Voon Chiet Chaic, Pooi Ying Choongd, a,dUniversiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia, Jalan Ikram-Uniten, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia, bFakulti Seni, Komputeran dan Industri Kreatif, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia, cHeriot-Watt University Malaysia, No 1, Jalan Venna P5/2, Precinct 5,  62200 Putrajaya, Malaysia, Email: a*Chuayl@uniten.edu.my

Creativity is an important factor when it comes down to engineering designs.  Creativity and engineering complement each other to provide useful yet eye-opening solutions to everyday problems.  Recent research  has indicated that creativity, which happens to be one of the vital skills for  engineers in the 21st century that can be taught and learnt, has reduced significantly over the years. Thus, there is a need for engineering educators to address this  issue by introducing creative thinking as a skill to be acquired by the current generation of engineering undergraduates.  This research paper presents the outcome of a research conducted to improve and enhance the creativity level of local engineering undergraduates at a private institution of higher learning through a Creative Thinking Module that features a number  of creative thinking tools such as Brain sketching, Concept Maps and Morphological Analysis. The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking Figural Forms was applied to measure the creativity level of respondents  in a local Private University. Results indicate that the Reliability of  Creative Thinking Skills Module  is acceptable. Pages 512 to 524




Design Ethics Education for Creative Industry Programs: Attitude towards Socio-Ethical Issues in Design amongst Malaysian Design Undergraduates

Balamuralithara Balakrishnana*, Muhammad Fadhil Wongb, Fumihiko Tochinaic, Ahmad Nizam Othmand, Muhammad Zaffwan Idrise, a,b,d,eSultan Idris Education University, MALAYSIA, cKanazawa Institute of Technology, JAPAN, Email: a*balab@fskik.upsi.edu.my

This paper reports the outcome of a study of Malaysian design undergraduates regarding their attitude towards socio-ethical issues in the creative design  industry. The study was carried out in two Universities (University A and University B) in Malaysia, involving 120 design undergraduates. A survey was administered whereby a questionnaire was distributed amongst  respondents to elicit their level of agreement  concerning each statement in the questionnaire. The results of the data analyses show that the attitude of Malaysian design undergraduates  towards socio-ethical issues is low except  for respondents from University A, who have a positive attitude towards environmental and sustainable development issues. This study suggests that a design ethics education model should be introduced in the curriculum of creative industry programs in Malaysian higher education institutions since  no such model or subject is available in the examined institutions. Pages 525 to 537




Co-creation of Experience for Special Interest Tourism Destinations

Diaz Pranitaa*, Ernie Tisnawati Suleb, Dwi Kartinic, Umi Kalsumd, aVocational Education Program, Universitas Indonesia, b,c,dFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung, Indonesia, Email: a*diazpranita@vokasi.ui.ac.id

This study is intended to examine the effect of niche marketing and co-creation of experience on the competitiveness of tourism destination for yachting. It uses an explanatory survey method for 64 (sixty-four) tourism destination populations for yachting in Indonesia. Primary data are collected by circulating questionnaires to managers of yachting destinations. Hypothesis testing uses Smart PLS (partial least square) to examine the series of relationships between latent variables in a limited population. The results show that niche marketing and co-creation of experience are able to improve the competitiveness of yachting destinations, while co-creation of experience has a greater role to improve destination competitiveness compared to niche marketing strategy. Pages 538 to 551




Linking Ideas to the Real World: Reinvented Relationship between University and Industry in a Disruptive Digital Era

Deni Danial Kesaa*, Cheng-Wen Leeb, aCenre of Vocational Studies, Vocational Education Program, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia, bDepartment of International Business, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taiwan, Email: a*d.danial@ui.ac.id

Alumni or graduates are the indicators of a University’s educational success rates. One way that a University determines how it can improve the quality of its  education is by gathering information regarding  their alumni through a tracer study. Tracer studies involve activities that are carried out to implement an industry-oriented educational curriculum alignment program for industrial relevance. Universities conduct ongoing research on college graduates, team work, attitude, emotional quotient, communication, basic science, IT and digital business skills, as well as creative problem solving and working skills, leadership and cohesiveness. In-depth interview study is used for obtaining data about  the development and evaluation of curriculum and to develop a vision and mission for the University. Regression analyse of the variable produced by the quality of curriculum is applied in a vocational program. In order to keep pace with the ever-changing and expanding frontier of knowledge and certification, increased interest concerning  the development of curriculum is desired. The goal of  strategies is to promote a link between higher education and industry for various  insight requirements based on attitude, skills and competency. Pages 552 to 563




Intellectual Capital and Financial Performance in the Indonesian Stock Exchange

Tri Siwi Nugrahania*, Netika Arifahb, Evi Gredianic, a,bDepartment of Accounting, University of PGRI Yogyakarta, Jl. PGRI I No.117 Sonosewu, Yogyakarta, 55182 Indonesia, cAccounting Academy YKPN Yogyakarta, Jl. Balapan Jl. Gagak Rimang No.2-4, Klitren, Kec. Gondokusuman, Kota Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta 55222, Indonesia, Email: a*trisiwi@upy.ac.id

This study examines the relationship between  intellectual capital,  employee stock options and financial performance. The research sample consists of  135 companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange  between 2015 and 2018. The determination of the sample is completed  purposively with the provisions of companies that apply the ESOP. Hypothesis testing results show that there is a significant relationship between intellectual capital and financial performance, as measured by Return On Equity, as well as the relationship between ESOP and financial performance, at a significance of 10%. This study shows that there is a causal relationship between Intellectual Capital and Financial Performance but not  between ESOP and financial performance. This results  prove that intellectual capital can improve corporate financial performance, but ESOP does not improve financial performance. Pages 564 to 581




Equilibrium in Civic Education Assessment in Primary Schools of Indonesia: Character and Existence

Ady Ferdian Noora*, Diplanb, Ise Aftitahc, Siti Irene Astuti Dwiningrumd, Haryantoe, a,b,cMuhammadiyah University of Palangkaraya, Indonesia, d,eYogyakarta State University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*adyferdian.2018@student.uny.ac.id

Each nation and state recognises the importance of national character building in order to preserve and maintain its existence as a nation-state. Character and existence are built through learning, one of which is of Civic Education subjects, which aims to equip every citizen to realise civic participation as an embodiment of civic responsibility. This study uses meta-analysis, trying to reveal the results of portfolio assessment research on thematic learning related to the 2013 curriculum, e-portfolios, teacher and student perceptions, and the new Civic Education Paradigm. The results of this study, portfolio assessment on the thematic learning Civic Education, need to be developed by teachers in accordance with the new paradigm of Civic Education Subjects in a sustainable and systematic manner in elementary schools. Students are ultimately expected to have balanced competence, namely as being able to develop intelligence (civic intelligence), be able to demonstrate civilisation (civic civility), and carry out participation (civic participation), as well as the responsibilities (civic responsibility) of citizens. Pages 582 to 601




The Basis for a Constitutional Court Review of the Judicial Power of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia

Sigit Handokoa, aDepartment of Civic Education, Universitas PGRI Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: asighand@gmail.com

This study aims to determine the basis for consideration of the Constitutional Court (CC) in deciding the review of Law No. 22 of 20 04 concerning the Judicial Commission and Law No. 4 of 2004 concerning Judicial Power of the 1945 Constitution, and the legal implications of the decision on the Supreme Court (SC) Law, the Judicial Commission Law, and the Constitutional Court Law. This research is normative legal research with a theoretical, juridical, political and historical approach. Sources of research data were obtained from primary materials, namely the 1945 Constitution both before and after the amendment, People's Consultative Assembly (PCA) stipulations, Supreme Court Acts, Judicial Commission Laws and the Constitutional Court Laws. Data were collected by the method of literature and documentation, which analysis are qualitatively presented in the form of descriptive. The results of the study concluded that the basis for the Constitutional Court's consideration in deciding the judicial review of Law No. 22 of 2004 concerning the Judicial Commission (JC) and the review of Law no. 4 of 2004 concerning Judicial Power against the 1945 Constitution after the amendment is because the articles in the Judicial Commission Law that regulate the oversight function are proven to cause legal uncertainty. Constitution Judiciary Commission has not a detailed set of surveillance procedures, subjects who were watching, what the object of supervision, the instruments used, and how the supervision is carried out. Imply law verdict CC that results in non-synchronisation between the law on the Supreme Court, the Judicial Commission Law and the Law on the Constitutional Court, especially about who has the authority to supervise Judge, Supreme Court and Constitutional Court. Pages 602 to 618




Subjective Well-being during the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Comparative Study of Indonesia and Malaysia

Alimatus Sahraha, Fonny Dameaty Hutagalungb, Nina Fitrianac, a,cUniversitas Mercu Buana Yogyakarta, bUniversity of Malaya,

This present study is aimed at exploring the subjective well-being of Indonesian and Malaysian during Covid-19 pandemic. A total of 160 respondents of Indonesian and Malaysian were asked to respond to the questions about subjective well-being during Covid-19 pandemic. This study is quantitative research. The scale used for measuring subjective well-being in this empirical study is APOS and ANEG. The result of these current studies showed that Indonesians have a higher level of subjective well-being compared with Malaysians during Covid-19 pandemic. Besides, the result of this study also mentioned that there is no significant difference in subjective well-being between male and female of Indonesian and Malaysian during Covid-19 pandemic. Pages 619 to 629




Effects of Learning Discipline, Learning Environment, and Teacher Teaching Variations on Student Learning Achievement

Samrina, Syahrulb, Moh. Yahya Obaidc, La hadisid, Zulkifli Musthane, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher Training, IAIN Kendari, Indonesia, Email: asamrinsam75@yahoo.combsyahrul.stain@gmail.comcmyahyaobaid@iainkendari.ac.iddlhadisi@gmail.comezmusthan@iainkendari.ac.id

This article aims to examine several aspects, namely: 1) learning discipline on learning achievement; 2) the learning environment on learning achievement; 3) variations in teacher teaching on learning achievement; and 4) learning discipline, learning environment, and variations in teacher teaching on learning achievement. The location of this study was at six Madrasah Aliyah, both public and private, in the city of Kendari, with a total number of 1208 students. This research is a quantitative study with correlational techniques. Four questionnaires were used, namely: learning discipline, learning environment, teacher teaching variations, and learning achievement. The results showed that there was a significant influence on variables: 1) learning discipline on learning achievement; 2) learning environment towards learning achievement; 3) teacher teaching variations on learning achievement; and 4) discipline of learning, learning environment, and variations in the teaching of teachers to learning achievement. Pages 630 to 642




The Effects of Collaborative Inquiry Learning on the Metacognitive Awareness of Prospective Science Teachers

Sukardi Abbasa*, I Nyoman Sudana Degengb, Punaji Setyosaric, Henry Praherdhionod, aState University of Malang, Indonesia, and State Islamic Institute for Ternate-Indonesia, b,c,dState University of Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*sukardi@iain-ternate.ac.idbnyoman.sudana.d.fip@um.ac.idcpunaji.setyosari.fip@um.ac.iddhenry.praherdhiono.fip@um.ac.id

This study investigates the effects of collaborative inquiry learning on metacognitive awareness of prospective elementary school teacher with different self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviours. A quantitative approach with a quasi-experimental design was used in this study. A total of 149 students of elementary school teacher education programs are involved as research subjects. In the research process, the experimental class is taught with the collaborative inquiry learning approach and the control class with the conventional teaching approach. Metacognitive awareness post-test data were analysed using analysis of variance. There are three findings in this study, namely: 1) there is a significant difference between the metacognitive awareness of students being taught with the collaborative inquiry learning approach and the conventional teaching approach; 2) there is a significant difference in metacognitive awareness between students with high and low self-regulated learning (SRL); 3) there is a significant interaction between different teaching approaches (collaborative inquiry learning & conventional learning) and SRL behaviour (high and low) on students' metacognitive awareness. This result recommends that teachers consider aspects of self-regulation and social regulation when applying collaborative inquiry learning to increase metacognitive awareness. Pages 643 to 660




The Effect of Strategic Planning and Market Orientation on Performance through Innovation

Rofiatya*, Sumarni Sb, Rora Amelia Ac, Gadis Gd, a,b,c,dUniversity of Brawijaya, Email: a*rofiaty@yahoo.com

The business world, especially small and medium businesses, faces various challenges and must be able to achieve performance that will be able to increase competitiveness and maintain the sustainability of their businesses.  For this reason, companies must be more market-oriented, intensively carry out strategic planning to be able to encourage creative thinking, and be able to carry out innovative strategies both through the use of financial technology and implement digital marketing, product innovation, processes, which in turn can improve organisational performance. The purpose of this research is to examine and analyse the relationship between strategic planning, market orientation and innovation on performance.  Business in the information technology era requires organisations to adapt to changes in the environment and business competition, which increasingly requires SMEs to create products and services that are more market-oriented, to be able to bring up innovations that are in line with technological advances and market segments, so performance will increase.  The population are owners, and organiser culinary SMEs is Java. The samples used are 133 respondents. Data is collected by questionnaire 5 point Likert scale. Data were analysed by SEM using Warp-PLS software. The findings were indicated that strategic planning has a direct effect on performance; strategic planning has no effect on innovation, and innovation is not able to mediate the effect of strategic planning on performance. Market orientation has a direct effect on performance, and market orientation also has a significant effect on performance through innovation mediation, so innovation acts as a partial mediation. Pages 661 to 679




The E-Teaching Portfolio: Exploring Digital Teaching Document Management for Malaysian Educators

Tengku Intan Suzila T. Sa, Mohd Yusri M. Nb, Jelani, A. Nc, Yusob, K. Fd, a,b,c,dAcademy of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi Mara Cawangan Pahang, 26400 Bandar Jengka, Pahang. Malaysia, Email: aintansuzila@uitm.edu.mybmohdyusri@uitm.edu.mycahmadnazrij@uitm.edu.mydkhairulfirhan@uitm.edu.my

The digital/electronic document management system (DDMS/EDMS) is a green movement. The implementation of DDMS is absent in some Malaysian public universities especially when focusing on teaching records for auditing purposes. The objective of the present study is to rectify this gap through unfolding the nature, attitude, and acceptance of Malaysian educators towards teaching portfolio (TP) reporting using DDMS. The problem here is the readiness in work shift, along with the technical and facilities supports from the institutions. An adapted questionnaire was distributed to random Malaysian tertiary educators. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were used in the analysis process. Findings suggest that the implementation of an electronic version of TP is feasible for Malaysian tertiary educators with more positive than negative impacts. The present study is, therefore concluded with an innovative working model of this digital/electronic teaching portfolio (e-TP) and a users’ scope of e-TP. Pages 680 to 701




An Error Analysis in Translating Recount Text by Students from the English Department of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University

H. John Pahamzaha, Wieka Barathayomib, Marina Setiawatic, Email: ajhon.pahamzah@untirta.ac.idbwieka.barathayomi@untirta.ac.idcmarina.setiawati@untirta.ac.id,

The objectives of this research were to examine the quality of the students' translation in recount text and to find out the difficulties of translation the recount text by fifth-semester students' of English Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University. This research used qualitative research method by implementing a content analysis research design. The researchers took about 40 students from the English Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University as the subject of this research. To obtain the data, the researchers used translating test to know the quality of the students' translating and used a questionnaire to find out the student's difficulties of translating of recount text as the instrument of the research. The finding of this research shown that students' translating quality in translating the recount text got difficult in translating a text from the topic and supporting sentence, with grammatical construction correctly. They were omission, 32.84% misinformation, 40.69% misordering, 8.04% addition, and 18.43%. In general, the quality of students translating the recount text was good. From the results of the research, it can be concluded that most of the student in translating recount text of English Department of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University had a fair in standard and quality. It can be suggested that students have to master grammar because grammar contributes to the mastery of translating. The students should read more to enrich their knowledge and improve their grammar mastery, grammar and translating ability. Students should have known what tense that can be used when they wrote the text. In addition, the lecturers should get informed of the results of the research, so that they took a benefit or necessary procedures to address the situation. For further researches, it is suggested that the similar types of research should be carried out with broaden population to analysed and discussed completed factors that influenced the students' ability in translation text. Pages 702 to 714




The Eligibility of the "Go… Go… Bubbles!" Book as an English Textbook in Early Childhood Education

Sri Slameta*, Joko Nurkamtob, Soetarno Joyoatmojoc, Wirantod, a,b,cSebelas Maret State University, Suarkarta, Indonesia. Email: a*ss212@student.uns.ac.id

This research was conducted because the book "Go ... Go ... Bubbles! English for Kindergarten (Book 1) which was used in Early Childhood Education or Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini (PAUD). Integrated Islamic Pemata Hati Kartasura was not yet known, its quality, both in terms of presentation and material. The purposes of this study were to determine the eligibility of presenting and to determine the eligibility of the material of the English textbook. The type and research design used was descriptive qualitative. The method of data collection was done by documentation technique; researchers did the coding then proceed with calculating the percentage of eligibility. The validity of the data in this study used member checks and reference materials—the data analysis techniques used in content analysis. The results of the analysis were as follows. The eligibility of the presentation with a very feasible category was 87%, and the average of the material was 80%. The last one consisted of the content of the book was 88%; the components of character were 69%, and the illustration component was 83%. Based on the percentage of presentation and material eligibility, the book had met the eligibility. Pages 715 to 722




The Roots of Administrative Reform in Indonesia

Samodra Wibawaa, Antonius Galih Prasetyob, Darulfa Aziza’ Nur’ainic, a,cGadjah Mada University, Indonesia, bNational Institute of Public Administration, Indonesia, Email: asamodra03@yahoo.combantgalihprasetyo@gmail.comcdarulfa.a@mail.ugm.ac.id

Indonesian public administration has undergone a long history since 1945. Many efforts have been committed to enhancing their quality and capacity in the form of policy, institution, or idea. Based on the literature review, this article describes the historical development of Indonesian public administration, which can be seen as a journey of administrative reform. The development is divided into six phases: rationalisation, development administration, administrative improvement, administrative reform, administrative adjustment, and bureaucratic reform. Each stage is characterised by distinctive basic concerns and driven by a specific goal. Along the continuum of Indonesian public administration's history, some basic ideas and similar institutions were created, recreated, and modified. However, the dream to reach the ideal public administration has not been achieved yet. Corruption, bad management, and lack of service-oriented mentality still become the main problems that need to be confronted in the future. In the journey to enter a new historical phase, it is believed that the reform needs to be continued. Pages 723 to 740




Developing an Academic Self-Efficacy Scale by Using the Rasch Model

Ratih Christianaa*, I Nyoman Sudana Degengb, Carolina Ligyah Radjahc, Triyonod, a,b,c,dState University of Malang, Department of Guidance and Counseling, Faculty of Educational Science St. Semarang 5, Malang 65145, Indonesia, Email: a*ratihchristiana@unipma.ac.id

This article aims to conduct a preliminary study to develop academic self-efficacy scale of students as a diagnostic instrument when conducting counselling practice. The research samples were 487 undergraduate students of Guidance and Counseling Study Program at six universities in East Java through the format of academic self-efficacy scale of counselling practice. The research method used a quantitative method in the form of questionnaires with Likert scale in the form of semantic differential. Data analysis testing has been conducted successfully with the Rasch model through Winsteps software. The study results show that the students who have self-efficacy of counselling practice are categorised into three groups, such as high 8,7%, medium 36,8%, and low 54,4%. Data instrument analysis shows the fulfilment 20% standard of unidimensionality that is proven by the score achievement of the scale shows academic self-efficacy reaching 41,9%. Interestingly, the statistic result of the person and item instruments show good instrument reliability with MNSQ achievement = 0,97 and the interaction between respondents with ZSTD item = 0,77 which indicates the feasible and further analysis to be conducted. Pages 741 to 758




The Relationship between Total Quality Management, Organisational Culture, and Organisational Performance

Tariq Al zoubia, Rosmaini Tasminb, Mohammed A. Abu rummanc, a,bFaculty of Technology management and Business,Universiti Tun Hussein onn Malaysia, cFaculty of Business, al-Balqa Applied University, Email: agp180090@siswa.uthm.edu.my">tariq.alzoubi@hotmail.com,gp180090@siswa.uthm.edu.my,   bini@uthm.edu.mycabusharare_77@hotmail.com,aburumman@bau.edu.jo

The present study aims to examine the relationship between Total Quality Management and Organisational Cultures, and Organisational Performance from the transportation sector, especially the Ministry of Transportation, and Al Hejaz Railway in Jordan.  The researcher distributed (196) questionnaires all top managers from the transportation sector, especially the Ministry of Transportation, and Al Hejaz Railway in Jordan. This study is also important to the general practitioner as it emphasizes the role of Total Quality Management towards higher organisational performance. By exploring the significant role of organisational culture, this study is able to scientifically persuade Jordanian business managers, especially Al Hejaz railway managers, that introducing total quality management is essential but is not enough to gain the desired level of performance, unless it is supported by a focus on Organisational Cultures. The research applies Smart PLS for data analysis. The valid and final number of questionnaires that were good for analysis consisted of 179 participants. The results indicated that total quality management had a significant and direct positive effect on Organisational Cultures. Organisational Cultures had a statistically and direct positive effect on Organisational Performance. Organisational Culture had a significant effect on the relationship between Total Quality Management and Organisation Performance by mediating the relationship. This study contributes to filling a theoretical gap in the Total Quality Management, Organisational Culture, and Organisational Performance by validating the direct and indirect relations among Total Quality Management and Organisational Culture and the effects of these on Organisational Performance. Pages 759 to 774




The Fishbone Model as an Alternative Approach in Government Accounting to Reach an Unqualified Opinion

La Ode Hasiaraa, Ahyar Muhammad Diahb, aAccounting Department, Politeknik Negeri Samarinda, bBusiness Administration Department, Politeknik Negeri Samarinda, Email: ahasiara@polnes.ac.idbahyarmdiah@polnes.ac.id

This study aimed at examining and analysing the work of Government Accounting to reach an Unqualified Opinion. This is related to the work of Local Government Organisations in areas such as (1) the commitment of leaders, (2) employee competency, (3) employee attitude, (4) employee behaviour, (5) Standard Operating Procedures, (6) Internal Control Systems, (7) budget, (8) information technology support, (9) monitoring, and (10) evaluation, and honesty. The study employed a qualitative approach with the Fishbone Model. The results of this study indicated that the commitment of leaders, employee competency, employee attitude and behaviour, Standard Operating Procedures, Internal Control Systems, budget, information technology support, monitoring, and evaluation, as well as honesty, are mutually supportive in achieving an Unqualified Opinion. Therefore, the ten (10) components are a unified whole, bound to one another. We concluded that the Fishbone Model would be an appropriate approach to use as one of the strategies implemented by Local Government Organisations to achieve an Unqualified Opinion. Pages 775 to 786




The Role of Learning Models: An Analysis of Learning Outcomes and the Competencies of Students

Aditya Pratamaa*, Christian Wiradendi Wolorb, Mardic, Nadya Fadillah Fidhyallahd, Hengky Pramusintoe, a,b,c,dFaculty of Economics, Jakarta State University, Jakarta, eSemarang State University, Semarang, Email: a*adityapratama@unj.ac.id

This study, involving experimental research with quasi-experimental design, investigates the achievement of competencies and student learning outcomes through the role of learning models. Construction in the learning model acts as an important prerequisite for achieving competence in accounting. The samples of this study were all students of SMK Negeri 40 Jakarta. Samples were taken using the Non-Equivalent Control Group Design technique. The results of testing the requirements analysis show that in the normality test the two classes are normally distributed. Homogeneity data variance test results are homogeneous. Hypothesis testing results indicate that: 1. a t-count of 2.955 with t-table of 1.667 was obtained, which means that there is an influence in the cooperative learning model Type Numbered Head Together (NHT) on learning outcomes; 2. The competency of students in trading company accounting practicums with special journal material increases. Based on the results of the test model, using the learning model has an impact on improving learning outcomes and increasing the competence of trade accounting practicum. Pages 787 to 799




Public Service Innovation and the Diffusion of Innovation in Indonesia

Jusuf Iriantoa, Diah Natalisab, Isnaini Rodiyahc, aDepartment of Public Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences - Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, bDepartement of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business - Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, cDepartment of Public Administration, Faculty of Business, Law, and Social Sciences Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo, Email: ajusuf.irianto@fisip.unair.ac.idbdiah.natalisa@gmail.comcisnainirodiyah@umsida.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to describe the government of the Republic of Indonesia’s efforts to encourage improvement in the quality of public services through the Competition of Public Service Innovation (or Kompetisi Inovasi Pelayanan Publik/KIPP) since 2014. The public service innovation is triggered by KIPP and is carried out nationally by the Ministry of Empowerment of State Apparatus and Bureaucratic Reform (or Kementerian Pendayagunaan Aparatur Negara and Reformasi Birokrasi/Kemen PAN-RB) as a way towards innovation diffusion. Methods of this study involve a qualitative approach using document investigation procedure as a data collection technique with descriptive data analysis. The results showed that KIPP was able to create an innovation culture in the public sector. To conclude, innovation diffusion has a pivotal role in improving public service performance throughout Republic of Indonesia’s government. It has been going as expected through a variety of policy formats, programs, and activities. Pages 800 to 813




Teachers’ Knowledge of Phonological Awareness Levels: A Case of Jordanian EFL Teachers’ Perception

Mohammad Husam Alhumsia*, Anas Ahmad Awwadb, aSaudi Electronic University, Saudi Arabia, bIsra University, Jordan, Email: a*m.husamalhumsi@gmail.combanas.awwad@iu.edu.jo

Phonological awareness is perceived as one of the key building blocks of the development of emerging reading skill. To date, little is known about how phonological awareness instructions can be implemented effectively in EFL classrooms. In Jordan, studies revealed that young readers struggle with English reading development, which represents a challenge to EFL teachers.  Therefore, this study aims at investigating the perception of Jordanian EFL teachers of the knowledge of phonological awareness levels at emerging readers’ stage and identifying the factors that affect teachers’ perception. A cross-sectional questionnaire was used and distributed to a sample of 73 participants at primary private schools in Jordan. Descriptive statistics, independent sample paired t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyse the data. The findings revealed a misinterpretation regarding the concepts of phonological awareness and phonics among EFL teachers. The results further revealed that EFL teachers’ perception of phonological awareness was not mediated by their academic qualifications, teaching experience, gender, or age. The findings will be interpreted and discussed, and their pedagogical implications will be finally highlighted. Pages 814 to 832




The Influences of Perceived Organisational Support upon Employees’ Responses to Change Readiness at Muhammadiyah Malang Hospital, Indonesia

Dicky Wisnu Usdek Riyantoa*, Che Mohd Zulkifli Che Omarb, Ananda Laksmanac, Siti Nurhasanad, a,c,dUniversitas Muhammadiyah Malang (UMM) Indonesia, bUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) Malaysia, Email: a*dickywisnuusdek@gmail.com

This study was aimed at describing the influences of perceived organisational support on employees’ responses to change readiness at Muhammadiyah Malang hospital that is privately managed and authorised by University of Muhammadiyah Malang under Muhammadiyah Organisation. There were 64 employees involved in the study, selected from non-medical category of workforces. Using t-test, the study had uncovered that the hypothesis value of perceived organisational support on responses to change readiness constituted 4.617 > 1.999. The significance was shown to be 0.000 < 0.005, which means that H0 was rejected, while H1 was supported. In sum, perceived organisational support had positively and significantly influenced the employees’ responses to change readiness at Muhammadiyah Malang hospital. The limitation of the study involved the use of descriptive statistic data. Therefore, it is recommended that further studies define indicators of perceived organisational that influence change readiness the most by means of mixed methods. Pages 833 to 850




Toxic and Bullying Behaviour in the Workplace: The Relationship and Impact

Sanaa Jasim Mohammeda, Ali Abboodi Al-Jubourib, Ibrahim Abdulhasan Ibrahimc, aTechnical Institute of Kufa, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, b,cDepartment of Business Administration, Imam Al-Kadhum College, Iraq, Email: akin.sna@atu.edu.iqbaliabboodineamah@alkadhum-col.edu.iqcibrahemalsaegh1979@gmail.com

This study examines the behavioural, individual and contextual variables that are expected to impact the perceived severity of workplace bullying behaviour. It also identifies the toxic behaviour involved in interacting with workplace bullying for the employees at Al-Hakim General Hospital in Iraq. Thus, to find the psychological symptoms associated with the related behaviours, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) was used. Based on the analysis, the findings indicated that the severity and classification of workplace bullying behaviours had been influenced by the toxic behaviours involved through the characteristics of the employee who is subjected to those behaviours. The analysis conducted in this research also indicated that the behaviours that were personally harnessed from the corresponding target were more severe and frequent than other categories of behaviour. Finally, having an appropriate organisational system is of great importance to guarantee high performance in the organisation. Pages 851 to 875




Improvement of the Procedure for the Poor Statement Submission (SPM) to Increase Health Services

Setya Haksamaa*, Diansanto Prayogab, Syifaul Lailiyahc, Jayanti Dian Eka Sarid, Siti Nurainie, Farid Dimjati Lusnof, Anis Wulandarig, Syahrania Naura Shedysnih, M. Rifqo Hafidzudin Faridi, Abdul Fattah Faridj, Syadza Zahrah Shedytak, a,b,c,d,f,gDepartment of Health Policy and Administration, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, eFaculty of Economic and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, h,iFaculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, jFaculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, kHusada Utama Hospital Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: a*setyahaksama@fkm.unair.ac.id

Purpose: Local Health Insurance (Jamkesda) is the regional obligation to meet the basic needs of proper public health. The purpose of this study was to analyse the procedure to access the Certificate of Disadvantage. Method:  The method used in this study was qualitative with cross sectional research design. Data was collected by secondary data study and Focus Group Discussion. Result: The results of the study indicate that the submission of the Certificate of Disadvantage at Banyuwangi Regency, Indonesia is in accordance with existing guidelines. The difficulty in the process of giving out the Certificate of Disadvantage are the 18 poverty indicators, as well as the necessary signature of the Head of District or District Secretary. Conclusion: This study indicates that the provision of the Certificate of Disadvantage in general is in accordance with procedures based on applicable regulations. Pages 876 to 887




Analysis of Determinant Factors with Health Services Utilisation for National Health Insurance Participants at a Private Hospital

Indra Gunawana, Djazuly Chalidyantob, a,bDepartment of Health Policy and Administration, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: b*djazulych@fkm.unair.ac.id

A hospital is a health facility that provides advanced health services for national health insurance participants. This study aimed to analysed determinant factors with national health insurance utilisation. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using a simple random sampling technique with the total sample of 150 respondents. Data was analysed using linear regression statistical analysis. Results: The results of the study illustrated that only 55.33% utilised national health insurance. Most respondents had the following characteristics: age >60 years (50.67%), high education (66%), good perception (68.67%), and were close to the health centre (53.33%). There was a correlation between the age variable (p = 0.022), education (p = 0.005), perception (p = 0.000), services accessibility (p = 0.001) with health service utilisation for national health insurance. Conclusion: Age, education, perception, and service accessibility were four variables that correlated significantly with national health insurance utilisation. Pages 888 to 898




Patient Safety Culture Overview of the Naval Academy Hospital

Ossy Wijaya Iriandokoa, Djazuly Chalidyantob, a,bDepartment of Health Policy and Administration, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: b*djazulych@fkm.unair.ac.id

The culture of patient safety developed by hospital management is the first step to make effective patient safety efforts. Hospital patient safety is a system in which hospitals will make patient care safer than before. The purpose of this paper was to describe the overview of patient safety culture at the Naval Academy Hospital thoroughly. Materials and Methods: The research was descriptive, and used a questionnaire as the data collection tool for patient safety culture, which was adapted from the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire published by The Agency for Healthcare Research (AHRQ). The data analysis performed was descriptive statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that the distribution of patient safety culture based on installation indicated that every installation in the Naval Academy Hospital had a positive patient safety culture. Installations which received a positive response above 50% were the emergency department installation, inpatient room installation, general poly, medical record, laboratory installation, environmental sanitation installation, physiotherapy installation, laundry installation, financial department, and drug warehouse. The dimension having the highest positive response was the cooperation within the unit (79.4%), while the lowest was management support (39.0%). Conclusion: Patient safety culture at Naval Academy Hospital is quite positive. It is expected that the hospital will continue to make improvements and enhance the culture of patient safety, especially the dimension in the lowest category. Pages 899 to 912




Integrated Social Media Marketing with Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) in Bali Indonesia

I Gusti Ayu Ketut Giantaria*, Anak Agung Ayu Sriathib, Ni Wayan Ekawatic, Ni Nyoman Kerti Yasad, Made Setinie, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Economics and Business, Udayana University, Indonesia, Email: a*ayugiantari@unud.ac.id

Marketing can be the heart of a business. E-WOM among its users can be a persuasive tool to encourage users to make purchases especially with social media support, which has become a part of daily life. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive model to investigate the effect of social media marketing and e-WOM on consumer purchase intentions by integrating the elaboration likelihood model (ELM), and the theory of reasoned action (TRA). The analysis technique used is Partial Least Square (PLS). The research findings show that all variables have a direct and significant influence. However, their attachment to E-WOM did not mediate positively and significantly the effect of their attachment to social media marketing on purchase intentions. This means that the intention to make a purchase will be stronger because it is driven by a stronger marketing engagement through social media that serves as a reference for teenagers. This means that their attachment to E-WOM in this study does not have a role as a mediating variable. The results of the analysis are expected to be considered by producers and marketers, to be able to face further competition and can be used as an alternative business development strategy. In fact, for the government, this research is expected to be an input in policy making that drives the pace of economic growth in Bali. Pages 913 to 930




Understanding Crowdfunding Ecosystem as Alternative Source of Entrepreneurial Finance for SMEs in Ghana

Joseph Owusua, Wilberforce A. Owusu-Ansahb, a,bDepartment of Marketing and Corporate Strategy, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana, Email: ajosephowusu87@yahoo.combwoansah@gmail.com

Recently, crowdfunding has gained significant recognition in entrepreneurial finance across the world. The goal of this current paper is to bring to fore better understanding of the under-researched funding behaviour of crowdfunding by employing social capital network theory to demonstrate that Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana can substantially benefit from crowdfunding source of finance. This research depends on social capital network theory to guide, organise, and explain the phenomenon. The study looks at the ecosystem standpoint to understand the various crowdfunding stakeholders and the roles they play in the process. The present study also reviews the related literature focusing on how the study fits into the general context of crowdfunding phenomenon. Based on the typology approach, our study identified four models of crowdfunding: namely, peer-to-peer lending, equity, rewards, and donation. Guided by the identified models and their importance, we propose a conceptual research model and conclude by indicating how this current research supports the financing needs of SMEs in Ghana. Pages 931 to 946




Administrative and Enforcement Issues in Collecting Assessment Rate Arrears in Local Authorities in Malaysia

Elina Mohda, Zainal Amin Ayubb, Haslinda Mohd Anuarc, aMajlis Bandaraya Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia, b,cSchool of Law, COLGIS, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Email: aelina@mbas.gov.mybz.amin@uum.edu.mychaslinda@uum.edu.my

The assessment rate is the main revenue for local authorities. It finances the services and maintenance of the local authority areas. The revenue is mainly from the assessment rate, but collection keeps on decreasing, causing difficulties to local authorities to provide good services. This study aims to examine factors causing assessment rate arrears. The scope of the study is on the local authorities in the northern region of Malaysia. The study employs socio-legal research where data is collected through interviews with respondents like the Mayor or Council’s President and respondents from the relevant local councils. Data is analysed using descriptive analysis. It is found that there are weaknesses in administrative and enforcement in claiming assessment rates arrears. This study proposes ways to overcome assessment rates arrears, among others, through the amendment of the Local Government Act 1976, improving local authorities’ services, cooperation by the Land Office and enhancing public perception and awareness towards assessment rates. Pages 947 to 957




Institutional Control as an Entry Point for Transparency in Information Disclosure: Field Study in a Sample of Iraqi Banks

Khalid Aziz Farhan Essaa, Shireen Azeez Mohammedb, Irina Frolovac, aCollege of Education for Humanities Presidency of Kirkuk university, bNorthern technical university, Southern Federal university, Email: aKhalid.azis@uokirkuk.edu.iqbShireen.azis@ntu.edu.igcirarostov@gmail.com

The financial industry has been affected by the financial crisis and its repercussions as a result of sudden and rapid changes and deviations in the prices of stocks and bonds and swap values in general. This deviation can be repaired by restoring the role of institutional control through its principles (Board of Directors, Audit Committees, Internal Auditor, External Auditor). The objective of this research is to demonstrate the role of institutional control in achieving transparency in the disclosure of information in a sample of Iraqi banks, and the hypotheses of the study were developed in order to achieve its purposes and directions. From the distributed (82) questionnaire forms to managers and auditors in the field under discussion, (75) were retrieved. The hypotheses of the study were tested using correlation coefficient and multiple regression coefficient to diagnose correlation and effect relationships between the variables of the respondents. After consideration, the research recommends the need to activate the role of institutional control more effectively and efficiently because of its role in achieving transparency in the disclosure of information. Pages 958 to 977




Common Mistakes in Official Communications Computer Processing

Rasha Saud Abdulaali AL Tahera, Hind Rustum Mohammedb, Zahraa Azhar Muhammadc, a,b,cUniversity of  Kufa- Faculty of Computer Science and Mathematics, Email: arashas.abdulaali@uokufa.edu.iqbhindrustum.shaaban@uokufa.edu.iqczahraa.alramahi@uokufa.edu.iq

Common mistakes in official communications are among the most important problems that face us in our institutional societies. The present has invaded with its scientific and practical life, but we must employ them to serve our Arabic language, which is the language of the Holy Quran, to be a lifeline seeking to preserve that language on the one hand, and to overcome the difficulties experienced by the employee on the other hand. Thus, this research came to reduce those mistakes that have spread – and noticeably in our official speeches – by creating a program that can diagnose the grammatical, spelling, and linguistic error in those speeches, and then correct them, whether the correction is with one word, a sentence or the full text. Pages 978 to 986




The Impact of Strategic Management Tools and Techniques on Organisational Performance Management: Mid-Level Managers’ Perceptions

Saleh Alarifia, aAssistant Professor/Management Information Systems, Taif University Taif, Saudi Arabia, Email: as.hamed@tu.edu.sa

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/131178

Strategic management and its factors are among the most important factors affecting the efficiency of business and increasing its competitive advantage among others. One of the most important components of this is the Business Intelligence System (BI). Concern in this regard has always been confined only to the views of senior managers, both in choosing the technology that helps the business to implement its strategic plan and put it in the scope of actual implementation in what works for the benefit and development of the business or regarding the (BI) system and its impact. This neglect of the perspectives of middle managers is the basis for this research, as it should be highlighted unlike researches that have been done before. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate BI systems as viewed by mid-level managers. Finally, this study concluded that from a medium-level perspective, a comprehensive strategic plan model can be made. This study also demonstrated the effectiveness of BI systems in improving the performance of business strategic management. After collecting and analysing data, the researcher found that there is a relationship between organisational alignment and business activities, and a relationship between organisational alignment and the efficiency of the CPM process. However, the researcher did not find possible ways to influence the organisational alignment itself. Pages 987 to 1002




The Effect of Lean Production on Quality Engineering: An Applied Study in the Al Waha Company for Soft Drinks, Juices and Mineral Water

Rehab Hussein Jawada, Fatimah Hussein Kadhimb, Lwomi Hussein Al-mansooric, a,bFaculty of Administration and Economics, University of Babylon, cFaculty of Computer Science and Mathematics, University of Kufa, aRh.aa880@yahoo.combfatimah.uob@gmail.comclumah.almansory@uokufa.edu.iq

The main objective of the current study is to examine the effect of lean production on quality engineering. This is a serious attempt to fill or reduce the knowledge gap in interpreting the relationship between these variables. In order to achieve this goal, the questionnaire was used as a main tool for collecting the required data through random sample distribution. The researchers distributed 150 questionnaires to a number of company staff. Of these, the researchers collected 148 questionnaires which were analysed using a number of statistical tests available in the AMOS V24. The study then reached a set of statistical results that showed a positive and significant effect of lean production on quality engineering. Pages 1003 to 1013




The Use of Lean Thinking Towards Improving the Effectiveness of the Internal Auditor: An applied study in a group of banks in Iraq

SakarDhahir Omar Amena, Basira Majeed NajmBaqib, Wisam Sami Jabbar Zinlc, a,cNorthern Technical University Technical Institute of Kirkuk Department of Accounting Techniques, bUniversity of Sulaimani College of Administration and Economic Department of Accounting, Email: asakar.amin@ntu.edi.iqbbasira.najm@univsul.ed.iqcwisam_sami@ntu.edu.iq

The research aims to study the entrance of lean thinking and its role in improving the effectiveness of the internal auditor of the views of a sample of employees of Iraqi banks, By measuring the impact and testing the relationship between lean thinking and the effectiveness of the internal auditor, the analytical descriptive approach was adopted, As well as the selection of a sample of gentlemen in the banks and the number (62) individuals, using the questionnaire, which included (42) paragraph. The results were extracted through the statistical program (SPSS) to validate the research hypotheses related to the correlation and impact between the two research variables. A number of results have been reached, the most important of which is a positive correlation between the lean thinking and the effectiveness of the internal auditor, and then formulating a number of recommendations related to the results of the research. The most important work is to spread awareness in the Iraqi banks on the importance of lean thinking and ways and methods. her job. Pages 1014 to 1029




The Living Law in Indonesian Penal Code: A Combination of Legal Certainty and Justice

Hanafi Amrania, aLecturer at Criminal Law Department, Faculty of Law Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: ah.amrani@uii.ac.id

This article considers the question of whether the concept of living law, which is not written, can be accommodated in Indonesian criminal law with the type of written law based on the principle of legality. Many people assume that living law contradicts legality because both have different goals; justice for the former and legal certainty for the latter. I argue that the concept of living law in the Indonesian Penal Code is not at all contrary to legality, but rather combines legal certainty and justice in the Indonesian legal system. They are studied based on aspects of legal substance, legal structure and a legal culture that places living law and criminal law in the right proportion in society. Pages 1030 to 1044




Religious Pluralism in the Thoughts of Religious Leaders in Malang, Indonesia

Achmad Khudori Soleha, Erik Sabti Rahmawatib, a,bUniversitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, Indonesia, Email: akhudorisoleh@pps.uin-malang.ac.id, berikrahmawati@syariah.uin-malang.ac.id

Social and political considerations alone are inadequate to be the basis for pluralist attitudes so as to build relationships between religious communities because conflicts between religious communities still occur. This pluralist attitude needs a theological foundation to be made reliable. The purpose of this study is to explore the thoughts of religious leaders in Malang on the scriptural basis of religious pluralism, the methods of thinking used and the forms of activities applied. The analysis method uses the interview as the source of primary data. Document analysis was also carried out. Twelve religious leaders were the subjects, representing six religions in Malang: Islam, Catholicism, Protestantism, Hinduism, Buddhism and Confucianism. The results of the study showed that the thoughts of religious leaders were divided into two: pluralist and inclusive. There are four models of their thinking methods: privatisation, filtering, hermeneutics and proportionality. The thought of religious pluralism were applied in two forms: doctrine and social activities. The findings of this study are twofold: first, correcting Webber's theory of the relationship of beliefs and deeds; second, a new method called "Patterns of Pluralism Interpretation". Based on this, the research suggests that pluralist verses continue to be socialised and more interfaith social activities have been carried out. Pages 1063 to 1078




Mukim Existence in Aceh Government Structure: Local Wisdom Representation in Supporting Regional Development

Muhammad Ikhsan Ahyata, Badaruddinb*, Humaizic, Heri Kusmantod, a,b,c,dDoctoral Program of Development Study, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, Email: b*badaruddin@usu.ac.id

Mukim is a form of local wisdom existing in Aceh. This study is aimed at explaining the role of mukim in presenting local wisdom as the basis of development in Aceh. This study used a qualitative research approach. The sources of data in this study are from primary and secondary data. The primary data was gained through observations, in-depth interviews with informants' opinions and focus group discussion (FGD), while secondary data was from literature review. It can be concluded that the existence of Aceh government policy has made mukim return as an institution that has a very important role in community development based on local wisdom. The Aceh government is expected to be able to provide encouragement and stimulants to the mukim by paying attention to all forms of local wisdom so that its role can be maximised in development in Aceh to provide welfare for the community. Pages 1079 to 1089




Why Enterprise Resources Planning Technology is Needed for Logistics Integration and Retailer Satisfaction

Hotlan Siagiana, Zeplin Jiwa Husada Tariganb*, a,bPetra Christian University, Master Management Program, Indonesia, Email: ahotlan.siagian@petra.ac.idb*zeplin@petra.ac.id

This study examines the impact of enterprise resource planning (ERP) technology on retailer satisfaction through internal logistics integration and manufacturing integration. This research was conducted with 135 manufacturers domiciled in East Java, Indonesia. Data collection was carried out using a questionnaire and analysis was performed using SmartPLS. The results showed that ERP technology influence logistics integration. However, ERP technology does not affect manufacturing integration. ERP affects retailer satisfaction. Logistics integration influences manufacturing integration. Logistics integration influences retailer satisfaction. Manufacturing integration affects retailer satisfaction. One of the interesting findings is proof that internal logistics integration mediates the influence of ERP implementation on the retailer. However, manufacturing integration did not mediate the influence of ERP technology on retailer satisfaction. Hence, the ERP technology adopted by a manufacturer affects retailer satisfaction through direct and indirect effects. The results of this study provide an insight for industry practitioners that implement ERP,  an excellent benefit for the company. Pages 1090 to 1104




Investigating Organisational Performance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Tri Minh Haa, Hanh Tien Thi Nguyenb, a,bInternational University, Vietnam National University – HCMC, Email: ahmtri@hcmiu.edu.vnbtienng96@gmail.com

This article investigates the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and organisational performance (OP) based on stakeholders' perceptions in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Adopting a cross-sectional design, a sample of 280 responses was collected using the cluster sampling method. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) approach was used to examine collected data. The results showed that eight out of eleven relationships, including customer (on non-financial performance), supplier, community and environment significantly affect OP, except for employee and customer (on financial performance). The overall model indicated a weak positive relationship between CSR and OP. This implies that socially responsible activities as regards supplier, community and environment can improve organisational performance, but not CSR pertaining to customers (on non-financial performance) and employees. Pages 1105 to 1125




Revitalisation and Innovation of "Arak Bali" Products

Ni Wayan Widhiasthinia, Nyoman Sri Subawab, Kadek Januarsa Adi Sudharmac, Ni Putu Intan Permatasarid, a,b,c,dUniversitas Pendidikan Nasional, Denpasar, Indonesia, Email: awidhiasthini74@undiknas.ac.idbshribawa@undiknas.ac.idcjanuarsa.adi@undiknas.ac.iddintanpermata@undiknas.ac.id

Sharing economy, which is one of the characteristics of economic practices in the era of disruption, can be realised with the issuance of Bali Governor's Regulation No. 1 of 2020, regarding the Management of Distinctive Fermented Beverages or Distillation of Bali. This is with the aim of increasing the usability, competitiveness and making drinks based Balinese local wisdom, to become a superior product. The study was conducted to examine the development of the existence and revitalisation efforts of "Arak Bali", in the era of disruption. The importance of this research is a comprehensive study and discussion related to the existence and development of "Arak Bali" products, from the aspect of political economy. This research was conducted by referring to previous research results, as well as the use of Regulatory Theory, Optimal Pareto Theory and Justice Theory. This study uses a qualitative descriptive method, the determination of informants is done purposively, and the research location is focused on Arak production centres, with a pattern oriented relationship between the government, crafters, academic groups and entrepreneurs. The development of Arak Bali products in the era of disruption can be observed from the legality of products, the revitalisation of Arak products and the application of digital marketing, innovation and creativity as well as the response of the government and the community. The research findings are that the implementation of Reinventing Government, sharing economy and economy collaboration models among craftsmen, government, entrepreneurs, is needed in developing the existence of Arak Bali. Pages 1126 to 1141




Improving the Bargaining Position and Challenges of Rural Women in the Merapi Merbabu Valley

Hastuti Hastutia*, Edi Widodob, aDepartment of Geography Education, Yogyakarta State University,  Indonesia, bGeography Education Master Program, Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia, Email: a*hastuti@uny.ac.id

Women are involved in the Kobro Siswo Rukun Mudo dance group to improve their bargaining position in the community. Women are faced with new conflicts. In this descriptive qualitative research the research subject is the Kobro Siswo female dancers. Triangulation of data sources includes advisors, heads of arts groups, and community leaders. The data analysis model used is from Miles & Hubermann. The results showed that women, through the Kobro Siswo Rukun Mudo dance, gained a better bargaining position. Women with domestic responsibilities could divide their time between the Kobro Siswo Rukun Mudo dance training and arts activities. Also, women had other economic activities including managing agricultural land to obtain a source of income. Art is a way for women to use their time for social activities and increase income. Pages 1142 to 1158




Local Wisdom-Based Spiritual Values as a Role Model for Shaping National Character Education in an Islamic School

Maskur Maskura, Erna Retna Saftirib*, Jamilah Jamilahc, a,b,cInstitut Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Pahlawan No. 32 Garut, Indonesia, Email: b*erna.retnasafitri@gmail.com

The purpose of this research is to examine the integration of spiritual value in the development of character education in an Islamic school. This research used qualitative descriptive methodology. Data was collected using observations, semi-structured interviews, and documentary studies. Data analysis was performed using an interactive model. To ensure the validity of data, data sources triangulation was carried out. The results of the research reveal that character building was achieved by integrating three domains including humanity, nationalism, and spiritualism. Character values that are taught and studied in an Islamic school include wisdom, fairness, fortitude, self-control, love, positive attitude, hard work, integrity, gratitude, and humility. Spiritual values based on local wisdom taught in the school include sincerity, simplicity, self-sufficient, ukhuwah Islamiyah (the brotherhood of Islam), and freedom. The character education took place in three different but interrelated axes including the classroom, dormitory, and mosque. Pages 1159 to 1169



Involving English Teachers in National English Language Policies in the GCC

Hajar Mahfoodha, Shadiya al-Hashmib, aLecturer, University of Bahrain, bAssistant Professor, University of Bahrain,  Email: ahajarm@gmail.com, hakadhem@uob.edu.bh,  bShadia_alhashmi@yahoo.com,  salhashmi@uob.edu.bh

English language teachers in the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) countries strive to adjust national educational objectives to their classrooms, particularly in Bahrain and the UAE. Most teachers appropriate curricula based on short-term goals entailing a compromise of national policies. Such appropriations stem from different levels of students in the classroom and national policies. Many English language teachers are highly critical of national English language policies, while others argue that such policies are unrealistic because they do not involve English language teachers. This situation results in a gap between national English language policies in theory and implementation in pedagogical practices. This paper proposes that education decision-makers of both Bahrain and the UAE can constructively involve teachers in developing national English language policies that cope with global trends of ELT pedagogy. Involving native Arab teachers in developing education policies is essential to counter current local economic conditions and marketplace challenges, standardise a national policy and preserve the native culture in a globalised world. Pages 1170 to 1184

Classroom Management in the Student-Teachers’ Teaching Practicum: Challenges and Recommendations for Teacher Education

Dwiyani Pratiwia, Ali Saukahb, Sri Rachmajantic, Mirjam Anugerahwatida Doctoral Student of Universitas Negeri Malang, bcdUniversitas Negeri Malang

Email: dwiyani.1702219@students.um.ac.id

Classroom management has become one of the critical issues which student-teachers face in their teaching experience when entering the teaching practicum. This study explored the concerns of student-teachers regarding challenges and strategies in classroom management. It was part of a larger scope of a study concerning the dilemmas that student-teachers faced during teaching practicum. This study used a sequential explanatory mixed method design consisting of two phases: phase one was a quantitative method and the second phase was a qualitative method. The quantitative data were collected using questionnaires and the qualitative data were collected by means of interviews and reflection journals about their experiences in coping with the students’ discipline and compliance. The findings of this study prompt a discussion about the importance of providing the student-teachers with classroom management skills in teacher education, before the teaching practicum. It also highlights the issue of classroom management which involves the shift of focus from managing only the behaviour to both managing the behaviour and learning. Pages 1185 to 1202

The Assessment of Online Learning in IAIN, Bukittinggi, During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Zulfani Sesmiarnia, Iswantir Mb, a,bInstitut Agama Islam Negeri Bukittinggi, Email: azulfanisesmiarni@iainbukittinggi.ac.id,  biswantir@iainbukittinggi.ac.id

This research aimed to analyse the assessment of online learning in IAIN, Bukittinggi. The population and sample for this project were IAIN Bukittinggi students, which equates to a population of 1400, therefore a sample of 140 people was used . The sample was chosen from 10 % of the population by using an accidental sampling technique. This instrument was used in collecting data and  a questionnaire was distributed by using a Google Form shared through WhatsApp and via email. The data analysis  method used was quantitative. Revelations of this research included aspects such as assessment form, the suitability of assessment with RPS, how to do assessment, and assessment time. Results of this research were obtained through Google Forms. The general assessment was then carried out by giving question answered by students then it was sent through email. Then, the time allocated to do assessment is agreed upon by the lecturer and students. Pages 1203 to 1216

The Influence of Environmental Leadership and the Locus of Control on the Application of Green Concrete

Acep Hidayata, Syafwandib, Syafiadi rizki abdilac, Ahmad Syukrond,  

aMercubuana University, Indonesia, b,c,dSTIA Menara Siswa

Email: aacep_hidayat@mercubuana.ac.idbsyafwandi@menarasiswa.ac.idcrizkisyafiadi@gmail.comdahmadsyukron69@gmail.com

The objective of this research is to find out the effect of environmental leadership and the locus of control on the application of green concrete. An ex post facto method has been used by selecting 24 samples for each cell. The reliability of environmental leadership was .792, the locus of control was .86 and green concrete was .89. The data was analysed by a two-way ANOVA. Research results revealed that there was Green concrete with significant differences between those employers who have employee environmental leadership transformational compared to employee environmental leadership transactional. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between environmental leadership and the locus of control on the application of Green concrete. It could be concluded that the management who perceived environmental leadership as transactional was not always more effective when compared to employee environmental leadership. When it comes to affecting ‘greener’ employment, it depends on mostly internal or external locus of control. Pages 1217 to 1231

Literacy Utilisation of Information Technology for Farmers in Badung Regency, Bali, in the Era of Industrial Revolution 4.0

I Wayan Arta Setiawan, Pitaloka Handayani Putri, Kadek Oka Candra Dwi Yanti, Ni Wayan Widhiasthinid, I Gede Agus Kurniawane, a,b,c,d,eUniversitas Pendidikan Nasional, Email: aartabusiness99@gmail.combputripitalokan@gmail.com, cchandrady10@gmail.com, dwidhiasthini74@undiknas.ac.idegedeaguskurniawan@undiknas.ac.id

Very rapid changes have occurred as a result of the current 4.0 industrial revolution. One of them is the development of agricultural aspects, which initially only appeared in agricultural products, now it has expanded to the marketing process of agricultural products. The conditions that occur are not always ideal because farmers often suffer losses because of the decrease in selling price of crops and so on. This study aims to contribute to the government, community stakeholders, especially farmers, to enable the use of information technology in the fields of production, distribution, promotion in agriculture. Two problems addressed in this study are: (1) the literacy utilisation of information technology in the agricultural industry in relation to industrial revolution 4.0; and (2)  the factors that hinder the said problematise qualitative methods. The data used in this study are qualitative and quantitative data. Meanwhile, the data sources are obtained in the form of primary and secondary data as well as the determination of informants by using purposive sampling techniques. The research location took place in Mengwi District, Badung Regency, Bali Province. The research results show that the optimisation ology literacy utilisation application in agriculture create skilled-human resources in relation to agricultural development in the industrial revolution era 4.0. The conclusions and suggestions of this study are the maximization of the application of information technology literacy in the era of revolution 4.0. Pages 1231 to 1245

Measuring the Effect of Economic Reform Policies on Improving Unemployment Rates in Iraq for the Period 1980-2010

Hatem Kareem Balhawia, Salam mounam zamilb, Ghalib shaker bahitc, a,b,cWasit University Faculty of Faculty of Administration & Economics,

The goal of the search is to state the essential requirements of economic reform policies in Iraq. Also, the research aims to identify the specific objective picture of the reality (unemployment, health, poverty) in Iraq through the analysis of some indicators, and the impact of economic reform policies on these indicators. The findings show that the most important was the impact of economic reform policies on the reality of human development in the Iraqi economy. This may indicate through the decline in social development services, where the social protection programs, but it did not meet the demands of the affected citizens and not enough as well as came late. One of the most important recommendations is commitment and careful with the gradual application of economic reform policies.The recommendations were taken for the gradual implementation of economic reform policies and the creation of appropriate conditions for the introduction of those reforms by laying down laws and practical foundations for economic reform programs in order to reduce the burdens afflicting the poor classes in society and work to reduce the unemployment rate by attracting capital, stimulating investment and keeping pace with the progress made in the experiences of  Reformation in the world. Pages 1246 to 1259

Collegial Supervision to Improve the Quality of Education

Mukhneri Mukhtara*, Herlyna Wardoyob, Sudarmi Sudarmic, Burmansah Burmansahd, Mochamad Wahyudie, Rudi Hartonof, aProfessor in Educational Management, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia, bProfessor Asst. and Lecturer, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia, cProfessor Asst. and Lecturer, Politeknik Kesehatan Tanjung Karang, Lampung, Indonesia, dLecturer in Buddhist Education Department, STIAB Jinarakkhita, Lampung, Indonesia, eProfessor Asst. and Lecturer, Universitas Bina Sarana Informatika, Jakarta, Indonesia, fProfessor Asst. and Lecturer, Universitas Djuanda, Bogor, Indonesia, Email: a*mukhneri@unj.ac.idbherlyna@ui.ac.idcsudarmi@poltekkes-tjk.ac.iddnyanabandhu@ekayana.or.idewahyudi@bsi.ac.idfrudi.hartono@unida.ac.id

It has been 19 years since education autonomy in Indonesia with the aim to improve the quality of education was instigated; however, the results have not been in line with the expectations of the community and the government. This is due, in part, to the principal's job as the education supervisor, which,  given the fact that the supervisor's ability is not in accordance with the expertise of the teachers being supervised, is not maximised. To make the most of the principal’s function as an education supervisor, principals are ready and willing to delegate their duties and responsibilities as well as give autonomy to the coordinators, senior teachers, and teachers who are the experts in their respective field of study. The research design of this study is a quantitative approach using descriptive methods. The results showed: (1) the delegation of tasks, responsibilities and autonomy given to teachers can improve, and develop the behaviour and ability of teachers in creating quality learning systems in schools. (2) The role of teachers as education supervisors in improving the quality of their colleagues is integrated in collegial supervision, and (3) collegial supervision is an effort made by peers in improving and developing teaching and learning in schools, so that quality education is achieved. Pages 1260 to 1280

The Impact of Globalisation on the Culture, Society and Literature of Viet Nam

Hoang Thi Huea, Nguyen Hoang Nguyenb, Gatut Susantoc, Endah Priyatnid, a,University of Education, Hue University, Viet Nam, bUniversity of Forein Language, Hue University, c,dUnivesitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Email: ahoangthihue@hueuni.edu.vn,Hoanghuedhsp@gmail.com,   bwarlocknguyen@gmail.comcGatut.susanto.fs@um.ac.iddEndah.tri.fs@um.ac.id

This article specifies the close, dominant relationship between renovation, society and literature development. In the Viet Nam renovation period of exchange and integration with the world, there have been many changes. Renovation policies have brought great achievements for Vietnamese society, economy and culture. Renovation in all areas is the basis and the premise for Vietnamese literature renovation. Affirming the renovation of theoretical thinking, literary renovation is indispensable. Vietnamese literature in the early 21st century, with the achievements of literature in the renovation period, has shown the spirit of democracy, freedom of expression, and deep integration into world literature in the context of globalisation. This occurred as a consequence of underlying political factors, socio-cultural situations, the reality of literature and theories, and research and criticism in Vietnam. Using a survey method that examines the achievements in social development, the results of the article indicate the cause of renovations in literature originates from political factors, the socio-cultural situation, as well as literature and theory, research, and criticism of Vietnam. Pages 1281 to 1290

The Influence of Learning Media on the Quality of Learning in Middle Schools for Accreditation in the City of Pekanbaru

Zuhri Da, Heldy Ramadhan Putra Pb, Giyotoc, aAssoc. Professor, Mathematics Education Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training in Education, Riau University, bAssoc. Professor, Islamic Education Management Study Program Postgraduate Faculty, IAIN Surakarta, cAssoc. Professor, English Language Study Program Postgraduate Faculty, IAIN Surakarta, Email: azuhri@lecturer.unri.ac.idbheldyramadhan@iain-surakarta.ac.idcgiyoto@iain-surakarta.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to reveal and analyse the effect of learning media on the quality of learning in "A" accredited schools. The method used in this research is survey research with quantitative research approaches. The population in this study are all teachers in high schools in Pekanbaru City. The results showed that the learning media had a positive and significant effect on the quality of learning. Description of learning media shows good results. Likewise, the description of the quality of learning shows good results, and the value of the correlation of learning media with the quality of learning is in a strong position. Pages 1291 to 1300

A Methodological Approach to Judges' Decisions as a Form of Supervision of Judge Behavior by the Supreme Court and the Judicial Commission

Mukti Fajara, aProfessor of Law Faculty, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: amuktifajar_umy@yahoo.co.id

Judges have a noble and burdensome task. They are obliged to examine cases and make decisions in the name of God and justice. Therefore the judge is given power by the constitution to be free and independent, without pressure or influence from anyone. Despite that, the judge is still an imperfect human being and often makes errors. Because of that, internal supervision by the Supreme Court and external supervision by the Judicial Commission are necessary to oversee the professionalism and behaviour of judges. The judge's decision is jurisprudence, which is an open legal doctrine that must be understood through legal logic. That is why academic aspects are needed for it to be more objective and effective. This article proposes the following problem: How is the methodological approach to judgment and decisions of judges based on legal logic, as an effort to supervise between the Supreme Court and the Judicial Commission on the behaviour of judges? The research applied the normative juridical method by studying the principles and theories of law and legislation related to the supervision of judges in Indonesia. The findings show that to conduct joint supervision between the Supreme Court and the Judicial Commission on the professionalism and behaviour of judges, a breakthrough is needed by carrying out a methodological approach and academic analysis of the judges' judgment and decisions. The results of the analysis of the judge's decision are not to overturn the judge's decision, but to indicate the existence of fairness, oddity, or deviation from the judge's behaviour objectively and effectively. Pages 1301 to 1312

Nuclear Crimes in Peaceful Fields

Ahmed Hamdallah Ahmeda, Zain Alabdeen Awad Kademb, a,bCollege of  Law, AL -Qadisiyah University, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Republic of Iraq, Iraq, Emails: aahmed.hamdallah@qu.edu.iq,  bzain.alabdin@mu.edu.iq

Humans seek, through scientific capabilities and technological development to use nuclear energy as an alternative energy to traditional sources. This is as a result of its efficiency and its high capacity for generation in all fields. There is no doubt that scientific development must have a dark side, which represents the negative effects of that use and that nuclear energy has uses in the peaceful field. But as a result of the use of nuclear energy, there are crimes and acts that may inflict interests protected by law of serious and grave harm. Therefore, we see legislation that has enacted laws to address some of these problems, even though its treatment needs a broader view of the seriousness of the issue. This includes Egyptian legislation such as Law No. 59 of 1960 in the matter of organising work with Egyptian ionising radiation, as well as international agreements such as the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material of 1980, and the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism of 2005. Pages 1313 to 1329

Consonant Lenition among Speakers of Arabic

Jumanah Shakeeb mohammad Taqia, aCollege of education for Women, Iraqia University, Iraq, Email: ajumanah.taqi@aliraqia.edu.iq

English has become the language of communication in almost all countries particularly for trade, business and educational purposes. English is thus taught as a second or foreign language. Efforts are made to teach the native accent, yet, the teachers who teach are also non-native. Most of the communication that takes place in English in non-native countries is among non-native speakers. Hence, a dialect of English is created which is influenced by the native language of each country. Hundreds of non-native dialects are currently in development. Lenition is a weakening of certain sounds in continuously. The influence of the mother tongue affects the sounds of Arabic speakers while using English. This paper studies examples of lenition from Arabic speech of teacher-student conversations and investigates how far it does or does not affect overall communication. The researcher has analysed selected conversational passages to study consonant lenition in Arabic speech. It was concluded that Iraqi speakers of English do conform to some patterns of lenition, but differ in some patterns from native English speakers. The overall communication is not affected. Pages 1330 to 1346

Contemporary Trends of Administrative Innovation and its Impact on Developing Employee Performance

Ahmed AbdulSalam Ahmed Al-Salima*, Eshaq Yousif  Hamdanb, Sarah Sabah Khorsheedc, a,bUniversity of Samarra, cTechnical Institute of Kirkuk, Northern Technical University, Email: a*ahmedcollege80@gmail.com

This study aims at shedding light on the contemporary trends of administrative creativity and its impact on the development of the performance of workers in the Iraqi private banks, where the study followed the descriptive analytical approach and the study population of those working in those banks and the sample of the study are 107 samples. The study comes with a number of conclusions, the most important of which is the strong correlation between administrative creativity on the one hand and the material and moral incentives offered to the employees on the other hand, based on the conclusions we find by the study. Recommendations were made, the most important of which is encouraging employees to generate new ideas that contribute to increasing the organisation's revenues, and achieving survival and growth by focussing on the creative aspects to achieve the best financial income and best service alike. Pages 1347 to 1359

Public Consultation in the Acquisition of Customary Land in Indonesia: An FPIC Perspective

Sri Hajatia, Sri Winarsib, Xavier Nugrahac, Muhammad Jibrild, Reynard Kristiane, aDepartment of Jurisprudence Faculty of Law Universitas Airlangga, bDepartment of Administrative Law Faculty of Law Universitas Airlangga, cFaculty of Law Universitas Airlangga, d,eFaculty of Law Universitas Gadjah Mada, Email: asri.hajati@fh.unair.ac.id,  bSri.winarsi@fh.unair.ac.id,  cxavier.nugraha-2015@fh.unair.ac.id,  dmuhjibril.law@gmail.com,  ereynard_kristian@yahoo.com

To this day, the indigenous community is stigmatised as an obstacle to development. In reality, indigenous peoples are marginalised in the development process because the government has not yet fully recognised their rights. This research is juridical-normative research, in which it aims to identify the importance of free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC) in land acquisition law for indigenous communities and to understand the problem of public consultation on customary land and find solutions to these problems. Land acquisition law for public use in Indonesia is inseparable from FPIC. One of the new nomenclatures that come together with the Land Acquisition Law is a public consultation, where the mechanism of public consultation is fundamental to build public participation. Based on this research, it is found that there is a contradiction in the manifestation of the principle of consent in the positive law of land acquisition in Indonesia. The author offers the ideal concept of public consultation in FPIC-based land acquisition. This concept will help to provide more substantive justice to indigenous communities whose land is the object of land acquisition. Pages 1360 to 1374

Politics and Women's Leadership: Understanding Women's Political Participation in Public Leadership

Elly Nurliaa*, Utang Suwaryob, Widya Setiabudic, Netty Pd, aFaculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung & Mathla’ul Anwar University, Banten, Indonesia, b,c,dFaculty of Social and Political Sciences Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: a*elly16001@maill.unpad.ac.id

This study aims to explain women's political participation and public leadership. Two main points are discussed. The problem of women's political participation in public leadership is indeed full of twists and turns. Various obstacles, ranging from cultural factors, religion, and others, are still barriers for women to participate in public leadership. This study uses qualitative methods that are naturalistic and descriptive by obtaining data through various secondary sources. The results of the study showed that women were able to compete on par with men. In leadership, also between men and women, there are substantial differences. However, women have the advantage in leading because; they have the ability to persuade, have a lower level of ego, do not eliminate firmness, flexibility and considerate work ethic, and are able to lead with empathy and willingness to take risks. Pages 1375 to 1386

The Implementation of Early Childhood Mathematics Education in Stimulating Collaborative Abilities: A Local Wisdom Approach

Feri Faila Sufaa*, M.Hery Yuli Setiawanb, a,bEarly Childhood Education Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas  Slamet Riyadi, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*ferifailasufa@unisri.ac.id

Mathematics education is still a polemic in Early Childhood Education (ECE), as is learning to read, write and count. But the introduction of mathematics can be introduced to early childhood through daily activities and environmental approaches. The purpose of this study is to describe the need for mathematical recognition at an early age, and the supporting and inhibiting factors in early mathematics learning by utilising local wisdom. The study was conducted at twenty institutions along the Solo Highway, with data collection techniques through observation, interviews, and questionnaires to educators and early age parents. The results of the study explain how local wisdom could be used to stimulate mathematics learning. Pages 1387 to 1398

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and the Sustainability of Pt. Pertamina RU II Production in a Mangrove Area of the Pakning River

Dadang Mashura, Sujiantob, Sofyan Husein Siregarc, Ridwan Manda Putrad, a,b,c,dDepartment of Environmental Science, Universitas Riau, Email: adadang.mashur@lecturer.unri.ac.idbsujianto@lecturer.unri.ac.idcsofyan.siregar@lecturer.unri.ac.iddrm.putra61@gmail.com

Sustainable development is a collaboration between the government, private sector, and the community that is carried out with the concept of participation because the community is an entity that exists in an area that together seeks to realise social welfare. One of the problems faced in the environmental field is the problem of abrasion and damage to mangrove ecosystems along 46.5 km, and it is included in the critical category spread in five districts in Bengkalis Regency. Therefore through the Green Jewel Program, the local community cooperates with PT. Pertamina RU II Production of Sungai Pakning to rehabilitate mangrove forests. This type of research is Mixed Method, which is a collaboration between qualitative and quantitative approaches with an emphasis on qualitative and quantitative methods as a reinforcement of qualitative findings and data collection through interviews, surveys, observations, literature studies and focus group discussions (FGD). The findings of this study indicate that the level of sustainability of the Permata Hijau CSR Program of PT. Pertamina RU II River Pakning in the mangrove area in a multi-dimensional category is less sustainable. This is because of the Permata Hijau CSR program of PT. Pertamina RU II Sungai Pakning is still oriented towards the social and technological dimensions and ignores the ecological, economic and institutional dimensions. Pages 1399 to 1422

The Social Role of Graffiti of Protesters of 2019

Saba Qais Al-Yassirya, aCollege of Education, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq, Email: asaba.abdulhussein@uokufa.edu.iq

Artistic achievements over time have links to the human being and his basic needs. Freedom and demanding rights are among the most important human needs. What happened in Tahrir Square in the centre of the Iraqi capital, Baghdad, was a cry of freedom and an expression of my opinion with drawings simulating events. On political and social life, close to the Monument of Freedom, youthful cartoons were embodied in a peaceful manner that raises controversy through artistic expressions in contemporary formulations that challenge reality. As a result of repression and fear of losing documenting these drawings, the study attempted to document this special period in the life of Iraq, which demonstrated the culture of this generation and their awareness of their rights and duties towards the homeland. It is evident in the graffiti there is a cultural and artistic awareness and a clear interest in the cultural heritage. Through analysing the models, there is a focus on basic concepts indicating the maturity of the demonstrators and their awareness by emphasizing the martyr through the icon of the revolution (Safaa al-Saray) and the white shirt to denote peace and the student majority for the revolution. The emergence of marginalized or poor strata of society in the common struggle. Pages 1423 to 1441

Turkish – Israeli Co-operation and its Effect upon the Turkish – Iranian Relations 1996 -1997

Shatha Faisal Rashoa, Mohammed Dakhil Kareemb*, a,bUniversity of Al-Hamdaniya, Email: b*dr.mdksh@gmail.com

The second half of the 20th century has witnessed significant relation between Turkey and Israel. They have started by the Turkish recognition in the state of Israel after its establishment in 1949. Then, there is diplomatic exchange and culture ties and economic Co-operation. This reached the climax in the last decade of the 20th century between 1996-1997 when both parties have signed many agreements in the military and security field as well as exchanging intelligence expert and military manoeuvres. No doubt, these ties reaching this level has affected negatively on the ration of turkey with its neighbouring state Iran from its side has considered the Turkish-Israeli alliance might threaten directly its national security although there is a continuation of political and economic rations, taking into consideration not to raise problems on level of officials and in return Israel still looks at the development of relations between Turkey and the Arab states may affect negatively on its national and regional security and at the sometime Israel tries not to deepen the relations between Iran from one side and Syria and  Lebanon from anther. Pages 1442 to 1451

The Historical Route of Puppets Arts Experience in Iraq

Zainab abd al-Ameer Ahmeda, aUniversity of Baghdad - College of Fine Arts,

Throughout the ages, the importance of puppets arts comes from the importance of the puppet. Its first function appears by using it in pagan religious rituals and magic. The puppet has a series of functional changing. It has played different political, social, and cultural roles, by that it became out of religious field and entered the artistic field. Therefore, types of puppets arts play big roles in the different fields of life. The researcher has limited the problem of this research as that, the real existence of puppets arts in Iraq has a great deal of weakness and obscurity. As well as the specialists in this field have fogginess intellectual views, whether they are in the governmental foundations or not, and whether they have a direct contact with the puppets arts or not. The researcher has also found a clear weakness in formal and scientific documentations of the artistic efforts that have done for puppets arts. This weakness comes from the lack of awareness in dealing with these arts by describing them, as effective arts like all other arts that have the specialists' interest. Moreover, there are very limited scientific researches that shed light on these efforts by analyzing their accuracies and amounts, especially those researches about puppets arts in Iraq. This research depends on historical analysis to describe puppets arts in Iraq during the period 1954-2017. The results show that the developing of these arts in Iraq have four phases according to artistic and educational levels, which are as the following: 1.Initiatives phase (1955-1966) 2. Establishing phase(1967-1979) 3.Recession and hesitating phase(1980-2000) 4. Renaissance and dedication phase(2003-2017). The most important suggestion of this research is to dedicate the enlightenment of the puppets arts by specialists in the formal foundation, especially Ministry of education, ministry of culture, ministry of higher education, and official media institution. As well as building national center for puppet arts in Baghdad, and establishing sub-centers for it in all cities. Puppets arts should treat as main subjects in institutes and colleges of fine arts in Iraq. Official Theatrical foundation should make for puppets arts and it can add to department of cinema and theater or department of the child's culture, and foundation of festivals specializing in puppets arts whether in theater or in cinema. Pages 1452 to 1472



ICT and Social Media as a Marketing Communication Platform in Facilitating Social Engagement in the Digital Era

Ahmad Mulyanaa, Rizki Briandanab, Endi Rekartic, a,bSchool of Communication Science, Universitas Mercu Buana Jakarta, cSchool of Economics and Business, Universitas Mercu Buana Jakarta, Email: aahmad.mulyana@mercubuana.ac.id,  brizki.briandana@mercubuana.ac.id,  cendi.rekarti@mercubuana.ac.id

This study will examine the management of applications in building social engagement in the disruptive era. This study departs from the observation of recent community behaviour patterns with developments in information technology, especially social media increasingly spoiling users. Disruptive behaviour is patterned with increasingly varied applications accommodating its users’ needs. The theory used is related to message management creativity in marketing communication based on social media use. This study took a qualitative approach through a case study. Data was collected using in-depth interviews and observation. The results show social media is effective in establishing communication and interaction in relationships with Helpster application users. The target market of Helpster is millennials who tend to use social media to obtain information. Helpster builds social engagement for blue-collar workers using the Helpster application through YouTube, Instagram, Facebook and LinkedIn. Pages 1 to 16




A Study on Job Satisfaction of Accountants in Vietnam

Thi Ngoc Lan Nguyena, Thi Dung Doanb*, Duc Tai Doc, aFacuty of Accounting, Trade Union University, Vietnam; bPeople's Public Security University of Technology and Logistics, Thuan Thanh district, Bac Ninh Province, Viet Nam, cFacuty of Accounting, University of Labor and Social Affairs, Vietnam, Email: alanntn@dhcd.edu.vn,  b*doandung1978@gmail.com,  ctaiketoanquocte@gmail.com

The study aims to identify and measure the impact levels of determinants on job satisfaction of accountants in accounting service firms in Hanoi, Vietnam. Based on the desk review and results of interviews, a total of 200 questionnaires were sent to research participants for collection; 145 of them met the standard and were subject to be analysed. The results of the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA) identify 5 main determinants influencing job satisfaction of accountants, including (i) nature of work, (ii) operating procedures, (iii) information feedback, (iv) colleagues, and (v) leaders. Based on the findings, some recommendations have been proposed to help the firm leaders design appropriate personnel policies for creating better job satisfaction for accountants in the coming time. Pages 17 to 36




Empowerment of Household Women through Sharia-Based Entrepreneurship Training in Banjar City, Indonesia

Hasan Bisria, Husnib, aUniversitas  Islam  Negeri  (UIN) Sunan Gunung  Djati Bandung, Indonesia, bInstitut Agama Islam Darussalam (IAID) Ciamis, Indonesia, Email: ahasanbisri@uinsgd.ac.id,  bhusni1967@yahoo.co.id

This study aimed to empower housewives through Sharia-based entrepreneurship training programs. This study used a participatory action research (PAR) method, which was conducted in Banjar City, Indonesia. The objects of this research were women whose work was limited at home. Through Sharia-based entrepreneurship training programs, these women were empowered to have Sharia-based entrepreneurial knowledge and skills. This knowledge and skills included the details of Sharia’s financial products, the skills to market goods and services in Sharia, and Sharia-based business and business management. This program succeeded in increasing women’s knowledge, understanding, insight and skills on the workings of the Sharia economy so that they had an awareness of Sharia entrepreneurship. Pages 37 to 49




The Influence of Advance Organiser and the Different Cognitive Styles of Higher Education Students

Muhammad Nasira*, Mohammad Salehudinb, a,bInstitut Agama Islam Negeri Samarinda, Indonesia, Email: a*muhammadnasirsadeke@gmail.com,  bsalehudin@iain-samarinda.ac.id

Many learning models are designed to strengthen students' cognitive structures, however, none have used the right strategy. This study, therefore, aims to fill this gap by using the advanced organiser model (AO) and different cognitive styles (CS) as moderator variables. The quantitative approach, quasi-experimental, and the pretest-posttest non-equivalent 2x2 factorial designs were used to obtain data from 38 students divided into two small groups according to their cognitive style. Both groups were treated by administering teaching for four meetings, with the ANOVA used to analyse data and test hypotheses. The results showed that the subjects who were given the comparative organiser and a Field Dependent cognitive style (FD) achieved better and higher communication skills, respectively, with significant interactions between various types of advance organiser models. Pages 50 to 60




The Modern Dimension of the Astrolabe as an Innovation of Ancient Technology

Mohd Hafiz Safiaia*, Noor Izzati Ab Rahmanb, Khadijah Ismailc, Mohd Izhar Ariff Mohd Kashimd, Ezad Azraai Jamsarie, aResearch Centre for Sharia, Faculty of Islamic Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, bSchool of Accounting, Finance and Quantitative Studies, Asia Pacific University of Technology and Innovation, Malaysia, cDepartment of History & Islamic Civilisation, Academy of Islamic Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, dResearch Centre for Sharia, Faculty of Islamic Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, eResearch Centre for Arabic Studies and Islamic Civilisation, Faculty of Islamic Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: a*hafizsafiai@ukm.edu.my

The astrolabe was a very important instrument used by astronomers and navigators in every civilisation for centuries. It became more famous at the peak of Islamic astronomy during the Golden Age of the Islamic civilisation, as an instrument to show direction and time in the fields of astronomy and navigation. However, later it became less known and is increasingly forgotten. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to review the continuity of this legacy of the Islamic Golden Age, through the study of the astrolabe in Malaysia, specifically in astrofiqh and STEM education. This research has a qualitative approach using document analysis, observation and interview methods. Research results find that knowledge of astrolabe is increasingly abandoned and its use becomes more irrelevant in view of a variety of sophisticated and modern inventions. However, there are efforts to gradually increase knowledge of the astrolabe. This scenario should be given attention in order to continue efforts to restore the legacy of the Golden Age of the past Islamic Civilisation, in addition to maintaining the supremacy of the astrolabe as the basis of developing current digital instruments of astronomy. Pages 61 to 75




Customer Experience, Destination Image and the Intention to Revisit: A Case of Tourism in Mount Bromo, Indonesia

Sopiaha*, Agung Prasetiyob, Bagus Shandy Narmadityac, a,b,cFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Malang, Email: a*sopiah.fe@um.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the variables of customer experience, destination image and the intention to revisit. This study applied a quantitative method using path analysis to understand the direct and indirect effect of variables. The research was conducted in Mount Bromo, which is one of the most popular natural tourist destinations in East Java of Indonesia. The population is tourists, both domestic and foreigners. The sample size is about 380 tourists obtained using Daniel and Tarrel’s formulas. Furthermore, the data was collectied through questionnaires with a Likert scale. The findings showed that customer experience has positively affected the destination image, while the destination image has a positive impact on the intention to revisit. Also, customer experience has an indirect effect on the intention to revisit through destination image. Pages 76 to 86




The Impact of Mandatory IFRS Adoption on Accounting Quality: Iraqi Private Banks

Bahaa Hussein Mohammeda, Hasanain Salim Rasheedb, Rabab Wahhab Maseerc, Abbas Jumaah Al-Waelid, a,cDepartment of Accounting, Facility of administration and economic, University Of Baghdad- Iraq, bDepartment of Office Management, Technical institute for Administration, Middle Technical University-Iraq, dDepartment of Accounting, Faculty of Management and Economics, University Pendidikan Sultan Idris- Malaysia

This paper examines the effects of adopting the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS ) on the quality of accounting in Iraqi private banks (IPB). The majority of the banks in Iraq have complied with International Accounting Standards regulations since 2015. This paper determines the connection of the IFRS adoption with the improvement in the quality of accounting of the banks that have been listed on the Iraqi Stock Exchange (ISE) according to the correlation between operation cash flow and net income. This study will utilise secondary data obtained from the financial statements that are available in the ISE from 2012 – 2018. The outcome revealed that there is a correlation between OCF and NI after the IFRS have been adopted in banks that are reflected to tow banks out of five has been improved in accounting quality. Besides that, there are also other reasons, such as legal and political systems, that impacted on the quality of accounting in Iraq. Pages 87 to 103




The Role of the Forensic Accountant in Achieving the Integration of Accounting and Legal Performance

Amer Dayekh Obaida, Ali Mohammed Thijeelb*, aPHD Candidate at Post-Graduate Institute for Accounting & Financial Studies, Baghdad University, Iraq, bA.PHD Department of Accounting studies, Post-Graduate Institute for Accounting & Financial Studies, Baghdad University, Iraq, Email: b*ali.mamouri@yahoo.com

Forensic accounting aims to employ accounting information in the judiciary and financial advisory fields in order to meet the needs of the judiciary regarding financial irregularities and the need of investors, shareholders, lenders and tax and supervisory authorities for  accurate information.  Forensic accounting techniques can thus be used to face the challenges and risks faced by organisations. The research  aims to set  recommendations, the most important of which is the necessity of developing the role of the forensic accountant in supporting forensic proceedings related to commercial disputes as an expert witness by organising provisions and rules in legal texts consistent with the nature of the work of forensic accounting to avoid and ward off risks. In addition, the study urges  forensic experts to show the required characteristics and features of  forensic accountants, as well as the developed country, and the necessity of possessing the basic and desirable skills that a forensic accountant should master. These factors are considered in addition to mastering the software tools and encouraging membership in professional organisations interested in forensic accounting in developed countries. Pages 104 to 124




Development of VAT Sanction Regulations in Light of Polish and EU law

Wojciech Maruchina, aUniversity of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw, Poland.

The subject of the conducted research is the development of sanction regulations  in light of Polish and EU law. Sanction regulations  were innovative elements introduced to the Act of 8 January 1993 on the value added tax and excise duty, which, due to the high budgetary significance of both taxes, became the most important substantive Polish tax law passed in connection with the reform of the Polish tax system. In the course of the analyses, changes in VAT sanction regulations  were indicated by considering the subsequent questions: 1. What was the reason for the changes made to these regulations in the period preceding Poland’s accession to the EU? 2. What was the impact of EU law and case law of the EU Court of Justice on Polish sanction regulations  before and after Poland's accession to the EU? 3. Were there other reasons for the implemented changes and what did they entail? As a research method, an analysis of normative material, views presented in legal doctrine and in case law of the Constitutional Tribunal (CT) and the EU Court of Justice was adopted. Development of VAT sanction regulations  in the period preceding Poland’s accession to the EU was caused by the scope and frequency of violations of instrumental tax obligation committed by taxpayers. The second reason for changes in the content of the examined regulations was the influence of case law of the Constitutional Tribunal which sought to designate the limits for the application of tax sanctions. The third factor contributing to the changes in sanction regulations  was   case law of the EU Court of Justice, which is a crucial part of acquis communautaire. Pages 125 to 142




Conditions of Internationalisation of Foreign Service Enterprises in the Polish Market

Robert Nowackia, aUniversity of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw Okopowa 59, 01-043 Warsaw, Poland, Email: ar.nowacki@vizja.pl

The characteristic feature of the contemporary economic reality is growing internationalisation of enterprises. This applies to all sectors, including  the service sector. Of  key importance in the process of internationalisation of service enterprises are the motives impelling businesses to undertake expansion to foreign markets, as well as the factors (criteria) serving the evaluation and comparison of the target markets. The aim of the article is to analyse the determinants affecting the propensity of foreign service entities to undertake expansion into the Polish market and the strategies undertaken in this field,  as well as to identify the key sources of competitive advantage taking place at the enterprises in question. The grounds for deliberations in the article are findings of the research carried out in 2017, among managers of 153 foreign service enterprises operating in the Polish market, of different sizes and scopes of activity. In this article, the author focused on two issues: evaluation of the factors describing the Polish market from the point of view of their impact on the propensity to run their activities therein, as well as identification of the sources of competitive edge used by foreign service entities. The findings of the conducted research show a positive perception by foreign service enterprises of a prevailing majority of the factors characterising the Polish market. And there are no significant differences between the appraisals made by individual categories of enterprises. In this research, the author identified fourteen sources of competitive edge of foreign service enterprises in Poland. The key one is professionalism in customer service. An important role is also played by brand and accompanying reputation, as well as promptness of customer service and efficacy of marketing measures, mainly promotional ones. Pages 143 to 156




The Implementation of Inter-Professional Education Community Curricula in Indonesian Universities

Eti Poncorini Pamungkasaria*, Bulan Kakanita Hermasarib, Endang Lestaric, Tri Nur Kristinad, Fatikhu Yatuni Asmarae, Widyandana Widyandanaf, Fitriana Fitrianag, Saekhol Bakrih, Dian Puspita Dewii, Diana Nur Afifahj, a,bFaculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, 57126, Indonesia, cFaculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang, 50112, Indonesia, d,e,h,i,jFaculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia, f,g,dFaculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia, Email: a*pamungkasariponcorini@yahoo.com

Nowadays, health profession educational programs should implement inter-professional education curricula in order to improve health outcomes. Values, roles and responsibilities and communication are important aspects of inter-professional healthcare collaboration, but it still becomes a challenge. However, studies on the implementation of  inter-professional education curriculums in Indonesia are still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse the effect of values and roles and responsibilities to health professional students’ communication on inter-professional education. This study applies an observational cross-sectional study, which involves four universities located in Central Java province and Yogyakarta special region - Indonesia. A total of 970 health professional students from medical, nursing, midwifery, and nutrition programs took part in the study. Data were collected using student perceptions of inter-professional education instruments. Multiple logistic regression analysis is used for data analysis. The results show that there is no significant effect between types of the study program with communication on inter-professional education. It is very important to strengthen values and roles and responsibilities in order to improve students' communication in inter-professional education. The  educational programs of the health professions should emphasise values and roles and responsibilities when designing inter-professional education curricula. Pages 157 to 170




Students’ Understanding of the Scientific Approach to the Learning Process in Early Childhood Educational Institutions

Sri Sularti Dewanti Handayania, aEarly Childhood Teacher Education, Faculty of Education Science Universitas Negeri Semarang, Email: adewanti@mail.unnes.ac.id

The scientific approach is a scientific method in learning activities which includes the observation, questioning, gathering information, reasoning, and communication. Regarding the scientific approach, which began to be implemented following the enactment of the Curriculum of 2013 about Early Childhood Education, it is a necessary to change the basic concept of thought in the learning process. Through a scientific approach, it is expected to develop scientific, logical, and critical thinking and is objective in both the teacher and the children. The problem which was highlighted in this study was that there are still many various incorrect concepts of the implementation of scientific approaches in the learning process at Early Childhood educational institutions. As a result, the students themselves also did not have a full understanding about the implementation of the scientific approach in the learning process in such institutions. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse students' understanding of the scientific approach to the learning process at Early Childhood educational institutions. The method used in this research is the descriptive quantitative approach. The data collection was done by questionnaire and documentation. The number of samples in this study were 29 students chosen by the purposive sampling technique. The data analysis was presented by using a quantitative descriptive design. The results showed that students in the Teacher Education for Early Childhood Education Department had knowledge related to the scientific approach concept with a score of 62.07 per cent (intermediate level of understanding), knowledge related to the planning process of a scientific approach learning with a score of 65.52 per cent (intermediate level of understanding), and knowledge related to the implementation of the scientific approach with a score of 48.28 per cent (intermediate level of understanding). Pages 171 to 183




Analysis of Symbolic Violence Practices in Balinese Vernacular Architecture: A case study in Bali, Indonesia

Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendraa, I Putu Gede Suyogab, aUdayana University, Bali, Indonesia, bSekolah Tinggi Desain Bali, Indonesia, Email: aacwin@unud.ac.id,  bgsuyoga@std-bali.ac.id

This study debates the vernacular architecture of Bali in the Middle Bali era, which was strongly influenced by social stratification discourse. The discourse of social stratification is a form of symbolic power in traditional societies. Through discourse, the power practices of the dominant group control the dominated, and such dominance is symbolic. Symbolic power will have an impact on symbolic violence in cultural practices, including the field of vernacular architecture. This study is a qualitative research with an interpretive descriptive method. The data collection is completed from literature, interviews, and field observations. The theory used is Pierre Bourdieu's Symbolic Violence Theory. The results of the study show that the practice of symbolic violence through discourse on social stratification has greatly influenced the formation or appearance of residential architecture during the last six centuries. This symbolic violence takes refuge behind tradition, the social, and politics. The forms of symbolic violence run through the mechanism of doxa, but also receive resistance symbolically through heterodoxa. Pages 184 to 194




The Influence of Internal Factors and Motivation on the Decision to Enter Entrepreneurship

Nurul Ain Atiqah Zarharia, Muaz Azinuddinb*, Wan Mohd Adzim Wan Mohd Zainc, Nur Shahirah Mior Shariffuddind, a,b,c,dFaculty of Applied Social Sciences, Gong Badak Campus, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: b*muazazinuddin@unisza.edu.my

Entrepreneurship is widely acknowledged as the best development strategy in achieving economic prosperity in the shape of growth and competitiveness. This explains why many countries, including Malaysia, are working intensively with relevant stakeholders, such as educational institutions, to encourage entrepreneurship participation among their people. The importance of educational institutions in transforming graduates from being government-dependent to being self-employed, is further heightened given that Malaysia is heavily beleaguered by unemployment issues. Based on this premise, it is the aim of this study to analyse the impacts of entrepreneurial skills, knowledge, and attitudes, as well as motivation on the decision to enter entrepreneurship among undergraduates of Terengganu’s public higher learning institutions. A quantitative approach was used, carried out through the face-to-face distribution of questionnaires. Utilising convenience sampling, 290 usable questionnaires were subsequently analysed through the adoption of descriptive, regression, and mediating analyses. The results revealed that entrepreneurial skills have a higher unique significant contribution to the decision to enter entrepreneurship compared to entrepreneurial attitudes. Importantly, motivation is found to have a significant partial mediation effect on the relationships between entrepreneurial skills and attitudes and the decision to enter entrepreneurship. Drawing on the series of statistical procedures conducted, this paper provides empirical evidences that are of importance to the relevant stakeholders, especially in the context of formulating tailored policies for tackling the unemployment rates in Malaysia. Pages 195 to 212




The Role of the Hallyu Phenomenon in Shaping a Destination Image among Malaysian Adolescents

Farah Hidayah Mohd Zainia, Muaz Azinuddinb*, Nur Shahirah Mior Shariffuddinc, Wan Mohd Adzim Wan Mohd Zaind, a,b,c,dFaculty of Applied Social Sciences, Gong Badak Campus, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: b*muazazinuddin@unisza.edu.my

Hallyu refers to the surge of global visibility of popular Korean cultural products, such as Korean entertainment including music, television (TV) shows, dramas and films, cuisine, and fashion. The commodification of these products by the Korean Government to sustain and strengthen their culture worldwide has led to the emergence of Korea as one of the top tourism destinations in the world. However, the exponential growth of the country’s broadcasting and entertainment industry appears to greatly impact the values and ways of life among people, especially adolescents. Given the scarcity of tourism studies that investigate this impact, it is the aim of this research to analyse the mediating role of the idolisation of celebrities among adolescents in the State of Terengganu, Malaysia on the Korean music, TV shows and dramas, and the destination image. The data was collected through convenience sampling, where 301 usable questionnaires were subsequently analysed using descriptive, regression, and mediating analyses. It can be reported that both music, and television shows and dramas have a statistically significant relationship with the idolisation and the destination image. This is also the case in the context of the relationship between idolisation and the destination image. Interestingly, idolisation does not have the mediating impact on both independent variables and the destination image. These empirical results provide valuable insights to relevant stakeholders for the purpose of the strategic marketing of cultural products abroad and through the improvement of national brand value. Pages 213 to 229




Development of Web Application for Learning Management Supervision in Basic Schools in Thailand

Thanakorn Napaphorn, School of Graduate Studies, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Latkrabang, Thailand, Email:marsdargon@gmail.com

This present study aimed to develop a web application for learning management supervision in basic schools, and investigate the satisfaction towards the web application for learning management supervision in basic schools. Five experts in the former stage evaluated the web application. Meanwhile, in the latter, the one-shot case study was utilised to collect the data, and 30 teachers and administrators in a basic school were participants. Basic statistics were employed to analyse the data. The results found that the quality of the site was at a ‘good’ level (M=4.10, S.D.=0.18). Also, the satisfaction towards the site was at a ‘good’ level (M=4.29, S.D.=0.73). To conclude, this online platform was suitable for supervisors and supervisees to use. It could facilitate the users to save time and meet individuals' needs.  Pages 230 to 244




Millennials’ Political Preference: A Case Study in the 2019 Indonesian Presidential Election

T. Irmayania*, Subhilharb, Heri Kusmantoc, Humaizid, a,b,c,dDoctoral Program of Development Studies, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, Email: a*t.irmayani@usu.ac.id

Political preference in electoral competition is regarded as a basis for political actualisation. It is an indicator that democracy is well-established. This study aims to investigate the political preferences of the millennials generation (MG) in the 2019 Indonesian Presidential election (IPE). A quantitative approach using survey methods was employed as the research design. This study was conducted during July to November 2019, in Medan, Indonesia. The sample of this study is 300 millennials as respondents who were gained through accidental sampling originating from the Universitas Sumatera Utara and the Universitas Negeri Medan, Indonesia. In order to obtain the data, the questionnaire was employed with open and closed question types. The results showed that the political preferences of the MG remain influenced by psychological, sociological, and rational choice factors. They collect information from the media and other literatures. They assess the performance of the government and the work programs of the candidates that might be realised, as well as the possibilities of whether they benefit themselves and the public. Pages 245 to 261




The Law of Effectiveness on Brand Name Disputes for Better Industrial Protection

Kusbianbtoa, Ayu Trisna Dewib, Mahadi Oloan Sitanggangc, a,bFaculty of Law, Universitas Darmawangsa, Medan-Indonesia, cDharmawangsa Law Office, Medan-Indonesia

Brand name or trademarks as the property rights of companies are often consumed in Indonesian Courts as commercial conflicts. Any decision of the courts on a brand name might support or not support industrial protection in Indonesia. This paper was conducted to seek the effectiveness of Indonesian Law number 20 of 2016 of property law to support industry in Indonesia. A qualitative approach was conducted to collect data and analyse the effectiveness of Indonesian law from the high consumption of brand name disputes in the courts. The data collection comprised the case of trademarks between J. Casanova and Casano. The Supreme Court decided the winner in the Number 197PK/Pdt.Sus-HKI/2018, and has used Law Number 20 of 2016 concerning trademarks and geographical indications, where decisions at the District Court and Cassation level still use Law Number 15 of 2001 regarding brands. The data analysis showed that the Court had protected the property rights of trademarks and it supports the industrial protection Law. Pages 262 to 274




Institutionalising the Kompang for Primary School Students in Malaysia

Md Jais Ismaila*, Loo Fung Chiatb, Azu Farhana Anuarc, Rorlinda Yusufd, aPusat GENIUS@pintar Negara, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi Malaysia, bDepartment of Music, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia, cStudent Development and Campus Lifestyle (SDCL), Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Alor Gajah, Melaka, dPusat GENIUS@pintar Negara, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi Malaysia, Email: a*md_jais@ukm.edu.my,  blfc@upm.edu.my,  cazufarhana@unikl.edu.my

Malaysia is a country with diversity of culture and heritage. Subsequently it possesses varied traditional musical arts. One of the instruments of Malaysian traditional musical arts is the kompang, which has been played since the period of the Malacca Malay Sultanate. Nonetheless, the playing of this instrument has been decreasing among the community of late. Only passionate and interested parties such as art institutions, and cultural and arts agencies are still striving in upholding the arts of this traditional heritage. To foster the arts of this tradition, it needs to be nurtured from a young age. Therefore, a study was conducted to identify the functions of Kompang from an ethnomusicology view and children’s musical learning achievement by using Kompang. A library analysis method and statistical method have been adopted during field data collection. The study was carried out in a Malaysian primary school involving 70 children aged nine. This study was conducted for 12 weeks, including the practical tests in week 1 and week 12. Results show that the functions of kompang are as a welcoming instrument, entertainment, vocal accompaniment, communication, aesthetic arts, education and unity agent. The children’s achievement using the kompang showed a significant improvement from the pre-test to the post-test scores. The results of this research are expected to provide information about kompang as Malay traditional music instrument, which needs to be preserved in this modern era. As kompang fits to be a tool in music learning, it brings a new perspective to all music educators to integrate kompang as an effective teaching aid. Furthermore, it is a traditional musical instrument that should be duly appreciated and maintained by the whole community. Pages 275 to 292




The Role of ICT Ecosystem for Sustainable Innovation: Evidence from the Gaming Industry of China

Sadaf Hafeeza*, Noreen Izza Arshadb, Lukman Bin AB Rahimc, Mazeyanti M. Ariffind, Mohamed Imran Mohamed Ariffe, Muhammad Farooq Shabbirf, a,b,cDepartment of Computer and Information Science, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia, dPositive Computing Research Cluster, Institute of Autonomous Systems, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Malaysia, eFaculty of Computer & Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Perak Branch, Tapah Campus, Malaysia, fDepartment of Management Science, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan, Email: a*sadaf.hafeez85@yahoo.com

Increased digital participation adds new momentum to the economy and changes the nature of business. The gaming industry has become a large industry in China, and this industry has not developed independently. The development and innovation in the ICT ecosystem influences the development and innovation of the gaming industry. This investigation follows the ICT layer model by using Meta-frontier analysis to estimate and analyse the innovation in the gaming industry of China. The change in the technology gap ratio (TGR) is utilised to measure innovation in the gaming industry. The decrease in technical efficiency brings an increase in the technology gap ratio which alludes that some companies have shifted the production function upward due to technological innovation. Similarly, an increase in technical efficiency can be understood as the diffusion of innovation by imitation of competitors. The steady increase in meta-frontier efficiency explains that the gaming industry of China is growing by innovation.  This study has significant position in frontier studies by explaining the production process in a distinctive way which has previously been ignored. Pages 293 to 306




Liability Regulation for Construction in Indonesia

Anton Ismu Prabowoa*, Ismu Gunadi Widodob, Sulaksonoc, a,bDepartment of Law, Universitas Bhayangkara Surabaya Jl. Ahmad Yani 114, Surabaya, Jawa Timur 60231, Indonesia, cDepartment of Law, Universitas Dr. Soetomo Jl. Semolowaru No. 84, Menur Pumpungan, Sukolilo, Surabaya, 60118, Indonesia, Email: a*prabowo.i.anton@gmail.com

The construction industry in Indonesia is governed by sets of rules and regulations that seek to ensure the establishment of high-quality, durable, and cost-efficient infrastructures, while eliminating the problem of construction failures. The laws analysed in this article, including the Construction Services Act, were scrutinised to determine their effectiveness in creating legally binding obligations between clients, employees, and financiers. This presentation will put forth critical analyses of issues that have been identified as influencing the capability of the Construction Service Development Board to promote the best practices within the sector. The main tools for primary data collection in this descriptive study included questionnaires, focus group discussions, and workshop interactions. Intensive data analyses revealed that uneducated workforces dominated the construction industry. Inexperienced workers were not conversant with the country's legal standards of quality structures. Therefore, the recommended practices centred on restructuring the composition of the construction industry to focus more on education, consultancy certification, training, and capacity-building. Pages 307 to 326




The Implementation of Death Sentences in the Indonesian Legal System

Sulaksonoa*, Anton Ismu Prabowob, Ismu Gunadi Widodoc, aDepartment of Law, Universitas Dr. Soetomo Jl. Semolowaru No. 84, Menur Pumpungan, Sukolilo, Surabaya, 60118, Indonesia, b,cDepartment of Law, Universitas Bhayangkara Surabaya Jl. Ahmad Yani 114, Surabaya, Jawa Timur 60231, Indonesia, Email: a*sulaksono@unitomo.ac.id

This study examined the implementation of the death sentence in the Indonesian legal system. The implementation of capital punishment has sparked mixed reactions with proponents noting its significance in the maintenance of law and order while the opponents cite its violation of the right to life. A normative research design enabled its investigation into the research problem from multiple perspectives. The literature examined included secondary research journals and books published within the past five years. The findings reveal that, while the death penalty has elicited increased opposition across the social scene, the Indonesian legal system still embraces the practice with the primary objective of curbing crimes and protecting the rights of citizens.  The key areas upon which the death penalty law has been applied comprise murder and drug trafficking cases, which the government seeks to quell. Opponents on the other hand argue that the implementation of the practice constitutes a violation of inalienable human rights and should be stopped. The study concludes that despite the strong opposition against the implementation of the death penal code, it enables the state to contain crime, and shield the citizens from practices that could have adverse effects. Pages 327 to 346




The Relationship Between the Art of Painting and Developing Students’ Aesthetic Education

Hamid Khudhair Husseina, Bashar Jawad Noumib, Ali Hadi Mubarakc, a,cCollege  of Fine Arts, University of Babylon- Iraq, bAl-Qasim Green University-Iraq, Email: afine.hamid.khudhyeir@uobabylon.edu.iq,  bBashar.nomy80@gmail.com,  cAli.hadi.7600@gmail.com

The present study investigates the relationship between painting and the development of students’ aesthetic education as a self-active activity in intellectual and aesthetic structure. It helps in realising forms and understanding to achieve the aesthetic satisfaction of the students.  The present study contains four chapters. Chapter one includes the problem, the significance, the limits, the definition of basic terms, and the aim, which is to identify the level of aesthetic education among students. Chapter two includes the theoretical framework of the present study, artistic taste, and aesthetic education. Chapter three includes the procedures and analysis of the research sample. Chapter four is devoted to presenting the results and conclusions. Pages 347 to 362




The Phenomenon of Customs Smuggling Between Iraq and Turkey During the Period 1921-1958: A Documented Historical Study

Riyadh Khaleel Husseina, aHistory Department, College of Education, University of Samarra- Iraq, Email: areaid.kh2@uosamarra.edu.iq

After their founding. the two neighbouring countries of modern Iraq and Turkey faced many economic problems. The phenomenon of customs smuggling may be the most prominent of the problems suffered by the economies of the two countries. This phenomenon has expanded, spread, and worsened, resulting in bad returns, wasted money, and significant repercussions on the economies of the two countries. There is no independent academic study on what this phenomenon is, nor the reasons for its spread and the ways to combat it in this era of history. Thus, this study came to be entitled, "The Phenomenon of Customs Smuggling Between Iraq and Turkey during the period 1921-1958: A Documented Historical Study." After collecting the scientific material from its sources, three investigations were conducted. Preceded by an introduction and followed by a conclusion, we first discussed the phenomenon of customs smuggling between Iraq and Turkey during the period 1921-1958. Second, we examined the motives for smuggling and the reasons for its spread between the two countries during the period 1921-1958. And third, we examined smuggled goods and the goods between the two countries during the period 1921-1958. The conclusion summarised the results of the study. Pages 363 to 377




Islamic Law Principles in Islamic Business Activity

Prawitra Thaliba*, Hilda Yunita Sabrieb, Faizal Kurniawanc, a,b,cFaculty of Law, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: a*prawitra@fh.unair.ac.id

Islam provides solutions to all kinds of complicated problems, which are faced by human beings such as materialism, nationalism, race, ethnicity, and religion. Islam has its own way to solve these problems, especially in case of economy and business activity. This paper aims to discuss the application of Islamic law principles towards economic and business activity. This paper uses descriptive research methodology by gathering data from books and the Quran. Islamic Business includes norms or values within Islamic law that prohibit usury, dishonest trade, unjust treatment, and all forms of oppression and discrimination. Islam provides guidance for economic and business activity. Thus, Islamic business activity has to apply the basic principles of Islamic law in order not to break Islamic law. Pages 378 to 387




The Role of OCBE on Green HRM towards Performance Sustainability

Neeta Jayabalana*, Zafir Khan Mohamed Makhbulb, Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamedc, Hayati Yusofd, Mai Farhana Binti Mior Badrul Munire, aSEGi University Kota Damansara, Selangor, Malaysia, bUniversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, c,d,eUniversity Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar, Perak, Malaysia, Email: a*neeta@segi.edu.my

Green human resource management focuses on the awareness of a corporation in interacting with environmental issues, together with the management of the social and economic well-being of the corporation and its workforce. The aim of this research is to investigate the understanding, appreciation and continuous application of sustainable green practices in the working environment by the current workforce in manufacturing companies. Approximately 250 samples were collected from authorised listed manufacturing companies in Malaysia. The response rate was more than 50% using the Convenience-Sampling Method. The results show that the management of green human resources plays a significant role in the actions of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour towards the Environment (OCBE) in the current workforce towards sustainable performance in manufacturing industries. Corporations should understand that green management is one of the key methods by which they can secure their legitimacy and continued operation through their core vision. By developing their human capital along with the use of best practices across the organisation, corporations are striving to ensure that their business operations are as efficient as possible, thereby reducing potential harm to the environment. Limitation and future studies have also been discussed. Pages 388 to 399




A Needs Assessment of Learning Management Supervision Using a Web Application in Basic Schools in Thailand

Thanakorn Napaphorna, aSchool of Graduate Studies, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand,

This study aimed to 1) reveal administrators’ and teachers’ authentic situations and expectations towards learning management supervision; and 2) evaluate their needs towards learning management supervision. Samples were participants from 120 basic schools of different sizes in the Northeast Region of Thailand. The needs of learning management supervision using the web application questionnaire were used to collect the data. For data analysis, frequency distribution, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and priority need index modified (PNI modified) were utilised. It was found that: 1) administrators’ and teachers’ perceptions towards authentic situations of learning management supervision in all school sizes were at a ‘moderate’ level (M=2.67, S.D.=0.17); 2) The expectations towards authentic situations of learning management supervision in all school sizes were at a ‘high’ level (M=3.67, S.D.=0.27); 3) The highest priority was ‘learning management supervision using the web application.’ To conclude, supervision using a web application could improve instruction and classroom quality. Pages 400 to 416




Profiling Entrepreneurs Inclinations Towards Networking: A Case of Small and Medium-Sized Tourism Enterprises (SMTEs) in Terengganu, Malaysia

Muaz Azinuddina*, Nur Shahirah Mior Shariffuddinb, Wan Mohd Adzim Wan Mohd Zainc, a,b,cFaculty of Applied Social Sciences, Gong Badak Campus, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: a*muazazinuddin@unisza.edu.my

Purpose – To identify the importance of formal and informal networks in business learning through the profiles of entrepreneurs and SMTEs. Design/methodology/approach – Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare the characteristics of entrepreneurs and SMTEs across the four-different tourism sub-sectors of hotels and resorts, travel agencies, handicrafts and restaurants. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis were performed to differentiate entrepreneurs and SMTEs that preferred formal or informal networks as an important source of knowledge. Findings – The distinctive characteristics of entrepreneurs and SMTEs from the inter-sectoral perspective manifest in 7 different dimensions. Years of previous working experience was found to have a statistically significant relationship with the importance of informal networks in SMTEs learning. This contrasts with the 6 dimensions of characteristics of entrepreneurs and SMTEs that have statistically significant relationships with the importance of formal networks.  Practical implications – The findings can be used as a crucial framework to develop and enhance training programmes and policies that cultivate networking and learning behaviours among entrepreneurs. Originality/value – This study is the first to provide empirical linkages between the characteristics of entrepreneurs and SMTEs and networks through a tourism inter-sectoral perspective in Terengganu, Malaysia. Pages 417 to 432




The Influence of the Quality of Accounting Information Systems and Employee Competencies on Taxpayer Satisfaction Surveys at the Pratama Tax Office

Endrariaa, aLecturer at the Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Muhammadiyah Tangerang, Cikokol Tangerang City Pioneer Independence Road I Banten Province Indonesia, Email: aendra_umt@yahoo.com

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Accounting Information System Quality and Employee Competency on Taxpayers Satisfaction Survey at the Primary Tax Service Office. The study included67 respondents. It can be concluded that the relationship between Employee Competency (X2) with Taxpayers Satisfaction (Y) is significant with statistics -T is 3.901512 (> 1.96). The estimated original positive sample value is 0.402215 which shows that the direction of the relationship between Employee Competency (X2) and Taxpayer Satisfaction (Y) is positive. Thus, it can be concluded that Employee Competency (X2) affects the Taxpayer's Satisfaction (Y). Furthermore, the relationship between the Quality of Accounting Information Systems (X1) with Taxpayer Satisfaction (Y) is significant with the T-statistic 5.766584 (> 1.96). The estimated original sample value is positive in the amount of 0.595184 which shows the direction of the relationship between the Accounting Information System (X1) and Taxpayer Satisfaction (Y) is positive. It can be concluded that the Quality of Accounting Information Systems (X1) affects the Taxpayer's Satisfaction (Y). Pages 433 to 449




Building Organisational Social Capital through Investment in Corporate Social Responsibility to Stimulate the Effectiveness of Zakat Activities in Zanzibar

Khatib Mjaka Mkuua, Mohd Effandi Bin Yusoffb, aPhD Candidate.  Azman Hashim International Business School. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, Skudai, Johor- Malaysia, bPhD, Senior Lecturer, Azman Hashim International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia-UTM, Skudai, Johor- Malaysia, Email: akhatibmkuu@gmail.com,  beffandi@utm.my

This study attempts to explore the strategic framework on the process of building social capital through investment in corporate social responsibility for zakat management organisations. An in-depth interview with twelve executives from five zakat organisations in Zanzibar was undertaken for this project. This qualitative investigation utilised thematic analysis techniques to come out with themes that were implemented for this study. The findings revealed that the provision of public education and services and social commitment with positive and attractive behaviours are useful ways to enhance corporate social responsibility and stimulate the social capital of zakat organisations. The researchers have recognised that there is a gap of knowledge in this area, therefore, these findings have made a significant contribution to the existing body of literature and invite more studies to elucidate the situation. Moreover, quantitative research is required to test and measure items revealed from this study's findings. Pages 450 to 463




Silver Crafts: The Process and Meaning of Ornamental Symbols in the Home Industry, Koto Gadang

M. Nasrul Kamala, Hendra Afriwanb, Bukman Lianc, a,bUniversitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia, cUniversitas PGRI Palembang, Indonesia, Email: akamal93@fbs.unp.ac.id,  bhendraafriwan@fbs.unp.ac.id,  cdrbukmanlian@univpgri-palembang.ac.id

In this paper, the researchers will describe silver crafts in the home industry in Koto Gadang in terms of the symbolic process and meaning of ornaments. This paper utilises qualitative research and focuses on issues related to the process and symbolic meaning of ornaments. Data for this project was obtained using observation, interviews, and documentation. The researchers focus on two factors (1) work processes (including preparation of tools and materials), basic processes (combining silver), making ornaments (including sketches, designs, making moulds, and raising silver), techniques (including stained, wrought and intertwined) (2) the symbolic meaning of ornamentation consists of 3 forms are a main ornament, the complement, and the stuffing. The main ornaments are roses (symbolising love), complementary ornaments include jasmine flower ornament (symbolising purity of heart), sunflower ornament (symbolises life), tamarind ornament (symbolises completeness), rago ornament (symbolises the unification of the road and the wheel of life that moves dynamically), clove flower ornament (symbolises strength, blessing, prosperity, and majesty), bird ornaments (symbolising pomp and tenderness), jackfruit leaf ornaments (symbolising grandeur), and niches (symbolising loyalty). The results of the study can be used as a reference for making local content books as teaching materials at primary, secondary, and high school levels. Pages 464 to 482




The Correlation Between Knowledge of Sentence Structure, Reading Habits, and Reasoning Ability with Essay Writing Skills

Linda Silawatia*, Safnil Arsyadb, Didi Yulistioc, Suhartonod, aSD Negeri 28 Bengkulu Tengah, b,c,dUniversitas Bengkulu, Email: a*lindasilawati@gmail.com

This study determined a direct positive correlation between sentence structure knowledge with writing essay proficiency and a direct positive correlation between reading habits with writing essay proficiency. There was also found to be a direct positive correlation between reasoning ability with writing essay proficiency, a direct positive correlation between sentence structure knowledge and ability reasoning, and a direct positive correlation between reading habits and reasoning abilities in Grade VI Elementary School students in Bengkulu Tengah. This research used a survey method with a path analysis technique. The population of this study is an affordable population, which focuses on class VI students in 15 elementary schools in Bengkulu Tengah. This includes first semester of academic year 2018/2019 with 330 students. Of these 330 students,  there were 190 female students and 140 male students with an average age of 11-12 years. The sample of this study is all members of the population. Data collection was performed using a questionnaire and test. The results of the study concluded that knowledge of sentence structure is positively correlated directly with writing essay proficiency, reading habits correlate directly positively with writing essay proficiency. In addition, reasoning ability is positively correlated directly with writing essay skills, sentence structure knowledge is positively correlated directly with reasoning ability. Reading habits correlate directly and positively with the ability of reasoning. Therefore  knowledge of sentence structure, reading habits, and reasoning ability with writing proficiency has a significant positive correlation. Pages 483 to 497




Financial and Administrative Aspects of Corruption in Public Procurement and Criminal Consequences: An Analytical Study in Light of the Effective Iraqi Legislation

Ibrahim Hamid Mohsena, Khalid Khudair Dahhamb, Adel Kazem Saudc, aMinistry of health, b,cCollege of law, University of Kerbala, Iraq, Email: ad_ibraheem1975@yahoo.com,  bk.almamoury@gmail.com,  cAdel.kadhem.@uokerbala.edu.iq

There is a close correlation between the extent of corruption in a country and the level of development and services in it. In a country like Iraq, which is very late in ranking the most corrupt countries in the world, this is reflected in poor services and the standard of living of its citisens. This research discusses the most important financial and administrative aspects of corruption in one of the most important aspects of executive work, which is public procurement which accounts for the largest percentage of the financial budgets of this country. This study attempts to review the most prominently applied cases that occur when government agencies exercise their activities in the field of purchasing goods and services. The study also deals with these aspects at every stage of the contract, which leads to the conclusion of contracts that are marred by imbalance and complicity. This results in sometimes being unable to achieve their purpose of providing goods and services with high efficiency and appropriate prices, as well as determining the criminal consequences of the perpetrators of the violations. Pages 498 to 509




Administrative Interrogation: A Comparative Study

Waleed Khashan Zughaira*, Hanadi Fawzi Husseinb, a,bUniveristy of Thi-Qar/ College of Law, Email: a*Waleedkashankw11@yahoo.com

Administrative interrogation is a formal guarantee prior to imposing penalties including striking, issuing warnings, and salary deductions.  This is mentioned by the legislator as an exception, because the general rule is that the administration must achieve written editorial control with the employee through the formation of an investigative committee, and it has, as an exception, recourse to these. Since the administrative interrogation is considered an exception from the original, it is not permissible to expand it by imposing other disciplinary penalties that differ from those specified by the legislator exclusively. In the event that this happens, the administrative decision becomes defective in form and procedures, which makes it deserve nullity. The administrative interrogation differs from the interrogation carried out by the investigative committee in the administrative investigation. This is because the administrative interrogation is a stand-alone procedural method. The legislator has the choice, in certain cases,  to oversee the administration between the investigation or the interrogation, provided that the results of the interrogation are represented by the employee’s conviction of the charges attributed.  The employee must be punished with specific penalties, namely, (striking, issuing a warning, or salary deduction). Pages 510 to 523




The Development of Educational Services in the Al Qadisiya Subdistrict in Najaf, ‘‘Al Ashraf’’ Governorate, Iraq.

Mohammed Jawad Abbas Shabaaa, Ahmed Yhya Abd Abasb, Ali Lefta Saeedc, a,b,cUniversity of Kufa, College of Art , Department of Geography,  P.O Box 21, Kufa, Najaf Governorate, Iraq

Primary education is one of the important services in the prosperity and development of society. Therefore, it must meet a set of criteria such as the optimum distribution of educational institutions and be sufficient in numerical terms in comparison with population sizes. Primary education must also be functionally efficient in comparison to the standards prepared by the relevant authorities. This study attempts to diagnose the reality of the state of primary education in Al-Qadisiyah district in the Najaf governorate, and its compatibility with the planning standards prepared by the Ministries of Education and Planning and follow the best possible methods and mechanisms for their development. This study    established that the population of the study area totalled 46,813 people in 2018. As for the population growth rate, it reached 3.2%, which is a high rate resulting from the rural nature of the region. The number of primary schools in the study area reached 38 schools, while the number of buildings allocated to them reached 31 buildings only, with a difference of 7 buildings, which resulted in the phenomenon of duplication in school hours . The decrease in the percentage of primary schools in the district centre compared to the countryside is due to the large area of the countryside and the increase in its population. This was reflected in the increase in the number of students enrolled.  The number of primary schools for males and females is close, which is a good indicator that reflects the equality situation in giving learning opportunities for both sexes. It turned out that the indicator (number of pupils/school) was less than the approved standard. The researchers witnessed the convergence of the value of the index (pupil/division) and (pupil/teacher) with the schematic criterion. This is a positive indicator that facilitates the delivery of information to students. Qadisiyah, according to the 2030 Population Estimates, does not need additional primary schools according to the educational planning standard. The study ends with a number of recommendations and proposals, such as the redistribution of primary schools in the countryside of the study area and attention to basic services in primary schools so that you can provide a good service to students. Pages 524 to 541




The Saudi Version of the Gifted and Talented Checklist for Parents: An Instrument for Rating the Characteristics of Gifted Kindergarten Children

Moneerah Mohammad AlMeraba, Salaheldin Farah Attallah  Bakhietb, aAssociate Professor / Department of Education and Psychology/ College of Education / Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, bProfessor / Department of Special Education / College of Education / King Saud University

Early identification of gifted children is a major trend in contemporary education. However, there is a noticeable paucity of tools for identifying gifted kindergarten children in Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries. Furthermore, there is a paucity of tools to assess parents’ views of their children’s giftedness. The present study was therefore conducted to develop a Saudi version of the gifted and talented checklist for parents. The study aimed to adapt the gifted and talented checklist for parents and establish its validity and reliability in the Saudi environment. The checklist was translated, adapted, and validated by a cohort of experts in gifted education, assessment and evaluation, and educational psychology. Discriminative, construct, and factorial validity of the checklist were established. Its reliability was also established by internal consistency and split-half methods. The study recommended that the checklist be used for identifying gifted children in the target population. Pages 542 to 565




The Introduction of Multi-field Entrances and Knowledge-based Systems in Enhancing the Success Factors of the ERP System

Alaa Haseb Abdul Hadi Aljalelya, Manal Abdul Jabbar Al-Sammakb, Amal  Sarhan SulaIman Al – taic, a,cCollege of Administration and Economics, Mosul University, bCollege of Tourism Sciences / Mosul University, Email: aalaahaseb@uomosul.edu.iq,  bmanalabdulgabar@uomosul.edu.iq,  cHu787@gmail.com

This study aims to shed light on the introduction of modern concepts regarding the entrances to multiple fields and systems related to the transformation of energy properties. These are the characteristics of knowledge: as energy and knowledge are characterised by their transformation from one form to another. The use of these approaches has been identified in enhancing the success factors of the ERP system, which is the key to implementing the system. The sample of the study in Duhok gas station includes 24 forms. The study reached a number of conclusions, the most prominent of which was the existence of a significant correlation between multiple field entries, knowledge-adaptive systems, and ERP system success factors. A set of recommendations was presented that came in line with these conclusions. Pages 566 to 578




Assessment of Bank Credit Risk: An Analytical Study of the Saudi Paper Manufacturing Company

Zeyad Najm Abeda, aAL-Imam AL-Kadhim (S.A) University college/ Department of Administration and Economics/Iraq, Email: aZaid201919@gmail.com

The credit score pastime is of super significance and brilliant importance in the achievement of the banking monetary institutions, due to the fact the results of their business rely to a large extent on the quality and length of their credit score portfolio. Therefore these economic banking institutions need to direct most of their assets closer to the control, manipulation and observation of the credit score portfolio; the credit score selection-making relies upon, to a point, excellent records and monetary statistics. Evaluation and contrast of these statistics and facts is historically linked with commercial requirements, comparable companies and analysis of the opportunity of the projects failure. Pages 579 to 591




The Impact of Cash Management and Corporate Governance on Firm Performance, and the Moderating Role of Family Ownership on the Emerging Economy

Arsalan Abdul Hamida, Rana Tahir Naveedb, Tasawar Abdul Hamidc, Muhammad Waris Raod, aADWOC - Arab Drilling and Workover Company, bDepartment of Business administration, Art & Social Sciences Division, University of Education, Lahore, cCardiff Metropolitan University, UK, dResearch scholar Air University Multan, Email: aArslan.abdulhamid@gmail.com,  bTahir.naveed@ue.edu.pk,  ctasawar.abdulhamid@gmail.com,  dwarisraobzu051@gmail.com

Objectives: The objective of this paper was to find the impact of cash management and corporate governance on firm performance with the moderating role of family ownership in Pakistani listed firms. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study is based on hypothesis testing. 317 firms are listed on a Pakistan stock exchange for the period of 2010-19 used for the data analysis. Findings: In our results, board independence has a positive and significant relationship with the firm performance. Board size has a negative and significant relationship with firm performance. Cash management has a positive and significant relationship with firm performance. Firm size has a positive and significant relationship with firm performance. Institutional ownership has a significant and positive relationship with firm performance. With the moderator of family ownership, the relationship between cash management and firm performance should be stronger as compared to simple regression with a large co-efficient. With the addition of family ownership as a moderator, Cash management has a negative and significant relationship with firm performance. Pages 592 to 616




The Dependence of the Communicator on Media Legislation and the Pressures of Political Money

Hussein Dubai  Hassana, Kadhim Idan Shadidb, aCollege of media / University of Baghdad, bImam Jafar Al-Sadiq University (AS), Email: adrhussaindobay@comc.uobaghdad.edu.iq,  bidankadhem@yahoo.com

This paper discusses the dependence of the contact person on the ideologies and submission to the directions of political money for the purpose of defending the political direction of the institution or distorting the image of the other, or relying on the method of buying receivables in the media. It views the reliance of the contact person on communicating with the political money tools in order to communicate with the leaders of the political blocs, or the media focus in raising issues related to political blocs, as well as relying on the self-image in the media marketing of political leaders. The effects of political money have been reshaping the collective consciousness of the public and establishing exclusionary thought, as well as flattening consciousness and creating a preoccupation with entertainment. There are forms of political money pressures, most notably political defamation and blackmail, as well as those aimed at improving the mental image of politicians. The most important manifestations of the change in the work of the communications operator in the satellite channels are represented by the discrepancy between media practice and legal legislation. There are influences on media work in covering events of conflicts and demonstrations, represented by pressure from armed groups and political parties, and then pressure from legislative bodies and human rights organisations, as well as personal relationships with information sources. Pages 617 to 627




A Study on the Relationship between Health Behaviour Self-Efficacy and Well-Being: The Big-Five Personality Traits as Moderator

Yuan-Liang Liaoa, aAsia University Department of Business Administration, Email: arodliao@gmail.com

This study, quoting Backer’s (1993) arguments on the self-efficacy of health behaviour, aims to examine healthy behaviour self-efficacy for independent variables, with well-being as a dependent variable, through regulating effect of the big-five personality traits, and to explore its associated properties.  This research takes the Taiwan area enterprise lecturer as the object of study, carries on the adjustment effect analysis by the multi-dimensional social stratum return, the discussion of health behaviour self-efficacy to well-being and the big-five personality traits. The findings discovered that the healthy behaviour self-efficacy has a notable influence on the country young lecturer’s well-being. Furthermore, the big-five personality traits confronts the healthy behaviour self-efficacy, and the relation to well-being has a notable adjustment effect.  Based on the results, further follow-up study of management practices and implications of the proposal are suggested. Pages 628 to 644




A New Perspective on Relations between Islam and Democracy in Indonesia

Muhammad Azhara, Ahmad Sahideb, Mega Hidayatic, Hasse. Jd, a,b,c,dUniversity of Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: amuazar@yahoo.com, bahmasahideumy@gmail.com, cmega.hidayati@umy.ac.id,  dpraktisi_99@yahoo.com

Islam and Democracy are two debatable concepts in the Islamic field. Islam is interpreted as a transcendental divine concept, at the same time the concept of Democracy is secular-immanent. The dialectics of Islam and Democracy are interesting when Indonesian Muslims try to integrate it into the framework of the nation-state of the Republic of Indonesia. An integrative-compatible dialectic – no dichotomic between Islam and Democracy in Indonesia – becomes an interesting frame for democracy to be studied. It is interesting because it involves the future of the existence of Indonesia with the majority of Muslims. It is also an academic, religious and sociological evidence for the Islamic field in the other areas. In the first year, the research will be analysed with various schools of thought (madhab) and the development of the democracy concept and its relation to the Islamic religion. This research uses the scientific epistemology approach of Bayani (textual approach), Burhani (rational and empirical approach), and Irfani (spiritual or intuitive approach). This research aims to highlight the strengthening relations between Islam and democracy in Indonesia. Also, to inspire other Islamic countries about the possibilities of epistemology and axiological-psychological – the democracy concept implementation in Muslim countries. Pages 645 to 664



Role and Function of Leadership Style on Job Satisfaction in Centralised Public Sector Organisations: A Meta-Analysis of Police Institutions

Rycko Amelza Dahniela, aSekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kepolisian, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: aryckoamelza.stikjkt@gmail.com

This study seeks to investigate the influence and central function of leadership in public sector institutions, by taking the object of study in police institutions in Indonesia. This study was conducted using the perspective of human resource management, by systematically analysing the relationship between leadership and job satisfaction and other antecedents in human resource management. This study was conducted with a systematic review with a meta-analysis approach to reveal the results of previous research and trends in various findings regarding the central function of leadership in the police bureaucracy in Indonesia. The study results also reveal various research outlooks, and their development. Compared with findings in international literature, the results of the study reveal the need for further investigation into several social aspects and the identification of specific work units and roles. The findings contribute to identifying factors related to resource management and leadership in the public bureaucracy of the police, and directing further research to further identify the character of leadership and its influence in the bureaucratic structure of public sector management, particularly in police institutions. Pages 665 to 678

Half-Hearted Moderation of an Islamist Party: Tracing the Altering Behaviour of Indonesia’s Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) Post 2014

Ari Ganjar Herdiansaha, aDepartment of Political Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Email: aari.ganjar@unpad.ac.id

Research on Islamist parties in democratic or semi-democratic countries exposes a shift toward greater moderation. Less understood is how the Islamist party is unwavering in its moderation when circumstances are unfavourable for it. Analysing the alteration of the political behaviour of Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) in the post-2014 Indonesia, I show that Islamist party moderation is fragile, and the party returned to its idealism when the political environment causes severe ideological inconsistencies. The detachment from political incentives has made the PKS increasingly drawn to an aggressive opponent-style, and unsurprisingly became more involved in Islamist mobilisations for its electoral-idealist ends. The alteration in PKS behaviour towards idealism augments the theoretical presumption that Islamist parties emphasise ideological doctrine, so that whatever they adapt to the democratic political system is always vulnerable to returning to its idealism. This article concludes that half-hearted moderation keeps the potency of an undemocratic insurrection, of an Islamic party, especially when institutional politics do not espouse the views of its traditional constituents, and eventually it undermines its political achievements. Pages 679 to 697

Mobile Phone Usage and Its Effectiveness in Increasing Elementary Students’ Writing Ability

Dewi Syafrinaa, Djoko Saryonob, Muakibatul Hasanahc, Taufik Dermawand, M. Affandi Ariantoe, aP.h.D. Student, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Negeri Malang, b,c,dFaculty of Letters, Universitas Negeri Malang, eUniversitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia, Email: asyafrina.dewinova@gmail.com,  bdjoko.saryono.fs@um.ac.id,  cmuakibatul.hasanah.fs@um.ac.id,  dtaufik.dermawan.fs@um.ac.id,  eaffandia@fbs.unp.ac.id

This research aims to describe mobile phone usage and determine the effect of integrating mobile phones to increase elementary students’ short story writing quality, and the perception towards the implementation of mobile phones in a short story writing class. To achieve the aims of the research, the qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. The qualitative data was collected through interviewing and filling the questionnaire, whereas the writing test was collected to obtain the quantitative data. The process of analysing the qualitative data was performed through transcribing, reducing, displaying, and verifying. The results revealed that most of the elementary students were introduced to mobile phones when they were around six to eight years old. A majority of the students had used a mobile phone to access YouTube and play online games. Based on the interviews, most of their parents limit the use of mobile phones and the students are only allowed to use it on a certain day, such as Saturday and/or Sunday. Concerning the implementation of mobile phones in a writing class, based on the assignment in quasi-experimental research, the scores of the pre-test and post-test were used to reveal the quantitative data. The results show that integrating mobile phones in a writing class is effective in increasing the quality of elementary students’ short story writing. Additionally, they perceived that integrating mobile phones in writing classes can change the classroom atmosphere to become more focussed and respectful. Pages 698 to 715

The Effect of Human Capital on Business Performance on Distro and Boutique SMEs in Medan City

Yeni Absaha*, Yasmin Chairunisa Muchtarb, Inneke Qamariahc, a,b,cDepartment of Management Sciences, Faculty of Economics, Email: a*absah_usu@yahoo.com

SME business owners in general still tend to utilise a traditional view in implementing their business. Thus, in generating products the applied technology is still low. If entrepreneurs are following the latest development, which focuses on maximising the management of intellectual capital, then the existing entrepreneurs in Indonesia will be able to compete by utilising the competitive advantage gained through innovation and creativity generated by the intellectual capital owned by the entrepreneurs. Distro (distribution store) is a type of store in Indonesia that sells clothing and accessories which are entrusted by the clothing manufacturer or self-produced. A boutique is the result of personal production of the owner and the purchase of clothes from the manufacturer/clothing distributor of a clothing company. The aim of this research is to analyse the effect of human capital on business performance on distro and boutique SMEs in Medan City. The result shows that human capital has a positive and significant effect on the business performance of distro and boutique SMEs in Medan. Furthermore, human capital contributed 78.9% in explaining business performance. Meanwhile, the remaining 21.1% is explained by other variables. Pages 716 to 727

The Effect of Incentives and Leadership on Employees' Motivation and Performance at the Indonesian Footwear Industry Development Centre

Mahmudah Enny Widyaningruma, aDepartment of Economics, Faculty of Management, Universitas Bhayangkara Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: aennymahmudah@yahoo.co.id

This research aims to study the effect of incentives and leadership on employees' motivation and performance at the Indonesian footwear industry development centre. The sampling was done using saturation sampling, in which all existing populations were sampled, with 35 employees as the population. Path analysis and hypothesis testing was done using the t test. The results indicate that incentives, leadership, and motivation have a positive and significant effect on employees’ performance; incentives and leadership have a positive and significant effect on employees’ motivation; and through motivation, leadership and incentives have a positive effect on employees’ performance. Motivation plays a major role in employees because the higher the incentives given to employees and leaders, the more their performance will also increase. This study showed that each variable has a link, the independent variable (incentive and leadership) and the dependent variable that is performance and motivation influence each other. The analysis approach used is path analysis, confirmed by path regression. Pages 728 to 738

Defect Guarantee in Online Shopping Through Social Media

Rouaa Ali Atiyaha, Zynab Hadi Hamiedb, aMiddle Technical University/Technical College of Management, bUniversity of Baghdad /College of Administration and Economics

The subject of online shopping through social media is of interest in Iraq, especially after the relative change of view of the Iraqi Street Market in the lack of reassurance towards the product either by the state or the citizen. Although there is an intention to agree between the producer and the consumer, there may be defects in the product when delivery implementation reflects different views on the content of the rights enjoyed by the investor and its obligations. Therefore, investors seek to obtain guarantees in accordance with the legislation issued by the country and the provisions contained in the provisions of the dispute settlement between the parties, despite the multiple means that can be used by the parties in the resulting electronic sales contracts. The judiciary has the natural and inherent jurisdiction to settle disputes when the consumer resorts to the judiciary to enable his rights concerning the defective product. Pages 739 to 754

The Impact of Applying the International Accounting Standards (IFRS / IAS) to the Appropriateness of Financial Reports on Investors' Decisions

Khadija Jomaa Mutera, aDepartment of Accounting. College of Administration and Economic. AL-Mustansiriyah  University. Baghdad-Iraq, Email: akhdija_j_m79@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq  

The primary task of  financial reporting is represented by the process of communicating the accounting information to interested parties, where those parties have changing and increasing needs for that information. That is, the financial reporting process must include the provision of  financial information that must be reliable and appropriate, as well as revealing the appropriate timing and achievement of the quality of financial reporting when the financial information matches with the needs of current and prospective investors, for the financial information should assist them in their decisions regarding whether to invest in that country or not. The adoption of the international financial reporting standards and international accounting Standards (IAS / IFRS) is the result of an international accounting consensus that allows the provision of reliable and internationally comparable financial information, to assist investors in making decisions in the international financial markets. These standards have been adopted in many countries of the world, to make accounting and financial information internationally comparable. Therefore, the research aims to indicate the impact of the application of international accounting standards on investors' decisions. Pages 755 to 775

Complexity of the European Union System and its Adaptation Abilities

Anna Wierzchowskaa, aUniversity of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw, Poland, Email: aa.wierzchowska@vizja.pl

The European Union, as a complex political system, is a space where processes resulting from multifaceted and contradictory forces emerge. As a result, building the system's adaptability and stabilisation (pro-integration) capacity requires specific steps and actions. Operating within the EU consists in navigating through contradictory, often mutually exclusive activities whose nature reflects the nature of being a member of a supranational organisation. As a result, building a stable structure seems unattainable, and instead, a structure that is exposed to permanent crises and lack of sustainable growth is created.  The aim of the current study is to look at the dynamics of integration processes through the lens of destabilising (crises) and modernising factors, which allow the system to return to the state of relative functional balance. Pages 776 to 797

Analysis of Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty: A Study on Low Cost Green Cars (LCGCs) in Indonesia

Wibisonoa*, Surachmanb, Ainur Rofiqc, Sunaryod, a,b,c,dFaculty of Economics and Business, Brawijaya University, Malang - Indonesia, Email: a*wibisono1705@yahoo.com

This study aims to analyse the variables that influence customer satisfaction on fuel efficient and affordable price cars, also known as the Low Cost Green Car (LCGC) in Indonesia’s national car industry. This study is also to investigate the relationship between customer loyalty and satisfaction. The variables arise to affect satisfaction based on the consumers’ survey in Indonesia. These variables are the quality of the product, service quality, and perceived value. The concept of Indonesia’s national car industry is the LCGC, which is when the manufactured local content level used is above 80 per cent. There are few empirical studies which examine the relationship between the quality of the product, service quality, perceived value to satisfaction, and the correlation between satisfaction and customer loyalty in Indonesia’s national automotive industry. This study attempts to fill this gap in the literature, and to propose an integrated research model about the national car industry in Indonesia. The study used 375 respondents with the Structural Equation Modelling-Partial Least Square method, and the Warp-PLS 6.0 approach, to deliver the results that the quality of the product, service quality, and perceived value were empirically proven to significantly influence satisfaction. Furthermore, satisfaction significantly influences loyalty. This study contributes that in achieving customer loyalty in Indonesia’s national car industry, customer satisfaction has to be maintained. In addition, to assure customer satisfaction, Indonesia’s national car industry should improve the quality of the product, service quality, and perceived value. In this case, Indonesia is able to be independent in the competition of the four-wheeled vehicle industry. Future studies should focus on brand trust and price perception to measure the influence of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Pages 798 to 823

The Effect of Watching Sports TV Programs on Developing a Sports Culture: A study on Preparatory School Students in the Hamza Education Directorate

Abdulkadhum Mohammed Sweeda, Flayyih Jebur Kareemb, a,bGeneral Directorate of Education at Diwaniyah, Ministry of Education, Republic of Iraq, Email: aabdulkadhum@yahoo.com, bjason.abdullah1980@gmail.com

The research aims to determine the effect of watching sports television (TV) programs upon the development of a sports culture. This study is applied to preparatory school students in the Hamza Education Directorate since students at this stage are considered a segment of society and who have interests in sports. The study includes descriptive and analytical studies. The study population consisted of all preparatory stage students in the education of Hamza, and the three grades in its various branches. The population totalled 2,020 students who were distributed to eight preparatory schools, including four schools for boys and four schools for girls. The researchers used the random, proportional stratified sample from the preparatory stage students in the Hamza Education Directorate, and at the rate of 10 per cent of the research community. Thus, the sample was 202 male and female students distributed according to the classroom. A questionnaire consisting of several axes and questions was prepared, and the statistical program SPSS was used to empty data and extract results, frequencies, percentages, and correlation. Moreover, it was proven that the hypothesis, that there are no statistically significant differences in the rate of watching sports TV programs, is attributable to the gender variable. Furthermore, the incorrectness of the hypothesis, that there are no statistically significant differences in the rate of watching sports TV programs, for the variable of classrooms. Pages 824 to 843

Creative Economy: Adopting Local Wisdom on Small Enterprises in Denpasar City, Bali, Indonesia

Agung Parameswaraa, A.A I N Marhaenib*, Made Heny Urmila Dewic, aFaculty Economic and Business, Warmadewa University, Bali, Indonesia, b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia, Email: aagungparameswara@warmadewa.ac.idb*marhaeni_agung@unud.ac.idchenyurmila@unud.ac.id

The study focuses on creative small enterprises (SEs) based on local wisdom in the city of Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Based on local wisdom, initiative was taken to implement the local economic power in Denpasar, as a smart creative city. This research is conducted with the aim to examine the effect of technology, entrepreneurial orientation, wages, quality of human resources, and productivity towards the absorption of labour in creative small enterprises (SEs) based on local wisdom in Denpasar City, Bali. It also examines the indirect effect of technology, entrepreneurial orientation, wages, and quality of human resources to absorption of labour through productivity. This study examines 158 samples of creative small enterprises (SEs) based on local wisdom. The determination of this amount is based on criteria in which the population belongs to one of the sub-sectors of the creative economy, as well as the products produced by the entrepreneurs have a local wisdom content. To answer the research problem and examine the research hypothesis, the researchers used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis. The results of this study conclude positive and significant effect on the absorption of labour in small creative industries based on local wisdom in Denpasar City with its determinants. There are significant indirect effects of the determinant variables through productivity on labour absorption in creative small enterprises (SEs). The interpretation of the cultural values contained is expected to be carried out by the entrepreneur as a development strategy, and the strength of creative industries based on local wisdom. Pages 860 to 878

Implementation of Learning with a Pre-Lecture Quiz to Train Students’ Creative Thinking Skills

Ratu Betta Rudibyania, aFaculty of Education and Teacher Training, Universitas Lampung, Jl. Prof. Dr. Soemantri Brojonegoro No. 1, Lampung, Indonesia, Email: aratu.betta.r@gmail.com

This study aims to describe the implementation of learning strategies by using the Pre-Lecture Quiz, activities and creative thinking skills of students in the Acid-Base Titration material. The research method used is quasi-experimental with a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design. The sample selection was done by cluster random sampling, obtained in class XI IPA 3 as the experimental class and XI IPA 6 as the control class. The results obtained an average percentage of learning feasibility with a pre-lecture quiz of 93% had the criteria of "very high", the average percentage of student learning activities was 85% with criteria "very high" and the average percentage of students' creative thinking activities was 81 % with the criteria of "very high". The conclusion of this study shows that the learning through a pre –lecture quiz is significant for students’ to gain  creative thinking skills with the material of acid-base titration. Pages 879 to 893

The Expected Role of Sovereign Wealth Funds in Achieving Sustainable Development in Iraq

Awatif challoob Mohsina, Sadeq Tuamab, Hayder Abdulmunem Azeezc, a,bCollege of Administration and Economics, Department Banking and Financial Sciences , Al-Mustansiriya university, cFinancial office, Ministry of Higher Education, Email: aAmayah.2002@yahoo.combstfcb2010@uomustansiriyah.edu.iqcRygento@gmail.com

The establishment of a sovereign wealth fund by allocating a portion of oil revenues and investments is greatly important in maximising the economic benefit of income and diversifying non-oil investments to achieve sustainable development. This will examine the sovereign wealth fund model and analyse how it is compatible with the requirements and needs of the Iraqi economy in the hope that this fund will be a solution to Iraq’s excessive dependence on one commodity and the issues of diversification and the absence of an effective and efficient economic policy. Pages 894 to 915

Artificial Intelligence Development and Challenges (Arabic Language as a Model)

Mohammed MuzaaL Khalatia, Tahseen Ali Hussein Al-Romanyb, aWasit University-College of Humanities Arabic Language department, bWasit University –College of Arts –Translation Department, Email: ammiziel@uowasit.edu.iqbtalkubachi@uowasit.edu.iq

This paper aims to discuss the development and challenges of Artificial Intelligence using the Arabic language. Artificial Intelligence refers to the computer ability to process data and reach the results that are similar to human thinking, learning and decision making. Also, this paper highlights that the Arabic content in the online internet is only 1%, while the number of Arabic speakers is 5%.This is high difference rate is due to many reasons such as: late awareness of the need of MT and the lack of experts and scholars in the field of Arabic language. The goal of Artificial intelligence is to develop systems that are able to deal with complicated problems that are similar to human operations. In this paper, we cited some previous studies and workshops to indicate the challenges and development of Artificial Intelligence using the Arabic language, as well as the role of NLP, which is a branch of Artificial Intelligence that analyses human language using computers. This paper concludes with some important recommendations to improve Artificial Intelligence and use. Pages 916 to 926

Developing an Active Tool in GIS for Population Projection: Ninevah Governorate and USA Population Data as a Model

Omar Abdullah Ismaeela, aGeography Department, College of Education for Humanities, University of Mosul, Iraq, Email: aomar.a.ismaeel@uomosul.edu.iq

This research aimed to develop a population projection tool in ArcGIS Desktop10.x which is very popular GIS software. The tool is based on the geometric mean equation, and it was developed by deconstructing a set of tools available in the Data Management Tools application of ArcGIS Desktop10.x, then reconstructing them in a special environment known as the Model Builder. The idea is based on the premise that the aim can be achieved by developing an easy-to-use tool that works with high speed and accuracy, utilising the automating calculation of population projection in the feature linked Attribute table. The research succeeded in developing a population projection tool and testing it on the population projection data for Nineveh Governorate, Iraq and the United States of America. Pages 927 to 943

The Impact of Social Auditing on the Responsibility of the External Auditor

Mohammed Oleiwi kanoa  Al chlaihawia, Hussein Hoshan Jarullahb, Alaa Saleh Abdallahc, aDepartment of Accounting , college of Economics & Administration , university of AL Qadisiyah , Iraq, b,cGeneral Directorate for Education of Thi - Qar, Email: amohammedali300058@gmail.combhussenalkezy@gmail.com,  cmcomalaa59@gmail.com    

The aim of the present research is to define the concept of social auditing, to identify the principles, procedures, and indicators that underpin social auditing, and to shed light on legislation and laws that provide for social areas and the external auditor's responsibility towards them. The researchers relied on a descriptive approach and data analysis in order to determine the impact of the external auditor on social auditing. This type of audit added more work to the external auditor, which impacted his work. The researchers reached a set of results. The most important of which is the need to disclose social performance and establish the foundations necessary to measure the effectiveness of social programs and the social performance of business units, as well as the need to include financial reports regarding the results of social performance. This is necessary to identify the extent of their social contribution and the size of their association with the surrounding environment. The most important recommendations of the research were the need to disclose social performance and lay the foundations necessary to measure the effectiveness of social programs and the social performance of business units. It also disclosed the need for financial reports, including the social performance results of the units, to determine the extent of their social contribution and the extent of their connection to the surrounding environment. Pages 944 to 964

The Role of Talk Show TV Presenters in Enriching the Debate on Political Crises

Hussein Dubai Hassana, M.D. Layla Ali jumaahb, aCollege of Media - University of Baghdad, bImam Al-Kadhim College for Islamic Sciences (University), Email: adrhussaindobay@comc.uobaghdad.edu.iqbLayla70luje@gmail.com 

The role of the talk show hosts depends mainly on the style of conversation, intending to enrich the discussion on political crises and building information according to the opinions raised on the nature of those crises. Talk show hosts develop a set of considerations to enrich the discussion, the most important of which is to approach the audience and gain their emotional support. This is part of persuasion strategies to complement the opinions expressed and enrich the debate on political crises. Talk show hosts rely on moving the imagination of viewers, as one of the narrative methods to enrich the debate on political crises to return them to previous political crises. The talk show hosts rely on a set of stimuli, the most important of which is the singular autonomy associated with the political crisis, as they rely on "launching nomenclature" to enrich the discussion and reduce the knowledge gap about these crises. The hosts of talk shows rely on the social framing of political crises in a manner of collective harmony in controlling the verbal methods accompanying the processes of enriching the debate on political crises, as "social framing" contributes to exchanging opinions and citing customs and traditions in managing the themes of discussion. Pages 965 to 973

A Socio-Cultural Analysis of Superstitions and Other Powerful Institutions in Iraqi Arabic

Hazim Hakkush Al-Dilaimya, Marwah Firas Abdullah Al-Raweb, Mohand Hazim Hakkoshc, a,b,cDepartment of English, Al-Maarif University College, Anbar-Iraq,

The notion of superstitions, myths and other supernatural powers has been extensively viewed and interpreted in terms of cognitive and socio-cultural deficits. This study is about illusions and beliefs as a socio-cultural phenomenon. It attempts to find out the relationship between superstitions and the surrounding environment. A questionnaire was used to describe the participants’ personal background and superstitious beliefs. Data are collected from thirty undergraduate students of Al- Maarif University College, Iraq, (15 males and 15 females) and thirty Academics (15 males and 15 females). The conclusion reveals that the use of superstitions is used by people regardless of their educational, social or religious backgrounds. Pages 974 to 989

Searching for Home from the Land of Exile: The Trio of War, Exile and Memory in Nada Awar Jarrar’s Somewhere Home

Ahmed Sa'ad Aziza, Ali Abdullah Saaed Alfuadyb, Suhaib Majeed Kadhemc, a,b,cDepartment of English/College of Arts/ University of Al-Qadisiyah /Iraq, Email: aAhmed.aziz@qu.edu.iqbali.alfuady@qu.edu.iqcSuhaib@qu.edu.iq

In today’s world, the conception of home is problematic in the sense that it becomes fluid and always in flux. Since no one today is purely one thing, there is a commitment in many diasporic writings to move beyond the simplistic or single meaning of home towards a transnational home.  Nada Awar Jarrar’s Somewhere, Home (2002) is a case in point. The novel presents the life journeys of three different women and the impact of war on their lives, which brings them to a point where they are compelled to find home away from home. At the heart of Jarrar’s novel, there is an emphasis on the exilic experience from home and family due to the catastrophic consequences of war. In this regard, war appears as a persistent theme throughout the novel. The unifying thread between war, home, and exile is vividly seen through the motif of a village house in the hills above Beirut, which indeed provides an unattainable symbol of home to characters in the novel. Somewhere, Home meticulously comprises three parts, each one deals with a completely different set of characters. The  effect of the Lebanese civil war drove many people away from their homes in search of a more peaceful place to reside in, but being away from their homeland, many of them hoped to see the war come to an end and return in search of the peace that they once lived in. The novel examined here portrays a common sense of belonging and homesickness that many people belonging to countries affected by war may share. The loneliness of exile and the misery of the war worsen the plight of the Lebanese immigrants and here Jarrar tries to depict the feeling of dispersal and uprootedness in her masterpiece Somewhere, Home. The novel tends to shed light upon the sufferings of those in exile. The novel particularly focuses on and portrays the effects of the civil war in Lebanon and the pains of exile in the lives of Lebanese women. Pages 990 to 1002

The Scenario of Applying Techniques of Strategic Management Accounting at Manufacturing and Processing Enterprises in Hanoi, Vietnam

Thi Hanh Duyen Nguyena, Thi Xuan Hong Nguyenb*, Thi Kim Huong Nguyenc, Duc Tai Dod, aFaculty of Economics, Vinh University, Vietnam, b,cThe faculty of Accounting and Auditing, Hanoi University of Industry, dFacuty of Accounting, University of Labor and Social Affairs, Vietnam, Email: aduyenktdhv@gmail.com,  b*nguyenthixuanhong@haui.edu.vn,  cNguyenthikimhuong@haui.edu.vn,  dtaiketoanquocte@gmail.com

This paper investigated the level of technique of strategic management accounting and its application in manufacturing and processing enterprises in Hanoi, Vietnam. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used. The qualitative research was conducted with 12 Directors and Chief Accountants in manufacturing and processing enterprises in Hanoi. The quantitative research was conducted by sending questionnaires to 100 manufacturing and processing enterprises. The descriptive analysis, Cronbach's Alpha, Independent T-test, and ANOVA were utilised for evaluating and measuring the situation of applying the techniques of strategic management accounting at manufacturing and processing enterprises in Hanoi. The results show that the situation of applying techniques of strategic management accounting achieved an average of 3.102 or higher; and that 100 per cent of manufacturing and processing enterprises in Hanoi have been applying techniques of strategic management accounting. The research provides an overview of the reality, and effects of strategic management accounting (SMA) on enterprises, helping enterprises understand strategic management accounting and the ways to use it effectively in the future. Pages 1003 to 1023

Causation as Perceived by Iraqi EFL University Undergraduates

Muayad Mingher Al-Shemmerya, Hisham Adnan AlMumarb, Ali Chyad Abidc, aCollege of Engineering/ University of Babylon/ Iraq, bDepartment of Regional Planning/ College of Physical Planning University of Kufa/ An Najaf City/ Iraq, cAd Diwaniyah General Educational Directorate/ Ad Diwaniyah Fine Arts Institute/ Iraq, Email: aalshemmery_m@yahoo.combhushama.jasim@uokufa.edu.iqcalichyadabid@gmail.com

This paper looks over the functions of causative verbs as an expression of causation in both writing and speech. Its aim is to present the characteristics of these verbs, and find out the extent to which they can be used by Iraqi university students in marking the causes of the students' errors and their sources. Hypothetically, most of these students cannot avoid vagueness in using them and may be unable to differentiate them from other types of verbs. To address these concerns, a questionnaire was issued to a sample of 50 fourth-year students at the Department of English, College of Basic Education, University of Babylon. Collecting and analysing the subjects’ performance may explain the factual difficulty the students face in utilising them. This outcome emerges from the general assessment of the students' responses. Pages 1024 to 1042

An Entrepreneurship Module Based on Successful Entrepreneur Character to Promote Students’ Entrepreneurial Attitudes

Wahidmurnia, Muhamad Amin Nurb, Luthfiya Fathi Pusposaric, Ria Norfika Yuliandarid, a,b,c,dFaculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching Training, Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, Malang 65144, Indonesia, Email: awahidmurni@pips.uin-malang.ac.id,  baminnur@pai.uin-malang.ac.id,  cluthfiya@pips.uin-malang.ac.id,  dfikachu_math@pgmi.uin-malang.ac.id

This research is aimed at producing an entrepreneurship module with the integration of successful entrepreneur character and science, which is feasible for the promotion of students’ entrepreneurial attitudes. The subjects of this research were the students of a Social Science Education Study Program. To develop the module, the researchers went through five of the ten stages in Borg and Gall’s research and development method. The module feasibility analysis was conducted through expert validation and empirically through a questionnaire survey to elicit students’ responses. A t-test was then carried out on the results of the measurement by a questionnaire on the entrepreneurial attitude before and after the learning activities. As indicated by the research results, the module produced was declared as feasible under the predicate excellent according to the validators and, on average, the students. Based on the t-test results, there was a significant improvement in the students’ entrepreneurial attitudes. Pages 1043 to 1059

Employing Objective Programming in the Banking Field (National Bank) as a Model

Muna shaker Salmana, Ruqayah Yasir Abdulameerb, Heba Loqman Ameenc, aMiddle Technical University  Computer Systems Techniques   AL-Suwaira Technical Institute, bImam Al_Kadhum College, cNorthern technical university, Email: aMuna.Shaker@mtu.edu.iq,  brukaya.yasser@alkadhum-col.edu.iq,  chebaloqmanmaster@gmail.com

The study, titled employing objective programming in the banking field (Ahli Bank), aimed at introducing modern quantitative methods in banking and applying modern technical mathematical models in an easy and simple way to enable decision makers and analysts to have full knowledge in all aspects. One of the objectives of the research is to know the extent of achieving the objective programming of the optimal solutions and strategies in the management of the bank. A model was built for this objective programming and included 12 decision variables and 17 constraints, in addition to the objectives of maximising return and the secondly, to reduce investment risk. Using the program In QSB, it was concluded that the use of objective programming technique in planning yields better results. Pages 1060 to 1072

The Effect of Facebook and Online Newspapers on the Tourism Sector

Muhammad Akbara, Dwia Aries Tina Pulubuhub, Seniwatic*, aCommunication Department, Social and Political Sciences Faculty, Hasanuddin University,  Indonesia, bSociology Department, Social and Political Sciences Faculty Hasanuddin University, Indonesia, cInternational Relations Department, Social and Political Sciences Faculty Hasanuddin University, Email: c*seniwatiunhas2016@gmail.com

This research focuses on the role of Facebook and online newspapers in improving the tourism industry. Researchers can explore the marketing effectiveness of tourist areas on the internet through these two online social mediums. This study aims to identify the role of online social media, especially Facebook and online newspapers in promoting Indonesian tourism. The methods used in the study are observation, FGD and interviews. Tourists can carry out interactive dialogues about tourist destinations. Facebook and online newspapers promote interesting content through video, audio, images and text. The results of this study indicate the success of social media in developing the tourism industry in Bone Regency as there has been an increase in the number of domestic tourists visiting. Tourists are interested in visiting Bone Regency because they see promotions carried out on social media. Social media offers an appropriate and fast way to participate in supporting the tourism industry through an online system. Bone Regency has many tourist attractions that are unique to visit. This research concludes that the role of the government in promoting these tourist attractions is very important. This policy can introduce these tourist attractions widely to the public. Pages 1073 to 1083

The Impact of Crowding Out of the Government Sector on Private Investment: A Case of Iraq

Fahad Mghemish Huzayrana, aUniversity of Warith Al_Anbiyaa, Faculty of Administration and Economics, Karbala, Iraq, Email:  afahad.alshammary@uowa.edu.iq

The Iraqi economy has been suffering from financial pressure since 1991. This pressure comes from an increase in government expenditure. This increase in government expenditure has had many effects on some economic variables, most importantly private investment. By examining the extent to which the public sector is competing with the private sector for the financial resources available for lending, the government expenditure showed no significant impact on the private sector but was complementary to it, and has a positive correlation with other indicators in terms of interest rates and government debt. Whereas GDP is inversely linked to government spending, and therefore government spending does not overwhelm the private sector over financial resource. The results also indicate that there is no competition for resources in the Iraqi economy due to the weakness of the private sector and Iraq’s reliance on oil revenues to finance its expenditures as well as the lack of dependence on the financial market to finance its expenditures which reduces competition in the private sector. Pages 1084 to 1096

Social Wellbeing of the Fishing Community in Coastal Areas

Haslinda B. Anriania, aFISIP Universitas Tadulako Palu, Jl. Soekarno Hatta No.KM. 9, Tondo, Mantikulore, Kota Palu, Sulawesi Tengah 94148, IndonesiaAnriani, Email: aanrianihaslinda@gmail.com

This study aims to reveal the working relationship between local and migrant fishermen. This study was conducted in the fishing community of Lere Village of Palu City, Indonesia. The informants of this study were ten people includinglocal fishermen and migrant fishermen. The data wascollected using questionnaires, interviews, observation and literature review. Then, the data obtained wasanalysed using three-flow techniques, namely categorisation, reduction and conclusion. The results showed that the local fishermen were generally from the Kaili ethnic group, while the migrant fishermen were from variousethnic groups, namely Bugis, Makassar, Mandar and Gorontalo. Before there was cooperation between fishers, local fishermen were generally at alower level of welfare than migrant fishers. This is seen economically inhousing quality, vehicle ownership, family education levels and socio-religious status. After the cooperation, the welfare level of local fishermen began to improve. The cooperation concerns migrant fishermen involving local fishermen residents in fishery sharing.. This study concludes that an increase in the standard of living of fishing communities can occur if the rules for sharing take place and are voluntarily accepted by all parties concerned. Pages 1097 to 1110

Entrepreneur Characteristics, Creative Economy and Sustainability of MSMEs: Lesson from Indonesia

Radia Hafida*, Wahjoedib, Sri Umi Mintarti Widjajac, Hari Wahyonod, aDoctoral Program in Economic Education Universitas Negeri Malang/ Lecturer at Universitas Negeri Gorontalo, b,c,dFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Malang, Email: a*radiahafid@ung.ac.id

This study examined the effect of the entrepreneur characteristics and creative economy on the dynamics of development and its impact on MSMEs sustainability. This paper applied a quantitative study using path analysis. The study engaged approximately 300 participants following accidental sampling, but only had about 258 respondents, which were used for further analysis. The findings showed that entrepreneur characteristics, development dynamics and creative economy positively affect MSMEs sustainability. In addition, entrepreneur characteristics and creative economy have an impact on development dynamics. Also, entrepreneur characteristics have a relationship with the creative economy entrepreneurship. Indirectly, entrepreneur characteristics, through development dynamics, have an insignificant impact on MSMEs sustainability. Indeed, the creative economy through development dynamics insignificantly affects MSMEs sustainability in Indonesia. Lastly, entrepreneur characteristics positively influence MSMEs sustainability through the creative economy. Pages 1111 to 1123

Deposit Insurance System and Its Role in Enhancing Public Confidence in the Banking Sector in Order to Achieve Economic Development: An Iraq Case Study

Al-Shimari, Kamal K.Jawada, Jihad Faisal Jihadb, a,bUniversity of Kerbala/ College of Administration and Economics / Financial and Banking Sciences Department, Email: aKamal.k@uokerbala.edu.iq,  bjihad.f@uokerbala.edu.iq

The main objectives of the Deposit Insurance System are to compensate depositors in the event of banks failing to fulfil their obligations. This mechanism is an important means to gain public confidence in the banking system and achieve financial and banking stability, which is one of the most important elements of economic development, especially in developing countries. The research deals with the mechanism of deposit guarantee institutions in Iraq and its role in reaching the public's trust in order to mobilise deposits and provide the necessary capital for economic development. In order to reach the goal of the research, a sample of Iraqi banks were covered. The research has concluded that the public's confidence in the banking sector is very sensitive towards deposit guarantee institutions. The more efficient and effective the deposit guarantee institutions are, the greater the public's confidence in the banking sector and achieving financial and banking stability, which is an essential pillar of economic development. Pages 1124 to 1145

Embedding Entrepreneurial Competence in Higher    Education Institutes: An Entrepreneurship Mind-Set Value

Dorojatun Prihandonoa*, Andhi Wijayantob, Corry Yohanac, a,bDepartment of Management, Faculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, cDepartment of Management Faculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*dprihandono@mail.unnes.ac.id

Job seeking competition in today’s disruption era is increasing rapidly. Higher Education Institutes (HEI) need to prepare their graduates to be able to compete in this era. The focus of entrepreneurship in theory is to develop and flourish business throughout invention and exploitation of good and services. This study acts as basic guidance for HEI senior management and their staff in its managerial structure as a reference and based on developing a framework to create an improved curriculum, so that students can meet employment requirements. This study applies content analysis to understanding curriculum compatibility by adapting entrepreneurship competence dimensions in a management undergraduate study program. The result reveals that in the existing curriculum the expected learning outcomes (ELO) still have incompatibility with the second and third entrepreneurship competences; the ‘resources’ and ‘into action’. This result will lead to a framework for curriculum adjustment in order to enhance students’ employability towards the 4.0 industry. There are gaps in the existing ELO that can be identified using the entrepreneurship competences and which need to be resolved. The current curriculum in the Department of Management needs to be addressed. Entrepreneurship competences need to be embedded in individuals, especially students in Indonesian HEIs. The entrepreneurial competence, which is embedded in the student, will enable improving their skills when they enter the real world. This research also contributes in enhancing HEIs’ students’ entrepreneurial competence, by providing a framework to modify the current curriculum. Pages 1146 to 1161

The New Paradigm of the Risk-Based Internal Audit: Is it Effective or Not?

Abdillah Arif Nasutiona*, Erlinab, Rujimanc, Chandra Situmeangd,a,b,cUniversitas Sumatera Utara, dUniversitas Negeri Medan,Email: a*badinst@usu.ac.id,dchandrasitumeang@gmail.com

This research seeks to discover the influence of the role of the internal audit function and the commitment of top management and training towards the successful risk-based internal audit, and its implication to the implementation of risk management inthe Regency governments in the Sumatera Utara Province. The survey populate method is implemented to three Regency governments in Sumatera Utara. The data consisted of primary data, which was collected by questionnaire and secondary data, which supports this research. The hypothesis was tested using thepath analysis method. Based on the results, the following discoveries weremade: (1) there are no correlations between the role of the internal audit function, the commitment of top management, and training in the Regency governments in the Sumatera Utara Province; (2) simultaneously and partially, the role of the internal audit function, the commitment of top management, and training, influence towards the successful risk-based internal audit; and (3) the implications of both the simultaneous and partial role of the internal audit function, the commitment of top management, training, and the successful risk-based internal audit, influence the implementation of risk management. Pages 1162 to 1187

Combination Essential  Ginger Oil and Acupresure Relaxation Techniques to Cancer Patients Post Chemotherapy

Tintin Sukartinia*, Gustini Gustinib, Ilya Krisnanac

a,c Lecturer of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Mulyorejo Street, Campus C Unair, Surabaya, Indonesia, 60115, b Student of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya,  Indonesia, 60115,  


The intervention of the aroma of ginger essential oil and relaxation techniques of meridian PC6 acupressure could reduce nausea, vomiting,  increase comfort and decrease anorexia, but the research have not been found to prove effectiveness if these two interventions are combined. The purpose of the research was to explain the effect of the combinations of aroma of ginger essential oil and relaxation techniques of acupuncture meridian PC6 on nausea vomiting, comfort and anorexia. Quantitative with research design Quasy Experiment with pre-post test control group design (four groups pretest-postest). This research, the population of cancer patients  post chemotherapy  who  experienced nausea and vomiting. The sampling method used by non probability consecutive sampling, consisted of 30 respondents for each group according to inclusion criteria. The research variables were essential ginger oil aroma, relaxation technique acupressure meridian PC6, nausea vomiting, comfort, anorexia. The instruments used were nausea and vomiting questionnaire, anorexia questionnaire and shortened general comport questionmaire (GCQ)  and analyzed using MANOVA. There were a decrease in nausea and vomiting p=0,000, an increase in comfort p=0,000,a decrease in anorexia p=0,000 before and after the intervention of a combination of ginger essential oil and relaxation technique acupressure PC6 meridian. The combination of essential ginger aroma and relaxation techniques for acupressure meridian PC6 were one of the alternative interventions that was effective in reducing nausea and vomiting, increasing comfort, decreasing anorexia in cancer patients. Pages 1188 to 1201

Strategy-Aligned Channel Location Selection by a Multiple Criterion Decision-making Mechanism: A Perspective of Franchising System Assessment

Kuo-Yan Wang, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, Maoming, Guangdong 525000, China, Email: philipwang1688@gmail.com

“Location, location, location”, is a common proverb in real estate, especially for small-scale food and beverage business owners. The existing literature on location choice tends to over-emphasise large-acreage positions or additional location selection, rather than strategically oriented channel expansion in the pre-initial stage of firm development. The present study therefore uses a multiple decision-making method (MCDM) to infer numerous implications from the ranking results. Although this case study focusses on a franchising system expansion project for a handmade beverage franchise in numerous markets, the method is widely applicable to location selection procedures in entrepreneurial contexts, thanks to reduced costs, simplicity of use, and arithmetic simplicity. Several research directions for subsequent study are offered. Pages 1202 to 1215

Understanding, Attitude, and the Role of Buddhists towards Forest and Land Fires in Central Kalimantan

Joko Santosoa*, Sulmin Gumirib, Nina Yuliantic, Maslianid, a,b,c,dDepartment of Environmental Sciences, Universitas Palangka Raya, Email: a*joko_santosa@Pasca.upr.ac.id

The issue of forest and land fires is fundamental in Central Kalimantan. This condition affects the understanding, attitude, and role of the community, including Buddhists. This study aims to determine how understanding, attitude, and the role of Buddhists, in terms of forest and land fires in Central Kalimantan, are constructed. To collect data, a survey was administered to forty-five Buddhists in three regions of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. They were asked to complete the questionnaire. The results of the study concluded that Buddhists have a sufficient understanding of the problem of forest and land fires in Central Kalimantan. However, there is still a small number of communities that do not have understanding, attitude, and role, and there are also those whose understanding, attitude, and role are contrary to the expectations of forest fires and land management in the regions. Pages 1216 to 1233

Sustainable Forest Management: From Awiq-Awiq to a Global Perspective

Tuti Mutiaa, Sumarmib, Budjiantoc, Syamsul Bachrid, aDoctoral Student of Geography Education Department, Postgraduate Program, Universitas Negeri Malang (State University of Malang), b,c,dGeography Education Departement, Faculty of Social Sciences, Universitas Negeri Malang, East Java, Indonesia, Email: amutiatia92@yahoo.co.id,  bsumarmi.fis@um.ac.id,  cbudijanto.fis@um.ac.id,  dsyamsul.bachri.fis@um.ac.id

Awiq-awiq is a local term of customary law applied by Bayan indigenous people in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. This custom regulates the relationship between a human and other humans, nature, and God. One of the awiq-awiq that rules the relationship of humans and nature is the rule of forest management among Bayan indigenous people, which is based on management sustainability. This study aimed to uncover the sustainable forest management practices, in accordance with awiq-awiq. This research used a qualitative method by identifying the condition of the Bayan indigenous people in managing forest that is based on awiq-awiq from a forest management sustainability perspective. The data collection was carried out through in-depth interview and documentation. There is five stages of data analysis: data reduction, categorisation, synthesis, focus of the research, and summary of the results. The research results showed that the management was in accordance with the aspects of sustainable forest management. The form of forest management using awiq-awiq can maintain forest preservation. Furthermore, it could contribute to sustainable forest management and can be adopted by the international world. Pages 1234 to 1249

A Resettlement Action Plan Design for Land Acquisition in Indonesia

Muhammad Akiba, H.S. Tisnantab, F.X. Sumarjac, Ade Arif Firmansyahd*, Thio Haikal Anugerahe, a,b,c,d,eUniversitas Lampung Indonesia, Email: d*ade.firmansyah@fh.unila.ac.id

This study aims to answer how can law design of the resettlement action plan, ensure the sustainability of affected parties who live on land acquired for public interest in Indonesia. By using a statutory and conceptual approach, the results of the study indicate that the law design of the resettlement action plan (RAP), that ensures the sustainability of affected parties on land acquired for public interest, can be done by accommodating a social impact assessment (SIA) model and a social impact management plan (SIMP) as the basis for RAP design. The eight indicators that can be derived from SIA and SIMP as a reference in preparing the RAP are: health; education; religion; water; agricultural; soil quality; sanitation; and livelihood opportunity. There are three stages, namely: the pre or RAP preparation stage, the RAP implementation stage and the RAP monitoring and evaluation stage. Pages 1250 to 1260

Possible Implications of the Relationship between Environmental Management Accounting Techniques and Sustainable Competitive Advantage

Khudair Majeed Allawia*, Sabah Hasan Mijbilb, Ahmed Mohammad Hamzahc,

aAl-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University- Technical Institute /Diwaniya, bMinistry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Department of missions and cultural relations. cSummer University, College of Administration and Economics. Email: a*khud.dw@atu.edu.iq

This study aims to demonstrate the relationship and potential impact between environmental management accounting techniques and sustainable competitive advantage, and the effect of these technologies in rationalising cost and time, improving quality, enhancing sustainability, creativity and energy conservation, providing a safe and clean environment and reducing waste in the production process, to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage as well as to achieve the purpose of this study. A questionnaire was prepared and distributed to 350 account managers and production staff management of industrial companies in Iraq. The study concluded that environmental management accounting techniques play an important role in promoting the dimensions of sustainable competitive advantage within the organisation, which calls for these companies to adopt the application of environmental management accounting techniques in order to stay and continue in the competitive environment in a way that achieves sustainability for them. Pages 1261 to 1273

The Role of the Strategic Audit in Improving Industrial Companies' Performance: A Field Study of Companies Operating in Basra Province, Iraq

Abdulhussain Tofeeq Shiblea, Jalil Ibrahim Salihb, Nahla Ghalib Abdul Rahmac, aUniversity of Basra, Economic & Administration  College, Iraq, bSouthern Technical University, Technical College of Administration, Basra, Iraq, cSouthern Technical University, Technical Institute of Basra, Iraq, Email: aHusainshibli@yahoo.com,  bJaleel_kanan@yahoo.com,  cnahla.jalee@stu.edu.iq

The strategic audit is a system to identify the extent of implementing a company's strategies, its purposes, and how to reach its goals. It requires drawing a strategic plan and seeking to implement this plan in order to achieve the company's message and goals. This study aims to identify the concept of strategic auditing and its importance as an alternative, integrative, and comprehensive managerial system that reflects the company's strategic vision and assesses the extent of achieving its goals. Furthermore, it works on improving the various aspects of performance — organisational, economic, social, and environmental — in addition to highlighting the contribution of the strategic audit in the efficiency of controlling the performance in order to achieve the company's goals. To achieve the goals of the study, a pilot study was conducted where 130 questionnaires were distributed. One hundred and nineteen were valid for analysis with a response rate of 92.97 per cent, which is an acceptable level for generalising the results on the population of the study. The study population included a group of employees working in industrial companies operating in the Basra Province in Iraq. Among the important results revealed by the study, was that the strategic audit contributes in improving economic, organisational, social, and environmental performance of the company. Pages 1274 to 1296

The Mediating Role of Improvisation Behaviour on Proclivity for Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy, Social Networking, and Women-Owned SME Business Success in Malaysia

Adibah Baria, Darwina Arshadb, a,bSchool of Business Management, College of Business Universiti Utara Malaysia, Email: aadibahbari@gmail.com,  bdarwina@uum.edu.my

There are several studies in entrepreneurship which investigate the determinants of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and social networking towards business performance. However, the research on improvisation, typically on these two factors, was found to be limited and remains unexplored. This research aimed at investigating the mediating role of improvisation behaviour in the development of women’s entrepreneurial business success. Based on the extant literature, improvisation is critical to the success of any business. Thus, this paper aims to expand the frontier of knowledge by examining the mediating role of improvisation behaviour on the connection between proclivity for entrepreneurial self-efficacy, social networking, and business success, particularly among women entrepreneurs in Malaysia. This is done through a comprehensive literature review and conceptual discussion. The findings of the study signify an indirect positive significant effect of improvisation behaviour on the relationship between the antecedent factors; entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) and social networking towards women entrepreneurs’ business success in Malaysian SMEs. The study, however, discussed the theoretical and practical implication in the final analysis. Pages 1297 to 1314

Competency Assessment of Stakeholders with the Introduction of Foreign Experts in Chinese Universities

Ting Miaoa, Worawit Janchaib*, Anurak Panyanuwatc, Danaitun Pongpatcharatorntepd, aCollege of Arts, Media and Technology, Chiang Mai University, Thailand & North Minzu University, China, b,dCollege of Arts, Media and Technology, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, cInternational College and Digital Innovation, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, Email: b*worawit.jc@gmail.com

This research aims to analyse the gap between lecturers current and expected competencies, meanwhile analysing whether the important competencies have contributed to the effective outcomes for the project. Descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis are used as the analysis tools. The results declare that gaps are present between lecturers’ current and expected competencies throughout academic and routine job implementations. Besides, the correlation shows a significant positive relationship which occurs between competencies and the outcomes of the introduction of the project from the foreign high-level experts. The constructed regression analysis supported that the competencies that could predict the outcomes of the project are: teamwork competency, planning and administration competency, academic competency and coordination techniques as well as language competencies. The findings from this empirical study will be of benefit to universities to improve the competencies of their lecturers. Pages 1315 to 1331

Staff Errors in Translating Arabic Abstracts into English

Salah Mahdi Yousifa*, Sinan Ameer Yousifb, Rasha Tareq Awadc, aDepartment of Accounting/College of Administration and Economics, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, b,cDepartment of English Language and Literature, College of Arts, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, Email: a*Sssenglish89@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Most journals require the existence of an abstract in both languages, such as the source and the target one, since it represents the preface of the research. The starting point of any work seems to be the most difficult one since it paves the way for all the coming steps. Another difficulty arises with researchers who do not specialise in English when trying to translate their Arabic abstracts into English. Most of them use Google translation or send their abstracts to other people who specialise or have knowledge in English. A few of them try their own translation depending on their experience and knowledge. As a result, they may commit various types of errors in doing so. Due to this, these errors will be collected, classified, and explained. A random sample of 24 abstracts taken from different issues of the Journal of the College of Administration and Economics has been selected to be studied, statistically analysed, classified, and then explained, to determine the various types of errors committed. It has been concluded that most researchers with specialisations other than English, suffer greatly from the various types of errors which they commit under the effect of different reasons, including primarily those related to interlanguage and intralanguage interference. Pages 1332 to 1354

The Practical Reality of the Strategies of Administrative Creativity: An Analytical Survey in the Al Kufa Cement Factory

Muayad Al-Saidia*, Iman M. Jawadb, Afrah Al-Ghanmic, aMiddle Euphrates Technical University, Technical College of Management, Kufa. Iraq, b,cGeneral Directorate of Education of the Holy Governorate of Karbala, Email: a*inm.mua@atu.edu.iq

The purpose of the research is exploring knowledge of administrative creativity strategies (organisational development strategy, a strategy of functional specialisation, periodic strategy), in the Al-Kufa Cement Plant. Searches were carried out by selecting a sample of employees in middle,  lower and upper management , exploring their views through a questionnaire prepared for this purpose. Statistical software (SPSS) was used for data analysis. Results of this study indicated that the lab is not interested in activating the mechanisms of administrative creativity for all strategies, despite the availability of skilled workers, cadres and lab management support methods in traditional operations. Pages 1376 to 1393

The Relationship between Organisational Culture and Enterprise Resource Planning and its Reflection on the Accounting Information System

Khadija Jomaa Mutera, Alaa Mohammed Obaidb, Jenan Abd AL-Abbas Al Dulamyc, a,bDepartment of Accounting . College of Administration and Economic. AL-Mustansiriyah  University. Baghdad-Iraq, cAccounting Department.  Babylon Technical Institute AL-Furat  AL-Awsat Technical University. Kufa-Iraq, Email: akhdija_j_m79@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq,  balaamhamed@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq,  cjenan_ab@yahoo.com

The economic units face many challenges in the contemporary environment. This is represented by the technological development and information revolution that are accompanied by the rapid development of computer systems, competition increase, market changes, customer's requirements, and the need for accurate information. Thus, it becomes necessary to enter the world of information technology strongly and to use solutions of information technology because it plays an important role in the business environment. As a result of these challenges, the economic units have re-examined the structure of their technological processes to maintain their competitive advantage and to work better in a changing business environment. For the information systems to be considered as a corner stone of the economic unit's operations structure, it is necessary to pay attention to the design of information technology-based information systems, including the enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. This is a system of managing the economic unit business that combines all different components of the various software programs in order to operate, improve, and integrate all business processes within the economic unit. The ERP system is considered as one of the most prevalent information technology (IT) solutions in economic units, where the ERP system has been implemented worldwide to enhance business performance. Therefore, the culture of the organisation has a role in developing and bringing the information technology needed by the economic units in their work. This includes the ERP system, which can affect the accounting information system, where it achieves greater economy, effectiveness, and efficiency by reducing repetition and slowness in the performance of businesses. Pages 1394 to 1418

The Effect of Financial Reporting on Sustainability Accounting in Improving the Performance of Economic Units in the Iraqi Environment

Mays Mushtaq Abdulaaimaa, Ali Naser Thabetb, Ahmed Saad Jaric, a,b,cAccounting Department, College of administration and economics, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, Email: aMacemushtaq@uomustansiriyah.edu.iqbAlialnoory88@uomustansiriahy.edu.iq,   cahmedsaadjar006@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

This research aims to shed light on the concept and importance of sustainability accounting and address the deficiencies in the outputs of the accounting system represented by financial reports by including in these reports information about the social, environmental, and economic responsibilities of economic units and indicating the impact of financial reporting on them to improve the performance of those units. The research methodology was based on the questionnaire list, and the questionnaire was analysed by using the statistical program STATA V.15. The questionnaire was distributed to the research sample which was represented by the financial division of the Doura Refinery Oil Refining Company. The research reached a statistically significant correlation relationship, as well as a significant effect between financial reporting for sustainability accounting and improving the performance of economic units in the Iraqi environment. The research recommended the need for financial reporting to sustainability accounting in economic units through the preparation of separate reporting on financial reports represented by lists of the final financial report. This recommendation was provided because these reports are important in meeting the needs of internal and external stakeholders for information on the environmental, social, and economic performance of the company that represents the research sample. Pages 1419 to 1442

Effect of Information Technology Infrastructure on Competitive Advantages through Competitive Action in SMEs

Zeis Zultaqawaa, Mohammad Benny Alexandrib, Muhamad Rizalc, Nenden Kostinid, Obsatar Sinagae, a,b,c,d,eUniversitas Padjadjaran Bandung, Indonesia, Email: azeis17001@mail.unpad.ac.idbmohammad.benny@unpad.ac.idcmuhamad.rizal@unpad.ac.iddnenden.kostini@unpad.ac.ideobsatar.sinaga@unpad.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to find out and analyse the influence of information technology infrastructure, accessibility and mobility on competitive advantage through competitive action in the apparel industry. This paper is based on a quantitative approach using a population of the apparel industry in Bandung Regency, Indonesia. Samples are taken with random sampling techniques. The survey was conducted on 196 small and medium-sized businesses producing apparel. Data is processed using the Structural Equation Modelling-Partial Least Squares (SEM-PLS). The findings show that there is a significant effect of information technology infrastructure, accessibility and mobility on competitive advantage through competitive action. This research shows that information technology infrastructure, accessibility, mobility and competitive action can create competitive advantages in the clothing industry in Bandung Regency, Indonesia. Competitive action is a developing study from the strategic management literature based on a theory of entrepreneurial action and is the ability of companies to create activities to achieve competitive advantage by exploring and exploiting opportunities in carrying out business operations. Pages 1443 to 1463



The Effectiveness of the Use of the Gibbs Meditative Model in Academic Achievement and the Development of Visual Thinking in Fourth Students in Biology

Mohammed Khalil Ibrahima, Anwar Abdullah Khalfb, Zainab Mohammed Khalilc, aAssistant Professor, bLecturer, cAssistant Lecturer, a,b,cDepartment of Sciences, Faculty of Basic Education, Mustansiriyah University Baghdad, Iraq, Email: aobaidi1965mb@gmail.com, banwarkhalf7@gmail.com, cBlackz19912000@gmail.com

Current research aims to recognize the effectiveness of using the Gibbs reflective model in academic achievement and to develop visual thinking in Biology students in the fourth science classroom  the researcher assumed the two zero hypotheses: 1- no statistically significant difference at the level of an indication (0.05) between the average scores of experimental group students studying the biology subject according to the Gibbs reflective model and the average achievement of control group students who study biology in a traditional way. 2-There is no statistically significant difference at an indication level (0.05) between the average differences in degrees test the visual pre-and-post thinking of experimental group students and the average differences in degrees test the visual pre-and-post thinking of the control group's students, the sample research was composed of (49) students with (25) students in the experimental group who studied using the Gibbs reflective model and (24) students in the control group who studied in the usual way To achieve the research objective, a 30-paragraph, post-graduate test and a 20-paragraph pre-visual-thinking skills test were prepared, the results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the two mathematical averages in the test scores of the students of the two research groups and for the group Experimental, as well as statistically significant differences between the average of the differences in the degrees of pre-visual and dimensional thinking skills test for the students of the two research groups and also for the experimental group. Pages 1464 to 1480




The Role of Smart Auditing in Detecting Fraudulent Practices in the Financial Statements: A Suggested Model

Faez Abduhasan Jasim Allami, College of Management and Economics, Maysan University, Iraq, Email: Allamifaez67@yahoo.com

The research aims to clarify the role of smart applications and their benefits and benefits aimed at supporting and developing auditors' performance in uncovering various fraudulent practices that are difficult to discover by traditional methods due to developing fraud methods practiced by management in the financial statements and benefit from gaps and flexibility in applying accounting principles and rules as well as the importance of auditor using the application Alone Forms Smart in the currency and transfer of method and means to the smart review method, to which Yemen aspires to reveal modern deception techniques that enhance the role of the audit profession in enhancing confidence among the various beneficiaries of the neutral technical opinion in the financial statements. Pages 1481 to 1491




The role of the Classroom Google Educational platform in E-learning from the viewpoint of students of the College of Basic Education

Rafid Sabah Al-Tamimia, Dr. Ashwak Saber Nasserb, aAssistant Professor, College of Management and Economics, University of Baghdad, Iraq, bAssistant Professor, College of Basic, University of Mustansiriya, Iraq, Emails: aRafid0074@coadec.uobaghdad.edu.iq, bAshwag.edbs@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq 

The current research aims to understand the role of the classroom education platform in Google in e-learning from a student's point of view. The current research has identified students of the College of Basic Education from the morning study and elementary grades for both sexes (boys-furniture) and the academic year 2019-2020 AD, and the number (150) students in order to achieve the goal of the current research. The two researchers build the educational platform as the Classroom Google scale in e-learning from The viewpoint of the students of the College of Basic Education has extracted its psychometric characteristics, and the scale may be in the final form of (30) paragraphs, and after extracting the weighted average and the weight ratio of the items, the results showed: Most of the utility scope elements represent the benefit of Classroom Google In e-learning for students, by comparing the degree of sharpness to the degree of cut (2). Most of the sections on methods of utilization are methods that enable students to take advantage of the Classroom Google educational platform in e-learning for students by comparing the degree of severity to the degree of cutting (2). Area n Each of the restrictions (10) paragraphs pose obstacles to benefiting from the Classroom Google educational platform in e-learning for students by comparing the degree of severity to the degree of cutting (2). Pages 1492 to 1514




The Level of Cognitive Processing among Students of the History Department in the Faculties of Education in the Universities of Baghdad Governorate

Iman Mohammed Khudhaira, Assistant Prof. Dr. Saad Ali Zaeyrb, aCollege of Education Ibn Rushd, University of Baghdad, Iraq, bCollege of Education, Al-Mustansiriya University, Iraq, Email: aemanmohamed30000@gmail.com, bSaad.ali@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq 

The aim of the research is to identify the cognitive treatment of students of the Department of History in the Faculties of Education in the universities of Baghdad Governorate. The sample consisted of (300) male and female students from the history departments of the Faculties of Education in the universities of Baghdad Governorate, which are the University of Baghdad, Al-Mustansiriya University and the Iraqi University. The two researchers relied on (Tattoo Scale, 1983), which defined a race and ethnicity, on the environment of the Iraqi researcher (Al-Ghariri, 2003). After applying the tool and using appropriate statistical methods, the researchers reached a statistical difference. Important for the usefulness of the sample mean, that is, the sample has high levels of cognitive processing. Pages 1515 to 1533




Quantitative Coding in Thematic Maps: An Applied Study of the Distribution Maps of Wasit Governorate Residents

Dr. Shaima Akram Ahmed 1,  Dr. Taha Muship Hussein2, 1Assistant Professor , College of Education, Al- Mustansiriya University, Iraq, 2Professor, College of Education, University of Samarra, Iraq, Email: 1shaimaaakram684@gmail.com, 2Prof.taha1962@gmail.com

The main objective of the research is how to represent the quantitative map symbols using geographical information systems and choosing the best quantitative symbol for each phenomenon that is represented on the map so that it is not chosen in an unconscious way, as each symbol of these symbols is carefully chosen in a way that suits the type, nature and characteristics of the phenomenon It represents, it is known that the content of the map is symbols taken to represent geographical phenomena and on the basis of which it adopts the process of reading and analyzing the map. We have mentioned three groups among the basic symbols used in geographic information systems are raster (local) and linear and spatial. The concept of quantitative coding and the importance of using symbols in maps, as well as the concept of quantitative map and the steps for preparing it in geographic information systems, an applied study on how to prepare them for Wasit governorate residents were clarified. And how to encode quantitative data in the geographical information systems (GIS) and choose the most appropriate ones in the representation of research maps, and an applied model for maps of the population of Wasit Governorate has been chosen according to the administrative units (judiciary) without relying on Wasit population estimates for the year 2018 By the Ministry of Planning, and the creation of a digital database to distribute the population of Wasit Governorate and produce maps representing both the numerical and relative distribution of the population and the representation of the general population density as well as the distribution of the population according to the environment (urban and rural) as well as the distribution of the numerical and relative population by sex (male and female) according to what Availability of data from the Ministry of Planning, which can be represented in the form of maps and based on one of the GIS programs, which is the ARC GIS 10.4 program. Pages 1534 to 1550




The Effect of the Strategy of Applying Principles on the Development of Critical Thinking Among Sixth Grade Literary Students in the Subject of History

Assistant prof. Dr. Sahar Saeed Saleh, The Open Educational College, Ministry of Education, Iraq

The aim of the current research is to identify (the effect of the strategy of applying the principles on developing critical thinking among sixth-grade literary students in history subject), and to achieve this goal, two null hypotheses were formulated, which were randomly selected secondary. (Adab) for boys affiliated with the General Directorate of Education in Baghdad - Al-Karkh 2, and they used the experimental design with two non-equivalent (control group experimental group) with the post test, which is a test for critical thinking, and the choice of bidirectional random assignment to represent the sample consisting of 69 students, Of 35 students for an experimental group that studied according to the strategy of applying the principles, and (34) students for a control group that studied according to the method. The researcher is rewarded for two groups of research statistically in the variables (life span, achievement of the previous semester in the history of the sixth grade literary, intelligence test, and the pre-critical thinking test), and the research requirements were prepared (scientific determination). Article, behavioral formulation purposes, preparation of teaching plans. The researcher prepared a critical thinking test, the final form of which is (25) standing with (75) items with three options, and includes testing five skills (knowledge of assumptions, interpretation, evaluation arguments, inference, and conclusion), Stability of test items was found using Kiodr-richardson 20 reaching (85, 0), the experiment applied in the first semester and continued for more than 12 weeks after the end. The experiment was an applied research tool on the two research groups to measure critical thinking, and the data processing showed statistically the results of the research on the experimental group that studied according to the application of strategic principles of the control group and which is studied in the usual way of critical thinking. In light of the research results, a set of conclusions were reached and a set of recommendations and proposals were presented. Pages 1551 to 1571




The Effect of the Need Model on Systemic Thinking among Fifth-Grader Students in Biology

Dr Nael Hashim Fadhil, Directorate of Education Salah El-Din, Ministry of Education, Iraq

The aim of the present study is to identify. The effect of the need model on systemic thinking among fifth-grader students in biology. The research sample consisted of (65) students from the second intermediate class in middle school for boys, affiliated to the General Directorate of Education for Kirkuk, and two people were chosen A school to represent one of the experimental groups, which numbered (33) students, which were taught according to the Nidh model, and another officer, whose number was (32) students, which was taught according to the usual way. Intelligence, past mathematical knowledge, and systemic thinking skills test) A systematic thinking skills test was prepared and consisted of (12 paragraphs), and it was presented to a group of arbitrators in the methods of teaching life sciences and psychology, and its validation was verified by using factor analysis (correlation matrix) and consistency was calculated using the Cronbach-Alpha equation and the stability factor has reached (0.85). Using appropriate statistical methods. In light of these results, a researcher recommends adopting the model, which we need in teaching biology, and training teachers of biology on modern models and strategies, and from these models, we need the model. Pages 1572 to 1584




Aesthetic Qualities for Ceramic Wall Designs in Interior Design A.P.D Salah Aldiyn Qadir Ahmad Alja

Salah Aldiyn Qadir Ahmad Aljafa, aMustansiriya University Faculty of Basic Education, Iraq

The art of ceramic murals is one of the earliest civilizational witnesses, which revealed to us its potentials for its brightness. As far as it is characterized by artistic and technical preambles, it is connected with beliefs full of secrets and with its sensory effects that have an impact on the recipient. The problem of research is manifested by the following question: Aesthetic qualities of ceramic wall designs in interior design? The importance of this research in the vision of the aesthetic qualities of the preambles of the design of ceramic wall murals and uncovering their ambiguity, the second chapter of the theoretical framework to include the study of the aesthetics of the qualities of the historical eras as well as touching sensual excitement The third chapter of the research procedures as the descriptive analytical approach has been adopted The selective method included the specimen, the form of the questionnaire and the focus of the analysis to discuss the preambles of the aesthetic qualities of ceramic designs. During the functional preamble which expressed the specification achieved sensory effects (Ahmad Mukhtar Abdul Hamid Omar 2008). Pages 1585 to 1601




Analysis the Theoretical Curriculum for Artistic Taste Lesson in the Department of Art Education

Raghed Zaki Ghayadha, aAlmustansiriyah University/College Of Basic Education

This Research Aim to Analysis a theoretical curriculum of art taste lesson in the Department of Art Education, and its boundaries Current search is determined in: 1. Art taste lesson2. Theoretical side. 3. Curriculum Department of Art Education in the college of Basic Education / University of Mustansiriyah. It introduce the hall theory corners to study artistic taste as a lesson of the curriculum in the department of art education. Through the analysis the researcher introduce much information about artistic taste and the researcher recommends the adoption of the proposed content in the actual teaching of the art of art improvement in the Department of Art Education, and suggest a study to examine the effect of teaching by adopting the proposed content. The research used 30 recourses. The research had been writing in Arabic language the main language for researcher than it had been translated to English. Pages 1602 to 1618




The Impact of Molecular Representation Strategy on Academic Achievement and Self-Efficacy among the 2nd Female Graders Students in Chemistry

Hiam Ghaieb Hussein a, Israa Naji Kazim b, a,b Chemistry teaching  methods Diyala University, College of Basic Education, Iraq

This aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Molecular Representation strategy on the achievement and self- efficacy of the second grade students in Chemistry. The study sample consisted of (70) students distributed in to two experimental and control groups. The study tools consisted of achievement test self-efficacy measure and statistical .The results showed that there were  statistically significant differences at the level of (α=0.05) between the experimental group and the control group In both the achievement  test and the measure of self -efficacy and for the benefit  of the experimental group ,In light of the this, the researcher recommended the need to use the  strategy of Molecular representation to teach Chemistry because of its impact in raising  the level of academic achievement in Chemistry. Pages 1619 to 1641




The Form of the Iraqi State under the 2005 Constitution: A Study for the Deviation of the Federal Experience

Asst. Prof. Dr. Ahmed Yahya Hadi1, Asst. Prof. Dr. Oday Falih Hussein2, 1,2 Department of political Sciences, College for Islamic sciences, Imam Al-Kadhim University, Iraq

According to its permanent constitution of 2005, Iraq adopted a new style of state administration, in which it turned from the extreme centralization that ruled the Iraqi state for nearly three decades to federalism, i.e. from centralization of the authority to division of powers. However, this is a recent experience that was not common among the Iraqi political forces, or even the citizens, which adopted this style. It is the first experience since the establishment of the Iraqi state until the adoption of the style of federal administration. Therefore, it witnessed several deviations that began by the way the state was established and the division style of powers across the different levels of government, and ended by some relationships between these levels and with the federal government. So, we proceeded our work based on the premise that "Iraq adopted the federal system in its permanent constitution, although that system witnessed many exclusive deviations, in comparison with the other federal systems that arose under the same conditions, in which the Iraqi federal system emerged , in general, and the relationship between the formation of the federal state, division of powers and the probability of decision in case of disagreement between these different levels of government, in particular. To verify this hypothesis, we will address, in this research, the following themes: First, the concept of the federal system; Second, the relationship between the federal state’s formation and the division of powers; Third, Features of the federal system under the Iraq's 2005 permanent constitution; and Fourth, aspects of deviation of the federal system under the 2005 Constitution. Pages 1642 to 1657




Attitudes of Physics Students in the College of Basic Education towards the Use of an Open-Source E-Learning Management System (Moodle) and Its Relationship to Some Variables

Assistant Prof. Dr. Rasha Abdel-Hussein Sahib Abdel-Hassan Mohamed, College of Administration and Economics, Maysan University, Iraq, Email: rasha.a.sahib@uomisan.edu.iq

The aim of the current research is to identify the attitudes of physics students in the College of Basic Education towards the use of an open-source e-learning management system (Moodle) And its relationship with some variables , where the use of descriptive-analytical method and was applied scale trend survey consists of (30) paragraph according to the Likert scale of five, and applied to a component of the sample (60) male and female students from the Physics Branch in the Department of Science The College of Basic Education has different levels of study, where the sample was randomly chosen, and the arithmetic mean, standard deviation and the relative importance of each paragraph of the trend scale were calculated , and the researcher reached results indicating that there are positive trends among physics branch students towards using a management system e-learning open-source (Moodle) In addition, the results also indicate that students need more training in the use of an open-source e-learning management system (Moodle). Pages 1658 to 1678




Family Coherence and Its Relationship with University Engagement for University Students

Brouj Khader Husseina, Assist. Prof. Malik Fadheel Abdullahb, Department of Educational and Psychological Sciences, College of Education and Human Sciences, Wasit University, Iraq. Emails: aMfdheal@uowasit.edu.iq, bMalik.fdhail@gmail.com

The current research aims to identify the degree of family cohesion and university integration among university students, as well as to reveal the relationship between family cohesion and university integration among university students. Researchers built a family cohesion scale and set up a college cohesion scale. An ongoing research for students of the University College of Education at Wasit School (8 201-2019), and consisted of an ongoing study sample of (40 0) students randomly selected from the community and from Al-Dahma (14,000) students, and they were analyzed. Statistically data using SPSS, the results showed the following: University students in Wasit governorate enjoy family cohesionUniversity students in Wasit governorate to integrate the university There is a positive significant correlation between the research variables, family cohesion, and university integration.The position researcher indicated that among the recommendations and proposals based on the results of the current research. Pages 1679 to 1697




The Impact of Monks’ Activities on Local and Migrant Concepts in the Near East

Haidar Jasima, aAl-Qadisiyah University/ College of Education,

The activity of Christian clergy, with their various priestly ranks, represented an important factor affecting the movement of interaction within their societies on the one hand, or with other societies, whether they are from the environment, religion, and culture itself or different from it on the other hand, and their interests and effects were not limited to a specific, specific aspect, Rather, it diversified in a similar way to the nature of the heterogeneous composition that formed in the light of the Near East region. It included the religious, social, cultural, medical, and other fields, and thus contributed indirectly to the establishment of a new phase, which was slowly and steadily forming throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a stage that had It was associated with the international changes that prevailed and changed the balance of power in the region, especially those related to achieving greater knowledge of the West about the East, and giving way to national and religious minorities to express themselves and try to achieve their aspirations. Pages 1698 to 1711




Multiple Intelligences and Their Relation to Blood Group Among     University Students

Sahla Hussein Qalandera, Wassan Nasser Mohammedb,  Adel Kamel Shabibc, College of Education for Pure Sciences Ibn Al-Haytham University of Baghdad, Iraq Email: aSahlahussein87@gmail.com,   bWasan_alaobaide@yahoo.com,  cAadd1970eell@gmail.com

The present research aims to identify (multiple intelligences and four blood groups among university students, and differences in multiple intelligences and four blood groups among university students according to sex variable (males, females) and blood group, through a number of hypotheses, the research is determined on the students of Baghdad University College of Education For pure sciences (Ibn Al Haytham) for the academic year (2017, 2018) and for both morning and evening studies and on the four stages of education and for both sexes (males and females), the basic sample consisted of (400) students were selected randomly and equally from the four grades, and the researchers adopted a scale Intelligences The multi-adopted (Tai, 2011) and based on the definition of multiple intelligences theory (Cardner, 1997) and consists of (8) areas (linguistic, logical, mathematical, spatial, physical, music, and interpersonal, personal, and natural) and each field (10) After using the appropriate statistical methods and analyzing the data, the results and after testing the difference between the two averages with the test (t, test) for one sample, The calculated value of personal intelligence was (39,394), which is greater than the tabular T value (1,96) at the significance level (0.05). The degree of freedom (399) This means that the university students have personal intelligence and then have social intelligence where the calculated value (26,126), and then logical intelligence where the calculated value (24,493), and then visual intelligence where the calculated value of visual intelligence (14,789 They had musical intelligence where the calculated value was (20,004), and the calculated value of linguistic intelligence (14,749) and then natural intelligence and the calculated value (14,076), then the calculated value of physical intelligence (10,958). The second goal was that there were no statistically significant differences between multiple intelligences and blood type according to the sex variable. Thus, the zero hypothesis accepted only six intelligences at the level (0.05) between the mean scores of linguistic intelligence, then logical intelligence, musical intelligence, social intelligence, personal intelligence and intelligence. Normal), by sex variable (male, female) according to the following blood groups (O +)), (AB -), AB +))), (B -)), B +))), A -)), ((+ A Zero hypothesis rejected and accepted the alternative to only two types of intelligence: visual intelligence and physical intelligence, it became clear that there are statistically significant differences between the average degrees of visual and physical intelligence h Transsexual insults (males - females) according to blood groups, and reached a number of conclusions, recommendations and proposals. Pages 1712 to 1733




The Interactive Role of the Knowledge Management Processes through the Relationship between Strategic Orientation and Employees empowerment: Analytical Study in Asiacell Company in Al-Diwaniyah Province-Iraq

Assistant Prof. Firas Adnan Abbas Altabtabaea, Layla Jamel Abbasb, Inst. Shatha Abood Shakirc, Layla Jameel Abbasd aUniversity of Al- qadisyah, College of Business, Administrations and Economics, Dept. of Business Administrations, bKut Technical Institut, cMinistry of Education, Al-yemen Secondary School for boys, dMiddle Technical University, Kut Technical Institute. Email: aFiras.a.abbas@qu.edu.iq

This paper aims to explore the interactive role of the knowledge management operations through the relationship between the Strategic Orientations and employees empowerment, the study relied on questionnaire as a main tool for collecting of the necessary and required data to achieve its objective. Whereas (40) forms are distributed to identify the level of availability of the knowledge management processes, and the strategic Orientation and employees empowerment on a sample of employees  from Asiacell company branch of Diwaniyah-Iraq, the valid questionnaires for analysis are (34) in addition to the use of the group of statistic styles like Average, Standard Deviation, Ratio significance, and the simple link coefficient Person, and the results of study have shown that there is a positive link relationship with a statistical significance between the operations of the knowledge management and the strategic tendency, and employees empowerment in the studied sample, the results also have shown that there is a direct impact relationship between the operations of knowledge management, and the strategic tendency, and employees empowerment of the studied sample, besides there is an interactive impact between the operations of the knowledge management and the strategic tendencies in employees empowerment. And the study has come out with several recommendations among the important of them is that there is an obvious affirmation from the studied sample on affording opportunities to develop the skills of the individuals  through affording the educational, training and development programs for them. Pages 1734 to 1752




Modernization and Resistance: Healing the Social Ills in Leila Aboulela’s Lyrics Alley

aAli Abdullah Saaed Alfuady, bLecturer Ahmed Sa'ad Aziz (Ph.D.), cLecturer Suhaib Majeed Kadhem, a,b,cDepartment of English/College of Arts/ University of Al-Qadisiyah /Iraq, Email: aali.alfuady@qu.edu.iqbahmed.aziz@qu.edu.iq, cSuhaib@qu.edu.iq

Following the postcolonial Sudanese writer, Tayeb Salih’s perspective in his famous novel, Season of Migration to the North (1969), Leila Aboulela exposes the binary identity that her characters gain it through migration and transportation. This paper examines the traditional resistance to modernity in Aboulela’s Lyrics Alley (2011). It investigates how Sudanese parochial norms resist the Western modernity and how to rejuvenate and modernize such tradition. As she attempts to create a real image of the Sudanese postcolonial situation, Aboulela shows out the deep-rooted norms of Sudan that set up a barrier between Sudanese tradition and Western modernity. Sudanese think of education as a shame for women and a waste of time for men. Education is considered “as being a great evil that come to them with the armies of occupation” (Tayeb Salih 1969: 19). The novel points out the feminist voice which strives to get her moral choice, her privacy and her personal freedom. It brings out the importance of education to narrow the gap between Sudan and the West that may help Sudanese cope with modern world. The paper critically questions women’s position in the conservative Sudanese family and the fragmented identity that fails to stand in front of the patriarchal hegemony. Through postcolonial perspective, the paper critically sheds light on the Islamic Scripture, Holy Qur’an and its patriarchal misinterpretation that takes women for granted and makes them alienated from the world. The patriarchal interpretation of Islamic Scriptures has been examined through the modern feminist theories. The paper reveals the double marginalized world where Sudanese women live. The marginality shows out that Sudanese women fall into the trap of traditional norms that enforce women to live within four walls. Pages 1753 to 1764




Problems of Translating “Shall” in the Charter of the United Nations

Dr. Anfal Qubais Saeed, Department of Translation, College of Art, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq, Email: Anfal.q.s@uomosul.edu.iq

Translation is an interdisciplinary activity associated to conveying a message from a source text (ST) into a target text (TT). This translational process of conveying an intellectual message can be described as a linguistic, cultural, and semantic mechanism through which the author/ speaker’s message is conveyed. That is why the process of translation must be academically discussed in terms of linguistic, cultural, and semantic elements. Translation is defined as transferring the author/ speaker’s message from a source text (ST) into a target text (TT); however, some international texts, especially UN texts are translated from English as a source international language into all languages. For example, The Charter of the United Nations is one of these texts that reflect the international organization basis of translation from one international language “English” into all other languages. Thus, the presents study aims at highlighting and analyzing the problems of Translating “Shall” as modal verbs which has no equivalent in the Arabic language. Shall, as a missing equivalent in the process of translation into Arabic, results in many problems and misunderstanding of the real meaning. That is why, the present study aim at analyzing the problems of translating “shall” in The Charter of the United Nations through discussing the linguistic, semantic, and cultural problems. In addition, the study will focus on the strategies of translation used in translating these modal verbs namely over-translation, under-translation, domestication, foreignisation, and transliteration. Pages 1765 to 1777




Predicting the Numbers of Primary Schools in the City of Qadisiyah

Assistant Lecturer Ali Hamdullah Ahmeda, Assistant Lecturer Hassanien Adel Salihb, aDepartment of Educational Planning, Directorate-General for Education of Qadisiyah, bDepartment of Educational Planning, Directorate-General for Education of Najaf, Email: aAlihamdullah8220@gmail.com, bHassanienadel19822020@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is to analyze the time series of the number of primary schools in Qadisiyah City. Also the development of a standard model to predict the future values of the number of schools that will be required in the future, and to contribute to the preparation of future plans in a scientific method, because the  primary schools represent the base of the educational pyramid. Pages 1778 to 1791




The Implied Cultural Patterns in the Play (Ana Al - Jundi) For the Writer Abdulla Helmi Ibrahim (Cultural Study)

Adeeb Alwan Kadhima, Suha Taha Salimb, Wisam Abdul Adheem Abbasc, Emails: aalwanadeeb007@gmail.com, bsuha.t@cofarts.uobaghdad.edu.iq, cfnonwesam@gmail.com

This research is concerned with following the implicit cultural forms in the play (I am the soldier) written by Abdullah Hilmi in 1938 after a decisive effort only in Dubai in his study of the elements of the dramatic structure and relations here with each other as a criterion Rastia only a kind of dramatic heritage only drowned. This approach in dealing with the literary text in general can represent a turning point in the field of critical studies of the text in a particular theater, and here are the central cultural criticism mechanisms to leave the text theater a face to persuade cultural structures in a convincing force with an invisible story of PVC packaging is only a phenomenon driven by the text on the pretext of its aesthetic That brought cultural blindness. Then, researcher E. Lee sought to apply cultural criticism procedures and promised conceptual and procedural concepts in questioning and analyzing the text of the play (Na Soldier) to discover implicitly driven culture and to observe secondary cultural characteristics of curiosity and reasons for historical and cultural components, as is the case in studying this value in decisive practice E. To change the viewing angles of this text, including the addition of a dramatic dramatic bypass that we highly criticize and steadfast. Pages 1792 to 1807




The Impact of Artificial Intelligence Applications on the Performance of the External Audit Profession

Faez Abdulhasan Jasim Allami, College of Administration and Econom, Maysan University, Iraq, Email: Allamifaez67@yahoo.com

The research seeks to explain the impact of artificial intelligence applications on developing the performance of its profession in the field of external auditing and its employment by workers and residents in that profession because of its advantages and characteristics, which encouraged many in various fields of science to benefit from them and develop those areas and achieve the goals that it seeks This research shows that the impact on three main axes of the work of the external auditing profession, which is an important part of the nature and quality of performance, which is to support the opinion of the external auditor, the practice of required professional care and set a gap in expectations, and then develop paperwork for the profession of external auditing. Pages 1808 to 1820




Thumbprint and its Relationship to Personality among Graduate Students

Assistant Professor Dr. Sahla Hussain Qalandar, College of Education for Pure Sciences - Ibn Al-Haytham / University of Baghdad, Email: Sahlahussein87@gmail.com

The current research aims to determine the percentage of people with a fingerprint in the community, and the personality traits of people with a fingerprint (spiral, mixed, annular, curved, high rings, tent, and differences in personality traits between persons with a thumbprint from and according to the changing gender (male, female), Identification of personality traits according to the field (acceptance, conscience, extroversion, neuroticism, openness to experience) with those with fingerprints The current research is determined by masters and doctoral students at the University of Baghdad and from both sexes for the academic year (2019-2020), and the researcher adopted the definition of personality traits Goldberg 1999 has a theoretical definition, because it adopted the theory as a theoretical framework for its research, in addition to adopting the scale as a tool to measure the concept and adopting the model of the five main factors of (Goldberg 1999), which includes five (5) areas are (acceptability) l included the conscience of life, Flatness, neuroticism, openness to experiment), and the statistical analysis sample (4 32) male and female graduate students, who were randomly selected, distributed by sex (200) and 232 students. The results showed that the thumbprint snail was the most that Char in the community, then followed by the mixed fingerprint, followed by the loop, high rings, curved, and finally curved alchemy, and the results showed that there were no gender differences in the form of fingerprints for the CM of acceptability, except for the high fingerprint rings were in favor of males and tentative in favor of females, with Differences in the pronoun characteristic in favor of males with the exception of the temporary imprint in favor of females and there are no differences between the sexes in the arched fingerprint, there are no gender differences in the traceability characteristic except for the annular footprint and in favor of males, with differences between the sexes in the neurotic trait and in favor of males while they are in the bow The footprint is in favor of females and there are no differences in the rest of the fingerprints, as well as differences between the sexes in the advantage of openness to experience e and in favor of males except for fingerprints of high and temporary episodes, there are no differences between the sexes, and that the arrangement of characteristics between university students differs according to Goldberg theory only in terms The neurotic feature sequence, which came in search of students in the last sequence JAM Ah, while theoretically experimenting with Ahh's nose in the last sequence, Ot suggested a researcher over From studies between thumbprint and blood type. Pages 1821 to 1847




Epidemics and Diseases in Eastern Jordan in the Period 1864-1918 (Historical Study)

Dr. Ibrahim bin Yahya Al-Busaidia, Prof. Mohammad Salem Al-Tarawnehb, Dr. Badr bin Hilal Al-Alawic, a,bSultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, cSultan Qaboos University, Email: aibrahimalbu@gmail.com, bdr_tarawneh64@yahoo.com, bm.altarawneh@squ.edu.om, calawib@squ.com

This study aims to identify diseases and epidemics in eastern Jordan in the late Ottoman period. Most of those who dealt with the study of modern Arab history in general have suffered from studying the political, administrative and military aspects without directing their attention to studying many aspects of modern Arab history. There are still mysterious aspects of the social and economic history of the Arab countries and their administrative units, awaiting the efforts of researchers and researchers to reveal it A, and the issue of epidemics, diseases and natural disasters in eastern Jordan still needs more than a million studies that did not receive the attention of researchers and historians. This study is a serious attempt to document epidemics and diseases in eastern Jordan at the end of the Ottoman era, a time period whose history suffered from neglect, and talk about epidemics and diseases in eastern Jordan, however, this period is sporadic parts and hints that do not block the researcher's breath, and do not address The glories of the learner, the differences that are not organized by Nazem, which you will find sometimes in documents and sources, sometimes in the books of foreign travelers, and sometimes in the context of talking about the history of the Arab East in general, and it was necessary to make an effort to search for information related to epidemics and diseases of the original forms, and to point to Those sources in that era, along the way, show facts about the history of epidemics and diseases in eastern Jordan for the period from. Pages 1848 to 1858




Attitudes of Arabic Language Teachers Towards the Use of Technological Means in Light of the Corona Pandemic

Dr. Khmael Shakir Ghanim, Center for the Revival of the Arab Scientific Heritage, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email: dr.khamael_sh@yahoo.com

This study aimed to identify the orientations of the Arabic language department teachers towards the use of technological means in light of the Corona pandemic. To achieve this, I was selected as a representative sample of the original community, which reached (100) my education and the teaching of a priest or Arabic language in all my data. Ibn Rushd education at the University of Baghdad, education at Al-Mustansiriya University, and education at the Iraqi University for the academic year (20 1 9-202 0). Researcher V relied on a questionnaire tool for the study consisting of 20 items. . Researcher E Lee said, after applying them electronically, that the results of diagnosing a sample of attitudes towards the use of technological means in light of the spread of the epidemic, ranged between (93.66%) and (38.33%) items arranged in descending order. Depending on the percentage of weight, the center is likely to do so. See the importance of paragraphs. The overall rate was (2.14) as a percentage (71.33%), and the trend was positive and acceptable, which is good given the conditions that university education is going through at this time. Pages 1859 to 1878





The Impact of Innovation Capabilities on Customer Knowledge Management: the Moderating Role of Organisational Culture

Sanaa J. Kadhima, Latif Abdulridha Atiyahb, a,bAl-Qadissiyah University- Collage of Administration &amp; Economics- Department of Business Administration, Email: asana.kadhim@qu.edu.iq,  bLatiflatif987@yahoo.com

The purpose of the current article is to investigate the influence of innovative strategies such as creative strategies, innovation and organisational learning on  customer knowledge management (CKM), with the help of the moderating role of organisational culture. The students of selected private universities are the respondents of the study, and a questionnaire method was adopted to collect the data, while PLS-SEM was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that innovative capabilities, including: creative strategies, innovation and organisational learning have positive links with  CKM. The results also found that organisational culture plays a moderating role among the links of innovation capabilities and CKM. These findings provide  guidelines to  policy makers, suggesting that they should improve their focus towards  innovation capabilities, along with  organisational cultures that enhance the knowledge management regarding the customer and  enhance  organisational performance as a result. Pages 1 to 21




The Effect of Intrinsic Capabilities on Organisation Entrepreneurship-Orientation: An Analytical Study in the Iraqi Co. for Dates Manufacturing and Marketing Mixed Contribution

Kawakib Azeez Hammoodia, aDept. of Business Administration/ College of Administration and Economics/ Mustansiriyah University, Email: aaziz.kk@uomustansiriyah.ed.iq

The present research aims to diagnose and explain the nature of linking relations and the effect between (Intrinsic Capabilities and the Organisation Entrepreneurship-Orientation) on the dimensions level. The research seeks to test a number of major and minor hypotheses concerning the linking relations and effects among the research variables in order to answer the inquiries related to the research problem. The latter stems from the following question "What is the orientation followed by the organisation to make use of the Intrinsic Capabilities available in order to obtain  Organisational Entrepreneurship?" The research has come to a number of conclusions, chief among them is that there is an entrepreneurship-marketing process in the Iraqi Company for Dates Manufacturing and marketing, under study. This marketing process is the result of the attention given by the company to innovation, concentrating on the customer, proactivity and making use of opportunities. It has also been shown that there are good levels for supporting the competitive ability in the company understudy. These levels have appeared as the result of the company attention to innovation, product quality, flexibility, cost control and authenticity of delivery. Depending on the results of the research, a number of recommendations have been formed, chief among them is that it is necessary for the company to emphasise  the continuity of the attention paid to Intrinsic Capabilities found in the company to obtain Entrepreneurship-Orientation and to creating the opportunities that support the competitive ability; and to maximise proactivity before competitors to obtain the opportunities available to increase  returns and follow competitive policies that increase its success and distinction. Pages 22 to 46




Corporate Reputation and CSR-Oriented Personal Factors Affecting Consumer Loyalty and Purchase Satisfaction towards Green Products in Thailand

Ampol Chayomchaia, aFaculty of Management Science, Phetchabun Rajabhat University, Phetchabun, Thailand, Email: aampol.cha@pcru.ac.th

This research aimed to (1) examine the corporate reputation and CSR-oriented personal factors affecting consumer loyalty in Thai people who purchase green products, and (2) investigate the influence of corporate reputation, CSR-oriented personal factors, and consumer loyalty on consumer purchase satisfaction in Thai people. A total of 389 usable questionnaires were analysed in this research. The purposive and convenience sampling method was performed. Descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analyses have been employed. The results found that (1) the averages of organisational reputation, personal factors, consumer loyalty, and purchase satisfaction were at a high level, (2) corporate reputation and personal factor had a significant positive influence on consumer loyalty, (3) four key variables affect consumer loyalty in green purchasing, including: the organisation has a credible reputation, the organisation has conducted socially responsible activities, the organisation offers accurate and complete information, and consumers live in accordance with environmental conservation, and (4)  two key variables of corporate reputation, including: the organisation has a credible reputation and the organisation discloses  information for easy access, which had a positive effect on the purchase satisfaction of consumers. Pages 47 to 66




The Effect of Seamless Learning on Understanding Concepts and Critical Thinking Abilities

Intan Safiaha*, I Nyoman Sudana Degengb, Punaji Setyosaric, Saida Ulfad, aState University of Malang, Indonesia, and Syiah Kuala University, Aceh-Indonesia, b,c,dState University of Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*Intan.afia@unsyiah.ac.id,  bnyoman.sudana.d.fip@um.ac.id,  cpunaji.setyosari.fip@um.ac.id,  dsaida.ulfa.fip@um.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of  Seamless Learning on the understanding of concepts and the ability to think critically. It compares Seamless Learning (SL) with conventional strategies using a quasi-experimental research design with a 2x2 factorial. The study involved a sample of 76 students who had enrolled in Islamic education courses in the first semester in the academic year of 2019/2020 of the State University of Malang, Indonesia. The samples were divided into two groups, experimental and control. The experimental group consisted of 39 students who used the SL strategy, while the control group comprised  37 students using a conventional strategy. The study used a test instrument in the form of multiple-choice and essay, measuring the understanding of concepts and critical thinking abilities, respectively. Data then were analysed using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), assisted by SPSS 23 for Windows. The results showed a significant difference between the experimental and control groups towards understanding concepts and critical thinking. The experimental groups had a better understanding of concepts and critical thinking than the control class. These results indicate that the learning process with the SL strategy proves that it can improve students' understanding of concepts and critical thinking. Pages 67 to 81




Establishing the Smart City through the Implementation of Smart Environment

Eko Priyo Purnomoa*, Imelda Zamjanah Rahmawatib, Lubna Salsabilac, Dewi Sekar Kenconod, a,b,c,dUniversitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*eko@umy.ac.id,  bImelda99alkahfi@gmail.com,  clubna.salsa@gmail.com,  ddewisekarkencono@umy.ac.id

This paper aims to look at the difficulty in creating a smart city through the smart environment approach. The smart environment is one of the dimensions of smart cities to develop a sustainable city in line with environmental management. Cirebon City's inability to receive the Indonesian Green City-Adipura Award eventually led the government to decide to incorporate the smart city by using the smart environment framework. By using a descriptive qualitative research approach, this research seeks a solution by acquiring a profound understanding of environmental management and the community's views on the environment in this area. The result indicates that there is a discrepancy that renders the management of the environment inadequate, and it gives a new perception that the idea of smart environment might bring improvements in the proper management of the environment. Pages 82 to 103




Assessment of Basic Social Services Coverage on Life Quality for Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam

Ha Thi Hai Doa, Nui Dang Nguyenb, Anh Ngoc Maic, Duc Minh Phungd, a,b,c,dNational Economics University, Hanoi, Vietnam, Email: ahadh@neu.edu.vn,  bnuind@neu.edu.vn,  cmaingocanh@neu.edu.vn,  dphungduc@neu.edu.vn

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/131006

This research uses the weighting method to build a composite index of life quality and an impact assessment model to explain the relationship between basic social services coverage and life quality for ethnic minorities in Vietnam. The study uses secondary data collected through Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys (VHLSS), the survey on the socio-economic situation of 53 ethnic minorities in 2015 and provincial GDP per capita data conducted by the General Statistics Office of Vietnam (GSO). The results show that the life quality of ethnic minorities is relatively low compared to the majority and quite different among localities. The results also reveal that basic social services coverage, especially in terms of health and education, plays an important role in improving the life quality of ethnic minorities. In addition, improving the quality of infrastructure, especially transport and communication infrastructure, is important to increase accessibility to basic social services for ethnic minorities. Pages 104 to 122




Human Rights Perspective Amid Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak

Shahrul Mizan Ismaila, Wan Amir Azlan Wan Haniffb*, Hakimi Kassimc, aAssociate Professor, Ph.D, Faculty of Law, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, bPh.D Student, Faculty of Law, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, cSenior Executive (Investment Division), Lembaga Tabung Angkatan Tentera, 50748, Kuala Lumpur, Email: ashahrulmizan@ukm.edu.my,  b*ameerazlan@yahoo.com,  chakimikassim88@gmail.com

The novel disease known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or better known as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has taken on pandemic proportions that can cause infected people to experience mild to moderate respiratory illness while the older people and those with underlying medical issues are at a greater likelihood to develop serious illness or even death. Following Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV) / Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) outbreak, the nexus between public health–human rights became more significant and has driven public health away from the conventional, state-centred Westphalian methods to contagious diseases toward an approach that placed people and their rights instead of states and their sovereignty, at the centre of interest. This article aims to discuss whether actions taken by states to diminish the potential spread of COVID-19 by imposing travel bans, isolation and quarantine are regarded as threats to human rights brought by both civil and political rights as well as economic, social, and cultural rights. Therefore, to assess whether these measures are reasonable, there is a need to observe responses of World Health Organisation (WHO) as an intergovernmental organisation established by member states in facilitating their interactions on public health matters under the purview of International Health Regulations. This qualitative research utilises the secondary data gained from scientific database analysis and library research including documents and precedents on public health–human rights linkage articles, WHO reports on COVID-19, etc and these data were analysed by legal interpretation. The finding shows that the necessary measures taken by governments are in fact aligned within legal and human rights' framework. Pages 123 to 135




The Cyber Terrorism Crime in Jordanian Law

Hamzeh Abu Issaa, Abdullah Alkseilatb, Ahmad Alrefaiec, a,cApplied Science Private University- Jordan, bMiddle East university – Jordan,

This research is concerned with stating the legal provisions set for the crime of cyber terrorism as stated by the provision of article 3 of the Jordanian Anti-Terrorism Law. In fact, and at the beginning, the research approached the definitions of each of the terms of terrorism and cyber terrorism according to the methodology of the Jordanian legislators. Further, the provision of article 3 of the Anti-Terrorism Law was analysed, after which the elements on which the crime is based were concluded, followed by examining some of the cases presented to the Jordanian judiciary. Pages 136 to 147




The Effects of Authoritative Paternal-Maternal Parenting Styles on Career Decision Self-Efficacy of Gen Z Adolescents: Thinking Styles as Mediators

Dominikus David Biondi Situmoranga, Rose Mini Agoes Salimb, aDepartment of Guidance & Counseling, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, bFaculty of Psychology, University of Indonesia, Email: adavid.biondi@atmajaya.ac.id,  bromyap@ui.ac.id

This non-experimental quantitative study examines the effects of parenting styles and thinking styles in career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) of gen Z adolescents. CDSE which refers to an individual’s ability to successfully make important career-related decisions. CDSE is strongly influenced by two factors: parenting styles and thinking styles. The subjects consisted of 617 gen Z adolescents (11th and 12th grades) from three leading schools in Jakarta, Indonesia. The measuring instruments were used to measure CDSE (Career Decision Self-Efficacy) Scale – Short Form, parenting styles (the Parental Authority Questionnaire), and thinking styles (the Thinking Styles Inventory - Revised II). Based on the findings, CDSE was significantly influenced by the authoritative paternal and maternal parenting styles as well as the Type I, Type II, and Type III thinking styles. Moreover, the mediation analysis found that the thinking style variables mediated the relationship between the authoritative paternal and maternal parenting styles and CDSE. Pages 148 to 160




Towards the Education 4.0, Readiness Level of EFL Students in Utilising Technology-Enhanced Classroom

Hussien Mohamad Alakrasha*, Norizan Abdul Razakb, a,bSchool of Language Studies and Linguistic, Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Bangi, Email: ahussienalakrash94@gmail.com,  bnorjef@ukm.edu.my

The emergence of the fourth industrial revolution has had significant effects on our everyday life especially in improvising and enhancing the quality in all aspects especially in terms of education. The role of technology has taken its place in determining the future path with the promise to make it better in terms of innovation and quality. Thus, technology plays a prominent role in enhancing and innovating the quality of education nowadays which is in coherence and relevance with the aim of the study which is to investigate the readiness level of EFL students in utilising technology in learning English in the classroom. The method used in this study is a quantitative approach which was adopted to analyse the data gathered from the participants. 200 EFL high school students participated in the study to answer an adopted questionnaire. Based on the descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS 20, the Arab high school students are ready to use the technology to learn the English language. The findings of this study provided a contemporary view of teachers and students’ readiness and motivation to the use of technology and the components of classroom English language. The implication of the study is as a reference for a benchmark for ministries of education in Arabic countries. The new insight of the importance of students’ level of readiness of the utilisation of technology in the classroom is especially in English language learning sessions stepping towards education 4.0 and meeting the demands of the fourth industrial revolution. Pages 161 to 182




Performance Assessment Based on Civics Teacher Competency in Manado North Sulawesi Indonesia

Apeles Lexi Lontoa*, Ruth Sriana Umbaseb, a,bFaculty of Social Sciences Universitas Negeri Manado, North Sulawesi Indonesia, Email: a*lexi.lonto@unima.ac.id

This study aims to: (1) identify and analyse the scope of civics teacher competency; (2) compile assessment of civics teacher performance based on the scope of the main dimensions of civics teacher competency. This research is expected to be useful for: (1) to act as an instrument for evaluating the performance of civics teachers; (2) improve the quality of civics teacher performance; (3) increase work motivation of civics teachers; (4) become a reference for interested parties in assessing and evaluating the performance of civics teachers. The research method used in this paper is Descriptive Research Method. The date collection techniques utilised: observation, interviews, FGD and documentation. The data analysis technique is descriptive explanation. The results showed that the competence of civics teachers can be used as a reference in the preparation of the performance of civics teachers. The assessment was arranged based on the Four Teacher Competencies plus the Special Competencies required for civics teachers. Therefore, civics teachers can use this competency-based performance assessment instrument to measure and assess their performance independently and reflectively. Pages 183 to 194




The Role of Social Service in Social Problem Management in Malang City

Sri Hartini Jatmikowatia, aPolitical and Social Science Faculty of Merdeka Malang University, Email: asrihartinijatmikowati@gmail.com

Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world after China, India, and America. In 2019 Indonesia's population will reach 268,074,600 people with a population growth of 3.54%. Indonesia has a big task, one of which is to provide guarantees and welfare to its people. National development is one of the government's solutions to improve people's welfare. However, the growth of national development is not in line with the increasing population in Indonesia, and this has become one of the major causes of social problems, such as street children, homeless, and beggars. Their presence is a serious problem in this country, especially in provincial capitals and big cities, including Malang City. It often causes various problems in traffic, order, and urban security. Through Malang City Regulation Number 9 of 2013 concerning Handling of Street Children, Homelessness, and Beggars in Malang City, Malang City Government, through the Social Service, is trying to eradicate their existence. The purpose of this study: 1) Describe the efforts and strategies of the Social Service in dealing with social problems of street children, homeless people, and beggars in the city of Malang. 2) To find out and analyse the inhibiting factors of the implementation of Regional Regulation No. 9 of 2013 in handling street children, homeless people, and beggars in Malang City. This research used is descriptive qualitative research with observation, interview, and documentation as data collection techniques. The results showed that Malang City Social Service in overcoming social problems using prevention and rehabilitation approaches, which included data collection, outreach, patrol, raid, repatriation, coaching, training, and empowerment approaches for street children, homelessness, and beggars. This research is also known that several factors hamper the success of the Social Service in overcoming social problems, including 1) lack of public awareness not to give money to them. 2) Lack of appeals or billboards regarding the prohibition of giving money 3) Absence of witnesses to the giver and receiver of money. 4) Lack of monitoring of each program. 5) The healthy mindset of street children, beggars, and homeless people on the street who are more comfortable with reveiving money. Pages 195 to 212




Can Authentic Leadership and Ethical Climate Encourage Whistleblowing Intention?

Fika Mayasari Sajarwaningdyaha, Intiyas Utamib, I Wayan Sudianac, Fitria Husnatarinad, Nafsiah Mohamede, a,bFaculty of Economics and Business, Satya Wacana Christian University, Indonesia, cFaculty of Economics, Business, and Tourism, Hindu Indonesia University, Indonesia, dFaculty of Economics and Business, Palangka Raya University, Indonesia, eAccounting Research Institute UiTM Mara, Malaysia, Email: afikamayasaris@gmail.com,  bintiyas@staff.uksw.edu,   cwayansudiana74@unhi.ac.id,  dfitria.husnatarina@feb.upr.ac.id,  edrkancil@gmail.com

Rampant illegal actions in many companies and organisations such as corruption, misappropriation asset, fraudulent financial reporting, and other similar actions encourage the creation of a disclosure system of unethical behaviour (whistleblowing system). This study uses an experimental method with a 2 x 3 matrix design involving 294 students of accounting study program from private universities in Central Java, Bali and Kalimantan. This paper presents the results of the laboratory experiment study on authentic leadership and ethical climate in relation to whistleblowing intention. Students acted as inspectorate staffs in one of the cities in Central Java, and they were given a treatment to reveal frauds in the procurement of goods. The results of this study indicate that authentic leadership can encourage whistleblowing intention when a leader has an internalised moral perspective. Decision making on whistleblowing intention was based on three types of ethical climate, namely egoism, benevolence, and principal. Of the three ethical climates, the principal ethical climate has the most significant influence on whistleblowing intention because the existing laws, rules, codes of ethics, and professional codes govern one's behaviour. Pages 213 to 234




Information System of "Laku Pandai": Achieving Financial Inclusion-Financial Technology SMEs Sector in Banyuwangi

A A Gde Satia Utamaa*, Shandy Hariantob, a,bDepartment of Accountancy, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: a* gde.agung@feb.unair.ac.id

Indonesian Financial Inclusion level have increased each year. It is still slow compared to the level of Financial Inclusion in other ASEAN countries. Indonesia index rates in 2014 was 36%, while the index of Thailand was 78%, Malaysia 81%, and Singapore 96%. Several factors are slow to increase such as the distance of people’s homes with financial services and the difficulty of public access to financial products. OJK through policies issued in Laku Pandai (Financial Technology – based) have been enacted to tackle the problem. Banyuwangi is the largest district in East Java, with 1,6 million residents in 2017, and 269.267 SMEs in 2015. The amount is deemed to represent the impact of Laku Pandai in East Java. Based on research data obtained through interviews, observations, and documentation, descriptive qualitative methods found problems accessing credit undertaken by SMEs through Laku Pandai.  Therefore we need to redesign the credit system of Laku Pandai. The purpose of this research is to develop the credit system of Laku Pandai in order to increase effectiveness and efficiency in achieving financial inclusion, especially in the SME sector. Results from the study show the necessary capital to redesign the process credit system which can provide improve benefits to banks that organise Laku Pandai. Pages 235 to 246




The Mediating Effect of Eco-Innovation on the Influence of Firm’s Capability and Market Pressure to Firm Performance

Gilang Puspitaa, Isnalitab*, a,bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: agilangpuspita16@gmail.com, b*isnalita@feb.unair.ac.id

This study aimed to determine the effect of internal and external factors on firm performance through eco-innovation. This research is a quantitative descriptive study with associative research methods and explanatory research. Data collected through a survey by questionnaires. There are 113 companies at PT. Surabaya Industrial Estate Rungkut area was used as a sample. Data analysis in this study uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with the Partial Least Square approach using the WarpPLS application. The results show that eco-innovation mediates the influence of a firm’s capability and market pressure on firm performance.Pages 247 to 262




Value Relevance for Disclosure of Transactions Value and Level of Disclosure of Related Party Transactions

Zaenal Fanania*, Alya Firdausib, a,bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: a* fanani@feb.unair.ac.id

Related party transactions can be used by companies to create strategic partnerships, as well as for efficiency purposes. However, these transactions can also be utilised by management and majority shareholders to increase their wealth through expropriation. The criteria of related party transaction disclosure in BAPEPAM regulation no VIII. G.7 which can be used to provide sufficient information for investors in assessing the purpose of such transactions conducted by the company. This quantitative study uses 201 data from companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2016. The aim of this study is to analyze the value relevance in the value of related party transaction in the balance sheet and in the income statement, as well as the value relevance of the disclosure level of related party transactions. The analysis technique used multiple linear regression. This study finds there is value relevance regarding the disclosure level of related party transactions, but not regarding the disclosure of transaction value of related parties, either in the balance sheet or income statement.  Pages 263 to 278




The Strategies for Developing Micro Waqf Bank in Indonesia

Fatin Fadhillah Hasiba*, Siti Nur Mahmudahb, Puji Sucia Sukmaningrumc, Shochrul Rohmatul Ajijad, M Bastomi Fahri Zusake, a,c,d,eFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, bFaculty of Islamic Economics and Business, Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Kediri, Email: a*fatin.fadhilah@feb.unair.ac.id, bnurmaaja2@gmail.com, cpuji.sucia@feb.unair.ac.id,  dshochrul-r-a@feb.unair.ac.id, efahribastomi@gmail.com

Micro Waqf Bank (BWM) is an Islamic microfinance institution which aims to empower the poor and whose development strategies in Indonesia will be examined in this study. To keep empowering the poor, BWM should survive and be operated sustainably. This study discovers the main strategies for developing BWM in Indonesia, so that it will be able to survive and be sustained. This study employed SWOT analysis which resulted in a SWOT matrix and several alternative strategies (SO, ST, WO, and WT strategies). This study also applied ANP to determine the main strategies for developing BWM. Data was obtained from observation, interviews, and literature review. Interviews were conducted with practitioners, experts, regulators, and academics. Among the six alternative strategies for developing BWM in Indonesia, the most crucial is dissemination and education on BWM to the general public. This study is limited to BWM and does not include cash waqf. Nowadays, BWM is managed mainly by the microfinance institution Financial Services Authority (OJK) which promotes BWM and has become the most important instrument in the financial institution sector. Therefore, BWM deserves a closer empirical study. Besides, the bank through BWM has the potential to create jobs in the future. The combinations of alternative strategies aide the regulators and managers to decide the best strategies and influential factors for developing BWM in Indonesia.Pages 279 to 301




Macroeconomic Factors and Bank-Specific on Profitability: The Case of Islamic Rural Bank in Indonesia

Shafira Nur Istiqomaha, Puji Sucia Sukmaningrumb*, Achsania Hendratmic, Tika Widiastutid, a,b,c,dFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: afiranur96@gmail.com, b*puji.sucia@feb.unair.ac.id, cachsania.hendratmi@feb.unair.ac.idc, d tika.widiastuti@feb.unair.ac.id

The purpose of this study to investigate determinant Islamic Rural Bank’s (BPRS) profitability in Indonesia. Factors that can affect profitability are economic growth, inflation, deposits to total assets, NPF, liabilities to total assets, and profitability. This study uses a quantitative method with a multiple linear regression method. Data used is all gathered from the Islamic Rural Bank in Indonesia with the period of this study going from 2010-2017 quarterly. The results of this research were economic growth, deposits to total assets, NPF, and liabilities to total assets have partial significant effects on profitability. All independent variables have simultaneous effects on profitability with the value of R2 being 82.1%. BPRS are expected to improve their performance optimisations, especially in financing areas. Gathering third-party funds on BPRS are adequate enough but the distribution of financing is still not optimal due to the high level of congestion financing. The BPRS must be more cautious in conducting financing to produce an optical profit. In addition, BPRS are also expected to observe the macroeconomic state, especially economic growth and can take the opportunity to increase profitability. The existence of Islamic Rural Banks is very helpful for small entrepreneurs, with a straightforward process and this is also becoming a solution for the community. Islamic Rural Banks need to increase the performance to get greater profitability. Pages 302 to 313




Pollution Valuation and Groundwater Preferences: Case Study of Kedungpalang and Sambigembol Lakardowo Village Jetis Sub District, Mojokerto District

Muryania*, Mochamad Eka Toar Rajab, a,bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email acorresponding author: a*muryani@feb.unair.ac.id

Pollution is a common negative externality in economic activity related to the environment and the use of natural resources. The purpose of this study is to estimate the economic value of total losses due to pollution of groundwater and determine the factors that affect the groundwater usage preferences. The calculation of the total economic value losses is using the replacement cost approach and the cost of illness. Factors that affect the preferences of households in the use of groundwater contaminated are estimated by multinomial logit. The use of groundwater includes cooking and drinking water. The data were collected from primary research that took place in the dusun (hamlets) of Kedungpalang and Sambigambol, Lakardowo village, Mojokerto regency. The estimation results indicated that household income and age of the respondents are proved to affect household preference to the use of contaminated groundwater. It means that the losses to be borne by local residents is more aggravate their weak economic situation as indicated by the significant household income in affecting the preferences of the use of groundwater that has been contaminated. Pages 314 to 326




Comparative Performance Analysis of Indonesia Retail Bonds to the Indonesia Retail Sukuk

Sitti Iryanti Lukmanaa, Nisful Lailab, Puji Sucia Sukmaningrumc, Eko Fajar Cahyonod*, a,b,c,dDepartment of Islamic Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: asitti.iryanti-13@feb.unair.ac.id, bnisful.laila@feb.unair.ac.id, cpuji.sucia@feb.unair.ac.idpuji.sucia@feb.unair.ac.id, d*ekofajarc@feb.unair.ac.id

This research is a quantitative descriptive study which aims to compare the performance of Indonesian Retail Bonds and Retail Sukuk based on the Sharpe Index. This study uses historical data in the form of yields on Indonesian Retail Bonds (ORI) and Retail State Sukuk (SR) sourced from the Indonesia Bond Pricing Agency (IBPA). Performance assessment is calculated using the Sharpe method and analysed using descriptive analysis and Mann Whitney test analysis. The results showed that there is no significant difference between the performance of Indonesian Retail Bonds and Indonesian Retail Sukuk based on the Sharpe method. Pages 327 to 337




Financial Performance Measurement for Nazhir: A Proposed Model Based On Sharia Accounting Standard

Tika Widiastutia*, Raditya Sukmanab, Aufar Fadlul Hadyc, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: a* tika.widiastuti@feb.unair.ac.id

To propose a financial measurement model in order to assess the performance of waqf managers (Nazhir) based on Sharia Accounting Standard, the model evaluates whether a Nazhir has managed the waqf assets following the laws and regulations, the objectives of the institution, the wishes of the donors (wakif) as well as the benefits of the beneficiaries (Mauquf Alaih). The paper uses a qualitative method with a financial ratios approach which is compiled into a comprehensive financial statement analysis model. These financial ratios are developed based on Indonesian Accounting Standard No 112 concerning Accounting of Waqf that has just been ratified. The research builds a model that analyses a component of waqf financial statements from the Indonesia Accounting Standard that was organised into three groups (performance, impact, and result). Each group has its ratios with a few segments for several groups. The performance ratios are derived from funding, managing, and donating segments. The results of this study provide an objective and informative financial performance measurement model that can be used by stakeholders for the decision-making process in managing waqf assets. This paper was one of the first attempts to build a performance measurement model that goes following the sharia principles. Moreover, this model can be adopted by Indonesia Waqf Board (BWI), as the waqf authority, to improve the reporting standard for waqf institutions.Pages 338 to 352




Female Audit Engagement Partner and Audit Quality: Evidence from Indonesian Banking Industry

Mohammad Nasiha, Endah Rohmaniyah Safitrib, Yuanita Intan Paramitasaric, Iman Harymawand*, a,b,c,dDepartment of Accountancy, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: d*harymawan.iman@feb.unair.ac.id

The objective of this study is to examine the influence of female audit engagement partners on banking audit quality in Indonesia. This study uses 303 samples of banking companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in Indonesia in the period 2008-2016. The analytical method used is Ordinary Least Square (OLS) to test the research hypothesis. The results of the study show that banks audited by female audit engagement partners have a significant positive effect on banking audit quality in banks that carry out earnings management with income-increasing. While in banks that do earnings management with income-decreasing, female audit engagement partners have no effect on banking audit quality. Banking companies used as samples in this study are banking companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2008-2016. Thus, it does not include other banking data that not listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. This study does audit quality testing based on banking companies that conduct earnings management with income-increasing and income-decreasing. This test is conducted to find out the female audit engagement partner variables that have a significant influence on the dependent variable of the study. Pages 353 to 367




Social Audit in Practice for Non-profit Organisations: a Case Study of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Indonesia Country Office

Chaela Rachmawatia, Basukib*, a,bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: arachmachaela@gmail.com,  b*basuki@feb.unair.ac.id

This study examines the practice of social audit performed by non-profit organisations in Indonesia. Beside of conducting audits for financial statement, the researcher believes that conducting audits on social aspects to keep the sustainability. This study was done by using qualitative research on one of The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Indonesia Country Office's project, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Land Degradation (REDD+), as a case study. Since the project will affect indigenous society, social audit practices are necessary to be done on this project and suitable for research purposes. This finding contributes to the literature by showing the appropriate practice of social audit held by the public sector, more specifically by a non-profit organisation. Pages 368 to 383




Priorities of Education Quality Service with Higher Education for Sustainable Development Dimensions

Masmira Kurniawatia*, Febriana Wurjaningrumb, Zahroh Naimahc, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: * masmira-k@feb.unair.ac.id

One indicator of a good quality of community life is when people have a good level of education. University is one of the institutions that carry this mission. With the enactment of the ASEAN economic community and also the global market, the demand to become a world-class university is getting bigger. It is therefore important to discover the current performance of universities to find out how it can make improvements in order to improve its performance. As one of the major university in Indonesia, Universitas Airlangga has made much effort to achieve that goal. This research aims to raise the issue of efforts and strategies of Universitas Airlangga in improving its performance for the achievement of international standard quality. This study identifies awareness about sustainability and students' perceptions of the Higher Education for Sustainable Development (HESD) dimensions. Four hundred and eight respondents in this study are chosen by using purposive sampling method. The results of the study reveal that the Sustainable Environment Program is still considered weak in implementation while the dimension that is considered the best in its implementation is the Research and Development Program. Managerial implications and suggestions for future research then are delivered.  Pages 384 to 395




Sustainability Development in Education: Empirical Evidence and Discussion about Authentic Leadership, Religiosity and Commitment

Ansar Abbasa, Muhammad Saudb, Indrianawati Usmanc and Dian Ekowatid*, a,c,dFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, bFaculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: d*d.ekowati@feb.unair.ac.id

This study is presented to enhance the understanding of leadership development in an educational setting for sustainable development. Authentic leadership has core physiognomies having transparency, balanced-processing, accountability, and person’s morality and ethics works in a self-centred way. These characteristics can be adopted through strategic planning for sustainable development in educational settings to improve commitment among employees. The current study highlighted the significance of Authentic Leadership over-commitment in university employees of Pakistan. The results revealed that authentic leadership is the predictor of organisational commitment in university employees in Pakistan and the religiosity moderates authentic leadership and organisational commitment.  Pages 396 to 407




Strategic Communication between Islam and China

Abdul Rani Usmana, Hamdani M. Syamb, Azmanc, a,cUniversitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry, Banda Aceh, Indonesia, bUniversitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia, Email: aarani.usman@ar-raniry.ac.id,  bhamdanim.syam@unsyiah.ac.id,  cazman@ar-raniry.ac.id

China is a contemporary world power. Economic and technological progress as well as the global political defence system that was played increasingly emphasised the position of China as a big country ready to become a Western countries’ competitor. The spirit of confusion is an important foundation in the work ethic of Chinese society. Also, the entry and development of Islam in China has begun since the beginning of the first century Hijrah. This study aims to get an in-depth overview of the strategic communication patterns of Islam and Chinese culture so that Islam survives to the present in China and has a space of symbolic expression and acculturation with Chinese culture. The method used in this research is qualitative. The results showed that the interaction between Islam and China had been done for a long time. It was proven during the reign of the Ming Dynasty that assimilation occurred through trade, marriage, and government. The Ming Dynasty emperor also had a Muslim wife. Not only that, poems written in Mandarin also show that China glorifies the truth of God and the Prophet Muhammad as a prophet of the Muslims. Pages 408 to 423




The Sustainability of Disruptive Technology in Singapore's Supermarket Industry

Chen Weia, Ameen Talibb, aThe School of Business, Singapore University of Social Sciences, bhead Applied Projects, The School of Business, Singapore University of Social Sciences

This paper aims to investigate disruptive technology in the supermarket industry and its' sustainability in Singapore. The extended Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM3) was used to test and analyse factors affecting consumer willingness to adopt the use of high-tech enabled (HTE) services in supermarkets. A sample of 50 survey respondents completed an online questionnaire. Pivot tables and multiple regression statistics were used to analyse survey responses. Perceived usefulness and Perceived ease of use are two determining factors that contributed to adoption attitudes. Other moderating factors like unique demographics, psychographics, relative convenience, and location accessibility also play big roles in adoption rates. While actual use of HTE services was found to be low, the intention to use was high. Pages 424 to 444




The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in Improving Small Medium Enterprise (SME) Performance

Ida Susi Dewantia*, Taher Al Habsjib, Zainul Arifinc, Muhammad Kholid Mawardid, aUniversitas Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Yogyakarta (Indonesia), b,c,dUniversitas Brawijaya (Indonesia), Email: a*isdewanti@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is to examine and analyse the effect of entrepreneurial orientation on market orientation, technological capability and performance of SMEs. The study was conducted on 120 SMEs in the field of leather craft in the Special Province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The sample selection uses area proportionate random sampling from 4 districts and 1 city in Yogyakarta. Data was analysed using SEM with the WarpPLS approach. The results of the study show that entrepreneurial orientation significantly influences market orientation, technological capability and SME’s performance. Market orientation has a significant effect on technological capability and SMEs’ performance. The technological capability has a significant effect on SMEs’ performance. Based on the results of this study, SMEs’ performance can be improved through strategic orientation, entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation and firm capability, as well as technological capabilities. Pages 445 to 463




Toward Enhancement of Higher Education Quality by Alumni Tracking Using Correspondence Analysis

Udjianna Sekteria Pasaribua, Karunia Eka Lestarib*, Sapto Wahyu Indratnoc, Hanni Garminiad, a,b,cStatistics Research Division, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, dAlgebra Research Division, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: b*karunia.eka.lestari@s.itb.ac.id

Higher education is a bridge connecting education to work, business and industry. When evaluating the higher education quality, the focus is commonly on the relevance of study and job. Indeed, the diversity of study programs at the institutes influences the job description of their alumni. This paper explores the correspondence analysis method to evaluate the enhancement of higher education quality by performing the association between the relevance of study, job and alumni job descriptions for the different study programs. The association is depicted graphically on the correspondence plot. As a case study, the tracer study data of alumni 2009 at ITB is used. The results show that ITB has succeeded in organising high-quality education. It can be recognised by the association between the relevance of study and job for each study program. Based on the data, overall, the alumni job is compatible with their respective study programs. Pages 464 to 478




Educating People about the Covid-19 Epidemic Prevention in the Community: A Case Study in Vietnam

Tran Viet Cuonga*, Mai Quoc Khanhb, Tran Huu Hoanc, Tran Trung Tinhd, aThai Nguyen University of Education, Thai Nguyen city, Vietnam, bHanoi National University of Education, Hanoi city, Vietnam, c,dNational Academy of Education Management - Ministry of Education and Training, Vietnam, Email: a*tinhquang80@gmail.com

Ensuring the health of the people in the community is always an important issue for every nation and locality. When faced with a complicated pandemic situation due to a new strain of coronavirus (covid-19), and recognising what happened in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, from that moment Vietnam had solutions for disease prevention. The objective of this study is to propose solutions to limit the spread of disease in the community. The research methodology used was the review of survey data published by the World Health Organization (WHO) and updated data from countries. In Vietnam, the main source of data reviewed by the research team was from the Ministry of Health, informed by the head of the Vietnam Government. We used mathematical methods and mathematical models to analyse and predict trends of disease related to public health. In the research results we propose solutions that have been initially tested in Vietnam with positive results on curbing the spread of disease. Pages 479 to 490




The ‘Pesantren’ in the Future and the Enlightenment of Modern Thought: A Theological Reconstruction Perspective

Fadlil Munawwar Manshura, aUniversitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: afadlil@ugm.ac.id

This article examines the pesantren (Islamic boarding school) in the future and the enlightenment of modern Islamic thought through a theological reconstruction approach. This study seeks to reveal the intellectual potential and energy of pesantren and its use in the enlightenment of modern Islamic thought, as well as its potential to contribute to the development of Islamic studies and pesantren in Indonesia. The formal object of this study is the enlightenment of modern Islamic thought in pesantren, which have long been dominated by traditional–textual understandings that give limited space to modern–contextual ones. The material object of this study is the pesantren that are seen as having the potential for pioneering the enlightenment of modern Islamic thought. For analysis, a theological reconstruction approach is used to reveal the potential for pesantren to drive the enlightenment of modern Islamic thought in Indonesia. The pesantren in the future can represent the mainstream thoughts of modernist Muslims, and as such pesantren can become centres of excellence for producing understandings of Islam that are moderate, constructive and capable of solving the problems of the ummah, the nation and the state. Pesantren already have the social and intellectual capital necessary to realise this goal; it is simply a matter of ensuring that kiai (pesantren leaders) and other stakeholders are committed to gradually conditioning pesantren communities to read relevant texts, write scientific articles, and publish them in national and international journals. Pages 491 to 507




Comparison between Ergonomic and Conventional Hoes to determine Comfortability of Farmers when Hoeing Soil

Ansara*, Muradb, Sukmawatyc, Ridwan Khalild, a,b,c,dDepartment of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology and Agroindustries, University of Mataram, Indonesia, Email: a*ansar72@unram.ac.id

The use of agricultural mechanisation tools has developed rapidly at this time, but for narrow land it is not suitable to use these tools. Narrow agricultural land is more effective if processed using hoes. The purpose of this study was to compare ergonomic and traditional hoes to know comfortability of farmers when hoeing soil. The research parameters are hoe design, energy consumption, and work capacity. This study used an experimental method to test the use of hoes carried out in agricultural fields. The results showed that the energy consumption of ergonomic hoes was lower than conventional hoe use. In terms of safety and comfort, both ergonomic hoes and conventional hoes are classified as heavy work and cause complaints to workers. The work capacity of farmers using ergonomic hoes increased to 51.9% compared with the hoe P1 which only increased 32.4%. P2 and P3 increased by 26.3%.  Pages 508 to 519




State Civil Liability for Environmental Damage in Jordanian Legislation

Mohammed Khalil Abu Bakera, aZaytooneh University,

Modern countries are directly responsible for the damage that befalls society, including normal and juridical individuals, resulting from constructions, licensing and enacted laws relevant to the environment. Some of such regulations are arbitrary, others are unlawful as they might lead to damage of environment, society and individuals. The state had to compensate for the materialistic, moral, personal or environmental damages in compliance with its civil liability. But what is the rule to be adopted for compensation, how much should it be and what are the amounts to be compensated for? This study attempts to suggest a mechanism for indemnity through creating a special fund, updating rules and regulations, enhancing, protecting, maintaining, consolidating environmental enlightenment, avoiding environment pollutants, assigning industrial zones, adopting world quality criteria in this respect, and resorting to clean energy. The state should also be held accountable for its affiliates and for issuance of administration licenses in addition to activating the role of the Ministry of Environment and securing qualified people and materialistic cadres. Pages 520 to 534




Implementation of the Germas (Healthy Lifestyle Movement) Program to Prepare Demographic Bonuses in the Collaborative Governance Perspective

Isnaini Rodiyaha, Totok Wahyu Abadib, Rakhma Syeilac, Ilmi Usrotin Choiriyahd, Lailul Mursyidahe, a,c,d,ePublic Administration Department, bCommunication Department, Universitas Muhammadiyah, Jalan Majapahit 666 B Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia, Email: aisnaini@umsida.ac.id,  btotokwahyu@umsida.ac.id,  crakhmasyeila5101997@gmail.com,  dilmiusrotin@umsida.ac.id,  elailulmursyidah@umsida.ac.id

Germas has been established in order to improve the quality of public health, especially in the face of demographic bonuses, a condition where the population of productive age is more than the non-productive age. The positive impact of the demographic bonus is the availability of workers of productive age who can advance various development sectors primarily in regional economic development. Aside from education, the condition of public health is very important to pay special attention to, given the quality of the health of the productive age community in Sidoarjo Regency which is quite worrying, namely 70% of HIV / AIDS cases are in the productive age population. This requires the involvement of various parties in the success of the Germas program. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of Germas as a program in preparing demographic bonuses in the perspective of collaborative governance in Sidoarjo Regency. This type of research uses a qualitative descriptive technique with the determination of purposive sampling informants, while the research data collection uses interviews, observation and documentation where the results are analysed with the interactive model of Miles and Huberman. Based on the results of the study, it is concluded that the effectiveness of the program in preparing demographic bonuses through the collaborative governance perspective in Sidoarjo in terms of face to face dialogue of the Germas program, the implementation of meetings, campaigns, and training is not scheduled and irregular. In terms of sharing understanding in the delivery of regulations related to Germas, this has been implemented well through campaigns, print media and broadcast on the radio. For intermediate outcoming from the implementation of the Germas program in Sidoarjo Regency is still in the stage of socialisation, thus the results of the main objectives expected in the Germas program to prepare a demographic bonus have not yet been seen. Pages 535 to 545




MSMEs Mitigation Risk: Purchase Decision of Natural Disaster Insurance at MSMEs

Amron Amrona, Sih Darmi Astutib, Usman Usmanc, a,b,cEconomics and Business Faculty, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, Semarang, Indonesia,

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship model in service quality, insurance premium and promotion with the purchase decision using respondents of 101 MSMEs of insurance policy holders who were willing to buy natural disaster insurance policies without the assistance of subsidies from the government. The data obtained from the respondents was analysed using multiple linear regression analysis. Surprisingly, this study found that although the premium insurance price variable had the greatest effect, it turned out to only have a difference of 18 percent compared to the effect of the service quality variable. This proves that independent MSMEs are not merely calculating the affordability of premium prices, but they are aware of the benefit of insurance. This is one of the differences from other MSMEs that rely on government subsidies.  Pages 557 to 569




The Role of Hedonic Value and Customer Satisfaction in Mediating the Effect of Price Perception and Service Convenience on Repurchase Intention (Research on Koi Farm in Blitar District)

Wulan Puji Lestaria*, Achmad Sudirob, Fatchur Rohmanc, Djumilah Hadiwidjojod, a,b,c,dDepartment of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Brawijaya Malang, Email: a*wulanpuji_mm28@yahoo.co.id

This research aims to examine the role of hedonic value and customer satisfaction in mediating the effect of perceived price and service convenience on repurchase intentions at Koi Farms in Blitar District. The development of a research model is based on price perception and service convenience on repurchase intention, also indirectly through hedonic value and customer satisfaction. The population are customers who buy koi ornamental fish in the Minapolitan Region of Blitar District. A total of 90 samples were selected by judgmental sampling technique. The model is analysed by structural model through Partial Least Square (PLS) and facilitated by SmartPLS software application. The research found that price perception and service convenience directly cannot increase customer repurchase intentions. The mediation tests results show that customer satisfaction cannot mediate the effect of price perception on repurchase intentions. It has perfect mediation for the effect of service convenience on repurchase intentions. The hedonic value has a perfect mediation role for the effect of price perception on customer satisfaction, but it only has partial mediation for the effect of service convenience on customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction has a mediation role for the effect of hedonic values on repurchase intentions. Pages 570 to 589




A Systemic Review of Social Media Studies in Government Organisations

Mohd Hisham Mohd Sharifa, Arifatul Husna Mohd Ariffb, Zaimah Abdullahc, Mohd Herry Mohd Nasird, Md Hairi Md Hussaine, a,b,c,d,eTunku Puteri Intan Safinaz School of Accountancy, Email: ahisham79@uum.edu.my,  barifatul@uum.edu.my,  czaimah2258@uum.edu.my,   dherry@uum.edu.my,   ehairi@uum.edu.my

Billions of individuals around the world are using smartphones, and this development has also increased the use of social media applications in daily communications. Many studies have stated that social media can help government organisations to improve communication services and create better engagement with citizens as almost all citizens are using social media applications. The objectives of this study were to perform a systematic literature review to identify important themes in social media research in government organisations. A systematic review of articles related to social media research in government organisations is done by using Google Scholar and other academic databases such as Jstor and Science Direct. Two researchers reviewed each publication for inclusion and relevant data extraction. Through the analysis of past research, a systematic literature review has been grouped and represented in four different themes including governance, citizen trust, participation and transparency. The studies are analysed, gaps in the literature are identified, and further research directions within the themes are proposed. Pages 590 to 603




The Methods of Questioning in the Orientation Phase: A Review of Teaching Malaysian Gifted Learners in Reading Arabic Text

Mohd Sham Kamisa, Muhammad Nazir Aliasb, Damien Mikengc, Nik Mohd Rahimi Nik Yusoffd, Rorlinda Yusofe, Noriah Mohd ishakf, a,e,fPusat GENIUS@Pintar Negara, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, bFakulti Pengajian Islam, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, cFaculty of Language and Communication, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia, dFakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: amohdsham856@ukm.edu.my,  bnazir@ukm.edu.my,  cmdamien@unimas.my,  dnik@ukm.edu.my,    erorlinda@ukm.edu.my,  fnorwmu@ukm.edu.my

Differentiated instruction allows gifted individuals to develop their potential academic intelligence to the highest level independently. The authors suggest how to use methods of questioning in the orientation phase for teaching Malaysian Gifted Learners in comprehending Arabic text in the classroom. This includes identifying jumlah mufidah, jumlah ismiyyah and jumlah fi’liyyah. The use of the orientation phase "is the starting points to ensure what learners learn, how they learn the lesson, and how the learners demonstrate what they have learned during the teaching and learning session.”Pages 604 to 617




Impact of Transformational Leadership, Market Orientation and Knowledge Sharing on Business Performance

Kashif Faheema*, Rosmaini Tasminb, Khalid Rafiquec, Khawar Hussaind, aPakistani Telecommunications Company Limited (PTCL), Islamabad, Pakistan, bFaculty of Technology Management and Business, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Malaysia, cSchool of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China, Email: a*kashif.faheem@gmail.com

In Pakistan, the new forms of business in collaboration with mobile service providers are bringing an evolution not only in every walk of life but also in the digital economy of the country. This study considers the effects of transformational leadership, knowledge sharing and market orientation on organisational performance through the mediating role of innovation to raise the market share. This study focuses on four cellular mobile telecom companies of Pakistan, including Ufone, Telenor, Mobilink and Cmpak. The losing of market share in the high competition by few cellular mobile companies, for example, Ufone and Telenor identify a significant problem due to lack of investment, network coverage, poor data/voice services and innovation in term of new products, processes and services. The focus of this study is mobile telecommunication sector of Pakistan including four companies, N=170 respondents (leaders include general managers, seniors, middle and line managers and employees) on departmental level related to innovation and performance. This paper aims to explore the mediating role of innovation to enhance the performance of an organisation by employing transformational leadership, market orientation and knowledge sharing. Pages 618 to 641




Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) of Prospective Early Childhood Islamic Education Teachers

Ahmad Sabria*, Jhoni Warmansyahb, Amalinac, a,cUIN Imam Bonjol Padang, Indonesia, bUniversitas Negeri Jakarta Indonesia & Institute Agama Islam Negeri Batusangkar Indonesia,   Email: a*ahmadsabri@uinib.ac.id,  bjhoniwarmansyah@iainbatusangkar.ac.id,  camalina@uinib.ac.id

The early childhood teacher candidates have been challenged by the requirement of the content technological, pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) in teaching. The teacher candidates are able to manage the contents beyond skilfully using technology to support effective and beneficial learning process. The purpose of this study was to describe the candidates TPACK ability in arranging regular learning process based on “the curriculum 2013.” A descriptive qualitative method has been employed in which the subjects were the students of the Early Childhood Education Program who have achieved the Micro Teaching Class at the sixth semester 2018/2019 academic year. The TPACK competences was analysed by using Content Representation (CoRe) and Pedagogical and Professional-experience Repertoire (Paper) .Both CoRe and Paper analysis reveal that the teachers are able to develop 3 to 5 of 11 indicators of the  6 Child Development Aspects. 80% of the teacher showed good ability in choosing the learning strategies. Then, 45% of the teachers found difficulties in creating the effective time. 60% of the teacher can perform a good and right concept in the teaching process, while 40% on them has limitation on knowledge and insight. However, 55% of the teachers could not create an active interaction between the students. This research concluded that the teacher candidates in applying must be focused on material contents and technology usage to attempt to improve teacher professionalism. Pages 642 to 653




Balanced Score Card Implementation and its Effect on Banks` Financial Performance

Rawnaq Ziad Al-Gamazia, Thair Adnan Kaddumib, aApplied Science Private University, Jordan P.O. Box 166 Postal Code 11931, Amman, bFinance and Banking Science Department, Applied Science Private University, Jordan P.O. Box 166 Postal Code 11931, Amman, Email: arawnaqzead84@yahoo.com,   bthair_lion@asu.edu.jo

This study aimed at identifying the impact of balanced scorecard and BSC application of its four perspectives as independent variable (financial (Fin), customer (C), internal processes (IP), and growth and development (GD)) on financial performance measured by average stock market price of listed commercial banks, on the Amman Stock Exchange – ASE. A questionnaire was distributed to key persons such as managers, departments` heads. Of these, 312 questionnaires were valid for analysis. The study findings demonstrated that there is a statistically significant impact of the BSC of the four perspectives (FIN., C., IP. and GD) together or separately on banks financial performance. The study concluded that commercial banks management should adopt and apply BSC due its favourable impact on banks` financial performance and the focus more on client’s changing needs. Pages 654 to 673




The Community of Practice of Researchers on the Social Cloud Model to Enhanced Researchers’ Competencies

Pradit Songsangyosa, Pallop Piriyasuriwongb, Namon Jeerungsuwanc, a,b,cKing Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Thailand, Email:  apradit.s@rmutsb.ac.th,  bpalloppi@gmail.com,  cnamon2015@gmail.com

Using the professional learning community concept, the authors integrated the idea of sharing and exchanging researchers’ knowledge through the community of practice by using the social cloud model. The community of practice of researchers on the social cloud model aims to enhance researchers’ competencies and was used as a guideline to enhance research competencies and publication competencies for professors or researchers. The questionnaires were mainly developed and used based on the research objectives. The research was divided into two stages. Stage 1: Design of the proposed model. Stage 2: Evaluation of the appropriateness of the proposed model by the experts. A research study found the following issues: Firstly, the community of practice of researchers on the social cloud model to enhance researchers’ competencies consisted of 7 elements including 1) goal, 2) social cloud, 3) CoPR processes, 4) research work, 5) research publication, 6) evaluation, and 7) feedback. Secondly, the experts evaluated the appropriateness of the proposed model as agree. Pages 674 to 690




Enhancing Farmer’s Income after Being Retrieved of Land to Build Industrial Park: Evidence from Vietnam

Nguyen Thi Ngana, Bui Huy Khoib, a,bFaculty of Business Administration, Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, Email: anguyenthingan@iuh.edu.vn,  bbuihuykhoi@iuh.edu.vn

In recent years, the economical scientific research community has had many papers to improve incomes for farmers after being retrieved of land to build an industrial park. However, the scientific foundation for the solution is out and left open, especially quantitative model factors affecting earnings. Therefore, identifying an appropriate quantitative model based on the theory of agricultural economics and practical evidence is a challenge for policy researchers. The research team collected data on incomes of 168 farmers in Loc Son Ward, Bao Loc City, Lam Dong province, Vietnam to seek empirical evidence for the model. The aim of this article focuses on two main issues: the theoretical framework of quantitative models and application results for farmers after being retrieved to build an industrial park. Pages 691 to 701




Does Implementing Corporate Governance and Ownership Structure Have any Impact on Audit Report Lag and Management Report Lag in Jordan

Suzan Abeda, Hanady Turki Batainehb, Mishiel Said Suwaidanc, aApplied Science Private University, Faculty of Business, Accounting Department, bAl-Balqa Applied University, Faculty of Business, Accounting Department, cAl-Ahliyya Amman University, Faculty of Business, Accounting Department, Email: aS_abed@asu.edu.jo,  bhanadybataineh@bau.edu.jo,  cmsuwaidan@amman.edu.jo

The main objective of this paper is to investigate whether corporate governance factors and ownership structure affect audit report lag and management report lag for 190 non-financial companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange for the period 2014-2017. The results of the study reveal than on average auditors needs 58 days until they provide their report. The results of Multivariate suggest that director age, institutional ownership and ownership concentration has an impact on audit report lag measured by number of days passes from December 31 until the issuance of external audit report.  The results of descriptive analysis documents are that on average management needs 106 days until they release their reports to the public. Our results highlight strong evidence of the importance of implementing corporate governance characteristics on audit reporting lag. The results indicate strong empirical evidence for number of non-executive directors, role duality, director age, board diversity and institutional ownership with management report lag. Pages 702 to 717




Multicultural Communication and Survival Strategy of Ahmadiyya in Tawangmangu, Indonesia

Filosa Gita Sukmonoa, Fajar Junaedib, Ali Maksumc, a,bDepartment of Communication, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, cDepartment of International Relations, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta,

Ahmadiyya community in Indonesia often receive physical attacks from other Islamic communities that accused Ahmadiyya as not-Islam. For some Indonesians, Ahmadiyya holds a contentious Islamic identity, which for some people adulterates the cardinal canon of Islam. However, the Ahmadiyya community in Tawangmangu, Indonesia, experiences a reasonably inverse condition. By smartly managing cultural relations with local citizens (non-Ahmadiyya), Ahmadiyya’s people seem to live in harmony with the residents. The empirical study revealed that the Ahmadiyya community in Tawangmangu established multicultural relations in daily life by carrying out cultural approaches. The cultural approaches were intensive acculturation and integration with the host community. The Ahmadiyya community even used a football academy to attract the local community to engage indirectly in a social activity. Under this strategy, Ahmadiyya successfully maintains its original identity without disturbing local identities, cultures, and wisdom. Pages 718 to 734




Wali Nanggroe in Aceh: Is he the Real King or the Fake One? A Political Review

Badri Hasan Sulaimana*, Zahlul Pasha Karimb, Khairani Binti Mukdinc, Muslem Abdullah Ahmadd, Muhammad Siddiq Armiae, a,b,c,d,e Faculty of Sharia and Law, State Islamic University (UIN) Ar-Raniry, Indonesia, Email: a*badri@ar-raniry.ac.id

The topic of Wali Nanggroe makes an original a contribution to knowledge, as this information is not published globally. The discussion of Wali Nanggroe in the legal system of Aceh, Indonesia is a critical debate. Recently, the existence of Wali Nanggroe in the kingdom period of Aceh has been disputed. This article critically discusses the legal norms established by the by-laws of Wali Nanggroe. The by-laws relate closely to the electoral mechanism of the candidacy of Wali Nanggroe in Aceh. The research approach used here is normative juridical, through legal, comparative and historical principles. Data analysis was carried out by qualitative analysis. The selection of the nanggroe guardian based on Qanun No. 8 of 2012, in Article 70 is inconsistent with the principle of legal justice because it lacks the regulation of mechanisms for democratic people’s involvement. The determination of the nanggroe guardian election model stipulated in the qanun is contrary to the principle of the rule of law and the sovereignty of the people. According to the principle of justice, nanggroe guardians in Aceh must be democratically chosen by involving all Acehnese people. The main function of the presence of the nanggroe Aceh guardian is to unite existing ethnic groups and ethnic groups in life to sustain its customs and unite the community. The election of the nanggroe guardians should therefore involve all levels of Acehnese society. For this reason, it is important to avoid any perception that the nanggroe guardians only belong to certain groups. The nanggroe guardian needs to truly belong to all Acehnese people and the role should be strengthened by means of deliberation. Pages 735 to 749




The Republic of Indonesia National Police Department: Legal Culture and Law Enforcement

Alirman Soria, Rudyb, Rifandy Ritongac, Chaidir Alid, aLecturer in Pancasila Education and Citizenship, Bakti Humanitarian Academic, Indonesian Red Cross, Jakarta, Indonesia, bDepartment of Constitutional Law, Faculty of Law, University of Lampung, Indonesia, cDepartment of Constitutional Law, Faculty of Law, University of Bandar Lampung, Indonesia, dCenter for Law and Development Faculty of Law University of Lampung, Email: aalir_sori@yahoo.com, brudy.1981@fh.unila.ac.id,  crifandy@ubl.ac.id,  dchaidirali678@gmail.com

The aim of this article was to work out whether a change has also followed the National Police legal culture after the 1945 Constitutional amendment and the emergence of the new Police Law in the National Police legal culture. Many perceptions led us to the fact that arrangements and structural changes before and after the reform era have brought little change to the National Police legal culture. To test this hypothesis, the article discusses how the constitutional arrangements and laws regarding the Indonesian National Police effected the changes. The analysis is conducted using a normative research method and a sociological-juridical approach. The research found that legal culture-shifting occurred in the National Police following its separation from the National Army to become an independent organ. However, the military culture had become rooted in the National Police identity and needs to shift into the civilian culture. Pages 750 to 758




The Role of Economic Freedom in Economic Growth: Evidence from the MENA Region

Anwar Al-Gasaymeha*, Hamed Ahmad Almahadinb, Mohammed Alshuridehc, Nayif Ali Al-Zoubid, Haitham M. Alzoubie, a,bBanking and Finance Department, Applied Science Private University, Amman, Jordan, cThe University of Jordan, dJadara University, Jordan, eSkyline University College, UAE, Email: aa_gasaymeh@asu.edu.jo,  bh_almahadin@asu.edu.jo

This study investigates the economic freedom and economic growth nexus in a board of 13 MENA countries from 2010 to 2018. Based on the Heritage Foundation, five factors have been adopted to capture all of the economic freedom dimensions, namely: security of property rights, freedom from corruption, government spending, business freedom, and monetary policy. To capture the endogeneity issue, an empirical analysis has been conducted by adopting the GMM framework. The focal point of this article is to evaluate which dimension of economic freedom adds to economic growth in the MENA countries, and to what degree. The empirical results reveal that economic freedom plays an enhancing role in the economic growth of the sampled economies. In other words, the economic growth is affected positively through the dimensions of economic freedom. Moreover, the empirical outcomes signal that the current economic growth rate will be affected significantly by the growth rate of the past year. Thus, the findings of the present investigations might have precious implications for the authorities and policy-makers in the sampled countries. Pages 759 to 774




The Impact of Women’s Empowerment and Business Incubation Program on SMES Performance in Bandung Regency

Imas Soemaryania, Ferry Hadiyantob, Ardi Apriliadic, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia, Email:  aimas.soemaryani@unpad.ac.id,  bferry.hadiyanto@fe.unpad.ac.id,  cardi.apriliadi@gmail.com

The development of a creative economy provides opportunities for the society whether male or female to utilise it through business activities on a micro, small, and medium scale. One of the programs that provide facilities in order to enhance entrepreneurial growth through facilities and infrastructure, is business incubation. The creative economy empowerment program for women implemented by the business incubator is considered suitable for women because the tutoring process is performed continuously with integrated guidance from all parties. With various training programs, it is integrated through business incubators; the program is expected to increase women’s competitiveness; therefore the level of income will increase which lead to improvement in their support of their families’ welfare. Therefore, the core of the research study is focused on one of the factors that influence the performance of SMEs, namely women's empowerment and business incubation. Based on this, the main problem revealed in this study is the impact of women's empowerment and business incubation on the performance of SMEs.  This research was conducted on SMEs in the Bandung Regency. This study consisted of three variables, namely women's empowerment (X1), business incubation (X2) and SMEs Performance (Y). The method used in this study is a survey method in the form of an explanatory survey. Data collection techniques by means of questionnaires were used with Likert scale models, which were analysed using multiple regression. The respondents in this study were SMEs in the Bandung Regency. Based on the results of the study, it can be seen that women's empowerment and business incubation has a significant influence on the performance of SMEs in the Bandung Regency. Where women's empowerment and business incubation are proven to have a significant impact on the SME’s performance. Pages 775 to 798




Incentives for Fixed Asset Revaluations

Dwi Jaya Kiranaa*, Ekawati Jati Wibawa Ningsihb, Aniek Wijayantic, a,b,cUniversitas Pembangunan Nasional  Veteran Jakarta, Indonesia, Jakarta, Email: a*dwijayakirana@upnvj.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to analyse the company's incentives in choosing the cost or revaluation method for fixed assets in Indonesia. The incentives include Fixed Asset Intensity, Free Cash Flow, Financing, Capital Expenditure, Liquidity, and Investment opportunity. The sample of companies used in this study were 197 companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2014 to 2018 and it used logistic regression data analysis. The results showed that the companies’ future financing with negative Free Cash Flow and Fixed Asset Intensity variables, had a high probability and positively significant to use the revaluation method for their fixed assets, while the Financing, Liquidity, and Investment opportunity variables had a negative influence and the probability is not high in choosing the revaluation method in its fixed assets.Pages 799 to 812




Religiosity, Halal Awareness, and Muslim Consumers’ Purchase Intention in Non-Food Halal Products

Ganjar Mohamad Disastraa*, Bethani Suryawardanib, Widya Sastikac, Fanni Husnul Hanifad, a,b,c,dTelkom University, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: a*ganjar@tass.telkomuniveristy.ac.id

This study aims to find out how religiosity and the subjective norm can influence Muslim consumers' purchase intention in halal products, with the halal awareness as an intervening variable. Considering the number of existing studies with the same variables in food products, this research seeks to enrich the literature with concerns of non-food halal products, especially in halal personal care products. This study is a quantitative survey method, by collecting data through the distribution of questionnaires to the respondents. The proposed model is then tested using the Partial Least Square (PLS) technique. Results of this study indicate that religiosity positively influences halal awareness, but negatively influences purchase intention. Meanwhile, subjective norms have a significant positive effect on halal awareness and purchase intention. It can be concluded that halal awareness fully mediates the relationship between religiosity and purchase intention, and partially mediates the relationship between subjective norm and purchase intention. Pages 813 to 828




Analysis of the Effect of Firm Size, Profitability and Capital Structure on IPO Underpricing on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX)

Miswanto Miswantoa, Yanuar Rifqi Abdullahb, a,bYKPN School of Business (STIE YKPN) Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*miswanto.ykpn@gmail.com

Underpricing often occurs in issuers that make IPOs on the IDX (the Indonesia Stock Exchange). Because underpricing is detrimental to the issuer, the study of factors that affect underpricing is very important. The aim of this study is to test the impact of firm size, profitability, and capital structure on underpricing in firms conducting IPOs. The sample of this study is firms that conduct IPOs in 2009-2016 and in the group of non-manufacturing firms. It is hypothesised that firm size and profitability have a negative effect on underpricing while capital structure has a positive effect on underpricing. The findings of this study are as follows: Firm size and profitability as measured by ROA (return on assets) have a significant negative effect on underpricing. However, profitability as represented by EPS (earnings per share) is not supported and has a negative effect on underpricing, and capital structure is also not supported and has a positive effect on underpricing. Pages 829 to 844




Analysis of the Need for Development of Information Literation Competency Teachers at the Vocational School, Padang City

Susy Yuliastantia, Sufyarma Marsidinb, Yahyac, a,b,cUniversity Ekasakti, University State of Padang, University state of Padang,

Through awareness of the challenges that already exist in the world of work through the 4.0 revolution, readiness for change will bring vocational education closer to the present and future conditions of employment in lifestyle changes, industrial changes, the labour market, and education. Educators must be able to respond to these changes; the role of delivering knowledge immediately changes to the role of a companion to discover and create through independent learning. The purpose of this study illustrates the needs analysis related to vocational teacher information literacy competencies. This type of research is descriptive; in this case needs’ analysis needs to be done so that it can be seen as to what kind of development model will be designed to meet the needs of vocational teacher information literacy competencies. A sample is taken of 30 vocational school teachers in Padang City. Data collection techniques are through observation and questionnaires. Frequency data analysis technique is used. The results of data dissemination obtained the results of teacher knowledge about information literacy that is currently still relatively low; teachers have not provided learning material in accordance with DU / DI, and lack of link material with those in industry. Training related to information literacy competencies has never been obtained. From the data obtained it can be concluded that the needs analysis is carried out and that the competency of information literacy of vocational teachers is still relatively low. Pages 845 to 856




The Freeport Deal: Lessons Learned from Indonesia in Renegotiating Mining Concessions

Iman Prihandonoa*, Dewi Santoso Yuniartib, aAssociate Professor in Public International Law at the Faculty of Law, Airlangga University, Indonesia, bResearch fellow at Airlangga Institute for International Law Studies, she obtained Bachelor of Law at the Faculty of Law, Airlangga University, Indonesia, Email: a*iprihandono@fh.unair.ac.id

The Asia-Pacific region has substantial reserves of a wide variety of minerals, including gold, copper, iron and gas. The most important mineral reserve-holders and producers in the region are China, India, and Indonesia. Even so, the limited ability of exploration and exploitation had forced some states to still rely on foreign investment, one of which is Indonesia. Indonesia has been known to have a long-standing issue with their investor, Freeport McMoran Inc., the giant mining company based in the United States. Through its subsidiary, Freeport Indonesia (PTFI), Freeport then entered into a Contract of Work with the Indonesian Government in 1967, and renewed it in 1991. PTFI is given the right to conduct mining business activities for at least until the concession expires in 2021. In 2009, the Government issued a new mining regulation, which requires all mining companies, including PTFI, to convert mining concessions into a Special Mining License, along with additional requirements such as divestment, purification obligations, social and environmental responsibility. This policy totally contradicts the virtues in the contract. In December 2018, the Government of Indonesia reached a final decision on the Freeport deal, which encompasses at least 5 (five) issues, namely: (1) shifting from contract to license scheme, (2) price of the divestment, (3) building smelters, (4) taxation, and (5) environmental responsibilities. The final deal is a culmination of years of multiparty negotiations. This paper examines the 5 (five) main points concluded in the Freeport deal in light of the strategic negotiation technique, which stresses the negotiating parties’ patience and ability to make take-it-or-leave-it deals. It then concludes on lessons learned from the Freeport deal for future mining concessions’ renegotiation.. Pages 857 to 875




Conceptualising the Issues of Translation Culture in China: The Roles of Domestication, and Foreignization

AN GANGa, Tengku Sepora Tengku Mahadib, a,bSchool of Languages, Literacies & Translation, Universiti Sains Malaysia,11800 Minden, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Email: aangangusm@gmail.com,  btsepora@usm.my

Cultural differences, while translating, can be ensured using foreignization and domestication strategies. Transparent and fluent styles are usually adopted in a domestication translation to reduce the strange words for target readers. Foreignization mostly focuses on the target text, which is designed to break target conventions, and at the same time, it retains some of the foreign flavors. This paper aims to explore on relationship and implications of foreignization and domestication in translation. This essay discusses the history of domestication and foreignization and associated issues briefly. It is also argued that the uniqueness of culture would be considerably diminished if the culture of translation is dominated by domestication. On the other hand, mechanical translation will enhance if it is going towards the direction of foreignization. It is further quoted that legitimate obligations are not required for foreignization or domestication while translating as long as the practicality of translation is there. Pages 876 to 886




The Problematics of a Separate Judicial Review through Two Institutions: A Case Study in Indonesia

Suparto Wijoyoa, Soekarwob, Bagus Oktafian Abriantoc, Xavier Nugrahad, Farid Ibrahime, a,b,c,dFaculty of Law, Universitas Airlangga, Email: asupartowijoyo@fh.unair.ac.id,  bsoekarwo@gmail.com,  cbagusoa@fh.unair.ac.id,  dxavier.nugraha-2015@fh.unair.ac.id

The implementation of a judicial review, which is conducted separately by the Constitutional Court, and the Supreme Court, is considered to be inappropriate with the ideals of building a harmonious, and integrated legal system. In its practice, it has been proven that the authority of the judicial review to the Constitutional Court, and the Supreme Court encourages various issues. The substantive difference between the tests conducted by the Constitutional Court, and those conducted by the Supreme Court, is the process of examining the trial of the legislation under the law, and against the law by the Supreme Court was conducted in private. The cases handled by the Supreme Court were numerous, not just the legislation testing cases, but also the cases of cassation, and other legal matter. The relationship between the two judicial institutions, namely the Supreme Court, and the Constitutional Court, has become out of sync in the Indonesian constitutional system. The enforcement of the constitution integrally in all laws and regulations has become challenging to materialise. It becomes the loss of the power of the Supreme Court decision for a test case. When the norms that are used as the basis by the Supreme Court are declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court, there will be conflicting decisions. Pages 887 to 900




Creative Self-Efficacy and Product Innovation: Uncovering the Role of Creativity and Entrepreneurial Passion

Sajeela Rabbania, Muhammad Sarmadb, Amira Khattakc, Muhammad Khand*, a,bRiphah School of Leadership, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan, cDepartment of Marketing, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, dDepartment of Management Sciences, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, 23200, KPK, Pakistan, Email: d*muhammadkhan@awkum.edu.pk

This article investigates the relationship between creative self-efficacy (CSE), and product innovation under the mediation of creativity, and the moderation of entrepreneurial passion. The said relationships were tested under the componential theory of creativity to gain a practical understanding of the psychological, and workplace-related creative mechanisms between the dyad of the boss, and the subordinate. The data was collected from 408 sets of the boss-subordinate dyad across the research and development (R&D) section of reputed information technology firms in Pakistan. The analyses were completed through the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) technique by using Smart PLS. The results revealed the positive impact of CSE on product innovation, and the partial mediation of creativity was established between the relationship of CSE, and production innovation. Moreover, entrepreneurial passion was proven as a moderator to strengthen the relationship between creativity, and product innovation. The findings, and implications addressed the information technology (IT) sector in particular, and other sectors in general. Pages 901 to 924




Caring for the Marginal: Developing Papua as a Growth Centre

Idrus Al-Hamida, Irwan Abdullahb*, Hasbollah Toisutac, Muhammad Hasbid, Ade Yamine, Suparto Iribaramf, Faisalg, a,e,f,gState Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Fatahul Muluk Jayapura, Indonesia, bFaculty of Cultural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, cState Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Ambon, Indonesia, dGraduate Program, Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Bone, Indonesia, Email: b*irwan.fib@ugm.ac.id

Papua, at the eastern edge of the Indonesian Archipelago, has long been identified as lagging in its economic, and social development. A lack of infrastructure has limited its advancement, and as such, efforts to develop Papua as a growth centre have faced severe obstacles. A majority of studies have examined Papua by using a structural approach, rather than through the Papuans' own perspectives. This study seeks to explain how an emic approach is necessary for empowerment, arguing that this offers an affirmative means of addressing the situation. This article identifies four empowerment strategies that may be used, including: protecting traditional communities, building capacity, guaranteeing access, and promoting independence. A caring, and affirmative development paradigm is necessary to apply these strategies. Pages 925 to 937




Evaluating the Innovation Activities of Vietnamese Enterprises: Evidence from Binh Dinh Province

Thi Le Hang Nguyena*, Ngoc Tien Nguyenb, Dinh Manh Damc, Quyet Thang Daod, Thi Thanh Binh Lee, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Economics and Accounting, Quy Nhon University, Binh Dinh, Vietnam, Email: a*ntlhang@qnu.edu.vn

Innovation plays an important role in increasing the competitiveness, and sustainable development of the enterprises. This study aims to evaluate the status of innovation activities in enterprises and propose policies to improve business performance by analysing the statistical description data from 200 enterprises surveyed in Binh Dinh. We evaluate the innovation activities in five aspects: product innovation, production process innovation, management organisation innovation, marketing innovation, and technology innovation. The results show that most enterprises are less likely to invest in innovation, with the average score being ‘moderate’. Specifically, while the score of marketing innovation is ‘highly moderate’, it is also quite low for technology innovation. The average scores of product innovation, production innovation, and management organisation innovation are ‘moderate’. This study also discussed, and proposed solutions supporting innovation activities for businesses in terms of the product, production process, management, marketing, and technology. Pages 938 to 958




Students’ Perceptions of a Computer Learning Management Process: An Evaluation in Indonesia

Sunartaa, Rusijonob, Karwantoc, Sugi Hartonod*, a,b,cManagement Education Department, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia, dMathematics Education Department, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: d*sugihartonounesa@gmail.com

The management of a computer-based learning process has been implemented at the Indonesian Naval Technology College for the last three years in several courses, including both undergraduate, and post-graduate programs. The management of the learning process has shifted from traditional learning. The role of computers in the learning process by lecturers will change the students' perceptions of the learning process upon the components of the lecturer, equipment, and methods applied. The aim of this study is to evaluate students' perceptions of the implementation of learning process management in a computer-based classroom. The research was conducted by an explorative descriptive method, which involved 50 undergraduate, and postgraduate students. The data was obtained through questionnaires, and descriptive analysis of the responses received from students. The results show that most of the students have particularly good attention, and enthusiasm in joining the program. At the time of the scholarship process, there was only a modest number of students who performed the activities with computers in a manner which was not in accordance with the program objectives. They communicated using social media, and playing games, and several were undertaking college assignments, which were not related to the courses that were being taught. Pages 959 to 972




Workplace Friendship and Innovative Work Behaviour: Investigating the Mediation Model in Indonesian SMEs Context

Irfan Helmya*, Gunarso Wiwohob, a,bDepartement of Management, Putra Bangsa Economics College, Indonesia, Email: a*risetirfan@gmail.com

The research development to date is still unclear regarding the impact of workplace friendship on organisational outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to extend previous research by investigating the relationship between workplace friendship on innovative work behaviour. This study also examines the mediating role of workplace happiness, knowledge sharing and psychological safety on the relationship between workplace friendship and innovative work behaviour. Data were obtained using a self-administrated survey from 250 employees working in the creative industry of Small Medium Entreprises (SMEs) in Central Java, Indonesia. Findings reveal that workplace friendship shares a positive relationship with innovative work behaviour via workplace happiness and knowledge sharing. Results also indicate that workplace happiness and psychological safety have a significant effect on knowledge sharing. However, the findings found that psychological safety is not significantly related to innovative work behaviour. This present study provides a new insight regarding on how to nurture a workplace friendship to encourage employees’ innovative work behaviour. Pages 973 to 993



The Relationship between Faculty Members' Perception of Emotional Blackmail and Their Organisational Trust in Jordanian Universities

Aieman Ahmad Al-Omaria*, Zohair Hussain Al-Zoubib, Ahmad Mousa Mahasnehc, aDept. of Foundations and Educational Administration, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, bcDept. of Educational Foundations and Administration, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan, Email: a*a.alomari@squ.edu.om

This study aimed to determine faculty members' perception of emotional blackmail (EB) and the relationship to organisational trust (OT) in Jordanian Universities.  A quantitative approach used a correlational design with a random sample of a total 289 faculty members in public Jordanian universities. Used in this study, the EB scale had three subscales; fear, obligation and guilt, with 25 items, and OT had a total of 12 items. The results revealed that participants perceived EB and OT at a medium level. There were no significant differences in EB levels according to participants' gender and college. There were significant differences in EB levels according to teaching experiences in favour of less than five years, 5-10 years, and more than 20 years. There are significant differences in EB levels according to academic rank variables in favour of associate and assistant professors.  No significant differences in OT levels were perceived according to participants' gender, college or teaching experience, whilst there were significant differences in OT levels perceived according to participants' academic rank in favour of associate, assistant and tutor. There was a negative correlation between EB and OT perceived by faculty members. The researchers recommended that the Jordanian universities should pay attention to EB and OT in their universities. Pages 994 to 1011

Influence of CEO Characteristics to Firm Performance with CSR as a Mediation Variable

Noorlailie Soewarnoa*, Dimas Aryaditya Nugrohob, a,bDepartment of Accountancy, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: a*noorlailie-s@feb.unair.ac.id, bdimas.aryaditya.nugroho-2015@feb.unair.ac.id 

This study aims to identify and analyse the influence of a CEO’s characteristics on firm performance that are mediated by Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). A total of 117 companies were sampled in this study. The data were analysed using WarpPLS 6.0. The measurement of CSR used the GRI G4 Standard. The results of this study indicates that CSR does not mediate the CEO’s characteristics on firm performance. Pages 1012 to 1035

A Survey on Islamic Economics and Finance Literatures Indexed by Scopus Q1 via Thematic Analysis Approach

Nisful Lailaa, Aam Slamet Rusydianab, Marhanum Che Mohd Sallehc, Puji Sucia Sukmaningrumd*, a,dFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, bIslamic Economics Department, Tazkia University and  SMART Indonesia, cKulliyyah of Economics & Management Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Email: anisful.laila@feb.unair.ac.id, baamsmart@gmail.com, cmarhanum@iium.edu.my, d*puji.sucia@feb.unair.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to review recent research on Islamic economics and finance published in reputable journals indexed by Scopus Q1. Thematic analysis is adopted to find similarities among 177 selected literatures on Islamic economics and finance, published from year 2014 to 2018. Results of analyses show that at least 20 Q1 Scopus journals have published researches on Islamic economics and finance and most of the research was published at Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Journal of Economic Behaviour & Organisation, Journal of International Financial Market, Institution & Money and Journal of Business Ethics. Overall, 84 percent of the researches were done quantitatively. Based on the findings, it is observed that there is a bright future of articles’ publication at this domain and future researchers should focus more on quality findings on emerging areas including Takaful, Islamic microfinance, Islamic crowdfunding, waqf, and other areas that have received high concentration by industry players as well as the public at large. This research is able to provide information on important topics that need to be researched in subsequent studies. The increase of research in Islamic economics and finance can be a solution to the literacy limitations at this time. Pages 1036 to 1057

Student Character Development: The Implementation of the 2013 Indonesian School Curriculum Strategy

Suparno Eko Widodoa*, Sisca Cletusb, Abdul Rahman A. Ghanic, Arum Fatayand, Burmansah Burmansahe, Taridi Taridif, Ahmad Jauhari Hamid Ripkig, Ayu Wulandarih, Heldy Ramadhan Putra Pi, aDoctoral Program in Educational Management Department, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia, bBusiness Administration Faculty, Politeknik LP3I, Central Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia, c,dTeacher Training and Education Science Faculty, Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. DR. HAMKA, Jakarta, Indonesia, e,fBuddhist Education Department, STIAB Jinarakkhita, Lampung, Indonesia, g,hMathematics Education Faculty, STKIP Kusuma Negara, East Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia, iIslamic Educational Management Department, IAIN Surakarta, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: asuparnoeko@unj.ac.id,  bsisca.cletus@plj.ac.id, crahman.ghani@uhamka.ac.id, darum_fatayan@uhamka.ac.id,  enyanabandhu@ekayana.or.id,  fmanobhadra@yahoo.co.id,  gajhar@stkipkusumanegara.ac.id,  hayuwulandari@stkipkusumanegara.ac.id,  iheldyramadhan@iain-surakarta.ac.id      

The 2013 Indonesian School Curriculum development includes the development of characters in an integrated attitude, knowledge and skills competencies. It needs the seriousness of the school in managing student problems. The guidance and counselling provides assistance services to students in an effort to achieve optimal character development. This study aimed to examine in-depth information about how the 2013 Indonesian School Curriculum applied through the student’s character development. This study uses a qualitative research approach and case study method. The research procedure consists of six steps by Robert K. Yin. Data analysis techniques in this study include testing the validity of the data, grouping data according to sub-focus, combining data in the form of a matrix or table, or recombining the evidence that has been obtained, and to draw conclusions. This study found that in the 2013 Indonesian Schools Curriculum, issues of assessment consist of attitudes, knowledge, and skills. The 2013 curriculum was very instrumental in developing the character of students and even their teachers. Based on the information provided by the informants, it can be concluded that the implementation of guidance and counselling program services in the 2013 curriculum has many challenges. Therefore, the school needs to continue to assist in the implementation of this guidance and counselling service program to build student interest. The study shows that in the 2013 Indonesian Schools Curriculum, the planning for guidance and counselling programs on student specialisation services is done to all students. To have the program for counselling and guidance for the student, in the 2013 Indonesian Schools Curriculum also has value of the curriculum with the main essence of the value of character building. Development of guidance and counselling program services can be carried out correctly and provide significant benefits for students. By implementing the 2013 Indonesian Schools Curriculum approach, it makes students very interested in opening up to guidance and counselling to the problems they face. Pages 1058 to 1079

Classroom Management in the Student-Teachers’ Teaching Practicum: Challenges and Recommendations for Teacher Education

Dwiyani Pratiwia, Ali Saukahb, Sri Rachmajantic, Mirjam Anugerahwatid, aDoctoral Student of Universitas Negeri Malang, bcdUniversitas Negeri Malang, Email: dwiyani.1702219@students.um.ac.id

Classroom management has become one of the critical issues which student-teachers face in their teaching experience when entering the teaching practicum. This study explored the concerns of student-teachers regarding challenges and strategies in classroom management. It was part of a larger scope of a study concerning the dilemmas that student-teachers faced during teaching practicum. This study used a sequential explanatory mixed method design consisting of two phases: phase one was a quantitative method and the second phase was a qualitative method. The quantitative data were collected using questionnaires and the qualitative data were collected by means of interviews and reflection journals about their experiences in coping with the students’ discipline and compliance. The findings of this study prompt a discussion about the importance of providing the student-teachers with classroom management skills in teacher education, before the teaching practicum. It also highlights the issue of classroom management which involves the shift of focus from managing only the behaviour to both managing the behaviour and learning. Pages 1099 to 1113

Enhancing Culture-based Cooperative Learning through Literary Appreciation in Higher Education

Wijaya Heru Santosaa, Siti Rochmiyatib, Rusdian Noor Dermawanc, Anselmus Sudirmand, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: danselmus.sudirman@ustjogja.ac.id

The objectives of this research are to find out: (1) whether the trials of cooperative learning models can improve the ability to appreciate literature; (2) how the lecturers' perceptions of cultural values-based cooperative learning models are tested; and (3) the difficulties in implementing cooperative learning. The data relating to students’ literary appreciation ability and cooperative learning models was collected using grades reports and the lecturers' perceptions of cooperative learning implementation through interviews. The data on students’ literary appreciation ability was analyzed using a t-test with an error rate of p = 0.05, aided with the 2010 Excel Program, and the pretest/posttest control group design. The data on lecturers' perceptions was analyzed by qualitative analysis of interactive models (Miles & Hubermen, 1992) and component analysis. The results indicate that (1) the cooperative learning trials can improve the students’ literary appreciation ability that reached an average of 23.54 and 2.9 for standard deviations toward an average of 27.93 and standard deviations of 2.17, (2) the lecturers accept and are open to the cooperative learning model, and (3) obstacles in carrying out this model emerged because the students lacked concentration on the topics under discussion giving rise to insufficient appreciations toward opinions of others who were talking. Pages 1114 to 1125

Teacher Knowledge and Challenges Toward Inclusive Classes: Lessons from Indonesia

Umi Safiul Ummah, Mohd Mokhtar Tahar, Mohd Hanafi bin Mohd Yasin Affiliation, Department Special Education, Faculty of Education, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Email: p103395@siswa.ukm.edu.my

Inclusive education in Indonesia has been executed for more than a decade. However, there are many obstacles in its implementation, one of which is curriculum adaptation. The purpose of this study is to understand adaptive learning and determine the challenges experienced by teachers concerning the implementation of inclusive education. A sequential explanatory mixed-method research approach was used. This design type combines quantitative and qualitative data. The data were collected using questionnaires presented to 72 teachers from inclusive schools in Malang. The information gathered from the questionnaires enabled the researcher to develop interview questions that were given to 72 respondents. The findings showed that several teachers did not understand and implement curriculum adaptation for CSN in inclusive classes. In addition, some challenges still experienced by teachers regarding the implementation of inclusive education include the diversity of students, difficulties in teamwork to adapt the curriculum, and learning methods that are still difficult to be understood by teachers. Furthermore, it also got various learning modifications due to the diverse conditions of students and the lack of facilities in the school to support them. Inclusive education should provide appropriate services for CSN, as well as accommodate the diversity of CSN in the classroom. Pages 1126 to 1141

Management of Inclusive Education in Cakke Pertiwi I Kindergarten at Enrekang Regency

Baharuddina, Ali Imronb, Bambang Budi Wiyonoc, Imron Arifind, aDoctoral Student, State University of Malang, b,c,dState University of Malang, Email: abaharuddin_88@ymail.com, bali.imron.fip@um.ac.id, cbambang.budi.fip@um.ac.id, dimronarifinum@gmail.com

Inclusive education is a type of education that adheres to the philosophy of equity, justice, and non-discrimination as a way of obtaining educational services. The purpose of this study is to analyze the management of inclusive education in Cakke Pertiwi I Kindergarten, at Enrekang Regency. The research method used is qualitative and includes a case study design. Research informants were the Principal, special assistant teachers, and parents of students. The results showed that the Kindergarten Pertiwi I Cakke had implemented the principle of inclusive education properly and consistently based on existing standards and procedures. The implementation can be seen from the patterns of student management, curriculum management, management of educators and education staff, management of facilities and infrastructure, and public relations management. Pages 1142 to 1157

The Effect of Creative Problem Solving Learning Strategy on Conceptual and Procedural Understanding Moderated by Social Skills

Hadi Suryantoa, I Nyoman Sudana Degengb, Ery Tri Djatmikac, Dedi Kuswandid, aPostgraduate Student, Instructional Technology Study Program, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Universitas PGRI Adibuana Surabaya Indonesia, b,cProfessor, Postgraduate, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, d Associate Professor, Postgraduate, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Email: ahadi.suryanto.1601219@students.um.ac.id, ahsuryanto3@gmail.com, bnyoman.sudana.d.fip@um.ac.id, cery.tri.fe@um.ac.id, ddedi.kuswandi.fip@um.ac.id

The paper examines the effect of learning strategy on learning outcomes moderated by social skills. Our research was conducted by employing quasi-experimental techniques, specifically two-times-two factorial design. Learning strategy in terms of creative problem solving was treated for the experiment group, and in contrast direct instruction was treated for the control group. Learning outcomes as criterion variables were measured by students’ conceptual and procedural 15understanding, based on their social skills. The subjects of this study were selected by using cluster sampling and involved 72 students from a private vocational high school at Lamongan City, East Java Province. The data was analyzed by implementing multivariate analysis of variance, since the intention was to seek main and interactional effects. Pages 1158 to 1175

Religious Argumentation of Hate Speech (Critical Race and Racism in Hate Speech Phenomena in Indonesia)

Saihua, Abd. Azizb, Suhadac, Baeti Rohmand, a,dResearch dan Community Development Department, Institute of PTIQ Jakarta, 12440, Lebak Bulus, South Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia, bArabic Lecturer, STIT Al-Amin Kreo Tangerang, 15422, Pondok Aren, South Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia, cIslamic education lecturer at STAI Al-Hikmah Jakarta, 12560, Cilandak, South Jakarta, Indonesia. Email: amadesaihu@ptiq.ac.id

This study discusses religious arguments against hate speech in multi-cultural Indonesians from the critical theory of race and racism (CTRR/ Intersectionality), phenomenological research approached using an openness system (infitáhiyyah) and a multi-dimensionality system (taadud al-Ad). Hate speech is not permitted in any religion. The rise of hate speech is caused by the weak understanding of intersectionality (the meeting point of race and racism) and the absence of universal values ​​of religion in the practical social level. Through the approach of critical theory and racism and approached using openness systems (infitáhiyyah) and multi-dimensionality systems (taadud al-Ad), this phenomenological study confirms the importance of bringing together various dimensions of life especially religion when dealing with social complexity. Although hate speech is not justified in religion, many do hate speech in the name of religion. The lack of openness in da'wah and the plurality of life seen through one perspective (mono dimension) leads to hate speech. Thus, bringing together differences, transparency, and multi-dimensionality of attitude becomes a perception that must be carried out in the context of multi-cultural Indonesian society. Pages 1176 to 1194

Adolescent Critical Thinking prior to Social Media Information Sharing

Anjarie Dharmastutia*, Bambang Budi Wiyonob, Imanuel Hitipeuwc, Hetti Rahmawatid, aDepartment of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology Education,  Universitas Negeri Malang. Orcid no: 0000-0001-7670-7799, bDepartment of Instructional Technology, Faculty of Education, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. Orcid no: 0000-0001-8351-5453, cDepartment of, Educational Psychology, Faculty of  Psychology Education Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. Orcid no: 0000-0002-9939-6310. dDepartment of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology Education, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia. Orcid no: 0000-0001-9354-8486. Email: a*dharmastuti.1601139@students.um.ac.id, bbambang.budi.fip@um.ac.id, cimanuel.hitipeuw.fip@um.ac.id, dhetti.rahmawati.fppsi@um.ac.id

Although much literature has discussed critical thinking skills among adult learners, little empirical evidence is directed to exploring what affects adolescent critical thinking skills during social media choice. To fill this identified gap in the existing research, this study aims to investigate the predictors of critical thinking in the context of social media as reviewed through the Theory of Planned Behavior. The respondent case study for this research comprised 386 students from 3 state universities in Malang selected via random sampling technique. Data were analyzed with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and the results show that all hypotheses proved significant. An interesting finding can be seen from the effect of digital media literacy on critical thinking through mediating perceptions of behavioral control that is actually weaker than direct influence. This shows that self-confidence can sometimes actually make individuals less careful. Pages 1195 to 1213

Development of Classical Guidance Modeling for Penyang Hinje Simpei to Prevent Child Abuse in High Schools

Dina Fariza Tryani Syarifa, Karyantib, M. Andi Setiawanc, Bakhrudin All Habsyd, a,b,cDepartment of Guidance and Counseling, Muhammadyah University, Palangkaraya, dDepartment of Guidance and Counseling, Darul Ulum University, Jombang, Email: aum.palangkaraya@gmail.com, dbakhrudin_bk@yahoo.com

The development of the Classical Guidance Model of the Penyang Hinje Simpei Guidance is an innovation to prevent child abuse in high schools based on the wisdom of the Central Kalimantan Dayak tribe. The research procedure was adapted from the previous research development research procedure, which consisted of a triangular stage: the preparation stage, the product preparation stage, and the product validation or test phase. The results of field trials using the repeated measures design and the Wilcoxon sign rank test statistical analysis displayed that the use of interventions can improve students' understanding; the impacts of violence so that the Classical Guidance Model of the Penyang Hinje Simpei can prevent child abuse in high school. The study recommends that further research on the development of the classical guidance model of Penyang Hinje Simpei needs to be done to prevent child abuse in Upper Middle School by using a counselor's and a student's guide. Secondly, these models and guidelines must be used for the implementation of Guidance and Counseling services in Upper Middle Schools. Pages 1227 to 1246

The Effect of Jurisprudential Inquiry Model and Achievement Motivation on Cognitive Learning Outcomes

Atan Pramanaa, I Nyoman Sudana Degengb, Suko Wiyonoc, Dedi Kuswandid, a,b,c,dUniversitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia, Email: aatanpramana.1701219@students.um.ac.id, aatanpramana@gmail.com

Meaningful learning is seen as an important educational goal and a necessity in terms of the challenges confronting us in the 21st century. The selection of the right model can influence meaningful learning. In this paper the jurisprudential inquiry model and expository are compared and juxtaposed with achievement motivation to determine its interaction with the instructional effect of cognitive learning outcomes. A quasi-experimental design was used—the type 2x2 factorial design version pre-test/post-test non-equivalent control group. The research subjects were undergraduate students who were taking Civics Education courses at Universitas Negeri Malang. The research sample was taken by the cluster sampling of as many as four classes with a total of 140 students. Data analysis techniques using the MANOVA technique was also used. The results showed that there were differences in students' cognitive learning outcomes between applying inquiry jurisprudence and expository models. Among students who have high and low achievement motivation there were differences in cognitive learning outcomes. In cognitive learning outcomes, there is no interaction between learning models and achievement motivation. The findings show that the jurisprudential inquiry model and achievement motivation can influence learning outcomes. The jurisprudential inquiry model makes students more motivated, challenged, and interested in learning for individuals and groups. Pages 1247 to 1263

Fuzzy Set Model of Dengue Using Imageries and the Geographic Information System in Palambang

Cipta Estri Sekarrinia, Sumarmib, Syamsul Bachric, Didik Taryanad, aPostgraduate student, Geography Education Program, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, bProf Sumarmi., Professor Department of Geography, Universitas Negeri Malang, cS.Si, M.Sc., Ph.D. Associate Professor in Department of Geography Education, Faculty of Social Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, dDrs, M.Si, Dr. Associate Professor in Department of Geography Education, Faculty of Social Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Email: acipta.estri.1907219@students.um.ac.id, bsumarmi.fis@um.ac.id, csyamsul.bachri.fis@um.ac.id, dtaryana.fis@um.ac.id

This report into the vulnerability and accuracy of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) uses the Fuzzy Set model. The analysis uses ten variables: 1) land use; 2) temperature; 3) altitude; 4) rainfall; 5) humidity; 6) population density; 7) slums, 8) mosquitos’ flight radius, 9) number of cattle; and 10) distance between the river and the settlements. The aim of this study is to determine the vulnerability and accuracy of DHF in Palembang. The research is a quantitative study and was conducted in Palembang. The data used in the research is secondary and was gathered from corresponding agencies. The analysis implements the use of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Fuzzy Set. After scoring the determining parameters on DHF, the level of its vulnerability in Palembang is categorized into three classes: low class with an area of 16,713 ha; medium class with an area of 13,872 ha; and high class with an area of 6,063 ha. The highest Fuzzy Set result on DHF in Palembang is 0.82, and the lowest is 0.46. Pages 1264 to 1293

Conversational Implicatures in Students’ Communication and its Type: A Pragmatic Study

Sadieli Telaumbanuaa, Godlif Sianiparb, Muhammad Sarlinc, Afdaliahd, Irwan Fathurrochmane, aIndonesian Education Department, Universitas Prima Indonesia, Medan, Indonesia, bFaculty of Literature, Universitas Katolik Santo Thomas, Medan Indonesia, cFaculty of Education, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo, Indonesia, dDepartment of Accounting, Politeknik Negeri Ujung Pandang, Makassar, Indonesia, eInstitut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Curup, Indonesia, Email: asadielitelaumbanua@unprimdn.ac.id, bgodlif@yahoo.com, csarlin_muh@ung.ac.id, d1966afdaliah@gmail.com, eirwan@iaincurup.ac.id

This study explores the lingual form and process of conversational implicature that appears in student communication in classes at Universitas Prima Indonesia. In this research, observation and interviews are used as the primary method to collect the data. The study is based on descriptive qualitative research. The collected data is analyzed through three stages of the flow model: data reduction, data presentation, and data verification. The findings indicate that there are three forms of lingual found: command lingual; news lingual form; and question lingual form. The lingual form was chosen in the conversation of students at Universitas Prima Indonesia with the expectation that speakers and speech partners would not feel offended. Proximity factors of communication cause the lingual form of declarative, imperative, and questioning in a conversation. These findings are expected to form the basis of capturing the implied intent of the speaker and trying to convey the messages to the speech partner. Pages 1294 to 1310

Understanding Social Intelligence of Santri Based on the Ethnic Characteristics in the Context of Indonesian Diversity

M.Ismail Makkia, Bambang Budi Wiyonob, Adi Atmokoc, Muslihatid, aFakultas Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, bFakultas Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, cFakultas Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, dFakultas Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Email: am.ismail.makki.1701119@students.um.ac.id, bbambang.budi.fip@um.ac.id, cadi.atmoko.fip@um.ac.id, dmuslihati.fip@um.ac.id

This research aims to describe diversity on social intelligence based on the ethnicity of santri, who study in multi-ethnic and mono-ethnic schools under the management of Al-Amien Islamic Boarding School, Prenduan Jawa Timur. The social intelligence scale of Albrecht was applied to 407 Madurese, Javanese, Sundanese, Malaynese and Sasaknass santri, whose parental lines are the same. The data was analyzed using the descriptive statistics of ‘T’ and ‘Anova’ examination. the results show differences on social intelligence among those ethnic groups. From the highest to the lowest, the rank was: Javanese, Sundaness, Malayness, Madurese and Sasaknese. Another finding shows that social intelligence of santri who study Madurese santri. Pages 1311 to 1321

Developing a Career Guidance Model for Students with Hearing Impairment

Endang Pudjiastuti Sartinaha, Esa Nur Wahyunib, Sri Joeda Andajanic, Eryana Fatimasari Retno Budiatid, Muhammad Nurul Ashare, a,b,d,eUniversitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia, cUniversitas Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, Indonesia, Email: aendangsartinah@unesa.ac.id, besanw@uin-malang.ac.id, csriandajani@unesa.ac.id,deryana.frb01@yahoo.com, emuhammadnurulashar@unesa.ac.id

This research intends to inform the design and implementation of an accurate and feasible program for hearing impaired students. The specific goal of this developmental research is to produce a career guidance model focused on self- knowledge and occupational knowledge for students with hearing impairment in a Special Senior High School.  The developmental research applied in this study was modified from the Borg & Gall model.  The data were analyzed using a Paired Samples t-Test. Results indicated the need for a career guidance model that develops hearing impaired student self-knowledge and occupational knowledge; and small-scale testing data showed an increase in these specific knowledge levels throughout this study. Therefore, it can be concluded that a self-knowledge and occupational knowledge career guidance model for hearing impaired students of a Special High School, is feasible and effective in optimizing change in knowledge and skills specific to self-knowledge and occupational knowledge. Pages 1322 to 1331

Hoshin Kanri Innovation Strategy:  Realizing a World Class University

Rochmawatia*, Ali Imronb, Nurul Ulfatinc, Achmad Supriyantod, a,b,c,dState University of Malang –Indonesia, Email: a*rara.pinkiesty@gmail.com, bali.imron.fip@um.ac.id, cnurul.ulfatin.fip@um.ac.id, da.supriyanto.fip@um.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to describe the role of Hoshin Kanri as both a parameter and 'spirit' in its performance as a college innovation implementation strategy to realize a World Class University (WCU).  The synergous development of a quality world university, WCU, was crucial as an innovation strategy in the realization, direction and building process of Hoshin Kanri as a college management system. This research used a mixed methodology approach through retrieval of qualitative data via interview techniques, observation and documentation and quantitative method applied through the Delphie Technique. Data were analyzed through the design of Concurrent Embadded qualitative dominance and the validity of the data were checked with four criteria: (1) credibility, (2) reliability, (3) dependability and (4) confirmability. The results show that Hoshin Kanri concentrated on efforts to help organizations focus on quality-oriented target and objective achievement through quality assurance. The process, leading to a management system which initiated with planning through implementation, monitoring, evaluation, and review of quality productivity, ensured an ongoing process of improvement and quality development and was found to be an ideal strategy in realizing a WCU. Pages 1331 to 1347

Construction of Kejatmikaan Counseling: A Study of Hermeneutic Perspectives in the Noble Teachings of Kyai Samin Surosentiko

Bakhrudin All Habsya, Nur Hidayahb, Blasius Boli Lasanc, Muslihatid, Husni Hanafie, a,b,c,d,eDepartment of Guidence and Counseling, State University of Malang, Indonesia, Email: abakhrudin_bk@yahoo.com, bmuslihati.fip@um.ac.id, cblasiusbolilasan@um.ac.id, dnur.hidayah.fip@um.ac.id

The increasing and ongoing development of a scientific knowledge base is vital to foster Indonesian cultural research and knowledge authenticity, including the growth of counseling science based on and framed through sophisticated and scientific cultural reasoning.  A unique and distinctive Indonesian culture is based on the noble teachings of Kyai Samin Surosentiko which is very deeply embedded in the work of James Kalimasada and the life script of Wong Samin. The treasure of the wisdom of the noble teachings of Kyai Samin Surosentiko produced a profound philosophy about problem solving in life, which leads us as "organic intellectuals" to reflect deeply on the noble teachings.  These teachings have potential to guide followers to lead lives that demonstrate jatmika will; jatmika relationship with God and fellow humans; jatmika self-awareness; jatmika in the face of trials and a true jatmika mind. The focus of this research is the construction of Kejatmikaan counseling based on the noble teachings of Kyai Samin Surosentiko. Pages 1348 to 1365

Development of Guidance Counselling for Increased Engagement and Empathy of Middle School Bullies

Fatchurahmana, Karyantib, M. Andi Setiawanc, Bakhrudin All Habsyd,a,b,cDepartment of Guidance and Counseling, Muhammadyah University, Palangkaraya, dDepartment of Guidance and Counseling, Darul Ulum University, Jombang, Email: aum.palangkaraya@gmail.com, dbakhrudin_bk@yahoo.com

A focus on client engagement in counseling is an innovation in guidance counseling services, particularly in the context of counselling for middle school bullies. Engaging models of counseling in this study were found to have been developed based on local wisdom and had not been optimally researched and thus it was determined that a new counseling model be developed. The aim of this research is to investigate how to increase engagement and empathy in the development of counselling for middle school bullies. In this study, the research consists of six stages of development: the preliminary study; the formulation of the hypothetical model; the feasibility test of the hypothetical model; the improvement of the hypothetical model; the effectiveness test and finally the presentation of the final model. To test effectiveness of this experimental design, data analysis utilized Paired Sample T-Test. Pages 1366 to 1385

Competency-Based Human Resources Development in Sharia Hospital

Ratna Wijayantia, Sri Hartiyahb, Muhammad Shofiyuddinc, Abdul Ghofurd, Ahmad Rofiqe, a,bFaculty of Economics, UNSIQ Wonosobo, Central Java, Indonesia, cFaculty of Economics, Pekalongan University, Central Java, Indonesia, dProfessor of the Sharia and Law Faculty, UIN Walisongo, Semarang, Indonesia, eProfessor of Islamic Law, UIN Walisongo, Semarang, Indonesia, Email: awijayantiratna34@yahoo.co.id

This study analyzes the urgency and implementation of Human Resources (HR) competency development at Sultan Agung Hospital in Semarang. Our research is a descriptive qualitative case study with primary and secondary data. Data collection techniques include observation and interviews. The main aim of the study is to investigate the competency and development of activities by HR to enhance the performance of the employees. The results showed that the development of HR competencies applied include orientation, coaching, rotation/mutation, promotion, and internships as well as seminars. The development is carried out by adding the reading and procedures for prayer and the Qur'an, including memorizing its short surahs. The hospital has fulfilled the criteria of a Sharia hospital, though management still needs to improve employee performance. This study recommends that employee performance should be supported by adequate training facilities to improve performance for the achievement of individual and organizational goals. Furthermore, management should assess employees more effectively, starting from HR planning, recruitment, development, and performance evaluation and rewards. Pages 1386 to 1400

Development of Learning Evaluation Tools for Bahasa Indonesia with Rebecca M. Valette Taxonomy and CLIL Approach

Subyantoroa, Haryadib, Mochamad Rizqi Adhi Pratamac, a,bIndonesian Language and Literature Department, Faculty of Language and Art, Semarang State University, Central Java, Indonesia, cDepartment of English Literature, Universitas Ngudi Waluyo, Central Java, Indonesia, Email: abintoro@mail.unnes.ac.id, bharyadihar67@mail.unnes.ac.id, crizqi.adhi@unw.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of the development of learning evaluation tools for Bahasa Indonesia using the Rebecca M. Valette taxonomy and CLIL approach based on teacher perceptions. The study was quantitative, and the sample consisted of teachers at a selected high school in the Bahasa region of Indonesia. Data was collected through a survey and an observation. The survey was completed to investigate students' proficiency based on a questionnaire, and the observation included an observation on the teacher's perception of competence of students in class XI of the senior high school. The study found that the characteristics of the evaluation tool need to produce short story texts with the taxonomy of Rebecca M. Valette. The CLIL approach based on teacher perceptions is motivated by the principles of developing evaluation tools that can be grouped into language, cultural, literary, and communication. This study wants to want to make the following recommendations. Firstly, researchers could conduct further research on the development of evaluation tools at the elementary, junior high, or high school. Secondly, policymakers should use it as a reference in the preparation of evaluation tools for Indonesian subjects at all levels of elementary, junior high, or high school. Pages 1401 to 1417

Legal Implementation of Electronic Information and Transaction Law in Preventing the Spread of Content Containing SARA Issues through Social Media

Gomgom T.P Siregara, Syawal Amry Siregarb, Rudolf Silabanc, a,b,cUniversitas Darma Agung, Medan, Indonesia. Email: agomgomsiregar@gmail.com, bsyawalsiregar59@gmail.com, cbanglabanshmh@gmail.com

The existence of the Information and electronic transaction (ITE) Law which manage and control the criminal offences related to the spread of issues that contain SARA (such a sentimental of a specific religion, ethnic and regeneration). Following the concept of law developed by realism as a means of community renewal. This research is normative legal research using laws and conceptual agreement. This research is an analytical descriptive by using qualitative data analysis. This study found that content that contains SARA issues is referred to as hate speech, which can be interpreted as an act of communication carried out by individuals or groups in the form of provocation and threatened to send the criminal actor to the jail for a maximum of 6 (six) years and a fine of Rp. 1,000,000,000 (one billion rupiah). Furthermore, the implementation of legal validity of the ITE Law can be categorized as unimplemented of the law legality establishment as shown from the society who was not able to follow the rule made by law which means that this law did not yet have legal effect. The study recommends that the community needs to behave by following the legal rules set out in the ITE Law. Pages 1418 to 1431

Determinants of Health Visit Appeal Based on Medical Tourism

Ari Prasetyoa, Sedianingsihb, Ririn Tri Ratnasaric*, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: aari.prasetyo@feb.unair.ac.id,  bsedianingsih@feb.unair.ac.id,  c*ririnsari@feb.unair.ac.id

The purpose of this study to determine the factors that influence the attractiveness of health visits to Surabaya for the purpose of city-based medical tourism. The research design used in this study is an exploratory quantitative approach. The research paper used an quantitative approach method and a (analyser) factor analysis. The paper will also use a questionnaire as a tool to determine the respondent's perception, these are split into two groups, the first group is the renderer of services (management of the institution: health service, the management and employees of hospitals, health centres, and the individual health clinics in Surabaya) and the second group is the service user (consumer's Hospital and Health Center and Health Clinic). This method is carried out in three stages, the first stage, is to determine indicators of factors affecting the health of the appeal of a visit to Surabaya as city-based medical tourism obtained from the process of extracting data through in-depth interviews to both sides of informants in preliminary testing. The second stage, performed a pre-survey of 40 respondents to test the material questionnaire on respondents if it is understood. The third phase followed a close-ended-question structure to 400 respondents consisting of 100 outpatients at the hospital in Surabaya, 100 consumers in Surabaya, and 200 consumers outside Surabaya. The sampling technique was conducted withpurposive non-random sampling. The results of the research show that six factors are influence the attractiveness of health visit to Surabaya as medical tourism-based in the city. The six influencing factors are: firstly the credibility  of the medical team, the quality of service to the patient, the technological level of the medical equipment, hospital management, price comparison with benefit, and the level of communication to patient and family. The credibility of the medical team is the highest factor in influencing the appeal of health visits to Surabaya as a medical tourism-based city. However, communication to patients and families is the lowest factor in influencing the appeal of health visits to Surabaya as a medical tourism-based city. The implications, the medical team needs to make improvements in terms of developing a good communication relationship pattern with patients and their families, developing better ethical and empathy attitudes, and prioritising patient safety so that people are satisfied. The government also needs to involve relevant industries, such as the health industry, the insurance industry, the pharmaceutical industry and the regulators that must be integrated with local/national tourism development programs. Pages 1432 to 1447

Determinants of Murabahah Financing for Microfinance

1Ririn Tri Ratnasari*, 2Faishol Luthfi, 3Wildana Latif Mahmudi, 1,2Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia. 3Semarang State Polytechnic, Semarang, Indonesia. Email: *ririnsari@feb.unair.ac.id (corresponding author), ishol2107@gmail.comlatifwildana@gmail.com

This study aims to analyze the determinants of the decision of micro and small entrepreneurs in the culinary sector in choosing murabaha financing through microfinanace. The subjects of this study are micro and small entrepreneurs at microfinanace. The sample of this research is 100 micro and small entrepreneurs of the culinary sector members of microfinanace which were taken using convenience sampling method. Data collection techniques using questionnaires and documentation. The analysis technique used in this study is exploratory factor analysis. This study will formulate 20 indicators obtained from the preliminary test and then reduced to a factor or variable. The variable to be examined is the decision of micro and small entrepreneurs in the culinary sector in choosing murabaha financing through the microfinanace. The stages of the research method are the preliminary test, library study, and the main test conducted on 100 micro and small entrepreneurs in the culinary sector members of microfinanace. The results of this study indicate that there are five factors that influence the decision of micro and small entrepreneurs in the culinary sector in choosing murabaha financing through microfinanace. These factors include service convenience factors, factors of compensations, trust factors, microfinanace image factors and professionalism factors. Funding also impacts micro and small entrepreneurs, both in terms of Madiyah welfare and spiritual welfare. The impact of financing from the Madiyah welfare side can be shown by an increase in business income. In terms of spiritual welfare, the financing of microfinanace has helped increase the worship of micro and small entrepreneurs. Pages 1448 to 1470

Investigating the Relationships between Environmental Awareness, Recycling Behaviour, Economic Disposal, Giving to Family or Friends andDonating to Charity

Tanti Handrianaa*, Annisa Amalia Ningsihb,a,bFaculty of Economics and Business, UniversitasAirlangga,Indonesia, Email: a*tanti.handriana@feb.unair.ac.id

An effort to reuse products that are no longer used is one example of environmentally friendly behaviour. A mother’s effort to recycle baby equipment products is also another example of environmentally friendly behaviour. The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of awareness of the environment and recycling behaviour on giving to family or friends disposal behaviour, donating to charity disposal behaviour, and recycling behaviour. This study involved 216 respondents. The analytical technique used is structural equation modelling (SEM). The result of this study shows that awareness of the environment does have an impact on giving to family or friends behaviour and recycling behaviour, where recycling behaviour has an impact on economic disposal behaviour and giving to family or friends behaviour. In contrast, awareness of the environment has no impact on donating to charity disposal behaviour and recycling behaviour has no impact on donating to charity disposal behaviour. The results of this study make contributions to the development of green marketing concept. Pages 1471 to 1482

Socio-Cultural Context in Wayang Pesisiran (Coastal Puppets): Ethnolinguistic Perspective

Mulyana Mulyanaa, aUniversitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: amulyana@uny.ac.id

This study explores the social and cultural context of the Pesisiran (Coastal) community through the coastal style of puppet shows. The aim is to discuss and explain the social and cultural conditions of the community that owns the coastal puppet culture based on an ethnolinguistic perspective. The method used was qualitative naturalistic. The study material started from a puppet show video of Dalang Pesisiran (coastal puppeteer) Ki Enthus Susmono. To deepen the background of the socio-cultural context, a survey and in-depth interview were conducted. The interviewee chosen was one of the famous puppeteers from the coastal area of the Lasem Rembang, Ki Kartono. Furthermore, it was also equipped with a literature study. The research instruments included field notes, interview guides and library notes. The results of the study showed a clear description of several things: (1) more varied coastal puppet genres (illustrated by the accompaniment of gending, added with wayang golek (golek puppet), lakon carangan (artificial story), and the dialect language suitability of coastal areas, (2) a description of the socio-cultural context of coastal communities showing real life, which was reflected in the local and daily diction of the Javanese language; namely, they tend to be vulgar and not many speech levels are used. It means that coastal communities can be described socially and culturally as local people who are direct and straightforward. Pages 1483 to 1498

The Adoption of a Mobile Payment Application by Small Businesses in Indonesia

Hartiwi Prabowoa, Enny Noegraheni Hindarwatib, Yuniartyc, a.cManagement Department, BINUS Online Learning, Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta, Indonesia, bManagement Department, BINUS Business School Undergraduate Program, Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: hartiwi@binus.eduenny_noegraheni@binus.ac.idyuniarty@binus.ac.id

Mobile payment is an engaging prospect that has recently flourished because of the appearance of smartphones and their applications. The research examined the intention of SMEs to embrace mobile payment. The advanced study model was generated by expanding the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to ascertain the significant determinants that affect the acceptance of mobile payment technology. The method of sampling was area sampling among 164 food and beverage SMEs in Jakarta, Indonesia. The investigation utilised binary logistic regression with SPSS 20 for data examination. Performance Expectancy; Effort Expectancy; Social Influence; Facilitating Conditions; Perceived Technology Security; and Trust had a positive and noteworthy influence on mobile payment adoption. Pages 1499 to 1516

The Mediation Effect of Community Empowerment and Good Governance in Relation to Forest Productivity in Indonesia

Bambang Hendroa*, Bambang Supriyonob, Andy Fefta Wijayac, Fadel Muhammadd, a,b,c,dUniversitas Brawijaya, Email: a*bambang.hendroyono.ub@gmail.com

This study aims to test the relationship between transglobal leadership (intelligence and behaviour) and forest productivity, by means of the mediating effect of community empowerment and good governance (in this case, good forest governance). The population in this study was all regencies which implement HTR development in Indonesia. The population size was 127 regencies. Using the Slovin formula with 10% error rate in precision, a sample size of 50 regencies was collected for data analysis in this study. The data analysis technique used is the Generalised Structural Component Analysis (GSCA). First, Transglobal Leadership Intelligence has a direct effect on Transglobal Leadership Behaviour, Community Empowerment, Good Governance-based Forest Management, but no direct effect on Forest Productivity. Transglobal Leadership Intelligence didn’t have a direct effect on Forest Productivity, but it had a mediation effect on Community Empowerment and Good Governance-based Forest Management. Second Transglobal Leadership Behaviour had a direct influence on Community Empowerment, Good Governance-based Forest Management, but no direct effect on Forest Productivity. This is one of few studies which investigates comprehensively the relationship between transglobal leadership in the public sector, community empowerment, good governance, and forest productivity, especially in Indonesia. Pages 1517 to 1535

The Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning Models (PBM) to Improve Students’ Ability to Think Smoothly on Redox Reaction Material

Ratu Betta Rudibyania*, Ryzal Perdanab aFaculty of Education and Teacher Training, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia, bFaculty of Education and Teacher, Email: a*ratu.betta.r@gmail.com    

Figuring out the effectiveness of Problem Based Learning model to increase the smooth thinking of Redox reaction material is the goal of this research. State senior high school of 1 Tulangbawang, especially XI IPA students (Science major at twelve grade), becomes the population in this research on the second semester of 2017/2018. The sample class is divided into two groups namely; experimental class in XI IPA 3 and control class for XI IPA 4 by applying cluster random sampling as the technique to take the sample. It is a quasi-experiment research by involving the design of pretest-posttest control group. N-Gain scores’ average on current students’ thinking skill is used to show and measure the effect of problem based learning model. The outcomes of this research on the experimental class shows that the n-Gain average value on students’ thinking skill is at high criterion by 0.88. Regarding to the results in this research, it can be inferred that the problem based learning model can increase students’ thinking skill on material of Redox reaction. Pages 1536 to 1549

The Commodification of Umrah Pilgrimage in Indonesia: Between Worship and Lifestyle

Didik Hariyantoa*, Kacung Marijanb, Djarot Meidi Budi Utomoc, Nur Maghfirah Aesthetikad, a,c,dUniversitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo, bUniveritas Airlangga Surabaya, Email: a*didikhariyanto@umsida.ac.id

The novelty of this research lies in its ability to explain the process of commodification in the context of the role of the actors who carry out the commodification, the meaning of the Umrah community in the phenomenon of commodification, and the impact of commodification on Muslim hyperreality. This study aims to determine and explain the commodification of Umrah worship through Umrah travel agents by using a qualitative research method and case study approach. The high enthusiasm of Indonesian Muslims for carrying out the Umrah pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina City is a result of the commodification of Umrah travel through Umrah travel agencies transforming transitional forms of worship into commercial commodities. The purpose of worship, which initially sought tranquility, has been turned into a commercial activity with the purpose of making a profit. Commodification makes the meaning of worship more artificial from a religious perspective, and further strengthens the symbolic reality of Muslims (lifestyle) through religious tourism, pilgrimage, leisure, tours and shopping. Umrah is similar to profane worship, which is far from religious dogma. Pages 1550 to 1566

The Ability of Taxi Drivers in Jambi to Respond to Foreign Passengers in English

Denny Denmara, Mohamad Muspawib, Siti Rahma Saric, Ferdiaz Saudagard, a,b,c, dFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Jambi, Indonesia, Email: adennydenmar101264@gmail.com

The purpose of the research is to study the correlation between drivers’ learning outcomes for listening skills, pragmatic competence, and the ability to respond orally. This research was conducted at Taxi Terminal in February 2019. The number of respondents is 30, selected by using purposive sampling, and then simple random sampling. The research concludes that there is positive correlation between {1) drivers’ learning outcomes for listening skill and drivers’ ability to respond verbally, {2)   drivers’   pragmatic   competence   and drivers’ ability to respond orally. Furthermore, there is a positive correlation between drivers’ learning outcomes for listening skills, drivers’ pragmatic competence, and drivers’ ability to respond verbally.  Pages 1567 to 1582

Political Parties and Political Development in Indonesia

Ida Faridaa, Refly Setiawanb, Khomsahrial Romlic, Annisa Ika Lestarid, a,dDepartment of Public Administration, University of Bandar Lampung, bDepartment of Political Science, Kazan Federal University, cDepartment of Communication Da'wah, Lampung State Islamic University, Email: aida.farida@ubl.ac.idbsetiawan1992@mail.ruckhomsahrial@radenintan.ac.iddannisa.ubl@ubl.gmail.com

Political parties are a reflection of a democratic state that is believed to be a condition of modern state life. Without pointing to an interest, it is clear that political parties are channelling interests,  the interests of the people and the interests of the authorities. As an institution channelling interests, political parties are used as two-way communication, namely from the top down and also from the bottom up. If it can be implemented well, then the function of political parties as political socialisation, political participation, political communication, articulation of interests, aggregation of interests, and policy making can run well so that the expected political development can be realised. The research method used in this study is a qualitative research method. Through qualitative research, the author has made a complex picture, examined the words, examined the report in detail from the view of the sources, and conducted studies on natural situations. This study aims to find out clearly about the development of political parties in Indonesia, the function of political parties, and political development in the midst of Indonesian society in this modern era. The results showed that political parties in Indonesia were considered to be quite good in carrying out their functions in accordance with the functions of political parties according to the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 31 of 2002 and the development of political parties in Indonesia has given a role in controlling conflicts of interest that exist in Indonesian society. Pages 1583 to 1594

Media Structure Regulations and Economic Democratic Political Media Becoming Business Media in Indonesia

Erman Anoma, Hamdani M. Syamb, Mus Chairil Samanic, aUniversitas Esa Unggul, Jakarta, Indonesia, bUniversitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia, cUniversiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan Malaysia, Email: aerman.anom@esaunggul.ac.idbhamdanim.syam@unsyiah.ac.idcsmchairil@unimas.my

Media structure regulations and economic, democratic political media becoming business media in Indonesia. This study uses historical methods and approaches. This assessment technique can describe the activities of the process of the formation of the establishment of a business media regulatory basis in Indonesia and the factors that influence the development of business media regulation. This rule is used to systematically review the form of the foundation of the 1984-2018 media business regulation in Indonesia. The results of the study get the media in the 1984-2018 era by their responsibilities as a free media to be responsible together with the government and society to play an active role in enriching developments and finding solutions to overcome the difficulties faced by the state by its functions. The establishment of the 1984-2018 media system includes all forms of problems encountered, including those relating to socio-cultural, political, and economic issues. Therefore, the government gives weight and benchmarks regarding the actuality of media values. The media in its activities are based on the noble values of the nation; namely, Pancasila; the government formally established the Pancasila media in 1984. The Pancasila media must be free and accountable and harmonise its attitudes and behaviour to the noble values of the Indonesian nation, disseminate correct and objective information, become distributors of people's aspirations, and holding adequate social controls. Pages 1595 to 1613

The Importance of the Opportunity Principal to Optimise the Penal System: A Case Study of Indonesia

Muhammad Kurniawan Budi Wibowoa, Hartiwiningsihb, Sri Endah Wahyuningsihc, aFaculty of Law of Universitas Islam Sultan Agung Semarang Indonesia, bFaculty of Law of Universitas Sebelas Maret Indonesia, cFaculty of Law of Universitas Islam Sultan Agung Semarang Indonesia, Email: mkbwsolo1@yahoo.com,  hartiwi50@yahoo.com,  endah.w@unissula.ac.id

The outdated Indonesian Penal Code means that only six of the 33 Indonesian provinces are free from prison overcrowding. Therefore, the authors propose that the ‘principle of opportunity’ must be applied to waiver unnecessary prosecutions. This study’s sociological juridical data were obtained from Indonesian penitentiary institutions, as primary data, and relevant legislation, as secondary data. The data were analysed using qualitative research methods. The results of this study indicate that for the principle of opportunity to be effective, the definition of ‘public interest’ must be reconstructed. The term should refer to lower class people or those aged 70 years and above, and cover minor cases only. The minor cases may include those resulting in no more than four years of penal sanctions until losses have been replaced, where penal sanctions are fines only or where offences can be penalised by a maximum of one year in prison and/or until the loss has been replaced. Pages 1614 to 1626

Organisational Commitment and Job Satisfaction among Government Employees

Lorena Candelarioa, Darin Jan Tindowenb, Marie Jean Mendezabalc, Pyrene Quilangd, a,b,c,dSchool of Graduate Studies and Continuing Professional Development University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao City, Philippines,

This study was conducted to determine the relationship between the organisational commitment, and job satisfaction among government employees. The respondents of this study were the 50 employees of a government agency in the Northern Philippines. The results reveal that highly committed employees are highly satisfied in their job, and vice versa. This study concludes that government employees are highly committed to their organisation and are highly satisfied in their work. More importantly, their high satisfaction to their job is due to their high commitment to the organisation, and vice versa. Pages 1627 to 1643

The Success of the Primary School Affected by the Principal's Managerial Capability

Umbu Tagelaa, aUniversitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Salatiga - Indonesia, Email: aumbu.leba@ukasw.ac.id

The research objectives were to determine the ability of managerial primary school principals in Waingapu City, East Sumba District; and to prove the influence of the headmasters’ managerial ability to the attainment of school programs, especially at the primary schools in the District of Kota Waingapu, East Sumba District. The total sample was comprised of 30 principals. The data analysis used a linear multiple regression, firstly revealing that the success of the primary schools program in the District of Waingapu City, East Sumba is significantly influenced by variables of the headmasters’ coordination abilities, and surveillance capability. Secondly, the success of the primary schools program in the District of Waingapu City, East Sumba was not significantly influenced by the variables of the headmasters’ abilities to plan, and organise. Pages 1644 to 1660

The Enhancement of Higher Education Quality by Alumni Tracking Using Correspondence Analysis

Udjianna Sekteria Pasaribua, Karunia Eka Lestarib*, Sapto Wahyu Indratnoc, Hanni Garminiad, a,cStatistics Research Division, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, bDepartement of Mathematics Education, Universitas Singaperbangsa Karawang,  Karawang, Indonesia, dAlgebra Research Division, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: b*karunia.eka.lestari@staff.unsika.ac.id

Higher education is a bridge which connects education to work, business, and industry. When evaluating the higher education quality, the focus is commonly upon the relevance of the study, and job. Indeed, the diversity of study programs within institutes influences upon the job descriptions of their alumni. This paper explores the correspondence analysis method to evaluate the enhancement of higher education quality by performing the association between the relevance of study, job, and alumni job descriptions for the different study programs. The association is depicted graphically on the correspondence plot. As a case study, the tracer study data of 2009 alumni at Institut Teknologi Bnadung (ITB) is used. The results show that ITB has succeeded in organising a high-quality education. It is evident by the association between the relevance of the study, and job for each study program. Overall, and based on the data, the alumni’s job is compatible with their respective study programs. Pages 1661 to 1675

The Sustainability of Disruptive Technology in the Supermarket Industry in Singapore

Chen Weia, Ameen Talibb, ahonors student, The School of Business, Singapore University of Social Sciences, bhead Applied Projects, The School of Business, Singapore University of Social Sciences,

This paper aims to investigate disruptive technology in the supermarket industry and its sustainability in Singapore. The extended Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM3) was used to test and analyse factors affecting consumer willingness to adopt the use of high-tech enabled (HTE) services in supermarkets. A sample of 50 survey respondents completed an online questionnaire. Pivot tables and multiple regression statistics were used to analyse survey responses. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are two determining factors that contributed to adoption attitudes. Other moderating factors like unique demographics, psychographics, relative convenience and location accessibility also play big roles in adoption rates. While actual use of HTE services was found to be low, the intention to use was high. Pages 1676 to 1696

Ownership Structure and Firm Value: The Mediating Effect of Intellectual Capital

Erna Setianya*, Syamsudin Syamsudinb, Aprillia Sundawinic, Yananto Mihadi Putrad, aUniversitas Mercu Buana, Jakarta, Indonesia, b,cUniversitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Indonesia, dUniversitas Mercu Buana, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*erna.setiany@mercubuana.ac.id,  a**indexedarticle@gmail.com,  bsyamsudin_ums@yahoo.co.id,  caprilliasundawini38@gmail.com,  dyananto.mihadi@mercubuana.ac.id

This study aims to analyse: (1) The Effect of Foreign Institutional Ownership on Intellectual Capital, (2) The Effect of Domestic Institutional Ownership on Intellectual Capital, (3) The Effect of Intellectual Capital on Company Values, (4) The Effect of Foreign Institutional Ownership on Firm Value, ( 5) The Effect of Domestic Institutional Ownership on Company Values, (6) The Effect of Foreign Institutional Ownership on company value mediated by intellectual capital, (7) The Effect of Domestic Institutional Ownership on Corporate Values mediated by Intellectual Capital. The sampling technique was purposive sampling and based on specified criteria, so that 18 companies that met the criteria were obtained. This research includes causal comparability. The analysis used in this study includes the classical assumption test, multiple linear regression test, and path analysis. The results of this study indicate that: (1) Foreign institutional ownership structures have a negative and not significant effect on intellectual capital; (2) The domestic institutional ownership structure has a positive and significant effect on intellectual capital; (3) Foreign institutional ownership structure has a positive and not significant effect on company value; (4) The domestic institutional ownership structure has a positive and not significant effect on the value of the company; (5) Intellectual Capital has a positive and significant effect on firm value; (6) Intellectual capital cannot mediate the relationship between foreign institutional ownership and company value; (7) Intellectual capital cannot mediate the relationship between domestic institutional ownership and company value. Pages 1697 to 1711

Effect of Business Models on Intellectual Capital Disclosure: Empirical Studies in Indonesian Manufacturing Companies

Totok Dewayantoa, Setianingtyas Honggowatib, Sri Wahyu Agustiningsihc, aEconomic and Business Faculty, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia, bEconomic and Business Faculty, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia, cEconomic Faculty, Universitas Veteran Bangun Nusantara, Indonesia, Email: atotokdewayanto@gmail.combsetianingtyas_27@yahoo.co.idcyayukayoe@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of business models on intellectual capital disclosure (ICD). The novelty in this study is the use of indicators of product quality, cost efficiency, and innovation indicators contained in the company's business model variables, besides using company size, leverage and ROA as a control variable on the intellectual capital disclosure variable. The population in this study consisted of manufacturing companies on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period 2015 - 2017. The sample was determined by the purposive sampling method. The total sample of this research is 225 data samples. This study uses multiple regression analysis for hypothesis testing. The results of this study indicate that the business model has a positive and significant effect on intellectual capital disclosure. Pages 1712 to 1725

Budget Policy That Encourages Economic Growth and Village Empowerment

Zakariyaa, aFaculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya, Email: zakaria@untag-sby.ac.id

Based on Permendesa No. 5 of 2015 there are four elements of village expenditure. These are: field administration by the village government; the field of implementation of village development; the field of society and; community empowerment. Village budget policy is the budget allocation in an area; whose impact can be calculated both economically and non-economically. In 2018 budget planning of Pomahan Village in Ponorogo Regency was Rp 1,856,364,154.00 while the realisation of the budget was Rp 2,094,794,272.00. This meant that there was a budget surplus of Rp 238,430,118. The research objective is to analyse whether Pomahan village budget policies encourage economic growth and community empowerment and to know the impact of development due to the existence of village budget policies. This research is qualitative research. Qualitative research is intended provide an understanding of facts and phenomena. The results showed that the field of budget execution received a portion of 55%, the field of village administration held a portion of 27%, the field of community empowerment 12% and the field of community development 5%. The results showed that the Pomahan village budget policy had driven economic growth and empowered village communities. The impact this budget policy has can increase income and welfare of the community. Pages 1726 to 1737

Islamic Religious Education in Internalizing Multicultural Values

Triyo Supriyatnoa, Ubabuddinb, aUIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, Indonesia, bInstitut Agama Islam Sultan M. Syafiuddin Sambas. Indonesia, Email: atriyo@pai.uin-malang.ac.id,  bubabuddin@gmail.com

A culture of tolerance has existed in Islamic education institutions for a long time. It can be seen in the management of diversity of students and the similarity of services without discriminating on the basis of cultural background, ethnicity, race, and social and economic status. Islamic religious education has integrated multicultural values. The focuses of this study are, first, how multicultural values are included in Islamic religious education; and second, how the development of multicultural-based Islamic religious education learning is modelled to build a culture of tolerance. Descriptive qualitative research is used, in which informants were selected using purposive sampling and data were collected by observation, interview and document review. The results of this study indicate the following. First, the multicultural values that grow and develop in learning Islamic education are based on the example of the Prophet Muhammad, namely hablum minannas based on morals and the nobility of the nation, which comes from the Qur’an; Hadith, the concept of planting multicultural values in Islamic education and teaching methods; and uswatun hasanah, guidance methods and habituation methods. Second, learning models in learning Islamic education are integrative-holistic, covering formulation of the vision, mission and objectives of the madrasa, developing the competence of teaching and educational staff (attitudes, knowledge, and pedagogical) and the form of the multicultural curriculum. Pages 1738 to 1751

The Potential of New Tour Repackaging for Creative Tourism Among Entrepreneurs in Nakhon Si Thammarat

Patcharee  Sumethokula, Ataul Karim Patwaryb, Bamrung  Srinuanpanc, Chawanrat Srinuanpand, Poomchai Suwandeee, Akara Thammathikulf, Wichien Phanong, a,e,f,gFaculty of Humanities and Social Science, Nakhon Si Thammarat Rajabhat University, Thailand, bSchool of Tourism, Hospitality and Event Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia, cFaculty of Management Science, Nakhon Si Thammarat Rajabhat University, Thailand, dFaculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Si Thammarat Rajabhat University, Thailand, Email: apatcharee.sumethokul@gmail.com,  braselataul@gmail.com,  ckunchaynoy@hotmail.com,  dchawanrat_sri@nstru.ac.th,  epoom_law@hotmail.com,  fakara899@hotmail.com,  gWichien_pha@nstru.ac.th

This research aims to study the potential of tourism management to create a new tourism program between tourism operators in the Nakhon Si Thammarat Province of Thailand. This study used five research methods: interview, survey, questionnaire, and group discussion. The study analysed the data into three components. Firstly, to study the potential of management. Secondly, to study the old, and new styles of tourism programs, and thirdly, to study the linkage of tourism. The analysis of the data obtained from a questionnaire distributed across five communities found that 45 tourists visited the Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. The findings of the study indicated tourists' willingness and spending patterns while visiting the Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. The findings also suggest that, in terms of the homestay, the Ban Laem community gained the highest satisfaction rate among the five communities surveyed, and which was followed by the Ao Talet community, the Baan Rong Lek community, the Thung Saengduan community, and the Baan Suan Por Phiang community. Pages 1752 to 1771

Ethical Multicultural Values in Poetry: A Hermeneutics Examination

Muliadia, Mas'ud Muhammadiyahb, Firmanc, Kasma F. Amind, a,dUniversity of Muslim Indonesia, bBosowa University, Indonesia, cIAIN Parepare, Indonesia, Email: amuliadi.muliadi@umi.ac.idbmasudmuhammadiah@gmail.comcfirman@iainpare.ac.iddkasma.amin@umi.ac.id    

Value is something good and useful in human life. Therefore, every human being must need value. Value is reflected in the character of human work. People have many kind of work, one of them is to become artist. Literary works consist of poetry, novels, short stories, and drama. This paper examines literary works, especially poetry. Poetry is a representation of a creator’s actions and thoughts after fighting with the world, both the external and internal worlds. Poetry carries philosophical, aesthetic, religious and ethical values. This paper specifically examines ethical values such as sadness, loyalty and empathy nuances. The Ricoeur hermeneutic method is used to reveal the proposed values. The data source is an Indonesian poetry created by Husni Djamaluddin with a title of Indonesia, Masihkah Engkau Tanah Airku (Indonesia, Are You Still My Motherland). The data consists of words, lines and feeds from poems related to the above study. Pages 1772 to 1784

Framing and Responsibility in Decision-Making: An Examination of Prospect Theory and Fuzzy-Trace Theory

Susanto Barkaha*, Rahmawati Rahmawatib, Djuminah Djuminahc, Muthmainah Muthmainahd, aDoctoral Program in Economic Sciences, Universitas Sebelas Maret/ Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang, b,c,dUniversitas Sebelas Maret, Department of Accounting, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*susantobarkah20@gmail.com

Several previous studies found that information which is presented differently — hereinafter referred to as ‘framing’ — would result in different decisions. This research proposes and examines two different theories to determine which one is more effective at explaining a phenomenon, as well as two influential conditions regarding whether it is more challenging to an individual’s decision to take a risk or avoid the risk. These conditions are: arranging alternative decisions; and the level or responsibility for a decision, concerning previous investment. This research employed an experimental study method, using a  2 x 2 x 2 subject design. There were 180 participants. The analysing instrument to examine the hypothesis was a crosstab. The findings showed that decision-making was different when the information was positively or negatively framed, and when a person was taking the full responsibility of an investment or not taking the full responsibility upon the initial investment, as well as the different preferences while using different theories. Pages 1785 to 1802

Efficiency and Effectiveness of Integrated Urban Passenger Transportation: A Case Study of Mass Transit System Services in Bangkok

Kanthong Buraa, Nopraenue Sajjarax Dhirathitib, a,bFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand,

The purpose of this research was to provide suggestions for improving the efficiency, and effectiveness of the mass transit system services in Bangkok. Using a quantitative research approach, the data was collected from 1,290 users of the Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS), the Chaloem Ratchamonkhon Line (MRT), and the Suvarnabhumi Airport Rail Link (ARL), and was analysed using factor analysis, and multiple regression. The results found that for each route, the service quality, transfer transit, and integration of the service transit system affected the efficiency, and effectiveness in different ways. Thus, it is suggested that each route should develop the service quality, transfer transit, and integration of the service transit system for the improved efficiency, and effectiveness of the integrated mass transit system services in Bangkok. Moreover, there must be a central government agency which should develop the service quality, transfer, and integration of the service transit system criteria through the co-planning, co-designing, and implementation of the public services with the related agencies. Pages 1803 to 1821



Design and Application of E-Policing: Police Practice Management Through the use of Information Technology in Indonesia

Chryshnanda Dwilaksanaa, aSekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kepolisian, Jakarta, Indonesia

As one of the state agencies with a high workload, the police are required to be competent and professional in carrying out their duties in order to maintain public security. Regarding the implementation of police duties, many aspects of information technology has been adopted through e-policing to maintain order and facilitate the identification of violations and criminality. This study seeks to analyse the management and technical aspects of e-policing development in Indonesia. This study was conducted using a qualitative method, with a literature review and observation approach to e-policing systems in Indonesia. The study results show that e-policing, specifically in Indonesia, is useful in the context of organisational management for the effectiveness of community services and tasks. In the technical context, some of the main elements that need to be considered in e-policing are back-office, network, and applications that are adequate and easy to use. The adoption of e-policing is also useful for social and managerial harmonisation in police institutions, where policing can electronically bridge the management and implementation of tasks, as well as the relations with the community. Pages 1 to 11




Numerical Solution for Nonlinear High-Order Volterra and Fredholm Differential Equation Using Boubaker Polynomial Method

Haleema S. Alia, Waleedab, Amina Kc, aAl- Karkh University, College of Remote Sensing and Geophysics, Baghdad, Iraq, bUniversity of  Baghdad of, College of Agriculture, Baghdad, Iraq, cUniversity of Mustansiriyah, College of Engineering, Baghdad, Iraq, Email:  ahaleemaswaidan@yahoo.com,  bwaleedaswaidan@gmail.com,  cAmina.kass@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

In this research, the Boubaker polynomials method is utilised to find an approximate solution for the initial value problem of nonlinear high order to Volterra and Fredholm integro differential equation of the second kind. The solution technique is to transform the Volterra and Fredholm nonlinear integro differential equation to a system of nonlinear equations. The proposed method was applied for three different examples and the simulation results were illustrated in tables and graphics. The results were also compared with the exact solution and other's work. Pages 12 to 24




Form and Meaning of Halal Bi Halal Tradition

Sigit Haryantoa*, Djatmikab, Wakit Abdullahc, Dwi Purnantod, aLinguistics Postgraduate Program, Sebelas Maret University Surakarta 57126 Indonesia, b,c,dFaculty of Humanities, Sebelas Maret University Surakarta 57126 Indonesia, Email: a*sh288@ums.ac.id

Javanese society has halal bi halal tradition. It is an annual event, which has a relation to lebaran fitr. The doers come to the older by speaking in the Javanese language. In real use, many language variations would be found. The objectives of this study are finding the forms and the meanings inside this tradition. This ethnographic study used participant observation in collecting the data. The collected data was analysed by using componential analysis as a part of the ethnography method proposed by Spradley. The results of data analysis were presented descriptively. The results are as follows: (1) the first person used speech level krama to older people, and the second person used speech level ngoko and krama. The second person using krama to the first person is usually caused by the social position of the first person. The first person may have a high position and may be a stranger or guest in the events. (2) Concerning the meanings inside the tradition, there are two: respecting and keeping harmony in life. As a conclusion, this tradition is created to preserve the best cultural values in society through language use. Pages 25 to 38




Effect of Financial Performance on Sustainable Report Disclosure with the Board of Commissioners as the Moderating Variable

Kiswantoa*, Agus Wahyudinb, Woro Sri Hesti Tulus Prihatinc, I Gusti Ketut Agung Ulupuid, a,b,cFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia, dFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*kiswanto@mail.unnes.ac.id

This research aims to determine the role of the board of commissioners in modernising the effect correlations of profitability, liquidity, and leverage on sustainable report disclosure. The population of the study is non-financial companies registered in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX), who issue annual reports as well as sustainable reports. Samples of the study are selected by using purposive sampling method. The analyser tests the hypothesis using absolute difference value test. This research indicates that profitability has an significant and positive effect on sustainable report disclosure. Liquidity and leverage have no significant effect on sustainable report disclosure. The board of commissioners modernise the effect of profitability, and leverage  sustainable report disclosure significantly. They do not significantly modernise the effect of liquidity on the disclosure. Conclusions of the study are that profitability influences sustainable report disclosure and that the board of commissioners are able to modernise the effects of profitability, and leverage on the disclosure. Pages 39 to 52




A Statistical and Analytical Study of the Factors that Impede Women's Participation in Economic Activities in Kirkuk, Iraq

Sabah Haseeb Hasana, Abdulrahim Khalaf Rahi Al-Harthib, Anwaar Dhiaa Abdul Kareemc, a,cCollege of Administration and Economics, Kirkuk University, Kirkuk, Iraq, bCollege of Administration and Economics, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq, Email: asabahsaqi@uokirkuk.edu.iq,  brahistat@yahoo.com,  canwaar71@uokirkuk.edu.iq

This study deals with the issue of women's participation in economic activities in Kirkuk, Iraq, and the main factors that impede this participation. It employs the questionnaire form designed for this purpose, which was distributed to women in Kirkuk. Additionally, the principal components method is used to reduce the number of the variables involved in the analysis to the lowest number of factors that serve as the best representation of the variables. The findings demonstrate that eight main factors represent the study variables. These factors explained about 70% of their total variance. Based on these factors, conclusions and recommendations are made on the study subject. Pages 53 to 73




Creating a Model of Land Procurement in Order to Support and Accelerate Infrastructure Development

Nurhayati. Aa, aUniversitas Dharmawangsa, Medan,  Indonesia, Email: anurhayatijb@yahoo.co.id

In human life, land is a place for humans to live and continue their lives. The dynamics of development cause the need for land to increase while on the other hand the supply of land is very limited. The government needs land for infrastructure development for social purposes, while land rights holders are in dire need of compensation money to buy land and rebuild their homes. Indonesia is a State of Law (Rechstaat), which upholds deliberation for consensus, and justice occupies a very important position. This aspect of deliberation must be realised, otherwise it will cause prolonged conflict. In the implementation of community land rights, taking is often carried out arbitrarily, without justice and is detrimental to the community due to compensation. Islamic law in implementing the procurement / release of land rights using the system of buying and selling is beneficial and fair for the community. Pages 74 to 91




Shift on Functions of Sexual Euphemisms in English-Indonesian Translation of Duke of Her Own by Eloisa James

Anitaa*, Mangatur Rudolf Nababanb, Riyadi Santosac, Agus Hari Wibowod, aSebelas Maret University, Surakarta & Gunadarma University, Jakarta, Indonesia, b,c,dSebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia Email: a*poponitalovely@gmail.com,  bamantaradja@yahoo.com,  criyadisantosa@staff.uns.ac.id,   dagushari67@staff.uns.ac.id

Sexual euphemisms can be very difficult to translate because they are culturally bound words. Translation techniques can help the translator in determining the most suitable equivalents for a euphemism. This study aims at finding out translation techniques used by the translator of the novel Duke of Her Own in translating English sexual euphemisms into Indonesian, and how those techniques cause shifts in the functions of sexual euphemism. This is a descriptive qualitative study. The sources of data of this study are an English novel by Eloisa James, Duke of her Own, and its Indonesian version, Pasangan Sempurna. The result of the study shows that 7 techniques are applied in translating English sexual euphemisms, namely, Established Equivalent, Modulation, Explication, Description, Discursive Creation, Generalisation, and Reduction. Two of those techniques, namely Established equivalent and Modulation, do not cause any shifts in the functions of sexual euphemisms whereas the other 5 do. Pages 92 to 107




The Role of Satisfaction as Moderation to the Effect of Relational Marketing and Customer Value on Customer Loyalty

Ni Nyoman Suarnikia, Kukuh Lukiyantob*, aManagement Department, STIE Nasional Banjarmasin, Indonesia, bEntrepreneurship Department, BINUS Business School Undergraduate Program, Bina Nusantara University, Malang Campus, Email: asuarnikinyoman@yahoo.com,  b*kukuh.lukiyanto@binus.ac.id

Competition in product marketing requires entrepreneurs to integrate various marketing strategies. The factors of customer loyalty creation need to be known by marketers. This study aims to analyse the role of satisfaction as moderation to the effect of relational marketing and customer value on customer loyalty. This is a survey research. The population is traditional food stall consumers. Research like this has never been done, especially in the micro business segment, which is run traditionally. A total of 100 samples are selected by purposive random sampling. Data is collected by interviews, observations and questionnaires. The data is analysed by SEM (structural equation modelling) with AMOS 20. The results show that relational marketing, customer value, and satisfaction affect customer loyalty. Satisfaction does not moderate the effect of relational marketing and customer value on customer loyalty. This means that satisfied consumers are not directly loyal; there are other variables of consumer behaviour that also effect customer loyalty. Traditional stalls should provide a suggestion box to receive complaints and advice from consumers, as well as new menus that are not yet available, to improve service quality.Pages 108 to 122




Culture and Leadership Are Simply Two Sides of the Same Coin

Ahmad Yousef Areiqata, Yacoub Hamdanb, Ahmad.M.A.Zamilc, Omar Horanid, Abeer Fayez Al-Khourye, aProfessor, Department of Business Administration, Business School, Al-Ahliyya Amman University. Amman Jordan, bAssociate Professor, Department of Business Administration, Business School,  Al-Ahliyya Amman University. Amman Jordan, cAssociate Professor, Department of Marketing, College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, 165 Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia, dLecturer, Department of Electronic business and Commerce, Business School, Al-Ahliyya Amman University. Amman Jordan, eAssociate Professor, King Talal School of Business Technology, Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Email: aahmadareiqat@ammanu.edu.jo,  by.hamdan@ammanu.edu.jo,  cam.zamil@psau.edu.sa,  do.horani@ammanu.edu.jo,  ea.khoury@psut.edu.jo

Leadership and organisational culture are considered two sides of the same coin and are regarded as the most crucial organisational elements that help firms compete successfully and gain sustainable advantage. We aim to examine the interconnection between these elements and conduct an in-depth theoretical research paper focusing on these elements and the different variables related to them. The study deeply examines the theoretical literature associated with various definitions of culture and its correlation with leadership, and comes up finally with results and recommendations. The researchers are also examining whether the nature of the relationship can be determined by market conditions, like the level of competition and the organisational age and scale. Market competition appears to affect the direction of the relationship, with the corresponding impact of operational age and size. Such findings show that both organisational factors contribute significantly, while the alignment of factors (identical cultural type and leadership style) improves this connection. Such observations refer to the work of Hofstede (1980), the most commonly quoted work on the subject (Bond, 2002). Hofstede used the five-dimension method (power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, avoidance of confusion, long-term orientation) for the development of national–cultural profiles. Since no significant market changes took place over the last five years (in terms of reform or privatisation), leadership and culture are most likely associated with a transparent system. Some studies argue that leaders are cultural, but they also transform culture by imposing new values, trends and standards of behaviour. Pages 123 to 147




New Effective Way of Delivering Educational Services for Early Childhood

Pennee Narota, Narong Kiettikunwongb, a,bCollege of Local Administration, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, Address: 123 Khon Kaen University, Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 Thailand, Email: apennee@kku.ac.th,  bnaroki@kku.ac.th

The lack of communication between parents, teachers, and the boards of childcare centres, as well as the lack of funding were found to be the problems causing the inefficacy of education services for early childhood education. Through the use of the mixed method approach, this study intended to examine the situation of early child care centres in the Khon Kaen Municipality of North-eastern  Thailand in order to propose alternative guidelines for effective management – that is, to ‘co-create’ education services. By allowing stakeholders to communally design education services for their children, it was found that co-creation of delivering educational services for early childhood  can help involved parties to realise their roles, enhance equal and reciprocal relationship as well as boost citizens’ trust in the government, which will eventually lead to a better management of the services. Pages 148 to 161




Uncovering Student Teachers’ Perceptions Regarding the Characteristics of Effective EFL Teacher Educators

Sayit Abdul Karima, Sri Rachmajantib, Nunung Suryatic, Utari Praba Astutid, a,b,c,dUniversitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Email: asayit.a.k@uty.ac.id,  bsri.rachmajantifs@um.ac.id,  cnunung.suryati.fs@um.ac.id,  dutari_pastuti@yahoo.com

The present study attempts to investigate effective EFL teacher educators from the perspective of student teachers. For this purpose, a survey design was employed to examine student teachers’ perceptions regarding the characteristics of effective teacher educators using four attributes, namely: subject matter knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, organisation and communication skills, and socio-affective skills. The questionnaire was administered online to 334 student teachers at the English Education Department. The data was analysed descriptively and the findings revealed student teachers have different perceptions on each attribute of effective EFL teacher educators. Several attributes were found to be comparatively more important than other attributes. The results of the study may enhance teacher educators’ awareness concerning what makes them effective from the perspective of student teachers and improve their teaching quality. Pages 162 to 180




The Boarding School Assessment Model as a Transformative Teacher Performance Culture in Indonesian Islamic Education

Abdul Qodira, aState Institute for Islamic Studies, Palangkaraya, Indonesia, Email: aabdul.qodir@iain-palangkaraya.ac.id

In research on Boarding School education, little empirical evidence addresses how the assessment model in Boarding School is practiced and how this assessment supports teacher performance. To fill this void, this paper reports on grounded theoretical research that investigates how Boarding School-based assessment is enacted in Islamic boarding schools in Kalimantan, Indonesia. The findings of this study suggest several aspects aligned during the enactment of this Boarding School-based assessment. These include 1) the educational assessment model under the auspices of the Boarding School being built on the basis of the Boarding School value system, 2) the assessment being practiced as a new breakthrough in improving teacher performance, 3) message-based assessment being seen as more effective in learning as well as a new paradigm in improving the quality of Boarding School education and becoming a leading form of Islamic education (central to excellence). Pages 181 to 195




A Policy Handling Domestic Violence Against Women in Indonesia Based on Justice

Anis Mashdurohatuna, Gunartob, R Hajar Handoko Jatic, aFaculty of Law Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang Indonesia, Head of PhD Faculty of Law Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang Indonesia, bFaculty of Law Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang Indonesia, cDoctoral programs of Law Faculty of Law Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang Indonesia, Email: aanism@unissula.ac.id, bgunarto@unissula.ac.id

The purpose of this research is to analyse and formulate a policy handling violence against women in households in Indonesia based on justice. The findings show that Indonesia has recorded violence against women until 2018 as still being very high. It has not been able to eradicate domestic violence as mandated by the UUPKDRT. There is injustice for female victims of domestic violence. The formulation of policies to protect women from domestic violence is based on the value of justice, especially the provisions of Article 25 and Article 29 of Law number 23 of 2004. Pages 196 to 208




A Comparative Study on Learner Characteristics and Curricular Differences in Virtual Reality Education

Choong Mo Nama, Chong Woo Kimb*, Kyoung Sun Hongc, Chi No Chod, Joo Hee Honge, aPh.D. candidate, Jeju National University, 61, Ilju-dong, Jeju-si, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, 63294, South Korea, b,c,d,eProfessor, Jeju National University, 61, Ilju-dong, Jeju-si, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, 63294, South Korea, Email: a0701chmo@gmail.com, b*woo@jejunu.ac.kr, chongks@jejunu.ac.kr, dchocn@jejunu.ac.kr, eskyhigh@jejunu.ac.kr

School teachers are actively carrying out Research on the application of realistic content. Virtual reality (VR) is one of the new tools in different school settings. Learners might have different grades of skills depending on their educational background: elementary, secondary, and university (prep teacher). Therefore, it is necessary to provide a VR curriculum suitable for each school level. For each school level, different curricular programs were created on how to produce VR. Education using them was conducted for 18 student teachers in college, 32 elementary school students (6th grade), and 5 middle school students (7th grade). The results of each school-level VR curriculum program were statistically analysed using questionnaires and follow-up interviews. For all school level learners, elementary school students tried to create topics they were interested in. Middle school students created content based on the topics related to learning and studying. Prep teachers preferred the topics related to field education and suggested the need for an additional training program on VR. In particular, most learners found it difficult to use Blockly, a coding domain. We hope that research in curricular programs regarding realistic content for different school levels, such as augmented reality (AR) and holograms (which are related fields of VR), will be studied in the future. Pages 209 to 222




Resilience and Grit of Pre-Service Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers

Hyelin Jeonga, aAssistant Professor, Department of Global Child Education, Woosong University, 171, Dongdaejeon-ro, Dong-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 34606, Email: ahyelinjeong0821@gmail.com

The purpose of this article is to explain the differences in resilience and grit between pre-service kindergarten and elementary school teachers in South Korea. The participants were a total of 222 pre-service kindergarten teachers (n=101) and elementary school teachers (n=121) attending three four-year universities located in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do. Resilience and grit were measured by questionnaires for pre-service teachers. The analysis of the data included calculating the frequency and percentage of the participants, Cronbach’s α, the mean, standard deviation, t-test, and multiple regression using the SPSS 20.0 program. According to the results of the research, there were significant differences in resilience and grit between kindergarten and elementary school pre-service teachers. The average score of the pre-service elementary school teachers’ resilience and grit were significantly higher. In addition, differences in the analysis of the effects of resilience on grit were identified by separating groups of pre-service elementary and pre-service kindergarten teachers. Specifically, in the pre-service elementary school teachers' group, self-control and positivity (among the sub-areas of resilience) were significant to consistency of interest as a sub-area of grit. Only self-control was significant to perseverance of effort in grit. In the pre-service kindergarten teachers' group, only self-control was significant to consistency of interest in grit. Self-control and positivity were significant to perseverance of effort in grit. These results indicate that there are differences in the relationship between pre-service kindergarten teachers and elementary teachers. Therefore, it is suggested that different strategies are needed to increase the grit of pre-service teachers. The results involve implications for teacher education programs at university regarding the connection of education programs between kindergarten and elementary school. Pages 223 to 234




Design of a Foreign Language Conversation Learning System Using Machine Learning

Youngseok Leea, Jungwon Chob*, aProfessor, KNU College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Kangnam University, 40 Gangnam-ro Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 16979, South Korea, bProfessor, Department of Computer Education, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju-si, Jeju-do, 63243, South Korea, Email: ayslee38@kangnam.ac.kr, b*jwcho@jejunu.ac.kr

Many studies have been conducted on foreign language training, but it is difficult to speak a foreign language naturally because there is little or no speaking time for the learner, compared to the teaching time. As a change in the foreign language speaking education method is applied using smart devices, it is necessary to develop a new user-centred speech learning system and education model. To develop a user-centred speech learning system using machine learning and speech recognition technology to improve speech fluency, we designed a user-centred speech training system and analysed the speech patterns of users using existing speech learning programs. We developed machine learning-based adaptive learning algorithms for recommending speaking areas. We designed user and instructor applications for speech learning and experiments that can be applied in real-life education. Based on the designed and developed method, we developed and evaluated the education model using the speech training system through a non-real-time foreign language speech training system similar to a real-time learning setting. After using the system with actual students, we analysed the students’ learning satisfaction and academic achievement and found that students’ motivation and practice time influenced foreign language learning. Pages 235 to 247




The Functions of Hedging Devices: A Translation Study of Compound Hedges from English into Indonesian

Sujanaa*, Mangatur Rudolf Nababanb, Riyadi Santosac, Tri Wiratnod, aSebelas Maret University, Surakarta & Gunadarma University, Jakarta, Indonesia, b,c,dSebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*sujanaaja@gmail.com, bamantaradja@yahoo.com, criyadisantosa1960@gmail.com, dwiratno.tri@gmail.com

The aim of this study is to find the functions of compound hedges as hedging devices and their translation in target text (TT). Translation techniques used in translating this hedging device are translation techniques proposed by Molina and Albir (2002). The theory used in expressing the function of hedging devices is the theory of Prince, Frader and Bosk (1982). They divide the types of hedging devices in two: approximators and shields. Approximators consist of adaptors and rounders. Shields consist of plausibility shields and attribution shields. This research is a qualitative descriptive study. The data source used is the novel Sherlock Holmes and its translation. There are 27 pieces of data considered adaptors, 2 pieces of data considered rounders, 10 pieces of data considered plausibility shields and 9 pieces of data considered attribution shields. There are 18 pieces of data translated using established equivalent (EE), 18 pieces of data translated using modulation (M), 8 pieces of data using discursive creation (DC), and 4 pieces of data using reduction (R). By using establish equivalent compound hedges, they are translated with compound hedges in TT. The functions of the compound hedges in source text (ST) are also translated equally in the TT. There are some changing points of view when the compound hedges are translated into TT. This technique might cause a shift. In the DC and R techniques, the translator did not translate the compound hedges. As a result, the functions of compound hedges in the TT are deleted. Pages 248 to 260




Understanding Entrepreneurship Learning Outcomes: Parenting and Discipline

Henry Eryantoa*, Darma Rika Swaramarindab, Anggriawan Oktobisonoc, Rediana Setiyanid, Munawarohe, a,b,c,eFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia, dFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, Email: a*henryeryanto@gmail.com, bdarmarikas@gmail.com, canggri413@gmail.com, dredianasetiyani@mail.unnes.ac.id, emoena10@gmail.com

This research aims to find out whether there is an influence of parenting and discipline in learning on the learning outcomes of entrepreneurship as a subject. This study uses quantitative methods with a correlational approach. The survey method is used to obtain primary data for variable X1 (parenting) and secondary data for variable X2 (discipline in learning). The sampling technique used is the proportional sampling technique, which uses a proportional random sampling method. For the data processing, the authors processed questionnaires using a Likert Scale and a semantic differential scale. The conclusion of this study is that parenting and discipline in learning have a positive and significant impact on the learning outcomes of students. Pages 261 to 270




Conveying an Author’s Intention to EFL Readers: The Meaning of “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost

R. Bunga Febriania, Satinemb, Nurnaningsihc, Haryanid, Syafryadine, Noermanzahf, aUniversitas Galuh, Ciamis, Indonesia, bSTKIP PGRI Lubuklinggau, Lubuklinggau City, Indonesia, cUniversitas Veteran Bangun Nusantara Sukoharjo, Indonesia, dPoliteknik Bumi Akpelni Semarang, Indonesia, e,fBengkulu University, Bengkulu City, Indonesia, Email: abunga.febriani@gmail.com, byohanasatinem@gmail.com, cnurnananinx@gmail.com, dharyani@akpelni.ac.id, esyafryadin@unib.ac.id, fnoermanzah@unib.ac.id

The present study examines whether an author of a poem’s intention in writing the poem is successfully conveyed to English as a Foreign Language (EFL) readers. It also investigates how students’ English proficiency influences their ability to comprehend the poem. The study was conducted with twenty-one participants who attended a literary class named Literary Criticism. The twenty-one students who analysed the meaning of poetry were represented by student one and other students (S1-S3) in every line of the stanza of the poetry. that author of the poetry was successful in conveying their meaning to the readers of EFL, which is shown by the results of students’ work through the reader-response approach and stylistic approach. Student one and others (S1 up to S3) could find the meaning in every of poetry by analysing either literal words or similes and metaphorical words composed in “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost. Hence, the readers (students of EFL) could enhance their abilities and comprehension of the poem. The pedagogical implication for future research is that authors and readers of the poem both need logical critical thinking as well as skills or abilities to convey and receive the meaning of poetry. Pages 271 to 283




Evaluation of the Employment of Accounting Graduates: The Case of Hanoi, Vietnam

Thi Thu Cuc Nguyena, Thi Tuyet Mai Ngob, To Uyen Phanc, Manh Dung Trand, Duc Tai Doe*, aVinh University, Vietnam, b,c,dNational Economics University, Vietnam, eUniversity of Labor and Social Affairs, Vietnam, Email: acucntt@vinhuni.edu.vn,  bngothituyetmai@neu.edu.vn,  cuyenpttmai@gmail.com,  dmanhdung@ktpt.edu.vn,  e*taiketoanquocte@gmail.com

This study was conducted in order to identify, evaluate, and measure the attributes of employment of accounting graduates in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study was based on a field survey, using a semi-structured questionnaire with a sample of 300 accounting graduates working for listed firms in the area of Hanoi, Vietnam. Only 255 filled questionnaires were satisfactory and processed in this research. We employed several statistical analytical tools, i.e. descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s Alpha analysis and ANOVA. The study has identified and measured five attributes of employment of accounting graduates. Based on the findings, some recommendations are given for accounting students, accountants and universities to improve the employment of accounting graduates. Pages 284 to 296




The Influence of Market Orientation and Competitive Strategy on the Hotel Image

Tanty Sondaria, Sucherlyb, Meydia Hasanc, Imas Soemaryanid, aThe Student of Management Science Doctoral, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung. Indonesia, b,c,dLecturer of Management Science Doctoral, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung. Indonesia

Hotel occupancy rates in West Java have increased to quite high levels. However, there are problem phenomena related to the images of one, two, and three star hotels.  The background of the problem reveals a phenomena related to market orientation and competitive strategy carried out by the hotel which  allegedly affects the image of the hotel. This study uses an explanatory survey method to test the hypothesis that states the causal relationship between the variables tested. The observations in this study are carried out in the cross sectional / one shot time horizon, that is in 2019. The analysis unit is the one, two and three star hotel industry in West Java, with the observation unit as the management of the hotel companies. The sample is taken from as many as 50 respondents. Due to the small sample size,  the analysis approach that will be used is Partial Least Square (PLS). The results of hypothesis testing reveal that market orientation and competitive strategy affect the images of one, two and three star hotels in West Java. The competitive strategy has a greater contribution than the market orientation in building the image of the hotel. The competitive strategy is built by three dimensions, namely: cost leadership, differentiation strategy, and speed-based strategy. Cost leadership has the greatest role in driving the growth of hotel image, compared to differentiation strategy, and speed-based strategy. Meanwhile, market orientation is built by three dimensions, namely: customer orientation, competitor orientation, and inter-functional coordination. Customer orientation plays the greatest role in enhancing the hotel image. This finding has implications for the management of one, two and three star hotels in West Java, that improving the image of hotels can be pursued by improving competitive strategies that are supported by the development of market orientation. This research is only conducted on 50 respondents of hotel management related to market orientation, competitive strategy and hotel image.  Future studies can examine other variables such as the business environment, company capability, or collaborations that allegedly can affect the hotel image. The  research in the analysis unit of the hotel industry of one, two, and three, star hotels in West Java, makes this research useful as input for hotel management and related stakeholders in developing the hospitality industry. Pages 297 to 309




The Prevalence of  Unethical Leadership Behaviour: The Role of Organisational Oversight

Abderrahmane Benlahcenea, Houcine Meddourb, aSchool of Government University Utara Malaysia, bSchool of Business Management University Utara Malaysia, Email: aabdoben88@gmail.com,  bhoucine@uum.edu.my

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of organisational oversight in predicting unethical leadership behaviour within  Algerian public companies. Using an exploratory qualitative design, 15 semi-structured interviews were conducted with leaders currently serving in Algerian public companies. The findings showed that ineffective rules enforcement, lack of control mechanisms, lack of transparency and access to information, and positive reinforcement are the underlying precursors of unethical leadership behaviour. The generalisation of findings is difficult, since the study relies on a small qualitative sample size from the Algerian context. However, the study offers a proper analysis of selected organisational factors that predict  unethical leadership behaviour. The study presents important implications for public companies and grounds for further research. This study also enriches our understanding of  unethical leadership behaviour. In summary, the study provides practice and policy implications that can improve the development of effective organisational oversight mechanisms in this context. Pages 310 to 325




The Practice of Islamic Finance in Internalising the Concept of Trust in Reasoning Underlying Finance Decisions

Emad Eddin Abajia, Houcine Meddourb, Selamah Maamorc*, Alias B. Mat Nord, a,c,dIslamic Business School, University Utara Malaysia, bSchool of business management, University Utara Malaysia, Email: aemadabaji@yahoo.com,  bhoucine@uum.edu.my,  c*selamahm@uum.edu.my,  dalias@uum.edu.my

This paper aims to analyse the view of  Islamicfinance scholars and bankers regarding the internalisation of the trust concept within  Islamic banking transactions (IBTs) and to examine how that concept is observed within the reasoning underlying the performance of these transactions. This paper involves face-to-face interviews and employing an open-ended questionnaire, in order to study the understanding of our informants on the issue of our concern. The interviews were conducted with selected informants from various Islamic financial institutions and universities in Malaysia. This study found that there is a consensus, expressed by our informants, regarding the importance of trust in  Islamic finance. However, with respect to the current Islamic finance practices, the participating informants contended that the internalisation of the trust concept is based entirely on the formal (mathematical) models of reasoning employed by the conventional banks, which negates the substance of trust for neglecting the general Islamic principles and values, as the reasoning postulates the underlying performance of the IBTs. Pages 326 to 346




Turning Students from Job Seekers into Job Creators: The Role of High Impact Entrepreneurship Educational Practices

Subramaniam Sri Ramalua, Gunalan Nadarajahb, Adejare Yusuff Aremuc, a,b,cOthman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business Universiti Utara Malaysia

This study focuses on the role of High Impact Entrepreneurship Educational Practices (HIEEP) in turning students from job seekers into job creators. The main objective of this study is to examine the direct and indirect effects of the Entrepreneurship Internship Program, Business Incubation Program and Entrepreneurial Supportive Environment on Entrepreneurial Self-Employment mediated by Entrepreneurial Education Knowledge. This quantitative research employed a survey method to collect the data. The data were collected from the students of three public Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) operating in the Northern region of Malaysia. Simple random sampling was used to choose the sample. A total of 664 questionnaires were distributed and 348 were returned, out of which 332 were useable. Meanwhile, the data analysis was performed using PLS-SEM 3.2.8. The results showed that the Entrepreneurship Internship Program, Business Incubation Program, Entrepreneurial Supportive Environment and Entrepreneurial Education Knowledge programs have a significant direct relationship with the Entrepreneurial Self-Employment. Entrepreneurial Education Knowledge also mediates the relationship between the Entrepreneurship Internship Program, Business Incubation Program, Entrepreneurial Supportive Environment and Entrepreneurial Self-Employment among the students, which implies that they will influence students to become job creators instead of job seekers. The findings provide important insights to universities, faculties and ministries of education, government, policy makers and researchers to understand the critical role of HEIs support and HIEEP to shape  students’ intentions in becoming self-employed upon graduating. Equally, the findings contribute to the existing literature by empirically and theoretically extending the knowledge on entrepreneurial education in turning students from job seekers into job creators. Pages 347 to 372




Technology and Stress: A Proposed Framework for Coping with Stress in Indonesian Higher Education

Ansar Abbasa, Muhammad Saudb, Dian Ekowatic, Indrianawati Usmand*, Shinta Setiae, a,b,c,d,eUniversitas Airlangga Surabya, Indonesia, Email: d*indrianawati-u@feb.unair.ac.id

Technology is ubiquitous and becoming necessary for everyday communications. Together with personal and professional use, its applicability is widespread in every field of life, including education. Increased use of technology has been identified as causing stress, particularly among the younger generation, due to overload and complexity, which bring anxiety. To combat stress, individual differences such as personality, social, cultural, emotional and psychological wellbeing is required for sustainable development in a healthy learning environment. A massive increase in Indonesian society is expected due to the government road map towards making the country's biggest south Asian digital economy until 2025. The current study, based on a literature review, proposed a framework for higher educational institutes for contesting rapid technological  interventions in Indonesian education. The strategic perspective of the study is two-fold, addressing institutional and personal strategies and defining mechanisms through  overall personal and environmental well-being. Pages 373 to 390




Servant Leadership and Religiosity: An Indicator of Employee Performance in the Education Sector

Ansar Abbasa, Muhammad Saudb, Indrianawati Usmanc, Dian Ekowatid*, a,c,dFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, bDepartment of social and international politics, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: d*d.ekowati@feb.unair.ac.id

The current study aims to investigate servant leadership and religiosity of the employee as a performance indicator in the educational sector. First, we discuss leadership concepts, then achieving individual performance through servant leadership. Later, educational management leadership and servant leadership studies and finally, servant leadership, and religiosity with performance. Empirical analysis was on the basis of 323 respondents working in higher education participating in the current study through a survey questionnaire. Among R. K. Greenleaf (1977); Spears (1998) a few servant leadership characteristics,  for example, cultural leaders, social justice, empowering others and stewardship are hypothesised and tested with religiosity with employee performance. The results through regression analysis suggest servant leadership is a proactive predictor of employee performance and the relationship is strengthened when tested with religiosity. The study contributes to much-needed study on educational leadership and management studies in Asia (Hallinger & Chen, 2015). Pages 391 to 409




Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Quality in Indonesian Companies

Ikbar Pratamaa, Noriah Che-Adamb, Hasnah Kamardinc, a,b,cTunku Puteri Intan Safinaz School of Accountancy, Universiti Utara Malaysia,

The role of corporate governance in the corporate social responsibility disclosure of a company cannot be denied. According to the theory of legitimacy, stakeholder and agency, members of a company's board should monitor the activities of self-interested management to minimise the expenditure cost. Outside directors are expected to execute better performances than the executives, given that outside directors are responsible to increase shareholders’ benefits. However, there have been inconsistent results on the relationship between corporate governance on corporate social responsibility disclosure of  companies. Thus, this paper aims to examine the relationship between corporate governance attributes (political connections, women’s proportion, multi-ethnicity, family ownership, and the composition of the board and foreign ownership of the board) on corporate social responsibility disclosure quality among 353 public listed companies in the Indonesia Stock Exchange in the year 2017. Data of the corporate social responsibility disclosure quality are taken from the environment and social items disclosed in the annual report. Multiple regression analysis is used to analyse the relationship between corporate governance attributes on corporate social responsibility disclosure quality. Findings of this study show that political connections of boards of commissioners, the composition of boards of directors and foreign ownership  significantly influence corporate social responsibility disclosure quality. Pages 442 to 463




Firm Performance in Environmentally-friendly Firms in Indonesia: The Effects of Green Innovation

Dynanda Atikah Putria, Noorlailie Soewarnob*, a,bDepartment of Accountancy, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia. Email: b*noorlailie-s@feb.unair.ac.id

This study aims to analyse the effect of Environmental Management Accounting (EMA) on firm performance with green innovation as an intervening variable. This study looked at 107 year-observation from manufacturing firms listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) for the years 2012-2016. The data were analysed using multiple linear regression method and Sobel test. This study finds that green products and green process innovation mediates the relation between EMA and firm performance. This research suggests management that creates environmental friendly innovation will produce more innovative output within the firms and hence increase the firm performance. Pages 464 to 481




The Impact of Eco-efficiency on Firm Value and Firm Size: An Indonesian Study

Brian Kurniantaa, Wiwiek Dianawatib*, a,bDepartment of Accountancy, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia. Email: b*wiwiek.dianawati@feb.unair.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of eco-efficiency implementation on firm value with firm size as a moderating variable. This research uses secondary data from the annual reports of manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (BEI) during the period 2013-2017. Purposive sampling was applied in this research which resulted in 469 samples chosen according the criteria. The data analysis uses multiple linear regression analysis with SPSS. The result show that: 1) Eco-efficiency as measured by ISO 14001 certification has a significant effect on the value of a company; and 2) Firm size moderates the effect of eco-efficiency on the value of a company. Pages 482 to 495




Political Connection, Executive Compensation and Profit Management in Indonesia.

Dianty Sonia Puruhitaa, Isnalitab*, a,bDepartment of Accountancy, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia. Email: b*isnalita@feb.unair.ac.id

This study aims to examine the effect of political connections on executive compensation through earnings management as a mediating variable. This study uses a sample of all companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange from 2016 to 2018. The total sample in this study was 1,145 observations. The analysis technique used in this study uses a partial least square (PLS) model. The results showed that political connections had a positive effect on executive compensation. We also found that earnings management mediated the influence of political connections on executive compensation. Pages 496 to 511




Determinants on the Extent of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) Disclosure in Annual Reporting:  An Indonesian Study

Dwi Linda Rahmawatia, Khusnul Prasetyob*, a,bDepartment of Accountancy, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia. Email: b*khusnul.prasetyo@feb.unair.ac.id

This study aims to analyse factors that determine the extent of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) disclosure in a company’s annual report. This study analysed manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange for the years 2015-2018. Using linear regression analysis, we found that Risk Management Committee (RMC) and managerial ownership had a significant relationship with the extent of ERM disclosure. However, the proportion of independent board of commissioners, auditor reputation, liquidity and leverage does not relate to the extent of ERM disclosure in a company’s annual report. This study implies that companies that want extensive disclosure about Enterprise Risk Management can do so by forming Risk Management Committees and increase managerial ownership in the company. Pages 512 to 525




The Relationship between Business and the Audit Fee: Evidence from Indonesian Listed Companies

Andrivan Nindya Krisnaa, Amalia Rizkib*, a,bDepartment of Accountancy, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia. Email:   b*amalia.rizki@feb.unair.ac.id

This research intends to obtain empirical evidence to determine the relationship between a business and the external audit service fee. Using the modified model from research of Simunic (1980), this research took balanced samples from 26 manufacturing firms listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) from the period 2014 to 2016 in order to represent the population of manufacturing firms listed in that time period. Using audit fees as dependent variable and firm size, audit complexity, audit risk, and Big-Four audit firms’ premium, this research tried to find out the relationship between those variables, using multiple linear regression as the method to achieve that goal. The result of this research shows that there is a correlative relationship between firm size, audit complexity, audit risk, and ‘Big-Four’ audit firms’ in regard to a premium positive and audit fee. Pages 526 to 540




Market Reaction to a Firm Environmental Performance Assessment Program (PROPER) Rank: An Indonesian Perspective.

Tiara Vindra Prastia, Wiwiek Dianawatib*, a,bDepartment of Accountancy, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia. Email: b*wiwiek.dianawati@feb.unair.ac.id

A Firm’s Environmental Performance Assessment Program (PROPER) has been initiated by the Ministry of Environment program that aims to encourage companies to implement mindful environment management systems. This study aims to analyse the market’s reaction to a public PROPER rank announcement. To test our hypothesis, we used manufacturing firms as our sample base. Those listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange from 2012 to 2016 were analysed,  in a total of 223 firm-year observations. This study used event study methodology. Market reaction was measured by abnormal return and trading volume activity. Our result shows that there is change in market reaction on the PROPER ranks announcement. We also document that there is no significant change in market reaction on firms that have "obedient" compared to "not obedient" levels. This study provides information for company management on implementing a new business strategy to improve its environmental performance. Pages 541 to 556




The Effect of Environmental Management Practice on Firm Performance: An Indonesian Study.

Nourma Kurniaw