Volume 15 - 2021



Need-For-Touch, Product Innovativeness, Gender and Product Knowledge: A Contextual Study on Consumers in Saudi Arabia

Abdulelah Althagafi1,2, Hasan Balfaqih1, 1College of Business Administration, University of Business and Technology, Jeddah 21448, Saudi Arabia. 2Glasgow School for Business & Society, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Corresponding author: a.althagafi@ubt.edu.sa

This study extends earlier research on the role of Need-For-Touch on consumer behaviour. To be more precise, it focuses on investigating the role of product innovativenessopinion leadership, and consumer product-class knowledge in understanding consumer’s Need-For-Touch. A survey was conducted using a convenience sample of 128 males and 88 females, representing diverse demographics of Saudi Arabia, which was then analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The findings of this study contribute to consumer research, especially pre-choice aspects of consumer behaviour and attitudes, as well as consumer psychological market segmentation. The potential theoretical contribution of this study is reflected in the examination of new diverse relationships, which can be used as a basis for further studies. Moreover, the findings of this exploratory study will contribute significantly towards understanding consumer behaviour enabling accurate anticipation of consumer expectations and satisfying their inherent needs. Finally, a number of managerial implications for industry (packaging, communication and product-development) were suggested. Pages 1 to 10




Expression of Language and Culture Through Homecomers' (Travellers) Funny Memes

Sariah1, Jatmika Nurhadi2, 1Balai Bahasa Provinsi Jawa Barat, 2Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

This study aims to describe language and cultural expressions in the funny memes of travellers. The research data were collected by taking pictures and taking notes. The data were analysed using descriptive qualitative methods and the theory of semantics and cultural values. We collected data from the photographs of travellers passing through the north coast of Java (Pantura, Pamanukan, Subang) and funny memes from travellers online. The results showed that language expression was manifested in a single theme using: sound language, metaphors in metaphorical language style, metonymy, euphemism, and disagreement with polysemy. In contrast, cultural expression manifested in the Javanese language, filial piety, and age of marriage. Language expression is dominated by metaphors and polysemy, while marriage age dominates cultural terms, and still single with entertaining humour. Pages 11 to 34




The Participation of Social Organisation in the Building of New Rural Areas in Vietnam

Nguyen Trong Binha, Academy of Politics Region IV, Can Tho City, Vietnam, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6009-4983, Email: trongbinh195@yahoo.com

Traditional public administration theory considers that the government is the sole agent in public governance, then public governance theory considers public governance as well as the process of public policy as an active interaction of many centers, mainly government - businesses and society (social organisations and citizens).  The building of new rural areas is one of the important policies aimed at the comprehensive development of agriculture and rural areas and improving the quality of life of rural Vietnamese residents. This policy is directly and in many ways related to the lives of people in rural areas. Therefore, it is very necessary for the participation of people as well as social organisations as representative organisations of the people. The participation of people and social organisations in the building of new rural areas in Vietnam is an important factor contributing to the public purpose of new rural construction policy, as well as a contributing factor to promote social resources in rural development. Based on theoretical frameworks and survey results, this study assesses the current status of the participation of social organisations in the building of new rural areas in Vietnam.At the same time, it provides suggestions to increase the participation of social organisations in the building of new rural areas in Vietnam. Pages 35 to 51




The Internal Factors Determining the Financial Performance of Islamic Banks

Monia Ben Ltaifaa, Hany A Salehb, Abdelkader Derbalic*, aDepartment of Administrative and Financial Programs, Community College in Abqaiq, King Faisal University, Abqaiq, Saudi Arabia, bAssistant Professor of Insurance and Actuarial Sciences, Department of Applied Statistics and Insurance, Faculty of Commerce, Mansoura University, Egypt, cDepartment of Finance and Accounting, Higher Institute of Informatics and Management of Kairouan, Kairouan University, Kairouan, Tunisia and Department of Administrative and Financial Sciences and Techniques, Community College, Taibah University, Medinah, Saudi Arabia, Email: ambenltaifa@kfu.edu.sa, bhanyhakeem2000@gmail.com, c*aderbalicctu@gmail.com

Financial performance is a crucial factor of the permanence and safety of the banking sector of each country. This paper investigates the influence of factors specific to Islamic banking activity on their financial performance. To study the impact of factors specific to banking activity on financial performance, we use a sample of 50 Islamic banks working and existing in 12 countries. We adopt a measurable and quantifiable method defensible by the econometrics of panel data throughout the period of study from the last quarter of 2013 to the third quarter of 2019. The empirical results of this paper demonstrate the existence of a very significant nexus among all the explicative variables and the dependent variable as ensured by the Return on Asset (ROA). Certainly, the financial performance of selected Islamic banks is positively associated with two variables such as bank size and liquidity while it is negatively affected by three variables such as bank capitalisation, asset quality and operational efficiency. The objective of this paper is to get the attention of managers in Islamic banks to see the importance of understanding these factors that could directly or indirectly influence the performance of banks. Studying the impact of these determinants helps to facilitate and guide strategic decisions aimed at achieving improved performance of Islamic banks. Pages 52 to 64




Unravelling the Nexus Between CEO Characteristics and Financial Performance in Pakistani Listed Firms

Abdul Rehmana, Ji Cheng Junb, Alam Rehmanc, Muhammad Zeeshand*, Muhammad Adeele, Kashif Saleemf, Shams Ur Rehmang, aCollege of Business Administration, Liaoning Technical University, Liaoning province, XingCheng, 125105, China, bProfessor at College of Business Administration, Liaoning Technical University, Liaoning province, XingCheng, 125105, China,  cFaculty of Management Sciences, National University of Modern Languages; Islamabad, Pakistan, dCollege of Business Administration, Liaoning Technical University, Liaoning province, XingCheng, 125105, China, *Corresponding Author, e,fAssistant professor Qurtuba University Science and Information Technology D I khan, gAssistant Professor Northern University Nowshera, Pakistan, Email: arehman51jb@gmail.com, bjichengjun@126.com, camrehman@numl.edu.pk, d*abobakarmzk1@gmail.com, eMuhammad.adeel@qurtuba.edu.pk, fkashifsaleem9212@gmail.com, gShams.mahsud@gmail.com

The empirical literature highlights the importance of CEO characteristics in the paradigm of firm’s performance. The CEO chair has been given considerable attention in the global competitive corporate environment. In view of this uprising importance of CEO chair, we investigate the case of 200 listed Pakistani firms to unravel the kind of nexus that does exists between CEO attributes and firm performance. We employ robust Panel Modeling Methodologies for analyzing data of these sample firms for the period 2010 to 2019. Our empirical estimations highlight that CEO tenure and duality are negatively associated with a firm’s performance in Pakistan. Likewise, female CEO, and non-national CEO are also considered not been the wise choice in Pakistani context. While CEO education substantiates the firm’s performance in Pakistan. Our results also report the significant contribution of insider promoted CEO to the firm’s performance. The results are expected to provide insight to the investors and corporate elite in the business environment of Pakistan, and countries with similar corporate culture as Pakistan. Pages 65 to 91




The Psycholinguistic and Neurolinguistic Nature of Communications and Education in Early Development of Bi/Multilingual Autistic Children

1Olumuyiwa Adekunle Kehinde, 2Berrington Ntombela, 3Caroll Hermann, 1-2Department of English, University of Zululand South Africa, 3Department of Psychology, University of Zululand South Africa.

Poorly developed joint attention and communicative acts during early childhood may result in poorer interactional language development. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge of parents and educators of preschool and school-aged autistic children about the nature and cognitive benefits of joint attention, and raising these children with bi/multilingualism using the psycholinguistic and neurolinguistics bases of language acquisition, language production, language comprehension and neurocognition respectively. The participants were bi/multilingual parents (n-10) and bi/multilingual educators (n-10) from 4 schools purposively selected from Empangeni and Durban in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.Data was collected through semi-structured interviews from which anecdotes and lived experiences were also drawn. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. The findings established that many parents developed poor joint attention with their children during infancy, and communications or interactions with their autistic children at home even when they are literate or bi/multilingual due to prior advice from the clinicians or speech therapists or lack of such advice to use bi/multilingualism. The research also found a higher percentage of educators employed one language (isiZulu) when teaching and communicating with children with autism at school. The findings indicated that a larger percentage of parents and educators of children with ASD have little or no understanding that many autistic children (especially those without intellectual disabilities) have the cognitive ability to acquire, produce, and comprehend two or more languages by incorporating bi/multilingualism; and  that  joint and shared attention while involved in communicative acts during early childhood, and the school-age of these children is an essential cognition booster. Pages 92 to 106




Public-Private Sector Partnerships in Healthcare System Delivery for Developmental Disorders in Sub-Sahara Africa

Olumuyiwa Adekunle Kehindea, Chinaza Uleanyab, aUniversity of Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, bUniversity of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa Email: bchinazauleanya@yahoo.com

Developmental disorders prevalently caused by infections, perinatal complications, genetic problems, nutritional deficiencies, traumas, amongst others have been on the rise and make children to be at the verge of grave health challenges in the African continent. It has been a norm seeing the government being at the centre or being instrumental to healthcare system delivery with enormous for-profit private partnership and meagre voluntary services. Thus, this study explored the nature and status of government and a network of private stakeholders’ involvement in delivering healthcare to developmental disorders’ domain in selected sub-Sahara African countries. The study adopted participatory governance as a theoretical thrust. A qualitative method was adopted for the study. Hence, semi-structured interviews and desktop research method were adopted for data collection. Purposive sampling was adopted for selection of the 21 participants. The interviews were coded, and themes were generated, and analysed using content analysis. The findings of the study showed that the government remains a main policymaker for the provision of healthcare in African countries and relying mostly on a few profit-oriented stakeholders whose aims mainly focus on general healthcare services without or with less attention to developmental disorders. It is recommended that the government should incorporate a wide network of private stakeholders whose participatory level needs to be raised through adequate awareness, motivation, monitoring and evaluation. Pages 107 to 128




A Comparative Analysis of Instructional Strategies in Middle-Grade Mathematics Textbooks

Dr. Safdar Hussain1*, Dr. Muhammad Anwer 2*, Dr. Nagina Gul3, Dr Mudassir Hussain4, Dr. S Khurram Khan Alwi5, 1*Department of Educational Development, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Pakistan, 2Principal Special Education Department, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, 3Assistant Professor Department of Management Sciences, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering & Management Sciences (BUITMES), Quetta, Pakistan, 4Assistant Professor, Department of Education and Research, University of Lakki Mawat, KPK Pakistan. 5Adjunct Professor, Dr. S Khurram Khan Alwi, SZABIST, Karachi Pakistan. Email: 1safdar_tla@yahoo.com, 2dr.manwer19@gmail.com, 3nagina.gul@buitms.edu.pk, 4mudassirokz@gmail.com, 5dr.Khurram.khan@szabist.pk

This study compared the quality of instructional activities of three series of selected middle- grade mathematics textbooks used in public and private schools in Pakistan. The aim was to analyse the extent to which the quality of instructional activities was appropriate for the development of mathematical proficiency in students. Geometry was selected for this study due to its challenging nature in mathematics curriculum. The procedure included the development of researched-based learning goals and indicators and, identification of evidences in textbooks relevant to the learning goals. These evidences were then compared with the indicators to check their appropriateness for the promotion of proficiency in geometry. The results showed that the New Syllabus Mathematics 2 contained comparatively effective instructional activities to support students in understanding key conceptual ideas in geometry. Mathematics 8 and COUNTDOWN contained less material for conceptual understanding and procedural fluency. These textbooks were focusing mostly on routine procedures with few connections to daily life. The results of this study will have greater significance for curriculum developers, textbook authors, textbook analysis experts and school administrators. Pages 129 to 147




Exploring the Needs of Compulsory Health Education in Schools as Core Curriculum Requirement: Evidence from Turbat, Balochistan

Mahnaz Aslama, Dr. Kamal Haiderb, Prof. Dr. Muhammad Yousuf Sharjeelc, Dr. Safia Niazid, Rabia Ashrafe, Shehzad Haiderf, aAssistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Turbat, bAssistant Professor, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Department of Teacher Education-Abdul Haq Campus, c Professor in Education, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Department of Teacher Education-Gulshan Campus, dAssistant Professor, Department of Education, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University-Lyari, eLecturer, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Department of Education-Abdul Haq Campus, fLecturer,Department of Education,LUAWMS Email:amahnazbaloch1313@gmail.com,bkmhrpk@gmail.com, cyousufsharjeel@hotmail.com,ddr.safianiazi@gmail.com, fwarriors.uthal@gmail.com

The closure of schools in the recent COVID-19 pandemic made every parent concerned regarding their children’s health at school. Children are the most important and loved part of every parents’ life therefore their health is the utmost priority of parent’s. The purpose of this research was to describe the current secondary school student’s health status in Turbat district. Secondary school health is often an ignored subject in Pakistan.  Through effective school health education, students can be prevented from catching infectious diseases through preventative measures and making them adopt healthy lifestyles to protect them from several diseases. Countries around the globe have achieved significant outcomes through implementing effective school health programs. The Punjab health sector reform program achieved remarkable results. The samples for this study were n= 240 students from six different schools collected from three Girls’ High Schools and from three Boys’ High School. This descriptive study through a survey method narrated the health measures regarding needs of school-going children. For this purpose, the study adopted a quantitative research method for data collection. The participants were selected through convenience sampling method.  Data was collected from the participants through consent letters, self-administration of the tool and an online survey where ever possible from the registered schools in district Turbat in Baluchistan. The data was analyzed through SPSS V22. The study found that the provision of health requirements in school settings through a health promotion program can bring change in overall well-being of young school-going children. For a healthier and prosperous generation health requirement are required to promote and strengthen school health education. The Government of Pakistan needs to increase the investment on health and education integration. ۔ Thus, imitating a similar program in secondary schools in Turbat, Balochistan can bring fruitful lifelong results. Pages 148 to 161




Achievement Goal Orientation, Work Engagement and Organisational Commitment: A Correlational Study of University Teachers

Misbah Malik1, Ghulam Fatima2, Sara Azhar3, Muhammad Jahanzaib4, Khuda Bakhsh5, 1Assistant Professor, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: misbah.ier@pu.edu.pk 2Associate Professor, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Assistant Professor, Township Campus, University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan.4PhD Scholar, Department of Special Education, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan,5Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO) is considered as an important aspect of individuals’ mental faculties because of having the property of driving individuals’ thoughts, interpretations and reactions to a task, resulting in different patterns of behaviours to attain their goals.  This study was designed to identify the correlation among Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO), Work Engagement (WE) and Organisational Commitment (OC) of university teachers through a survey method. The sample of the study was 165 university teachers’ who were selected from two universities of the Lahore district. Multistage sampling technique was used. Two public and two private universities were selected randomly. Three instruments were used for data collection; one to measure AGO, second for OC and third for WE of university teachers. The correlation among AGO,WE and OC was identified through Pearson Product Moment. Independent sample t-tests were run to find out mean difference in university teachers’ responses for the variables understudy on the basis of gender. Results of data analysis revealed a moderate positive correlation among the variables understudy. Pages 162 to 171




Mediator Variables’ Influences towards Behaviors of e-Money Users

Arin Na Ranong, Faculty of Business Administration, Rajamangala University of Technology Rattanakosin, 96 Moo 3 Thanon Phutthamonthon Sai 5 Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand 73170, Email: Arin.naranong@gmail.com

The objectives of this research is investigate the influences of four-parallel mediator variables of behavior intention, attitude, trust and perceived risk that transferred the influences of facilitating conditions to use behavior of e-Money users. The sample in this research is 500 of payment service users via e-Money of the Rabbit Line Pay service provider in Bangkok. According to the concept of Comrey & Lee (2013). The statistics applied in this research are including first descriptive statistics such as mean and second structural equation modeling (SEM) statistical analysis using PLS Graph 3.0. The results from the study show that the maximum mean of facilitating conditions is 4.00 with the standard deviation of 0.604, followed by behavior intention of the service users with the mean of 4.01 and the standard deviation of 0.601, and trust of the service users with the mean of 3.97 and the standard deviation of 0.679. For the analysis results of the four-parallel mediator variables of behavior intention, attitude, trust, and perceived risk that transferred the influences of facilitating conditions to use behavior of e-Money users, the behavioral intention and trust are factors that relate the influences of the facilitating conditions with the users’ behavior significantly. Pages 172 to 193




Hospital Environmental Management Facilitating Healing Towards Service Quality of Chonburi, Rayong, and Buddhasothorn Hospitals in Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC) in 2020

Ekkawit Maneethorn** and Shotisa Cousnit*, Faculty of Political Science and Law, Burapha University, 169 Long-Hard Bangsaen Rd, Saensuk Sub-district, Mueang District, Chon Buri Province, Thailand 20131, Email: **ekwmnt@yahoo.co.th, *shotianne@gmail.com (**corresponding author)

This research aimed to study 1) the hospital environmental management for healing facilitation; 2) the service quality provided by Chonburi, Rayong, and Buddhasothorn Hospitals in the Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC) in 2020; and, 3) the hospital environmental management facilitating healing towards service quality of Chonburi, Rayong, and Buddhasothorn Hospitals in the Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC) in 2020. The research populations were people who received services from Chonburi, Rayong, and Buddhasothorn Hospital in 2020. The amount was uncertain. The samples in this study were 400 of those who received services from these three hospitals, retrieved from a convenience sampling method. The data collection tool was the questionnaire. The statistics used for data analysis were frequency, percentage, average, and standard deviation, correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. It was found from the study results that the hospital environmental management for the healing facilitation overall presented at the highest level in which it could be ranked from most to least as follows: psychological environment, physical environment, social environment, and natural environment. The hospital service quality overall showed in the highest level in which it could be ranked from most to least as follows: hospital services on the aspect of procedural improvement, leadership, customer expectations, and meaningful data. Environmental management either on physical, natural, social or psychological environment was associated with the score of hospital service quality either on the aspects of customer expectations, leadership, procedural improvement, or meaningful data. Overall, they showed with high level of relationship in the same direction. The influential environmental factors on the hospital service quality overall were for instance, psychological environment, physical environment, and social environment. All the three factors together were able to explain the service quality of the hospital at 80.4 percent. Pages 194 to 210




Dualism of Judicial Decisions in the Court of Industrial Relations

Salahudin Gaffar, A student in the Post-Graduate Program of the Faculty of Law of University, Correspondence: lawfirmindonesia@gmail.com

Law No. 2 of 2004 Article 7 (3) confirms that an Agreement shall apply as a binding law to the signing parties. The objectives of legal reform in Industrial Relations are to achieve legal certainty for the parties in dispute. Registration to the Court of Industrial Relations is necessary for settlement outside of the Court. The Court will subsequently issue a Deed of Evidence for the Settlement of Dispute. Unfortunately, it is permissible for one of the parties to cancel the said agreement unilaterally, leading to the Court's settlement. If the Court is consistent with the above provisions, it should be sufficient to check the Joint Agreement's existence and evidence of dispute settlement record issued by the same Court. Despite that, the Court should have rejected the Agreement; in reality, it continued the case until the final verdict. The previous precedence shows that the Court, in its consideration, always states that it considers the said documents as having no executorial power. Such a condition has caused a loss of legal certainty to the disputing parties in the dispute settlement process of industrial relations outside of the Court. Pages 211 to 226




Application of the Google Classroom-Assisted Blended-Inquiry Method on Students’ Critical Thinking Skills

Yuliantia, Ni Made Novi Suryantib, Sukardic*, a,bSociology Education Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, cThe Faculty of Teacher Training and Education & Postgraduate, University of Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia. Correspondence: Sukardi, Email: sukardi@unram.ac.id

This study aims to determine whether or not there is an effect of the Google Classroom-assisted blended-inquiry method on students' critical thinking skills. The population in this study included all eleventh grade students of Senior High Schools in Mataram. The research sample consisted of two classes, namely, one class as the experimental class and one class as the control class, both of which were selected by random sampling after the classes were levelled. This study uses a quantitative approach - more specifically, a Quasi Experiment with Non-equivalent Control Group Design. The instrument used was a multiple choice test which was deemed valid and reliable, and met discrimination power and difficulty level index. All data was analysed quantitatively using comparative analysis and N-Gain test. The experimental test results show that there are differences in critical thinking skills of students in  the experimental and control classes, thus it is concluded that the application of the Google Classroom-assisted blended-inquiry method has an effects on students' critical thinking skills. Gain score analysis results showed that the increase in each critical thinking skill dimension of students in the experimental class is higher than the other class’. This implies that the use of Google Classroom-assisted blended-inquiry method can serve as a supplement to strengthen constructivist theories in learning design. Pages 227 to 238




The Relationship between sectoral FDI and ICT: Empirical evidence from China

Faisal Mehmood ¹, Wang Bing2, Hameed Khan3*, Henna41,2College of Public Administration, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, China, 3Department of Economics, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat, Pakistan ( corresponding author), 4Institute of Business Studies, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat, Pakistan, Emails: 1fmehmood_kmu@yahoo.com2wbyf@mail.hust.edu.cn3hameed.qec@gmail.com,  4hennagulawat@gmail.com

The massive FDI inflows and the development of the ICT sector in China are the two crucial phenomena that the world witnessed during the past couple of decades. This paper seeks to understand the interplay between sectoral FDI and ICT by addressing key issues that were previously ignored, which include the omitted variable bias and the nexus of sectoral FDI-ICT. We explore these by using the ARDL and VECM approaches under the multilevel specification framework and a comprehensive index of ICT, which covers both quality and quantity indicators. From this analysis, we find that a stable long-term relationship exists between ICT and the sectoral distribution of FDI. The Granger causalities substantiate the ARDL results and reveal that a two-way causal relationship exists between the aforementioned variables. The parameter estimates of the control variables were found to be consistent and robust in the analysis. Our research makes for fertile ground for policymakers as well as academic researchers on these topics. Pages 239 to 262




Investigating the Influence of Institutional Environment on Audacious Followership and Authentic Leadership at Secondary Level

Dr. Said Saeeda, Dr. Muhammad Tariqb, Dr. Fazli Khaliqc, aPrincipal, Elementary & Secondary Education Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, bLecturer, Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra, cSST, Elementary & Secondary Education Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Email: aSyedsaeed54@gmail.com, bmuhammadtariq@hu.edu.pk cKhaliq78@yahoo.com

In the current scenario, understanding the notion of cohorts is as significant as the perception of leaders in the institution. Building the notion of cohorts and leadership, this study employed the retrogressive worldview method in management study and conjectured the correlation between audacious cohortship and authentic leadership upsurges, and how the institutional environment performs as a moderator between audacious followership and authentic leadership. The target sample for this study was teachers from schools in zone 2s of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (n= 363). This sample was chosen by convenient sampling techniques. Data were gathered through a questionnaire. SPSS version 26 was used to analyse the data through moderation analysis techniques. The results buttressed the study’s hypotheses. The results of the study showed that the institutional environment displays performance as a moderator and influences the correlation between audacious followership and authentic leadership. This specifies  augmenting the institutional ethos;  values would also boost audacious followership attitude in learners and this would proceed them to become authentic leaders in the future. Future investigators might require to reflect the audacious followership attitude in relationship to authentic leadership at college and university level and may adopt different approaches i.e. qualitative and mixed methods. Pages 263 to 277




The Shift in Open Trade Policy due to Economic Maturity

Safdar Husain Tahira*, Shahzad Yaqoobb, Wajiha Kanwalc, Muhammad Naeem Mohsind, Gulzar Ahmade, Muhammad Rizwan Ullahf, a,fLyallpur Business School, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan, bMS-Business administration, National University of Modern Languages, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan, cDepartment of  Education, University of Wah, Wah Cantt 47040, Pakistan, dDepartment of Education, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan, eDepartment of Psychology, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore 54792, Pakistan, Email: a*drsafdar@gcuf.edu.pk , bshahzadyaqoob425@gmail.com, cdr.wajihakanwal@uow.edu.pk, dmnmohsin71@gmail.com , egul-zar818@gmail.com, fmrizwanullah77@gmail.com

The study contributes to finding the shift in open trade policy to institutional quality due to economic maturity by juxtaposing developed and developing economies. The research study employs a quantitative approach to examine the impact of open trade policy and institutional quality on industrial production. The panel data consist of seventeen developed and fifteen developing countries ranging from 1999 through 2019. The study applies various econometric techniques like Principal Component Analysis, Panel Unit Root, and Panel Cointegration tests to examine the long-run nexus of open trade policy, institutional quality, and industrial production. We conclude that developing countries with immature economies are inclined to adopt open trade policy over institutional quality to grasp the benefits of increasing industrial production trends. However, developing countries with mature economies prefer to raise institutional quality by standardising their operating norms and procedures in their industries. The study's findings indicate that open trade policy is more beneficial for developing countries than for developed countries. However, higher levels of institutional standards comparatively provide more benefits to developed economies. This study is a practical help in redesigning trade policies by offering comparisons between developing and developed economies worldwide.  Pages 278 to 295




A Study of Historical Data, The Culture and Identity of Communities Related to Thai Food Culture to Promote and Create the Production of Films and Television Dramas

Sastra Laoakka, Assistant Professor, Department of Cultural Management, Faculty of Fine Arts and Cultural Science, Mahasarakham University, Thailand, Email: hugna.studio@gmail.com

This research study has a twofold objective: 1) to study historical data, the culture, and identity of communities related to Thailand’s food culture, and 2) to propose guidelines for promoting the production of movies and television dramas. This research uses basic research. The research has divided the target groups for data collection into 3 groups, which are 1) Knowledge group 2) Practice group and 3) General persons; by collecting data from Document Collect data from a field study, structured and unstructured interview, participation observation and non-participation observation, and focus groups. The data was then analyded to find a way to answer the problems according to the set objectives. The results of the research revealed that the identity of the community is related to the types of Thai food culture which are 1) Taiyo food, 3 distinctive food items 2) 3 types of Phu Thai people food 3) Food by Nga or Lao 1 Type 4) The food of Dan Sai people in Loei province is Saton vegetable juice. Guidelines for promotion are used to create the production of movies and television dramas, as follows: first, establish an information system in the aspects of history, art, culture, and community identity related to Thai food culture to provide sufficient facilities for film and television drama producers; second, coordinate between communities with government agencies, private organisations, and film and television drama producers involved for proactive planning to develop sustainably; third, set up a budget to support by teaching people in the community to collect information and present themselves for  sustainable development. Pages 296 to 310




Assessment Framework of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure

Tai Ming Wuta and Wai-man Ester Ipb aSchool of Professional Education and Executive Development, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, bCrowe (HK) CPA Limited. Email: aedmund.wut@cpce-polyu.edu.hk, besterip@yahoo.co.uk

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new assessment framework on corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure. The study examines existing CSR disclosure standards and literature. The new assessment on CSR disclosure contains user-specific qualities; primary decision-specific qualities like relevance and reliability (verifiability); secondary and interactive quality like comparability and reliability (neutrality) and; the threshold for recognition like materiality and conservatism. This is one of the first studies to examine the quality of CSR/ESG disclosure rather than the quantity of CSR/ESG information provided. Pages 311 to 326




The Authority of the Government Agencies in the State of Emergency
in Vietnam

Cao Vu Minh, PhD, Ho Chi Minh city University of law, Vietnam, Email: cvminh@hcmulaw.edu.vn

The state of emergency is the situation when the society is in severe crisis due to many causes, affecting and threatening the national survival. The declaration of the state of emergency is presumably to increase the power of the ruler’s agencies. This article analyses the authority of the national authorities in the state of emergency in Vietnam and some recommendations. Pages 327 to 341




The Effect of Overconfidence in the Presentation of Financial Statements on Corporate Tax Avoidance

Mostafa A. Almansoori1*, Raid Hassan Ali2, Ali Nadhem Abdulamir3, 1Accounting Department, College of Administration and Economics, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq,2Department of Business Administration, College of Administration and Economics, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq, 3Department of Banking and Financial Sciences, College of Administration and Economics, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq, Email: mustafa.abd1983@mu.edu.iq  

The present study aims to evaluate the relationship between overconfidence in the presentation of financial statements on corporate tax avoidance. This project is descriptive-correlational and the statistical population under study is listed companies on the Iraqi Stock Exchange during 2014-2018, among which are 28 companies. Four hypotheses were designed for this study, all of which were examined by the ordinary least squares regression method and  Eviews Version 9 Software. The results of the study show that there is a significant relationship between conservatism and underpricing in the initial and secondary stock offerings. Other results also suggest that there is a positive relationship between conservatism and underpricing in an initial and secondary offering in an information asymmetry setting. Since no similar study has been conducted in Iraq, so far, this paper can contribute significantly to the field. Pages 342 to 354




The Impact of Brand Experience on Brand Engagement: Applied study on Saudi M-banking services

Manal Mohamed EL Mekebbatya, Mona Hatem Taher Salehb, Ahmed Osman Ibrahim Ahmedc, Anas Satti Satti Mohammedd, Osman Saad Shidwane, Mohamednour Eltahir Ahmed Abdelgadirf, a,c,d,e,fBusiness Administration Department, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, bDepartment of Marketing, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

The current research paper investigated the impact of brand experience on brand engagement. The study was applied to the Saudi mobile banking (M-banking) services. Data analysis was performed by using nonlinear partial least squares - structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). An online survey was used to collect the data from 350 M-banking users. Accordant with the results, both affective and intellectual brand experiences have a positive and meaningful relationship with brand engagement, while each sensory and behavioural brand experience has an insignificant effect on brand engagement. The control variables included age and education. According to the findings, there are significant differences in brand engagement among respondents based on age, while there are no major differences in brand engagement among respondents considering education. This research offers both theoretical and philosophical perspectives on online brand engagement. Also, this research investigated the practical implications of M-banking services during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as encouraging electronic transactions in different fields. Pages 355 to 370




Self-leadership, Self-efficacy, and Students Adaptive Online Learning Performance during the COVID-19 Crises

Fakhr e Alam Afridi1, Dr Shahid Jan2, Bushra Ayaz3, Muhammad Irfan4, 1,3,4Ph.D. Scholar, Islamia College Peshawar, Pakistan, 2Associate Professor Islamia College Peshawar, Pakistan, Email: 1falam@numl.edu.pk, 2shahidjan@icp.edu.pk, 3bayaz@numl.edu.pk, 4irfan443@gmail.com

The primary motive behind this study is to examine the relationship among students’ practices of self-leadership strategies, self-efficacy, and performance outcomes levels in the online learning environment.  Two hundred and seventeen students, enrolled at a university level in different degree courses at the graduate and postgraduate level, participated in this study. We follow a two-step structural equation modelling approach to assess the relationship between the proposed variables of the model. Results reveal that students with a high level of self-efficacy tend to have more effective performance in uncertain or unpredictable situations. Also, when students show a high level of self-leadership in their online learning, their level of self-efficacy and performance satisfaction has  increased. This study contributes to the informal self-leadership emerging research especially in developing young countries.  This study also carefully observes and spots the evidence for future research that fosters changes in the academic life of students and how student’s learning performance can be enhanced by self-leadership in this unique situation. Pages 371 to 391




Corporate Governance and Quality of Financial Reporting of Listed Firms: Evidence from Saudi Arabia

Marwa A. Alsaadi1, Bashir Tijjani2, Khalid I. Falgi3, 1,2,3Department of Accounting, College of Business Administration, Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

This paper examines the impact of applying corporate governance (CG) mechanisms on the quality of financial reports of listed financial firms in Saudi Arabia. The focus is on how quality of financial reporting (QFR) is affected by board independence, board size, audit committee independence, audit committee size, and ownership structure of listed financial firms. The study uses financial statistics from the annual reports and accounts of a sample of 18 financial firms listed in the Saudi Stock Exchange over the period 2012 to 2017. QFR is measured using discretionary accruals of the modified Jones model (Dechow et al., 1995). The findings revealed a statistically positive significant impact of board independence, audit committee independence and ownership structure on QFR. On the other hand, results showed a statistically insignificant impact of the size of the board and audit committee on QFR. Results support arguments of the stakeholder theory that having high institutional shares in listed firms motivates internal stakeholders to disclose high quality financial reports. The Saudi economy is being opened for large foreign investments in line with its Vision 2030; as a result, potential foreign investors would want to know more about the Saudi CG practice in relation to board governance and quality of financial reports of the listed firms on the SSE. Findings from this study contribute to the literature on the application of CG in Saudi Arabia by encouraging policy makers and regulators to improve the CG code and ensure compliance by the listed firms. Pages 392 to 410




Exploring Factors Influencing Learner Performance in the Economic and Management Sciences in Rural Kwazulu-Natal Province of South Africa

Siyaya, M.C1, Gamede B.T2, Uleanya, C3* and Ndlovu B.B4, 1,2,4University of Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and 3*University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa. Email: 3*chinazauleanya@yahoo.com

The study explores various factors influencing learner performance in EMS in rural South Africa, using qualitative method. Purposive sampling was used to select the ward where the research was conducted, the schools and the educators. Data was collected from 17 samples through the use of semi-structured interviews which were conducted for 17 teachers, 5 of which were Heads of Department across 17 secondary schools. Collected data were coded and annalysed using themes. The findings of the study amongst others show that recruitment of unqualified teachers, lack of exposure to commercial subjects, negatively affects teaching and learning activities around the subject. Pages 411 to 432



Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards COVID-19 among Pakistan University Students

Dr Zaib Maroofa, Sarah Ahmedb, Dr Noor ul Hadic, a,bFoundation University Islamabad, Pakistan, cCollege of Business Administration, Department of Human Resource Management, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Email: aZaib.maroof@fui.edu.pk, bsarah.qaim@fui.edu.pk, cn_hadi@yahoo.com

Despite the availability of a large amount of information pertinent to COVID-19, a lot of violation of SOPs and available guidelines have not been practiced yet in Pakistan to control the spread of this virus. Therefore, there is a need to recognise the reasons that can improve practices of taking safety measures. For this reason, this study is conducted with a purpose to explain the key role of attitude towards practicing safety measures regarding COVID-19 among Pakistani Universities students. To examine the key role towards practicing safety measures, 359 valid responses were analysed via PROCESS macro. The results indicated that a positive and significant relationship exists between COVID-19 knowledge and COVID-19 practices. However, the direct effect shown by the results of COVID-19 knowledge on COVID-19 practice is significant in the presence of attitude towards COVID-19 as a mediator. Indicating that right attitude regarding disease awareness is predisposed by consistent knowledge on COVID-19, and right attitude towards the prevention of COVID-19 will lead to appropriate COVID-19 preventive practices. Pages 433 to 445

Protection of Children and Women’s Rights in Indonesia through International Regulation Ratification

Laurensius Arliman Sa,  Ni Putu Eka Budi PWDb, aLecture in Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Hukum Padang, bGraduate Student at Andalas University, Email: alaurensiusarliman@gmail.com

Protection of human rights doesn’t differentiate between age and sex, anyone has the right to get protection. Indonesia as a law country is obliged to protect the human rights of its citizens, as well as Indonesia’s is as a member of the United Nations which obliges it to ratify rules relating to women and children’s protection. This article will discuss the extent of ratification carried out by the Indonesia government to illuminate children’s and women’s rights. This type of law research is also commonly referred to as doctrinal law research or as a literature review. It is called doctrinal law research because this research is only aimed at written regulations and it is very closely related to literatures because secondary data is required in the literature review. The results of this research show that the Indonesian government has brought forward children’s rights with the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in the Presidential Decree of the Republic of Indonesia Number 36 of 1990. Besides that, it also resulted in Child Protection Law. Meanwhile for the protection of omen, Indonesia ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in 1984 through Law Number 7 of 1984, concerning Ratification of the Convention regarding the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, which afterward was followed by Presidential Instruction Number 9 of 2000 concerning Gender Mainstreaming, and Law Number 23 of 2004 about the Elimination of Domestic Violence so that, women in Indonesia are more protected. Pages 446 to 461

Exploratory Study on Preventive Measures to Prevent Child Labour Exploitation in Belt and Road Countries from Perspective of Fashion Industry

Yui-yip Lau1, Eve Man Hin Chan2*, 1Division of Business and Hospitality Management, College of Professional and Continuing Education, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, 2Faculty of Design and Environment, Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong (THEi), Hong Kong, Email: *evechan@thei.edu.hk

There are increasing problems of child labour in Asia, specifically in the developing countries. As such, this research work focuses on the exploitation of child labour in Bangladesh, which is not only the largest apparel supplier across the globe, but also the target of numerous reports of child labour exploitation. Many companies outsource their manufacturing to developing countries as the costs of production, labour and land are considerably lower. However, they also neglect the ethical issues in the developing countries and the social issues are downplayed for profit gains. As such, manufacturers may take advantage of the vulnerability of the developing countries by employing their children and paying insufficient wages for their hard work. Most of these children are much younger than the local stipulated legal age of employment. Hence, this research work aims to help provide realistic measures to prevent the exploitation of children and promote the overall welfare of society as well as facilitate sustainable prosperity. The objective of this study is to present a systematic analysis of the literature that documents child labour. The individual measures taken by the different stakeholders might not be adequate enough for a holistic solution to prevent and mitigate child labour. It is also important to take into consideration the viewpoint of the different companies, workers and the Bangladesh government. Therefore, the tripartite theory and Triple Bottom Line model are applied in this research work. This study discusses the issue of child labour with educators and fashion industry experts to obtain their insights and misconceptions. Moreover, the study focuses on providing different perspectives from the education and the industry sectors to better understand their views on child labour which will contribute to a comprehensive analysis of the problem and more robust findings. As many developing countries rely on foreign direct investment (FDI) to expand their market overseas and attract new investment to further develop their economy, such as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), the growing opportunities may only serve to increase the likelihood of child exploitation. Therefore, companies need to understand their role in corporate social responsibility (CSR) as this involves their business reputation and meets the current demands of the community. A social dialogue among the different stakeholders in the community can be conducive and key to preventing child labour. Pages 462 to 494

Preventing Violent Extremism through Augmenting Community Resilience and Empowering Community Members in Swat

Dr. Muhammad Idris1, Dr. Said Saeed 2, Sumaira Noreen3, 1,2Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Assistant Professor, Principal Elementary & Secondary Education KP, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Email:1*midrees@awkum.edu.pk, 2*syedsaeed54@gmail.com   3sumaira.noreen@lcwu.edu.pk

Terrorism is the chronic issue of the hour. It is the disciplined practice of vicious activities like assassinating, slaughtering, mutilating, and frightening of the innocents to attain religious, fiscal, and political goals and to challenge the writ of the state. Leaders of the world promised to transform the planet by empowering community members and building community resilience (CR) against terrorism. This study concentrates on exploring building community resilience against terrorism, empowering community members and implementing strategies for strengthening community resilience.  For data collection, a mixed method methodology was used. Means, STD deviation, Pearson correlation, and thematic analysis were employed for the analysis of the gathered data. The findings of the study were interpreted and recommendations were furnished accordingly. Study results were disseminated to all concerned through conferences and seminar sessions. It is predicted that after completion, the project team was in a robust position to start writing the report that concentrates on strengthening community resilience, which is the crucial goal of this project. The publication will contribute effectively to all stakeholders and society, particularly to the lower rungs of social order. Moreover, it is expected that this project will contribute to future research in the domain of community resilience. This project will also reveal the remarkable potential of archival research on community resilience. Pages 495 to 514

Galileo’s Struggle over Discourse: Brecht’s Extraordinary Expectations

Muhammad Sheeraza, Raza Ali Hasanb, aInternational Islamic University Islamabad, bUniversity of Colorado at Boulder

The emphasis on staging a play with a content that estranges its spectators was a revolutionary move on part of the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. This was perhaps the only way he was able to jolt his audience out of their complacency and recognise the value of reason. Reading his Galileo, as one such contribution that made art’s shift from the psychological to the political and from the cathartic to the educational possible, we argue that Brecht had extraordinary expectations from Galileo as he sees him failing to defeat the functionaries of the ISAs and bring about the necessary changes in the ‘relations of production’. It is impossible for one man to achieve a radical transformation of the ISAs while he was actually aiming at showing the truth that the earth was not the stationary centre of the universe and life on this planet was owing to the velocity it had acquired. Pages 515 to 523   

Factors Influencing Learning Experiences Provision for Early Childhood Development

Ninlapa Jirarattanawannaa*, Sukon Vattanaamornb, Vanida Visuthipanichc, Jaruwan Phaitrakoond and Wattanachai Kwalamthane, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Nursing, Srinakharinwirot University,  Email: aninlapa@g.swu.ac.th

This paper examines factors that influence the care and learning experiences provision (LEP) to children in early childhood development centres. Quantitative research methodology was implemented in the study at the individual and organisational level. Data collection was carried out by questionnaire with 129 teachers/caregivers in Ubon Ratchathani Province. Descriptive and multiple regression were used to analyse data. The results found roughly half of teachers/caregivers had work experiences less than 10 years. Additionally, teachers/caregivers presented a high level of cultural capital utilisation and symbolic capital utilisation to facilitate LEP. This result reflected appropriate knowledge of teachers/caregivers on early childhood caring, especially steps of the care and LEP. Teachers/caregivers were able to demonstrate empirical knowledge to early childhood children through the practical models that allowed early childhood children to learn by themselves. Additionally, the result revealed factors influencing early childhood children’s LEP, which consisted of cultural capital utilisation, symbolic capital utilisation, economic capital utilisation, perception of practical skills development, and perception of fundamental skills development, with statistical significance at the level 0.01. The results predict that the variables related to characteristics, perception of executive functions, and capital utilisation can promote LEP among early childhood development for 56.5 % (R2 = 0.565). Pages 524 to 539

Accounting Disclosure of Social Responsibility and its Role in Enhancing the Quality of Accounting Information (An Analytical Study in a Sample of the Iraqi Industrial Companies)

Akeel Dakheel Kareema, Waad Hadi abdb and Aqeel Jaber Kadhimca,b,c Department of Accounting, Collage of Administration & Economics, Al-MuthannaUniversity,Iraq          
Email: aaqeel.dakheel70@gmail.com, bwaadabd24@yahoo.com                                                                                                                       

The research aims to know the role played by the accounting disclosure of the social responsibility of the industrial companies in the quality of their accounting information provided to the users in decision-making, in addition to the presentation of social expenditures spent by Iraqi companies in order to meet the requirements of customers, employees and the society. In order to achieve this objective, the researcher used the inductive approach in the theoretical and analytical methods and the analytical approach in the practical part for the purpose of testing the hypothesis of the research in a sample of the Iraqi industrial companies represented by Al-Hilal Industrial Company, Baghdad Company for soft drinks and Iraqi Company for the Manufacturing Cardboard Materials, for the fiscal years 2014-2015. After testing the hypothesis, the research objectives were achieved. The most important finding of the research is that the expenditure on social expenses in industrial companies is considered one of the most important factors influencing the acceptance of society for the products provided by these companies, in addition to the existence of a close link between the disclosure of social information for external parties and between the efficiency and quality of the accounting information used to make decisions. The most important recommendation of the research is the need for Iraqi industrial companies to increase the provision of information relating to the commitment to social responsibility towards employees, society and customers because of its clear effect on the continuity of companies in the future. Pages 540 to 554

The Importance of Competitive Advantages to Rationalise Product Costs to Achieve Customer Satisfaction and Attract Investors in the Financial Statements. Applied Research in the Electric Cables Plant / Ur State Company

Mohammed Sameer Dherib AL Robaaiy1, Basim Mohammed Merhej2, Maytham Abed Kadhim3, 1,3Collage of Management & Economics, Al- Muthanna University, Iraq, 2Collage of Arts, Al- Muthanna University, Iraq, Email: 1mohammed19691108@gmail.com, 1dr.mohamedsm@mu.edu.iq, 2basammohmmed2014@gmail.com, 3Maytham.almusaway@gmail.com

The research aims to explain the reasons for the high cost of production and the application of modern concepts in accounting costs and administrative, which came to remove loss and waste and rationalisation of costs and improve operational performance in response to changing conditions in the business environment. As a result of these variables and circumstances, the research problem was manifested in the high cost of manufacturing the products of Ur Company, which lost competitive precedence with other products in terms of price, quality and other specifications imported from various sources. In order to achieve the objective of the research and solve the problem, a basic hypothesis was developed that the use and application of modern concepts leads to rationalising the cost of manufacturing products, improving activities and processes, and creates a market share in the local environment. It is also necessary to continuously seek (i) to reduce the production, marketing and administrative costs of the plant, (ii) the need to seek replacement of machinery and equipment with advanced technology machines, (iii) to impose customs duties on the imported products and (iv) activate the role of the standardisation and quality control apparatus. Pages 555 to 576

Cheating during Examinations: Prevalence, Consequences, Contributing Factors and Prevention

Zafar Iqbal1, Muhammad Anees2, Dr Rahim Khan3, Dr. Iffat Ara Hussain4, Shagufta Begum5, Abdur Rashid6, Dr. Abdulwadood7, Dr. Farooq Hussain8

 1,3,4Qurtuba University of science and information technology Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 2Department of English Government College Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 5Department of Pashto, Government Degree College Jalozai Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 6Deputy Director sports Directorate of Higher education Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 7Department of Education, Sarhad university of Science and information technology Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. 8Department of Physical education & Sports Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Academic cheating, whether during examinations, study projects or the whole assessment period of academic activities, is a serious dilemma which is ubiquitous in learning institutes throughout the world. The problem is equally prevalent in Pakistan and reaches peaks during examinations and academic assessments. The issue reflects the degree of social, psychological and ethical norms of students engaged in cheating, although the role of institutions in directing academic cheating is also debatable. The practice negatively affects fair academic grading, the behaviour of non-cheating students, overall ethical standards expected of the future graduates and qualitative standards of the learning institutes. It is logical to presume that cheating during academic activities will likely influence the professional life of students in the workplace. In order to safeguard academic integrity, it is necessary to understand factors which contribute to the practice of cheating among students. The aim of this paper is to present the prevalence of academic cheating in higher education institutes during examinations, their corresponding factors and prospective preventive measures. Pages 601 to 609

The Role of Person-Organisation Fit and Affective Commitment in Inspiring Citizenship Behaviours among Banking Sector Employees of Pakistan

Muhammad Zohaib Tahira, Noor Ul Hadib, Tahir Mumtaz Awanc, aPhD Scholar – COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan. bCollege of Business Administration, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd, University Al~Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. cAssistant Professor - COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Organisational citizenship behaviour has been deemed crucially relevant for organisational effectiveness and success; thus, significant emphasis is laid upon enhancing and sustaining favourable workplace attitudes and behaviours by managements across organisations. Various models of organisational citizenship behaviour have been presented by researchers in the past; however, a meagre number of studies managed to establish a causal framework explaining employees’ drive towards citizenship behaviours. Therefore, the present study analysed the role of person-organisation fit in inspiring citizenship behaviours through affective commitment upon two backdrops i.e., Social Exchange Theory and Social Identity Theory. The study employed 290 valid responses; conveniently collected from the six major banking sector organisations operating in Pakistan, which were subjected to regression analysis through the Process Macro [Model-4] for SPSS v. 22. Subsequent to analysis, it was found that affective commitment partially mediates the relationship between person-organization fit and organisational citizenship behaviour; signifying that, values congruence elicits higher commitment from employees, eventually promoting citizenship behaviours; whereas, incongruence in employee-organisational values may hold adverse implications for commitment levels as well as the employees’ tendency to exhibit extra-role behaviours. Pages 610 to 634

Improving Student Learning and Engagement by Integrating Mobile Technology and Rebuttal Writing in Teacher’s Feedback

Dr. Urooj Fatima1*, Dr. Obaid Aslam 2, Dr. Khizar Hayyat3, Dr.  Faiz Ul Hassan Shah4,  Dr. Muhammad Usman Riaz5, 1*Riphah International University, Department of Education, Faisalabad. 2Riphah International University, Department of Education, Faisalabad. 3Riphah International University, Department of Education, Faisalabad.  4HOD Department of Education, Mir Chakar Khan Rind University Sibi, Baluchistan 5Research Assistant, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, China

Email: *Corresponding author. 1fatimaarooj092@gmail.com, 2Muhammadobaidaslam@gmail.com, 3khizarhayat332@yahoo.com, 4syed.f@mckru.edu.pk, 5musmanriaz@yahoo.com

The feedback from the teacher is significant for forming a conducive learning experience, though it is of trivial importance in the absence of student engagement. Preciously, few researchers have empirically investigated the impact of the direct intervention on the enhancement of student engagement following the teacher's feedback. The study intends to find out the impact and use of rebuttal writing tasks and mobile technology as a learning tool and its promotion of students' engagement with teachers' feedback. A mixed research methodology was adopted where experimental design and meta-analysis was performed. For rebuttal writing, the experimental research design, a total of 118 undergraduate students were recruited using multiple sources (structured questionnaire, students’ first drafts, as well as their revised essays. The meta-analysis explored the influence of integrated mobile technology. For this, 110 articles published from 1993 to 2013 (experimental as well as quasi-experiment) were assessed. The experimental findings provide that rebuttal writing was enjoyed by the students considering the value it adds. Whereas, the findings of the meta-analysis showed the mean size effect of 0.523 for the use of mobile devices for learning. The study concluded that rebuttal writing facilitated the teachers’ feedback effect, while the integration of mobile technology improves students’ engagement towards learning. Pages 635 to 652

The Optimum Release Height for Javelin Throwers in Proportion to Their Lengths

Jamal Abubshara¹, Osama Abdel Fattah², 1Dr, Department of Physical Education, Palestine Technical University-Khadoorie. Palestine, ²Dr, Ministry of education, Amman, Jordan 

This study aimed at identifying the optimum height release for  javelin throw  proportion to  the length of the world champions in the javelin throw event.  To achieve this, the researchers used the descriptive correlative approach on a sample of international champions in this event (n=33). Data were collected through some of the previous studies. The study results showed the optimum height release of a javelin throw constitutes a 105.75% proportion to the length of the world champions in this event. The researchers recommend coaches to reconsider determining the height release of the javelin with achieving the optimum velocity and angle release should also be provided. Abbreviations should not be used in the abstract. Pages 653 to 657

Does Fatigue have an Effect on the Correlative Relationship between Kinematic Variables of the Penalty kick in Soccer?

Jamal Abubshara¹, Osama Abdel Fattah², 1Dr, Department of Physical Education, Palestine Technical University-Khadoorie. Palestine, ²Dr, Ministry of education, Amman, Jordan 

The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of fatigue on the correlative relationship between the penalty kinematic variables. To achieve that, the quasi-experimental approach has been applied to nine (9) male soccer players.  Each player has kicked ten (10) balls from the penalty point, five (5) balls before and five (5) balls after the application, so that the total number of attempts was ninety (90) shots. The study sample was videotaped by using tow Canon 6D video cameras which reached a speed 60 f/s, one placed vertically at the lateral level and the other placed vertically behind the player and on the front level. Furthermore, a total of 74 successful attempts were analysed by using the Kenova kinematic analysis program (0.8.27 x64). The results of the study showed a statistically significant difference in the values of kinematic variables pre and post the application of the fatigue protocol and for the benefit of  measurement. Also, the accuracy of the kick variable was the most variable affected by fatigue (29.3) %.  In addition, the effect of fatigue was studied on the correlative relationship between the kinetic variables under study. Pages 658 to 670

Pakistan Studies Curriculum at Graduate level in District Peshawar, Pakistan

Tabassum Mehbooba& Amjad Rebab, Adnan Shezadc, aPh.D, Pakistan Study Center, University of Peshawar, bAssistant Professor, Institute of Education and Research, University of Peshawar, cPhD, Institute of Education and Research, University of Peshawar.

The paper was designed to explore the perceptions of students regarding Pakistan Studies curriculum at graduate level. This was a quantitative type of study. The questionnaire was used to collect information from students at graduate level. The data were tabulated and descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage were calculated. Friedman’s chi-square test was used for testing hypotheses categorical variables. The data found that the majority of the students 82.6 % agreed that they take interest in learning the subject of Pakistan Studies.  Most of the respondents 87.0% agreed that the subject matter of course content generate creative thinking among the students. Majority of the respondents 77.8% agreed that the curriculum reflects the ideology of Pakistan. It is recommended that the objectives of the curriculum must be properly defined and teachers must emphasize the need for national integration, unity, and patriotism because without it the curriculum would not be useful. Pages 671 to 682

Media Socialisation - The Influence of Media that led to a Genocide: A Case of Rwanda and Egypt

Omar Gomaaa, Sivamurugan Pandianb, Nur Hafeeza Binti Ahmad Pazilc, a(Main Author) Master candidate at School of Social Sciences, Anthropology and Sociology, Universiti Sains Malaysia. b(Correspondent Author) Prof., Dr. at Department of Anthropology and Sociology, School of Social Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, c(Co-Supervisor) PhD, at Department of Anthropology and Sociology, School of Social Siences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Email: aomarjomaa2006@gmail.com, bpsiva@usm.my, chafeezapazil@usm.my

“Slaughter the sheep” and “Cut down the tall trees”: two sentences that describe the origin of two genocides that occurred on African soil. Both Egypt and Rwanda witnessed two genocides that sent the countries backward. This paper examines the role of media socialisation that led the Rabaa genocide to occur in Egypt and the Rwandan genocide that took place in 1994. This paper ascertains that media socialisation successfully shifted moderate inhabitants, who had no political backgrounds, to become a killing machine. Whilst Egyptian media contained social media, T.V channels, and newspapers to socialise the military, police and inhabitants abominate the Muslim Brotherhood. It had also sought an ample – motivation – to murder them. The Rwandan media utilised a radio channel known as RTLM. RTLM, however, was the sole factor that led to the genocide by the abominable messages it propagated thus cajoling the Interahamwe to murder the Tutsis. Pages 683 to 695 

Impact of Leader-Member Exchange on Customer-oriented Citizenship Behavior through Job Embeddedness and the Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethics

Maham Tariqa, Dr. Sajjad Hussainb, Mehwish Ali Khanc, Dr. Junaid ul Haqd, Shaheena Hafeeze, aRiphah International University, Faisalabad Campus, bAssistant Professor, Foundation University, Islamabad, cLecturer, Riphah International University, Islamabad, dAssistant Professor, Riphah International University, Faisalabad Campus, eMS Scholar, Foundation University University, Islamabad, Email: aMahaa004@gmail.com, bsajjad.hussain@fui.edu.pk, cmehvish.ali@riphah.edu.pk, djunaid041@yahoo.com, eShaheenahafeez.82@gmail.com

This study examined the impact of Leader-member exchange (LMX) on Customer-oriented citizenship behavior (COCB) with the mediating role of Job embeddedness (JE) under the S-O-R theory. Further, the conditional effect of Islamic work ethics (IWE) was examined on LMX and JE. The quantitative study used a convenient sampling technique using n=298 frontline customer service restaurant employees based in Pakistan. All instruments were rated by subordinates except for the COCB outcome which was rated by supervisors. A cross-sectional study was employed using three separate time lags. Survey data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire containing 35 closed ended statements. AMOS was used to determine the model fit through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Regression analysis using SPSS was performed to determine direct main effects. Model 4 in Process macro v3.4 was used for testing hypothesized mediation. Model 1 was used for testing hypothesized moderation. Positive results were obtained for all hypothesized direct effects. Findings revealed that LMX explained significant variance for predicting employee attitude and behavior. Findings for indirect effects of JE also confirmed partial mediation in the relationship between LMX and COCB. The conditional effects of IWE on LMX and employees’ attitude was significant. Limitations faced within this study were addressed and recommendations were developed to assist future researchers with these limitations. Pages 696 to 719

Role of Brand and Endorser Credibility in Brand Equity of Cell Phone in Pakistan

Ali Razaa, Muhammad Bilalb*, Muhammad Maroof AjmalcSaqib Jamild, Naveede, Waseemullahf, aSenior Teacher O Level, LACAS, Gujranwala Campus, Pakistan, b*BBA Faculty Member/Coordinator, Department of Business & Economics, FG Sir Syed College Rawalpindi, Pakistan, Corresponding Author, cAssistant Professor, University Institute of Management Sciences, PMAS-University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi, Pakistan, dAssistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, University of Okara, Pakistan, eAssociate Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Qurtuba University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan, fLecturer, Department of Management Sciences, University of Gujrat, Pakistan. Email: arao.ali.raza09@gmail.com, b*rao.muhammad.bilal@gmail.com, cdr.maroof@uaar.edu.pk, dsaqib.jamil@uo.edu.pk, enaveedtoru97@gmail.com, fwaseem.ullah@uog.edu.pk

The use of endorsers is an effective technique in marketing adopted by companies to get a competitive edge over other competitors and get a distinctive place by becoming more visible in the clutter of advertisements. Previous studies focused on impact of endorser on buying behavior towards brand. The purpose of the current study is to examine the role of endorser and brand credibility towards brand equity of cell phone in Pakistan. The study also examines the mediating role of brand credibility between endorser credibility and brand equity. A total data of 211 respondents from six universities from Islamabad, Lahore and Multan were collected using simple random and stratified techniques. The data were collected using questionnaire which was adopted from scales that were already used in different studies. Instrument was adopted after establishing the reliability and validity of the scales. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and mediation affect was checked in line with Baron and Kenny’s model for mediation. The findings of the study support the previous studies which argued that endorser with higher credibility greatly effects the brand equity as compare to an endorser with less credibility. In addition, the results of the study show that the relation between endorser credibility and brand equity is mediated by brand credibility. Pages 720 to 747

The Impact of Unsystematic Risks on Stock Market Return in Jordanian Commercial Banks

Dr. Naseem Abu Roman, Associate professor in Finance, Banking and Finance Sciences Department, Faculty of Business & Finance, The World Islamic Sciences & Education University (W.I.S.E), Amman, Jordan, Email: naseemm55@yahoo.com

This study aimed to explore the impact of unsystematic risks (credit risk, liquidity risk and operational risks) on the stock market return in Jordanian commercial banks during the period 2009 to 2019. The study sample consisted of all Jordanian commercial banks, after excluding the three Islamic banks from the study sample, due to the different nature of their activities, and thus the final sample size becomes thirteen banks. The researcher relied on secondary data obtained from the Amman Stock Exchange website to calculate the stock market return, and the financial statements of Jordanian commercial banks to measure the level of unsystematic risk. The stock market return was calculated through the combined monthly return for a period of twelve months starting from May of the fiscal year and ending in April of the following fiscal year. Thereby, the period between May of the one year and April of the following year represents the window of study. The study found an impact of unsystematic risks (credit risk, liquidity risk and operational risk) on the stock market return in Jordanian commercial banks. The study recommends the need for commercial banks to pay attention to unsystematic risks because of their impact on the stock market return, and thus maximising the wealth of owners, as the value of market shares reflects investors' perceptions of the performance of companies and the efficiency of their management. Pages 748 to 765

Seeing Creativity: Attitudes towards Creativity from a Pakistani Sociocultural Background

Parveen Khana, Muhammad Kamranb, aAssistant professor, Institute of Education & Research, University of Peshawar, Pakistan, bAssistant professor, Department of Education, University of Loralai, Balochistan, Pakistan, Email: adrparveen@uop.edu.pk, bkamrankundi86@gmail.com  

From the Pakistani sociocultural perspective, this study investigated the general attitudes of Pakistani teachers towards creativity, which were ranked as the medium by involving a total of 155 (65 Males and 90 Females) teachers from diverse areas. Demographic variables such as gender, highest professional qualification, teaching level, and key subjects taught brought significant statistical differences in their attitudes towards creativity. The findings were discussed in light of past literature. Suggestions and limitations for future research were discussed. Pages 766 to 780

The furniture Prototype Design from Materials and Lam Pan mats in Ban Kho, Prachinburi Province

Thongtep Sirisoda1, Rawinan Loymek2, 1Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Pathum Thani, Thailand, 2King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand. Email: 1Thongtep_S@rmutt.ac.th

The objective of this research is 1) to study the design of furniture placement for interior buildings; and 2) to evaluate the furniture design development for the creative library of Wat Chai Mongkhon School, Prachinburi Province, Thailand. The researcher studied information based on theories and related academic concepts. The methodology of qualitative research based on observation, inquiry, interviewing with prospective teachers, students, community representatives and 50 designers was utilised. The researcher had simulated three-dimensional images in order to create models for target groups and analyse problems. To find out the demand and synthesis of information, the collected data was classified into tables of numbers that calculated the mean, percentage and standard deviation. The findings were that target groups (teachers, students, community representatives and designers) are satisfied with both the designed furniture placement and with the creative interior design of Wat Chai Mongkhol School Prachinburi Province, Thailand at the highest level. Pages 791 to 800

Impact of Complaint Handling, Brand Credibility & Brand Commitment on Brand Trust- Evidence from the Telecom Sector of a Developing Nation

Sobia Shujaata, Baseer Durranib, Iram Tahirc, Asif Kamrand, aAssistant Professor, Business Studies Department, Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan, bLecturer in Marketing, Nottingham Trent University, UK, cAssociate Lecturer, University of Central Lancashire, UK, dDepartment of business and management studies. Nazeer Hussain University, Karachi, pakistan

The present work is dedicated to examining the statistical analysis of three different topographies of brand (compliant handling, credibility, commitment) to enhance brand trust among consumers in the telecommunication sector. It also examines the mediating role of customer satisfaction on brand trust and its antecedents. The study was conducted in twin cities of Pakistan; primary data was gathered through a structured questionnaire. The population of the study comprised of telecom subscribers residing in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. 450 questionnaires were distributed among users of mobile phones whereas, 384 of them were completed and returned producing a response rate of 83%. The relationships among the variables were tested using SPSS-20, to get results for reliability, correlation, and regression analysis. The underlying theories employed to support variables in the research framework were Marketing Relationship Theory and Signaling Theory. The results revealed a significant influence of compliant handling, brand credibility, and brand commitment on brand trust. Customer satisfaction mediated the relationship between complaint handling, brand credibility, and brand commitment with brand trust. The study holds future implications for researchers and practitioners to enhance customer trust through complaint handling, credibility, and commitment to improving customer services. Pages 801 to 819

Quality Investment Decisions in Building Sustainable Smart Cities in the United Arab Emirates

Hala AL Yousfia, Badariah Haji dinb, Rusdi Omarc, a,b,cUniversiti Utara Malaysia, b,cSupervisor

In light of rapid development, many changes are sweeping the world as the phenomenon of smart government becomes more urgent with increasing applications and artificial intelligence. This has greatly contributed to pushing most organisations to respond quickly and smartly to the changes that occur and confront institutions, whether at the internal level of the organisation or at the community level, and investing in targeted innovations and increasing reliance on information technology. Hence, hundreds of research studies have been conducted on this phenomenon in these accelerating areas to keep pace with new technological development and to build organisations based on their structure. Studies have also been made on the vision and system of smart cities in line with creative thinking and innovative expectations. These have become a vital element indispensable for the continuation and prosperity of an organisation's activity. The main challenges of this study are to build an integrated smart city run by leaders who are able to make investment decisions for the city, and to provide insight into industries in various sectors. Large cities need to build an integrated automated system to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of crisis and disaster management and risk management represented in identifying risks and disasters according to the classification of the risk profile. In addition to the possibility of linking with all operational systems in the relevant organisations. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to study the relationship between the quality of investment decisions and the objectives of building. Analysing motives for building a smart city and to clarify the technologies that support the city are also important. As is how to face problems and challenges in smart cities and how to apply leadership practices as the mainstay of development and the true wealth of the nation to bring about change and development. This mission can only be achieved under conscious leadership based on sophisticated strategic foundations that support a culture of innovation and new practices, and work to attract enormous potential for investments. From here came the idea of adopting smart cities initiatives and developing a road map for city management with an integrated and sustainable methodology, with the use of capable expertise efficiently and supporting investment decisions, and to be an example to follow. It constitutes best practices and standards at the global level. Pages 820 to 834

Identity in Al-Qusaybi’s Novel “Al-Asfouriyeh”: A Semiotic Study

Thana Aldhafeeria, Zamri Arifinb, Firuz-akhtar Lubisc, a,bNational University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: athth2_@hotmail.com (corresponding author), babuzaim@ukm.edu.my, cfiruz@ukm.edu.my

Ghazi Al-Qusaybi is one of the Saudi men of letters who enriched the literary arena with lots of works that included poetry, stories, and novels. Such works of this prolific writer reflect his stature in the literary field. The position Al-Qusaybi held throughout his life helped in creating a different type of thinking. The current study aims to investigate identity in Al-Qusaybi’s novel “Al-Asfouriyeh” in an attempt to highlight its constituents, to analyse it, and to approach it semiotically. The study adopted the analytical descriptive method to illustrate the novel’s theme and the types of identity that Al-Qusaybi wanted to delineate through listing them and through explaining the symbolic connotations that such an identity incorporates. The study came up with a set of findings; the foremost among them are the several types of identities represented by: symbolic identity of the title, psychological identity, political identity, literary identity, and finally religious identity. Through such types of identities, the author managed to disseminate his ideas in the novel “Al-Asfouriyeh: that concentrated on madness as a cover by which he could convey some ideas and narrate events. Pages 835 to 844

The Impact of Long-Term Debt and Debt-Maturity on the Corporate Investment Decision of the MNCs - Evidence from Pakistan Stock Exchange

Mohammad Adnan1, Allah Rakha2, Tasawar Abdul Hamid3, Dr Rana Tahir Naveed4, Muhammad Waris5, 1SBS Swiss Business School, 2Research Scholar at Air University, Islamabad (Corresponding Author), 3Cardiff Metropolitan University, 4Department of Economics and Business Administration, Art & Social Sciences Division, University of Education, Lahore, 5PhD Scholar, University Uttara, Malaysia,

Email: 1adnan.abdulhamid@gmail.com, 2allahrakha1122@yahoo.com, 3Tasawar.abdulhamid@gmail.com, 4Tahir.naveed@ue.edu.pk, 5Muhammadwaris.vf@ue.edu.pk

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of institutional investment decision of MNCs listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange. Methods/Statistical analysis: Multinational companies of non-financial firms were selected based on market capitalisation.  Data was collected from annual reports and some companies have fallen out due to an outlier's problem and missing financial information. Finally, in this study  financial MNC’s samples listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange were examined from the 2013-2017 period. Panel data used for estimation and fixed effect model was selected based on Hausman and Likelihood test. Findings: The result of the conceptual framework shows that in the common effect model only cash flow and firm size significantly influence the investment decision of the firm, but whenever we extended the model to incorporate the time and individual effect by applying fixed effect model, board size, cash flow, fixed capital intensity, firm size and growth opportunity are the significant determinants of a corporate investment decision. Finely debt maturity, leverage, cash flow, firm size, return on assets and corporate ownership are key determinants affecting the enterprise investment decision in Pakistan. Pages 845 to 861



Distribution of Productive Zakat for Reducing Urban Poverty in Indonesia

Nur Kholisa, Mugiyatib, a,bFakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam, UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: anurkholis@uinsby.ac.id,   bmugiyati@uinsby.ac.id

Productive zakat is a strategic mechanism to help alleviate poverty. This study aims to explore the mechanism by which BAZNAS manages productive zakat in an attempt to help alleviate poverty in Indonesia. This study uses a qualitative exploratory approach. Documentary data pertaining to zakat distribution to mustahīq in the urban poor Surabaya was collected from the East Java BAZNAS office. Several interviews with the leaders of this office were also conducted to capture their views on the management of productive zakat. The results showed that to reduce the poverty of the urban poor, the BAZNAS applies a strategic distribution of productive zakat implemented through (1) a revolving capital loan to increase venture capital of the mustahīq members of MSMEs run under the qarḑ al-ḫasan contract, and (2) providing work equipment for starting or developing businesses. These mechanisms were effective in helping the poor for starting and expanding their business, hereby improving their wellbeing. It is suggested that amil zakat may increase the allocation of zakat distribution for productive purposes, rather than for one stop consumption. This study expands the understanding of the currently developed approach to zakat management and provides sound good practices in reducing poverty. Pages 1 to 12




Course Design for Teaching Development: Key Considerations for Faculty Developers

Mohammed Saleh Alkathiri, Assistant Professor of Teaching and Learning with emphasis in Higher Education, Deanship of Academic Development, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Email: msalkathiri@iau.edu.sa

The purpose of this paper is to address key elements of designing a course that aims at developing core competencies in teaching and learning for faculty members.  The paper includes discussion of the initial preparation, objectives and learning outcomes, syllabus construction, assignments, assessments, grading, and teaching strategies.  The paper is divided into sections, one for each theme or key topic in relation to course design.  Finally, a brief reflection concludes the paper.  The process of course design did not only allow to learn about the principles of course design, but also expanded one’s understanding of oneself as a faculty developer. Pages 13 to 29



Pilot Study of Heartbeat Sensors for Data Streaming in Virtual Reality (VR) Training

Yui-yip Laua, Yuk Ming Tangb*, Ka Yin Chauc, Ho Yan Huib, a Division of Business and Hospitality Management, College of Professional and Continuing Education, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, b Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, c Faculty of International Tourism and Management, City University of Macau, Macau

Virtual reality (VR) training is important for medical staff nowadays especially for those who handle sharp objects. The training can be used to prevent accidents or potential injuries to them as they can happen at any moment during surgical procedures, disassembling, or disposal of sharp objects. For education and training purposes, VR simulated precautions training in hospitals, caring centres, etc. is proposed. In this article, we describe a pilot study of VR simulated training. The pilot study involves an initial experiment and data collection of a simulated VR education and training program by using the biosensors of the developed wearable device. Through the development of an immersive and 3D VR environment in the working place, the simulation is intended to provide VR training for health care employees and medical practitioners. In this pilot study, we attempt to design and develop a wearable device for heartbeat rate data capture and collection when the trainee is undergoing VR training. Thus, the medical workers can be trained under supervision and monitoring. The developed heartbeat device can successfully collect the bio-data of the trainees during simulated training, and the accuracy of the sensors was also validated. Pages 30 to 41

Applying Waiting Queue Models to Solve Queue Problems During the Corona Pandemic in Khartoum State Hospitals (Al-Hikma Hospital as a Model)

Dr. Ahmed Osman Ibrahim Ahmed1, Dr. Mohamednour Eltahir Ahmed Abdelgadir2, [1],2Associate Professor, Department of Business Administration, Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal University, Faculty of Applied Studies and Community Service

The research dealt with the application of waiting lines models in Al-Hikma Hospital in Khartoum State. The research problem lied in the phenomenon of queues in the hospital, which was exacerbated by the Corona pandemic, which necessitated hospitals to conduct more restrictions on auditors in order to avoid the risks arising from the possibility of transmission of the virus. The research aimed to solve the problem of waiting clients using queue models. The researcher adopted the observation method to collect data and information and also adopted the quantitative methods for Windows 2 to extract the findings. The most important findings  of the research lied in that the waiting of patients in the circumstances of the new Corona virus has health consequences related to the nature of the virus and the way it spreads. This necessitated the application of other measures to prevent congestion and waiting. One of the findings was also that the waiting period for customers is long compared to known waiting standards despite the application of some rules such as the appointment system and restriction on a spatially attending hospitals for emergency cases only. The most important research recommendations were to increase the number of service providers, taking into account the cost component, conduct studies related to customer satisfaction, and constantly survey the work environment to avoid any shortcomings, increase competitiveness, and the need to observe known global protocols through follow-up and training. Pages 42 to 61

Structural Equation Modelling the Interrelationships between Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Behavioural Intention among Maldivians seeking Medical Tourism Services

Ahmed Ali Jaleela*, Ali Khatibib, S. M. Ferdous Azamc, a PhD Candidate, Post Graduate Centre, Management and Science University, University Drive, Off Persiaran Olahraga, Section 13, 40100, Selangor, Malaysia, b,cGraduate School of Management, Management and Science University, University Drive, Off Persiaran Olahraga, Section 13, 40100, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: a*jaleel.aa@gmail.com, balik@msu.edu.my, cdrferdous@msu.edu.my

This quantitative study contributes to theory and practice by analysing the interrelationships between service quality, customer satisfaction and behavioural intention among Maldivians’ seeking medical tourism services. A total of 385 samples collected using stratified proportionate random sampling and a survey questionnaire approach in a non-contrived cross-sectional setting with minimal interference of the researcher. The study seeks to fill existing gaps in literature related to medical industry, and this study will be a first of its kind for the Maldives, as it is conducted nationwide across the 19 atolls to generalise the results of this study conducted in the Maldives context. The findings indicated that service quality significantly affects customer satisfaction as well as behavioural intention. Further analysis is provided for testing the intervening effect of customer satisfaction on the relationship between service quality and behavioural intention. The study results would help policymakers in the Maldives to formulate better policies on medical care and medical tourism. Academics in the field of business management and marketing would be able to utilise findings to enrich literature. Furthermore, the study assists marketeers and business analysts formulate new marketing strategies to penetrate the South Asian region market, with an emphasis on the medical care industry in the Maldives. Pages 62 to 80

The Poetry of Ibn Al-Qaysarani: A Stylistic Study / Al-Thughriyat as a Model

Ismail Suliman Almazaidaha, Majed Gazi Alzubib, Moath Hazza Alzubic, aAssociate Professor of Arabic Literature, The University of Jordan, Amman, bProfessor of Arabic syntax, The University of Jordan, Amman, cAssistant Professor of Arabic syntax, The University of Jordan, Amman, Email: aGuefara1981@yahoo.com, ai.mazaydah@ju.edu.jo, bm_alzubi@ju.edu.jo, cm_zubi@ju.edu.jo

This study aims to examine the poetry of Ibn Al-Qaysarani, which he told during his trip to the thughoor (fortified towns) that was later called (Al-Thughriyat), from two points of view: personal subjective stylistics and statistical stylistics. The research found that Al-Thughriyat were merely short pieces that did not exceed fifteen verses at its finest, and that the poet was fascinated with the fortified towns he visited as well as the Western civilization which he did not find in his country. After studying the lexicon, the research found that the poet’s words were softer than they were before, as his jihadist poetry was a true picture of ancient Arab poetry. We saw that he disbelieved in Arab poets such as Al-Mutanabi and Abu Tammam whom he used to consider a light for him in his jihadist poetry. Rather, he started following a poet like Abu Nawas into his flirtation with the Frankish women. Pages 81 to 93

Education’s Role: Rights and Responsibilities of individuals in Welfare State

Dr. Said Saeed1 Dr. Muhammad Idris 2 Dr. Muhammad Tariq 3, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan

Man is gregarious by nature and cannot live without society. It is the moral duty of an individual to devote his/her energies to the service of society in a welfare state. Education can yield values in individuals for making this planet a better place for living. As a member of welfare state, every individual has certain rights and responsibilities in common with other individuals. The paper concentrates to investigate education role and responsibilities of individuals in a welfare state. These research questions were addressed; does education play its role in developing positive values in individuals in a welfare state? What are the rights of individuals in a welfare state? What are the responsibilities of individuals in a welfare state? Qualitative approach was employed to collect data from the informants. Thematic analysis was applied to make analysis of the data. Findings showed that it is a way to realize his self in the self of others, education inculcates citizenship values, and citizens are made not born, and citizenship is an art which has to be learnt through education. It is recommended that quality education may be ensured to make strong our character and prove ourselves worthy citizens of a worthy state. Pages 94 to 110

The Influence of International Accounting Standards on the Economic Development Aftermath of COVID-19

Aymen Raheem Abdulaali Almayyahia, Mustafa Abdullah Mohammedb, Alhamzah Alnoorc, Sammar Abbasd and Zeeshan Zaib Khattake, a,bSouthern Technical University, Management Technical College, Iraq; cSchool of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Southern Technical University, Management Technical College, Iraq; d,eInstitute of Business Studies, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Pakistan.

This study was carried out to determine the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) policies and the extent of its impact on sustainable development. During the Covid-19 pandemic there have been changes in these policies to adjust the financial risk caused by the pandemic. Similarly, the International Accounting Standards was studied to evaluate the effects on reporting of Expected Credit Loss Assessment. The International Accounting Standards revealed the impact of contract revenue reporting. The International Accounting Standards were investigated to determine the effect on reporting and disclosure of Fair Value Measurements (FVM). Similarly, it was found that the reporting mechanism of equity and debts has also been changed to adjust to the situation caused by Covid-19. To meet the objectives of the study, online qualitative data was accessed and used. To study the various changes in financial reporting standards caused by Covid-19 to mitigate the risk, online data was randomly selected and evaluated as discussed in the methodology section. Pages 111 to 125

Implications of Tax Audit and Investigation on Taxpayers’ Compliance in Nigeria 

Samuel Adebayo Olaoyea  and Tajudeen Abimbola Busarib, Department of Accouting, Babcock University, Ilishan, Ogun state, Nigeria. Email: olaoyes@babcock.edu.nga and tajubusari@yahoo.comb

The case of tax compliance globally is complex and largely depends on the attitudinal dispositions and taxpayers’ perception of optimal tax revenue utilisation by the governments. Previous studies had argued that taxpayers are willing to obey tax laws naturally without being audited or the threat of tax investigation; rather the presence of tax justice, optimal utilisation of tax revenue and transparency is enough to motivate compliance. Consequently, this study investigated the effects of tax audit and investigation on taxpayers’ compliance in Nigeria. The study employed cross-sectional survey research design, using a self-structured questionnaire administered to purposively selected senior members of Federal Inland Revenue Services (IFRS), a body responsible for tax collection and administration in Nigeria. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The descriptive result showed that regular tax audits influence tax compliance {Average Score = 4.05; SD = 0.93} with 76.12% percentage of total Agree; the responses relatively vary as suggested by the computed standard deviation Inferential regressions analysis carried out which revealed that a tax audit and investigation had a positive statistical significant effect on tax compliance, AdjR2 = 0.111; F-Statistics (3, 352) = 15.838; P-value = 0.000. The study recommended that the level of tax compliance in Nigeria could drastically improve when the taxpayers’ perception of corruption and insincerity of government is proved otherwise by the governments’ clear demonstration of honesty, transparency and optimal tax utilisation. Pages 126 to 141

Potential Demand Prediction of Automated Parcel Lockers Adoption in Bangkok, Thailand

Orawee Thongkama, Manoj Lohatepanontb*, Pongsa Pornchaiwiseskulc*, aLogistics and supply chain management, Graduate School, bTransportation Institution, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, cFaculty of Economics, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, Corresponding Author* Email: aorawee.th@gmail.com, b*manoj.l@chula.ac.th, c*pongsa.p@chula.ac.th

Online shopping businesses grow significantly in Thailand. Home delivery is the first choice from a customer perspective, however, with the failure rate, automated parcel locker (APL) appears to be an alternative. This study proposes a multiple linear regression to investigate socio-demographic, behaviors and preferences of customers impacts on probability of using APL in Thailand. The study uses 718 observations from both online and offline surveys in Bangkok. The result shows that the positive impacts for demand prediction are age range (>46 years old), type of accommodation (commercial building and apartment), household living (with parents, and with spouse and child/children, discount price, hours using Internet per day, frequency of online shopping, and APL location types. In terms of location, the condominium has the highest impacts, followed by office buildings. For negative impacts, there are gender (female), age (18-25 years old), PhD education level, income between THB 30,001-45,000, online shopping experience, own a car, occupation (being full time employee and unemployed), have someone stay home during the day, APL location (Shopping mall) and travelling distance. Pages 142 to 160

Designing a New Retirement Plan (with Special Reference to Service Class People)

Dr. Naila Iqbal Qureshi, Associate Professor, Business administration Department, College of Business Administration, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, KSA

Planning for retirement years means determining how much money a person will need to live comfortably when finally retiring from work, that is, from a service or profession. Retirement planning helps in weighing the options and identifying the best ways to save for retirement, given the financial situation and the capacity for risk. The researcher analysed that the plan should provide higher return to their investors. The investment should be risk free. The new plan should be risk free and should provide maximum risk cover. At present there are various retirement plans running in India, so the researcher concentrated only upon the top pension plans. The new plan only compared with the LIC’s jeevan nidhi (LIFE TREASURE) means: LIC's JEEVAN NIDHI is a with profits Deferred Annuity (Pension) plan. On survival of the policyholder beyond term of the policy the accumulated amount (i.e. Sum Assured + Guaranteed Additions + Bonuses) is used to generate a pension (annuity) for the policyholder. The plan also provides a risk cover during the deferment period. The USP of the plan being the pension can commence at 40 years. The premiums paid are exempt under Section 80CCC of Income Tax Act because it is the best plan among all plans. It is hard to understand the financial calculations by companies, but if we talk about LIC’s policies, there is a software-based system for computing the annuity amount, risk cover amount and the surrender value, which is hard to understand and is dependent upon the company’s profitability. Pages 161 to 180

The Role of the Crown Prince in the Political System of Kuwait

Nour Huwaidi Al Huwaidi, PhD student- Cairo University - Faculty of Economics and Political Science

This paper aims to study and analyse the role of the Crown Prince in the political system of Kuwait.This paper uses analytical and descriptive methods in analysing the role of the Crown Prince in the political system of Kuwait, describing and analysing the rules, methods and duties related to choosing the Crown Prince in Kuwait. The Kuwaiti constitution specified how to assume the position of Crown Prince, defined the duties of the Crown Prince, and linked the position of Prime Minister in the government to that of the Crown Prince, until the position of Crown Prince was separated from the position of Prime Minister in 2003. The position of Crown Prince in Kuwait has played an important role since the issuance of the Kuwaiti Constitution in 1962, as the constitution specified how to assume the position of Crown Prince, the functions of the Crown Prince, and linked the position of Crown Prince to the position of Prime Minister until 2003, when the two positions were separated. Pages 181 to 192

The Phenomenon of Standard Deviated  Language of Student Communication and the Purity Preservation Issue of Vietnamese

Vinh Le Thi Thuya, aFaculty of Philology, Hanoi Pedagogical University 2, Vietnam, Email: alethithuyvinh@hpu2.edu.vn

In the current context of innovation and integration, and before social, historical and cultural changes, the Vietnamese language has also experienced great changes, both in breadth and depth. One of the language fields that deeply affects the appearance of contemporary Vietnamese, as well as contributes to the transformation and development of Vietnamese in the modern socio-cultural context, is language at school – the language of the future owners of the country. In this article, through the utility of presenting the current situation of using standard deviating language in the communication of students, we initially propose specific orientations and measures to improve the good values retention of Vietnamese, while having a direct impact on the language education and learning process of students. Pages 193 to 206

Teachers’ Social Life and Their Job Performance - A Study of Public & Private Secondary Schools of Pakistan

Dr. Abdul Ghaffar1, Dr. Amir Zaman1, Dr. M. Idris2 & Anwar Khan3 1,2Associate Professor Department of Education, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KPK, Pakistan, 3Secondary Education Department KPK, Pakistan

The teacher has remained the central part of the education system. He/she is the main person who is responsible for the overall development of students’ personalities. He has got a different role to play in order to keep the system on track. It is therefore important that his/her needs, personal, institutional and societal, may be satisfied in order to enable him to concentrate on his/her work. This study was an attempt to investigate the perceptions of teachers and principals in order to find out whether teachers are satisfied in their social life; to investigate the perception of Principals about a teachers’ job performance and to know about the relationship of a teachers’ social life with their job performance. Two questionnaires were framed in order to collect relevant data from the respondents. T-test and spearman correlation was used in order to analyse the data. Findings show that the public sector school teachers are more satisfied than private school teachers. It was also found out that work recognition of the teachers motivate them to perform in a better way. Pages 207 to 216

Productivity Improvement in the Denim Industry by DMAIC Methodology

Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiquia, Imran Noorb, Muhammad Dawood Husainc, Muhammad Usama Nooranid, Allah Dade, Waqar Iqbalf, Danmei Sung, a,b,c,dNED University of Engineering & Technology, Department of Textile Engineering, University Road, 75270, Karachi, Pakistan. a,gHeriot-Watt University, School of Textiles & Design, TD1 3HF, Galashiels, UK. ePakistan Institute of Fashion and Design, Lahore, Pakistan. fTiangong University, School of Textile Science and Engineering, Tianjin, China, Email: aorazas@neduet.edu.pk

The aim of this paper is to boost productivity improvement by reducing the rejection rate and finding ways to improve the quality of the textile (denim) industry. The methodology used here is based on Six Sigma, which aids as a catalyst for lowering the rejection rate in the denim industry. Six Sigma in this paper serves as a systematic tool for continuous quality process improvement and for achieving desired targets and quality. The DMAIC model provides a framework that ultimately decreases the variation in the process, and executes a central plain that would be readily accepted by the organisation and which encourages people to adapt it. In the defining phase, the root causes of the problem and faults were recognised. As a result, a broken end was found to be the main cause of the rejection of defective products. The root causes were analysed using a cause and effect diagram. In the improvement phase, the design of the experiment (DOE) was implemented, and key parameters of the process were set up. This revealed that high concentrations of acid and hydrogen peroxide are the core origin of the diminishing yarn strength in the back process. A factorial design, with two replications, was performed. Hydrogen peroxide and acid were used in the dyeing department as chemical oxidation for indigo dye. After the implementation of Six Sigma, the productivity of the company improved and the rejection rate was reduced. Pages 217 to 229

Exploring the Role of Agile Operant Resources in Facilitation of Strategic Orientation: Case of Family-Owned Businesses in Pakistan

Mehreen Waheeda*, Dr. Abdul Rashid Kausarb, Dr. Yasir Rashidc          aPh.D Scholar of Management Sciences,  Lecturer in National University of Modern Languages (NUML), bProfessor of Knowledge Management,  cAssistant Professor of Marketing a,b,c School of Business & Economics (SBE), University of Management & Technology (UMT) Lahore, Pakistan, Email:a*mehreenwaheed@numl.edu.pkbark@umt.edu.pk,yasir.rashid@umt.edu.pk

No one can deny the pertinent role of resources in each era. Over time, its usefulness enhances which facilitates firm sustainability in today’s volatile business world. To the best of the author's knowledge, no study has been done specifically in the context of Family-Owned Businesses (FOBs) in Pakistan regarding the Owner’s possessed agile operant resources. The purpose of this study is to explore the hidden agile operant resources of the family business owners which facilitate FOBs in strategic orientation. This study resides on a relativistic school of thought based on the interpretive paradigm. It is used as an exemplary nature of research. Purposive sampling is used for data collection conducted interviews through open-ended questionnaires and observation of family owners. This study is based on the abductive research approach along with Gioia methodology has been used to develop broader themes for discussion. This research paper provides sound conceptual insights on the strategic orientation of family firms through the pertinent role of learning & observational resources, agile entrepreneurial phronesis & agile sensing skills. The authors proposed a conceptual model for shedding light on the pertinent role of agile operant resource supports to facilitate the strategic orientation of Family-Owned Businesses. Pages 230 to 256

Organisational Design, Organisational Climate and Burnouts in Health Services Companies

Friska Sipayung1, Liasta Ginting2, Magdalena L. L. Sibarani3, 1,2,3Department of Management, Faculty of Economic & Business, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, Email: 1friska@usu.ac.id, 2liastaginting@gmail.com, 3magdalenaleonita@gmail.com

The purpose of this study was to analyse the hospital organisational design, whether the model has a mechanistic or organic tendency. Analyzing how the organizational climate in terms of structural design whether the leadership process tends to be very autocratic, a little less autocratic or consultative. Furthermore, this research analyzing the influence of organizational design and organizational climate on burnout and performance. This research was conducted at the mother and child hospital in the city of Medan. The data analysis technique used in this research is path analysis with the help of the SmartPLS application. The results showed that in general the respondent's perception of organisational design was good, while the organisational climate was quite supportive, the burnout level experienced by nurses was in the medium category and the nurse's performance was high. The organisational design of health care companies in this study has a mechanistic tendency. Furthermore, this study found that the organisational climate tends to be quite supportive. And in terms of its structural design, the leadership process tends to be a little less autocratic. The results showed that organisational design and organisational climate had an effect on burnout and nurse performance. Pages 257 to 275

The Nature of Treaties in Islamic Jurisprudence and International Law

Prof. Dr. Hasan Taisir Shammout, Jarash University, E-mail:h_shammout@hotmail.com

Legal scholarship has confirmed that international Islamic law and international law are considered as influential systems of reference rules. Recent studies neglect several individual fields of Islamic law, particularly the area of foreign relations. These studies overlook specific features of treaty-conduct in Islamic jurisprudence. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the nature of treaties in Islamic jurisprudence and international law by explaining the relation between Islamic jurisprudence and international law in terms of the nature of treaties. The findings revealed that treaties based on international law are consistent with Islamic law. Further studies may be conducted on treaties relevant to the contemporary world. Conclusions will be presented accordingly. Pages 276 to 285

Structure and Function of Pottery Production Process in Kampong Chhnang, Kingdom of Cambodia

Pramote Pinsakula, Asst. Prof. Dr. Thanasit Chantareeb, Dr. Kittisan Sriruksac, a,cFaculty of Fine and Applied Arts, Khon Kaen University, Nai Muang Subdistrict, Muang District, Khon Kaen University 40002, Thailand, bFaculty of Architecture, Khon Kaen University, Nai Muang Subdistrict, Muang District, Khon Kaen University 40002, Thailand, Email: aPramote.Pinsakul@gmail.com, bThacha1@kku.ac.th, ckitisri@kku.ac.th

This article is part of a research paper on Wisdom and Identity of Cambodian Pottery to Contemporary Product Design. This research aims to study the role of people involved in the division of duties or works in the family in the pottery production process. This study is a qualitative research. Research tools include surveys, observations, and interviews of the people who are involved in the pottery production process. After the data was collected, it was analysed based on Talcott Parsons' structural and functionalism theory.  The results showed that most of the pottery produced in the community in the present were used for decorations and for daily life. The manufacturing process and style of pottery were systematically passed down from one generation to another. Experience in making pottery had been accumulated until they are skilled. The skills had been developed and improved until the form and process of production settled down in terms of functionality and beauty, which have different characteristics depending on the role of people in the community. The systematic role of these people related to the social structure in the community. The process of producing pottery in each household was a systematic sub-process because there were clear divisions of family members' duties. In those sub-processes, duties or actions were the base of the system that was developed into the social structures in the community. There are also other main factors to motivate the community, which creates a societal and cultural diversity and process of creating social systems that usually developed or changed to balance the society. Every factor mentioned earlier clearly indicated the existence of local wisdom in the pottery production in Kampong Chhnang community in the Kingdom of Cambodia. Pages 286 to 302

Imagining the Diaspora Vote from Zimbabweans Abroad: Electronic Voting or Postal Voting?

Limukani Mathe, Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Johannesburg, School of Communication in the department of Journalism, Film & Television. University of Johannesburg. ORCID: 0000-0002-6776-0683. Email: limukanimathe@yahoo.com

This article envisages the diaspora vote from Zimbabweans living abroad. The study applies a qualitative content analysis on Zimbabwe Electoral Commission officials and government’s perspectives or responses to the call for diaspora vote. It further engages several politicians through in-depth interviews to discuss the possible challenges and the model that can be utilised for diaspora vote. This article draws some theoretical concepts from the diffusion of diaspora enfranchisement norms by Turcu & Urbatsch (2015) who posit that neighbourly countries are likely to emulate each other’s policy making, adoption of electoral standards and mechanisms. Therefore, the article argues that Zimbabwe can enfranchise diasporas especially for presidential elections. Presidential elections may be conducted electronically or through personal vote combined with postal voting. Zimbabwe can implement personal voting at the embassies where results will be tabulated and electoral residue posted home. However, this article further argues that unlike e-voting, the management of personal voting combined with postal might be costly especially managing millions of Zimbabweans out-of-country, hence there is a need to start deliberating on e-voting or pilot e-voting for diasporas. The article acknowledges that a positive political will is fundamental for the effective implementation of the diaspora vote. Pages 303 to 320

Implementing Universal Design for Learning in Higher Education

Dr. Kaycee L. Bills, PhD, MSW, Fayetteville State University, Email: kbills@uncfsu.edu

Action research is a method of inquiry useful in solving social problems in higher education. This study seeks to address a significant problem: higher education’s use of traditional instructional methods in higher education settings. Ineffective techniques, such as lecturing, fail to account for students’ variable learning needs. In contrast to traditional pedagogy, universal design for learning (UDL) is a robust framework that “[improves] and [optimizes] teaching and learning for all people” (CAST, 2018), including students with disabilities. For this study a UDL & Accessibility Specialist at their institution was chosen for two reasons: (1) to learn how to implement UDL practices in their classrooms, and in turn, (2) motivate other faculty members at their institution to consider enacting UDL principles. A thematic analysis of the interview transcript reveals themes relevant to practicing UDL. Implications for future practice, as well as the researchers’ reflections on the research process, are shared in the discussion section. Pages 321 to 331

Development and Validation of the Future Creative Confluence Competency (F3C) Test for College Students in South Korea

Kyung Hwa Leea, JuSung Junb, a,bProfessors, Department of Lifelong Education, Soongsil University, Seoul, Korea, Email: akhlee@ssu.ac.kr, bjnet@ssu.ac.kr (corresponding author)

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a test to measure future creative confluence competency (F3C), which is the capability of future talents. Creative competency and confluence competency were derived as the constructs of the F3C, and measurement items were developed to measure each construct. Seventeen experts were engaged in verifying contents validity of the test. In addition, the data collected from 653 college students were analysed to confirm reliability and validity of the test. The F3C test consists of four sub-constructs of creative ability, creative personality, integrated thinking ability, and new knowledge and value creation ability with a total of 27 items. Pages 332 to 350

Social Networks, Market Orientation, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Sustainable Enterprise Development: Study of SMEs in Developing Economy

Dr. Asad Javeda*, Dr. Raza Ullahb, Akhtar Nawazc, aLecturer, Department of Management Sciences, Hazara University, Mansehra- Pakistan, bAssistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Islamia College University, Peshawar – Pakistan, cLecturer/PhD Scholar, Department of Management Sciences, Hazara University, Mansehra- Pakistan, Email: a*asadjaved@hu.edu.pk, braza@icp.edu.pk, cakhtar_nawaz@hu.edu.pk

The purpose of this empirical study is to determine the impact of social networks on sustainable enterprise development. The study also evaluated the moderated role of entrepreneurial orientation and mediated role of marketing orientation in the aforesaid relationship. Data was collected from 467 managers and owners of SMEs. Results revealed that social networks have positive and significant impact on sustainable enterprise development of SMEs. The study also found that entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation are key for SMEs’ in achieving sustainable development. Social networks are important for sustainable enterprise development. Moreover, the study also focuses on other essential elements i.e. entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation for achieving sustainable enterprise development. The research has numerous theoretical and practical implications for managers as well as for government bodies. Pages 351 to 370

Stock Return Behaviour around Earnings Disclosure

Dr. Muhammad Ibrahim Khana, Dr. Javed Ghulam Hussainb, Dr. Imtiaz Badshahc, Dr. Amira Khattakd aAssistant Professor, Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, bProfessor, Birmingham City University Business School, Birmingham City University, cAssociate Professor, Faculty of Business, Languages, and Social Sciences, Østfold University College- Norway, cAssistant Professor, College of Business Administration, Price Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Email: aibrahimkhan@awkum.edu.pk, bJaved.Hussain@bcu.ac.uk, cimtiaz.badshah@hiof.no, cakhattak@psu.edu.sa.

Using event study methodology, this research analyse stock return behaviour around earnings disclosure of 227 firms listed on PSX from 2004 to 2013. Empirical evidence suggests firstly, earnings announcements generate significant returns on the announcement day, declaring the PSX to be a semi-strong inefficient market. Secondly, significant returns were observed in the pre-announcement period reflecting information leakage. Thirdly, significant returns were observed in the post-announcement period suggesting a lag in the investors’ response. Fourthly, post-earnings announcement drift anomaly is reported for negative earnings announcements, and fifthly, the results are found to be sensitive to the type of statistical test undertaken. Pages 371 to 395

The Red-card Effect on the Anxiety and Mental Toughness Among Jordanians’ Professional Soccer Players

Ayed Zureigat ,  Osama Abdel Fattah ᵇ*,   Ghazi El Kailani ͨ , ᵃCollege of Sports        Sciences, the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0003-4545-5562, ᵇThe Ministry of Education, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0003-4545-, ͨ College of Sports          Sciences, the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0002-7555-5110, Email: ᵃA.Zureigat@ju.edu.jo, ᵇ*osamhsaf.2811@gmail.com , ͨ kailani59@yahoo.com

Football is one of the most popular games in the world, and it is called the world game. However, the red card is a negative indicator of the psychological performance on players. Consequently, the primary purpose of the current study was to the effect of the red card on anxiety and mental toughness level among the professional soccer players and the differences in this level depend on play position and training experience variables. Also, the relationship between anxiety and mental toughness. To achieve this, we used the descriptive approach on a sample consisting 61 professional soccer players selected using the purposive sample technique. Additionally, an electronic questionnaire was built using Google questionnaire, which consisted of 14 paragraphs that dealt with the mental toughness, and 21 paragraphs that dealt with the anxiety. The researchers used means, standard deviations, One-Way ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient by using SPSS version 24 with a confidence level of 95% (p value= 0.05). The results of the study have shown that the anxiety level among professional soccer players came with a high degree; on the other hand, the mental toughness came with a low degree. Additionally, there are no statistically significant differences in the anxiety and mental toughness according to the play position and training experience variables. Finally, the researchers recommend that there is a need to enhance the mental toughness among the professional players through various psychological strategies such as mental imagery. Pages 396 to 405

The Stress and Optimism Levels among Professional Football and Basketball Players during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Ghazi El Kailaniᵃ , Osama Abdel Fattah ᵇ*, Ayed Zureigat ͨ , ᵃCollege of Sports Sciences, the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0002-7555-5110, ᵇThe Ministry of Education, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0003-4545-, ͨ College of  Sports Sciences, the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0003-4545-5562, Email: ᵃkailani59@yahoo.com, ᵇ*osamhsaf.2811@gmail.com, ͨ A.Zureigat@ju.edu.jo

The blurring of vision, uncertainty about the size and how the Corona virus (COVID-19) crisis, and the lack of knowledge of who might be infected with this virus drives the motivation for this study. Consequently, the study aimed to investigate the effect of the corona pandemic on the stress and optimism levels among professional football and basketball players during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak and the differences in these levels depends on game and gender variables. To achieve this, we used the descriptive approach on a sample consisting of 386 soccer and basketball players selected using the purposive sample technique. Due to curfew in the country and to reduce face to face interaction, an electronic questionnaire was built using Google questionnaire. This consisted of 10 paragraphs that dealt with the stress, and 8 paragraphs that dealt with optimism. The researchers used averages, standard deviations, two-way ANOVA and independent samples t-test by using SPSS version 24 with a confidence level of 95% (p value= 0.05). The results of the study have shown that stress and optimism levels among professional soccer came with a high degree and on the other hand came with a moderate degree among professional basketball players. Additionally, there were statistically significant differences in the stress domain according to gender and game variables and favour of males and a football game. Finally, the researchers recommend that the continuous detection of the level of the various psychological levels among the athletes is an important factor in providing psychological care for them. Pages 406 to 418

Overcoming Skin Problems in Jejunostomy and Ileostomy by Using Hand-Made Skin Protector: Case Series

Vicky Sumarki Budipramanaa, aDigestive Surgery Division – Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga/Dr. Soetomo Genetral Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: avickysbudi@gmail.com

The incidence of skin problems in jejunostomy or ileostomy is as high as 73-79%, higher than its incidence in colostomy (37%).  A hand-made skin protector made of coconut shell can overcome the problem due to its convex shape, its ability to absorb water and its non-immunogenic material. There were six cases of ileostomy complications that could be handled successfully using the hand-made skin protector. Case-1: The peristomal skin irritation caused by the use of stoma bag without skin barrier. Case-2: Skin irritation because of the retracted ileal stoma. Case-3: Parastomal hernia. Case-4: Separated jejunostomy. Case-5: The problem of containing the ileal excreta. Case-6: Double skin barrier. The excreta, alkaline, coming out of jejunostomy or ileostomy contains active digestive enzymes. The exposure of the jejunal or ileal content to the skin can cause irritation and inflammation to the surrounding peristomal skin. The exudation caused by the inflammatory reaction on the skin makes the stoma bag difficult to be perfectly attached to the peristomal skin surface. The irritation and the pain caused by the leaking of ileal content decreases the patient's quality-of-life. The only suitable stoma bag should be convex-shaped and tightened to the peristomal skin using the traction from a belt around the waist. The innovation of a hand-made skin protector made of coconut shell is not only cheap but also very useful in preventing peristomal skin irritation, retracted stomal stump and parastomal hernia, whereas the adhesive-based plastic stoma bags commonly sold in the market can’t solve those problems. Pages 419 to 428

The Students' Perspectives on Implementing the Mobile-based Video Calls Using AgoraIO in Face-to-face Distance Learning Activities

Pikir Wisnu Wijayantoa, Muhammad Barja Sanjayab, a,bTelkom University, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: apikirwisnu@telkomuniversity.ac.id, bmbarjasanjaya@telkomuniversity.ac.id

Currently, the chat application development also has video chat and voice call facilities, but it is still general and not made specifically to facilitate education. This is considered less practical and dynamic in education, also, requiring different facilities from applications or conferences. Thus, in this study, the author wants to determine various students' perceptions of mobile-based applications in the learning process. This study aims to know the students' perspectives in using video calls for face-to-face distance learning activities based on mobile devices using AgoraIO. This study used probability sampling with the Simple Random Sampling technique. The Slovin technique was used to determine the sample size in the study. The population of the study was 31 students of the Diploma 3 Information System. The indicator raised in this study is a mobile device-based Video Call, which is useful for generating motivation and interest in learning. The descriptive analysis of the utilisation of mobile-based video calls using AgoraIO was obtained by 90.87%. This means that mobile device-based video calls in AgoraIO for the students of the Information System Diploma were highly expected. The score is 97%, which means that the use of information technology-based learning media for students is expected to generate motivation and interest in learning. Another indicator of this research is that information technology-based learning media is useful for increasing understanding of lessons. A score of 87% is obtained, which means that using information technology-based learning media for students is expected to improve lessons' performance. Pages 429 to 437

Does Executive Compensation Dispersion Affect Firm Performance: The Moderating Role of Technology Intensity

Mr. Paul Mugenia, Mr. Christian Sarfob, Dr Ala’ Omar Dandisc*, Mr. Mohammad Al Haj Eidd, Professor Azzam Abou-Moghlie, aGachon University, South Korea, b,dUniversity of Otago, New Zealand, c*Applied Science Private University, Amman, Jordan. eDepartment of Business Administration, Applied Science Private University, Amman, Jordan. Email: apaulmugeni8@gmail.com, bchris.sarfo@postgrad.otago.ac.nz, c*A_dandis@asu.edu.jo, dmohammad.alhajeid@postgrad.otago.ac.nz, ea_aboumoghli@asu.edu.jo, ea_aboumoghli@yahoo.com

Basing on the disclosure rule of Executive Compensation in Korea which was amended through the Financial Investment Services and Capital Markets Act (FISCMA) in 2013, we use panel data for the period 2013-2017 of 133 Korean listed firms to investigate the moderating role Technology Intensity plays between the association of Executive Compensation Dispersion and firm performance. Consistent with the equity (fairness) theory, this paper enriches the current literature by providing evidence supporting a negative moderating role technology intensity plays on the relation between Executive Compensation Dispersion and firm performance. This study further indicates that Executive Compensation Dispersion is associated with better performance in labour-intensive firms than in technologically intense firms where collaboration and cooperation are fundamental requirements. However, we find a positive but insignificant relationship between Executive Compensation Dispersion and firm performance suggesting the possibility of organisational and environmental factors contributing to how firms execute the Executive Compensation Dispersion strategy. Pages 438 to 462

Effect of Meta-Cognitive Instruction and Cooperative Learning Strategies on Students’ Achievement in Science

Bushra Yasina, Dr. Shafqat Rasoolb, Dr. Muhammad Azimc*aPhD Scholar, Government College University, Faisalabad Pakistan, bLecturer, Department of Education, Government College University, Faisalabad Pakistan, cProfessional Researcher, Department of Cybernetics, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Králové, Czechia[Corresponding Author: azim@dr.com].

In this research work the researcher tried to introduce the higher level methods of teaching which are essential while teaching for proper concept development of students and to make them creative. This study is experimental in nature which consists of 2 experimental groups and 1 control group. The sample of 60 biology students was selected from the Faran Model High School, Jhang. The data was analyzed by paired sample t-test and one way analysis of variance. The results concluded that there was no noteworthy difference that existed between respondents of each groups based on randomization of data. Treatment given to first experimental group based on meta-cognitive learning performed comparatively better than peers in the rest of the groups. The results of paired sample t-statistics also declared that better performance was observed in the level of better learning based on meta-cognitive learning skills being part of daily life teaching and learning. Pages 463 to 476

Talent Management in Local Government in Vietnam

Nguyen Thi Quynh Tranga, Truong Tu Phuocb, aSchool of Political and Administrative Sciences, Viet Nam National University Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, bHo Chi Minh City University of Law, Vietnam, Email: aMPP20.TrangNguyen@alumni.fulbright.edu.vn, bttphuoc@hcmulaw.edu.vn  

To improve government performance and effectiveness, many cities in Vietnam provided generous scholarships for talented students or competent public officials in exchange for their work commitments. However, talents’ turnover rate has suggested some talent management (TM, hereafter) issues in this non-western country. Based on adopting Vroom’s expectancy theory and different motivation theories, this paper investigates what TM issues discouraged talents to join or remain working in the public sector. The authors conducted an online survey with 75 scholarship recipients and in-depth interviews with 10 scholarship recipients. Results revealed the damaged prestige of human development programs in the public sector and troubles faced by talents at workplaces. The pressure of top-down management on TM was also highlighted. Based on findings, this study suggests several recommendations to improve TM in Vietnamese local government. Pages 477 to 493

Risk Management Models for Prediction of Dropout Students in Thailand Higher Education

Pratya Nuankaew1*, Wongpanya Nuankaew2, Patchara Nasa-ngium3, 1School of Information and Communication Technology, University of Phayao, Thailand, 2Faculty of Information Technology, Rajabhat Mahasarakham University, Thailand, 3Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajabhat Mahasarakham University, Thailand. Email address: pratya.nu@up.ac.th1*, wongpanya.nu@up.ac.th2, patchara.nu@rmu.ac.th3

This research aimed to study the insights of students’ behavior over the past twenty years with three objectives. The first objective is to study the factors that influence the dropout of students in higher education. The second objective is to construct the model of the students’ dropout prediction, and the third objective is to evaluate the performance of the risk management models. The collection includes the 2,042 instance of students who enrolled in a Business Computer Program at the School of Information and Communication Technology, University of Phayao. The research instruments were divided into three phases; Phase I is a basic analysis phase. It consists of number of students, number of courses, academic achievement results, and various summaries. Phase II is modeling phase. It consists of decision tree techniques, and feature selection methods. Phase III is model testing phase. It consists of cross-validation methods, confusion matrix performance, accuracy, precision, and recall measurements. The results of the research showed that all four models had the highest accuracy, including the 1st model with an accuracy of 88.15%, the 2nd model with an accuracy of 91.50%, the 3rd model with an accuracy of 87.97%, and the last model with an accuracy of 88.78%. In addition, the study found that there was a significant factor for all models by only one course. It is the Business Mathematics course which appears on all models. For future research, the key goal is to apply research findings to the curriculum design, provide appropriate teaching and learning, and manage sustainable tertiary solutions that will help solve learner dropout problems. Pages 494 to 517

Teaching Science in Primary Schools: A Study on the Current Situation in Ho Chi Minh City – Vietnam

Doan Thi Ngana, Bui Van Hongb, aPhd student of Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, bInstitute of Technical Education of Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, aThu Duc Education Enrichment School, Email: angandt.ncs@hcmute.edu.vn, bhongbv@hcmute.edu.vn

The renovation of the Vietnamese general education system has been implemented at all levels since 2018. This reform was put into practice due to the growing demands for social developments and the remaining inadequacies in the current general education system. Such inadequacies in education levels and school subjects are being investigated extensively by local educators. This article explores the current situation of science teaching and learning in primary schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. On that basis, it is possible to propose a model for organising experiential activities in science teaching with an orientation toward the development of students’ competencies. This is expected to enhance the quality of education, meeting the demands for a reformed general education system in the present and the foreseeable future. Pages 518 to 536

School Management Readiness in the Elementary School

Agustinus Hermino, Sari Mulia University, Faculty of Humanities, Indonesia, Email: agustinus_hermino@yahoo.com

This research has a purpose to explore an implementation of school management in the District Fakfak and Teluk Bintuni, West Papua Province, Indonesia. The source of this qualitative research data is the Head of the Regional Education Department, school supervisors, school principals, teachers, parents of students, and the community. The focus of this research is: 1) school principal to manage the school; (2) parents in relationship with schools; and (3) supervisors as representative of the Local Department of Education to monitor and conduct supervising to all schools. This research has the following results, : 1) the principal must be able to build a good communication pattern and relationship between school, family and community so that the school's sustainability will always be supported by the school's residents; 2) the family is the closest partner of the school, so the principal needs to approach the student's family to play an active role in supporting the smooth learning process at school, as well as supporting his children to study hard; 3) school supervisors must carry out their supervisory function regularly so that the school under their guidance can run well. Pages 537 to 554

Institutionalising Values and Norms at the Rehabilitation Centre of the National Anti-Narcotics Agency
Agustinus Sollu1, M. Alimin Maidin2, Hasbi3, Ansar Arifin4, 1Doctoral Program, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Hasanuddin, Indonesia, 2Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Hasanuddin, Indonesia, 3Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Hasanuddin, Indonesia, 4Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Hasanuddin, Indonesia, Email: 1asollu@yahoo.co.id

The National Anti-Narcotics Agency (BNN) Baddoka Rehabilitation Centre sees the planting of values and norms as being significantly more effective when adjusted to the needs of each client. Through the BNN Baddoka Rehabilitation Centre, which was appointed as the object of the research material, the researchers want to determine the process of institutionalising values and norms for clients at the centre. The researchers interviewed clients and managers of the BNN Baddoka Rehabilitation Centre, as well as other parties related to the Rehabilitation Centre, such as internal and external stakeholders, and distributed questionnaires to six rehabilitation centre clients regarding how changes occurred before and after the client was in the rehabilitation centre. The results showed that there had been a significant change in behaviour since the client was in the rehabilitation centre. In the rehabilitation centre, the application of values and norms was carried out by means of an initial examination of the client. This test is useful to determine to what extent an addictive substance is able to affect the client. If it is known, the rehabilitation centre will arrange any programs according to the client’s needs. Pages 555 to 576

Adoption of Environmental Management Accounting: Corporate Characteristics and Innovation

Novie Susanti Susenoa,  Irma Rosmayantib, Acep Abdul Basitc, Rita Herawatid, Inda Amalia Haqe,  ᵃDepartement of Accounting, Universitas Garut, Indonesia, bDepartement of Accounting, Universitas Garut, Indonesia, cDepartement of Management, Universitas Garut, Indonesia, dDepartement of Management, Universitas Garut, Indonesia, eDepartement of Accounting, Universitas Garut, Indonesia, Email: anoviesusantisuseno@uniga.ac.id, birmarosmayanti71@gmail.com,cacep.basit@uniga.ac.id,dritaherawati@gmail.com, eindaamaliahaq98@gmail.com

The implementation of Environmental Management Accounting is essential for companies to recognise the company's activities that have an impact on the environment, where in the end, the company is demanded to be able to create quality products and not harm the environment. This research aims to determine the effect of environmental management accounting and company characteristics on product innovation. The research is carried out on Garut Regency. The research method used is a quantitative method with an associative approach. The study population was the Centre for the leather industry in the Garut Regency, West Java, with a sample of 69 respondents. The type of data used in this study is primary data in the form of questionnaires and secondary data. Data analysis techniques used multiple linear regression analysis. The results of this research indicate that environmental management accounting and company characteristics influence product innovation. This illustrates that efforts are needed to continually increase the awareness of the company always to increase innovation to create environmentally friendly products. Pages 577 to 587

Family Intervention as an Important Factor in the Success of Distance Education (DE)

Mamdouh S. A. Mansour1, Adam A. Al Sultan2, 1Department of Psychology,  College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. 2Department of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Email: 1msmansour@iau.edu.sa

This scientific paper aims to uncover the role of families as a key factor in the success of distance education, in light of the Coronavirus Covid-19 pandemic. Therefore, distance education needs integrated support for children, building a partnership between the family and school and developing mutual responsibility for the success of children in the education system. In this way, parental interest is increased, parents' efforts to support schools are encouraged, and they directly make a positive impact on a successful educational system. Given the importance of family intervention and the participation of educational institutions, encouraging children and their involvement in school activities, in this paper, we discuss and analyse the positive effects of family intervention; the extent of cooperation and their participation with the school administration in the field of distance education; parental support for children during distance education; and provide examples of good practices by applying a questionnaire (closed and open) to 12 parents, revolving around parents ’participation in the distance learning process. In addition to their perceptions of the reality of education about, the degree of satisfaction with distance education, and the extent to which its needs are met for children? In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, conclusions are drawn and important recommendations made that focus on improving the educational environment and the growth of mental health for all. Pages 588 to 602

Tonal Variation and Change in Tak Bai Dialects

Sopawan Nookunga, Somsonge Burusphatb, aDoctoral student of Linguistics of Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia, Mahidol University, Nakhonpathom, Thailand  bProfessor Department of Linguistics, Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia, Mahidol University, Nakhonpathom, Thailand. Email: asopawan.lapnu@gmail.com, bgrsbr@mahidol.ac.th

Tak Bai dialect is classified under the Tai Language Family spoken in  lower southern Thailand and northern Malaysia. Tak Bai  speakers in Thailand and Malaysia still retain the six tones with similar features. Although tone splits and coalescences are the same across locations, phonetic values vary according to age-group and region. The six representative phonetic features of tones were determined based on the highest frequency of usage: Toneme 1 (A123) mid-falling-rising to high; Toneme 2 (A4) mid level; Toneme 3 (B123) high mid level; Toneme 4 (B4) mid-falling to low mid; Toneme 5 (C123) high mid-falling to mid; and Toneme 6 (C4) high mid-falling to low mid. The phonetic features of these tones in some middle age and young generation speakers were different from the typical one. Pages 603 to 622

Foil Performance Monitoring Vest; An Interactive Training System for the Olympic Sport of Fencing

Manal M. Bayyat*a , Lujayn AlDabbasb, Natali Ayoubc, Amal Al-Tahand, and Talal A. Edwane, aSchool of Sport Sciences, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; b,c,dPrincess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, Email: a*mabayyat@yahoo.com;  a*m.bayyat@ju.edu.jo

Fencing is a well-known sport where two opponents use swords and protective gear. The addition of technology into this sport has been attempted, but results are often not feasible. This work provides a simple and novel approach to assist players in practicing foil fencing where the target area consists of eight main strike zones on the torso. A training session can be started by a coach to allow embedded technology in the gear to collect data regarding the player’s performance and transfer it by means of Bluetooth to an android phone where analysis of the data is carried out and a summary of the performance is displayed. The final prototype can be scaled down to grant the feel of the stock fencing gear in which players compete. This novel work aims to introduce smart training gear in sports and to make the sport accessible to everyone. Pages 623 to 642

Insight into Corporate Governance in Islamic Finance: A Systematic Review of Literature

Quanita Rehmana, Dr.Akhtiar Alib, aPh.D. Scholar, Bahria Uuniversity Karachi Campus, bAssociate Professor, Bahria University, Karachi Campus

The concept of corporate governance (CG) in Islamic banking (IB) has gained attention of researchers in the last two decades. This review paper aims to provide broad and comprehensive review of existing literature on CG in Islamic banks(IBs). The research on CG in IBs has mainly been empirical conducted mostly in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and South Eastern region with a few conceptual studies. A sound theoretical base for Islamic CG studies is still missing. The results suggesting role of Shariah Supervision are elusive. The impact of emerging economies and country legal systems as antecedents of CG have not been thoroughly covered in the literature. In the field of research this topic needs to be covered more rigorously and exhaustively. CG in IBs is an emerging area of research and lack comprehensive review studies. Owing to the fact, this review paper aims to provide broad, comprehensive review of existing literature on corporate governance in IBs. which can be employed for further research about the subject matter. Pages 643 to 668

Self-Directed Learning to Teaching the Subject of Technical Drawing for Students: A Research Result at Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education

Bui Van Honga, Truong Minh Trib, aInstitute of Technical Education of Ho Chi Minh University of Technology and Education,  bPhd student of Ho Chi Minh University of Technology and Education, Email: ahongbv@hcmute.edu.vn, btritm@hcmute.edu.vn

Science and technology are increasingly developing, knowledge is increasing, so the students' learning needs are more and more diverse, and teaching design is increasingly focused on learners. Therefore, self-directed learning is considered as one of the appropriate methods for orientation of teaching method innovation in teaching technical drawing at Ho Chi Minh University of Technology and Education, Vietnam (HCMUTE) today. The article uses existing documentary research method and experimental education method to study self-directed learning approaches and its application process in teaching and organizing experimental teaching, thereby evaluating its effectiveness in teaching technical drawing at HCMUTE. Research results of the article contribute to promoting the learning process for students in the field of engineering and technology, supporting innovation of technical teaching methods for universities of technology and education in Vietnam. Pages 669 to 685

Work Happiness of Ministry of Public Health Officers in Thailand

Titirut Phimolsria*, Nitiphol Thararoopb, aDirector of Research Program Promotion, Dhurakij Pundit University, bFaculty of Public Administration, Dhurakij Pundit University, Email: a*titirut.mek@dpu.ac.th

This research is to investigate the effect of household socioeconomic and relationship with colleague as antecedents of outcome variables, namely, work engagement, career satisfaction and work happiness of Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) officers in Thailand. The secondary data was adopted and it was supported by Strategic and Planning Division at the Office of the Permanent Secretary of MoPH. The sample size for random the data following the rule of statistical was 1,030 persons. Descriptive statistics and structural equation model were applied to analyze the data. The results explicated that there were the positive effects of antecedents to the outcome factors, moreover, engagement and career satisfaction were mediated effects of the structure model with χ2/df = 4.814, RMSEA = 0.061, TLI = 0.905 and CFI = 0.933, GFI = 0.938 and AGFI = 0.904. Pages 686 to 705

Impact of Work Cognition Inventory & Team Diversity on Team Performance

*Syeda Urooj Babara*, Ishrat Babar Zaidib, Dr. Muzammal Ilyasc, a*Lecturer University of Swabi, bX-Head Mistress Govt Girls High School Nowshera, cAssistant Professor Bahria University Islamabad, Pakistan, Email: a*urooj@uoswabi.edu.pk, bMrs.babar.zaidi@gmail.com, cMuzammal496@gmail.com

The current investigation is about the influence of work cognition inventory & Team diversity on team satisfaction & team performance. The research was done by using Quantitative method followed by positivist approach. Simple random sampling was done through survey-based questionnaires. Eleven class-A Combined Military Hospitals (CMH) were selected as sample for the research throughout from Pakistan. Mediating effect was measured through Structural equation modeling (SEM) and Preacher & Hayes regression approach. This study helped in exploring the effect of multi-dimensional backgrounds of team members, i.e., learning, practical, task-relevant, opinion and behavioral background on team satisfaction and performance. The research helped in explaining moderating role of individual team member creativity among relationship of work cognition inventory & team diversity with team performance. Pages 706 to 723

Acquisition of Coordination Structure Constraint of Graduate Learners in Pakistani Public Sector Colleges

Azhar Munir Bhattia, Dr. Furrakh Abbasb, Muhammad Umer Azimc, Zaheer Hussaind, Dr. Muhammad Iqbale, aPhD student (Linguistics), The University of Lahore, Pakistan, Lecturer in English, Higher Education Department, Punjab, bSchool of Languages, Civilization and Philosophy (SLCP), University Utara Malaysia, cPhD Scholar (Applied Linguistics),University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Assistant Professor of English, Higher Education Department, Punjab, dPhD student (Linguistics), The University of Lahore, Pakistan, eEnglish Program Manager, US Consulate Lahore, Pakistan, Email: aazharmunir18@hotmail.com

The current research was designed to address the acquisition of coordinate structure constraint by the graduate learners of public sector colleges in Pakistan. Respondents were randomly selected from the population of public sector colleges situated at Lahore. Equal numbers of respondents from both genders were selected for the study and an equal ratio of students were chosen from three disciplines BA, BSc and BCom. The researcher specially was careful about the age of respondents so that the students selected from the population were of almost same age bracket. The idea was to check whether the graduate students have acquired the concept of coordinate structure constraint. The researcher used a questionnaire as a research instrument and administered a rigorous pilot study to validate the tool. Descriptive statistics were applied for knowing frequency measures and in order to determine gender- based differences independent sample t test was applied. The results show that males and females are not significantly different at using coordination structure constraint. One way ANOVA was applied was to analyse the variation of acquisition regarding different disciplines. It was shown that the students of BA showed better results; BCom students were second in creating coordinating constructions, whereas BSc students were at the last leg. They fail in using coordinate structure constraint in their writing. Pages 724 to 745 


Exploring the Affecting Factors on Self-Esteem and Health-Related Quality of Life of Vitiligo Patients: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study

Samia Eaid Elgazzar, Assistant Professor of Medical-surgical Nursing, Nursing College, Qassim University, KSA, Assistant Professor of Medical-surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, Egypt, Email: Adamramy36@yahoo.com

This study aimed to examines the self-esteem and quality of life level of vitiligo patients and to recognise affecting factors on self-esteem and quality of life. Methods: in a web-based cross-sectional study, 88 patients in the vitiligo charity foundation in Saudi Arabia Self-Esteem and Health related Quality of Life of Vitiligo patients were measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Dermatology Life Quality Index and the sociodemographic data. Results: The results of this study displayed that the majority of the patients (67%) had moderate self-esteem & vitiligo can have a major effect on  patient's quality of life (34.1). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to recognise affecting factors with self-esteem and quality of life. showed that female (β=−0.228, t=2.042, p=0.045) negative effect quality of life  ,and positive effect on quality of life for divorced (β=0.440, t=2.976, p=0.004*)  , lesion localisation site related trunk (β=0.457, t=3.540, p=0.001) were significantly associated with quality of life . While , the major factors influencing self-esteem patients only psychological stress was negative effect on self-esteem. In addition, there was no correlation between self-esteem and quality of life. Conclusion: Providing some appropriate health care personnel for vitiligo patients may improve quality of life and keeping their psychological status may be vital for preventing suffering from an alteration of self-esteem. Pages 746 to 761

Information and Communication Technology as a Moderator of the Relationship between Organisational Clarity and Knowledge Sharing Behaviour

Dilshad Y. Mohammeda , Hadi KH. Ismaelb,   a,bDuhok Polytechnic University, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, Email: aDilshad.mohammed @dpu.edu.krd  ,  bHadikhlil@dpu.edu.krd,

The current study aimed to examine the relationship between four dimensions of organisational clarity (role clarity, strategic clarity, organisational structure clarity, processes clarity) and knowledge sharing behaviour. It also aimed to explore the moderate effect of information and communication technology (ICT) on the relationship between the dimensions of organisational clarity and knowledge sharing behaviour. A quantitative method was employed, and data was collected from 101 of the academicians at Duhok polytechnic university (DPU) in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Results support the moderating role of ICT of the organisational clarity dimensions and knowledge sharing behaviour relationships. The originality of this study stems from the scarcity of studies that investigate the relationships between organisational clarity and knowledge sharing behaviour, and the role of ICT as a moderator on this relationship is unprecedented. Pages 773 to 789

Construction of Transparency and Disclosure Index for Commercial Banks in Vietnam

Manh Hung Phama, Linh Nham Vuongb, Thi Hoai Thu Nguyenc, Banking Academy of Vietnam, 12 Chua Boc Street, Quang Trung Ward, Dong Da District, Hanoi, 100000, Vietnam, Email: ahungpm@hvnh.edu.vn

This study proposes a composite index to measure the transparency and disclosure practices of commercial banks in Vietnam. The index is developed based on the measurement framework of previous scholars at the Bank of England and the World Bank, as well as the binding rules and regulations of disclosure in Vietnam. In this study, the proposed composite index consists of four factors with 40 items. After developing the index, the researcher uses the data of 28 commercial banks in the Vietnamese commercial banking system to calculate the index for each bank in the period of 2006 to 2018. Results indicated that the transparency and disclosure practices of Vietnamese commercial banks have significantly improved over the period of 2006-2018. Particularly, those that have above-industry-average index of transparency and disclosure are usually listed banks with substantial capital and assets, with the participation of foreign investors in the shareholder structure. Pages 790 to 811

The Impact of Covid-19 on Employees’ Motivation: A Saudi Arabian Case Study

Dr. Ahmed M. Asfahani, Assistant professor, University of Business and Technology, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a.asfahani@ubt.edu.sa  

This research is of great significance as it highlights the effect of COVID-19 on employees’ motivation with particular interest in a Saudi Arabian population. In addition, it will support the organisational structures by showing negative influences of this economy-deteriorating event on the Arabian workforce. The study is designed with a quantitative research design with a sample population of N=100 employees. Descriptive statistics including the standard deviation as well variance analysis in addition to Pearson correlation statistics have been applied for the interpretation of the collected data. Two variables have been studied in the research: effect of COVID-19 and employees’ motivation. The results of the study concluded that COVID-19 impacted adversely the motivation of workers, therefore the adoption of a resilience strategy is suggested to deal with the present adverse situation. Pages 812 to 822

Exploring the Writing Techniques of ELT Practitioners in Private and Public Schools

Dr. Azhar Pervaiz1, Abdul Majid Khan Rana2, Irfan Bashir3, Naima Batool4, 1Assistant Professor, Department of English, University of Sargodha, 2Assistant Professor, Institute of Education & Research, University of the Punjab, 3Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, 4Lecturer in English, University of Mianwali

The aim of this research is to analyse the usage of writing techniques used by the ELT practitioners in English textbooks used by the teachers in elementary level government and private schools. To meet this objective, the present study is divided into two parts: the questionnaires (consisting of 20 statements) which were filled by the ELT practitioners (40 government teachers and 40 private teachers) about the writing techniques they were using in classroom situations in Sargodha city. Secondly, the English books of OUP and PTBB of elementary level were analysed on the basis of nine questions. The study has marked the differences between the writing techniques used by the government and private school teachers in the classrooms. The study revealed that the techniques adopted by the private teachers are pre-planned, structured and well-constructed while the techniques adopted by the government school teachers are basic, introductory and are ill arranged. Investigations further reveal that writing techniques are mostly adopted by the English books of OUP of elementary level and as a result, the writing techniques adopted by the private school teachers are effective and have better outcomes. The study finally recommends that teachers of the public sector must adopt modern writing techniques to have fruitful results. Pages 823 to 838       

Consumers’ Reactions to the Interaction Between Scented Environments and Impulsive Purchasing Tendency

Dr. Rafika Ben Guirat, Higher Colleges of Technology, UAE

The aim of this paper is to examine the mediating role of consumers’ impulsive purchasing tendency in explaining the impact of the presence of a pleasant fragrance over their reactions in a store.  A quasi-experiment was conducted in a Sisley clothing store in which two conditions were tested: presence vs. absence of a scented atmosphere. A survey was conducted on a convenient sample containing 200 customers (102 for the unscented environment and 98 for the scented environment).  A Partial Least Squares (PLS) method was used to estimate the mediating effect of impulsive purchasing tendency. The results indicate that consumers’ impulsive purchasing tendency mediates the impact of fragrance over a multitude of reactions. The presence of an olfactory stimulation in a store increases consumers’ impulsive purchasing tendency which leads to more expenses and impulsive purchasing, a better perception of products and the store, more ease in finding products and more intense feelings of pleasure and arousal. Pages 839 to 856

An Analysis of Contextual Configuration and Text Structure of Nonnative English Speakers’ Written Texts

Nayel Darweesh Al-Shara’h, The University of Jordan, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

The current study aims to investigate how EFL successful and unsuccessful students develop their argumentative written texts. Hasan's (1989) analytical framework of contextual configuration and text structure was used to explore how students develop their texts globally. This analysis was based on Halliday's (1985/1989) three elements of social situation: field, tenor and mode. The findings indicated that successful texts were better structured at the global level than unsuccessful ones. Most of the successful texts were developed using the structure: (i) initiation, which is an optional element; (ii) thesis statement or topic sentence, in which the writer declares his/her position; (iii) elaboration and support, in which the writer develops the thesis statement/topic sentence and supports his/her position; and (iv) conclusion, in which the writer evaluates his/her position. Elements (ii), (iii) and (iv) are obligatory. Only a small proportion of the unsuccessful texts showed this structure of text. Most of the unsuccessful texts lacked good organization. The analytical framework used in this study was of great help in understanding and revealing how nonnative student writers express themselves and make meanings, the poor ones as on the way and the good ones as getting there. Pages 857 to 871

The Effect of Knowledge-Sharing Behaviour on Performance, Mediated by Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) - Study on Village Facilitators in Wakatobi District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

Husin1, Nurwati2, Nanik Hindaryatiningsih3, 1,2Faculty of Economics and Business, 3Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, 1,2,3Universitas Halu Oleo, Indonesia, Email:  1nurwatihusin@yahoo.com, 2nurwati.husin@yahoo.com, 3nanik.hindar1976@gmail.com

The research objective was to examine and explain the effect of knowledge sharing behavior on village facilitators' performance, mediated by the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) study on Village Facilitators. We have proved that excellent knowledge-sharing behavior contributes significantly and can increase OCB. This study uses a survey method with an explanatory research design approach. Data collection is done using survey methods through questionnaires and interviews. The study population was 43 Village Facilitators from Wakatobi District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. We used Partial Least Square (PLS) to analyze our research. Essential elements that influence employee performance consist of education, experience, motivation, health, age, skills, emotions, and spirituality. In contrast, extrinsic factors that affect employee performance include the physical and non-physical environment, leadership, vertical and horizontal communication, compensation, control in supervision, facilities, training, workload, work procedures, and punishment systems. This study indicates that knowledge-sharing behavior has a positive and significant effect on village facilitators' performance. Furthermore, knowledge sharing behavior has a positive and significant impact on OCB; OCB has a positive and significant impact on Village Facilitators' performance. OCB mediates the influence of the Village Facilitator's knowledge sharing and performance behavior. Pages 872 to 890


Artificial Intelligence in Promoting Teaching and Learning Transformation in Schools

Yufei Liua, Salmiza Salehb*, Jiahui Huangc, School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

With the development of science and technology, artificial intelligence technology has entered an unprecedented period of rapid development, and it is profoundly changing all areas of life. Various countries require implementation of intelligent education, but how artificial intelligent education promotes the development of school teaching is still lacking in systematic discussion. This paper discusses several aspects of artificial intelligence to promote teaching and learning reform, including artificial intelligence to promote the innovative development of teaching resources and teaching environment, teaching and learning methods, the development of school teaching management and teaching evaluation, and to promote the reform of subject structure and educational content. With a view to encouraging the application of artificial intelligence in promoting the transformation of teaching and learning, it is proposed that schools meet new requirements in the era of artificial intelligence. Pages 891 to 902

E-Business Driving Forces as Mediated by Cultural Characteristics in the SMES in Saudi Arabia

Dr. Abdulah M. Aseri, Department of Management Information System, College of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Email: amaseri@iau.edu.sa

Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) witnessed a true revolution across the country and it played a critical role in the economic arena. However, e-business with the huge IT revolution and rapid change in culture in Saudi Arabia has become more important. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the e-business driving forces and the mediating impact of cultural characteristics in the SMEs in Saudi Arabia. Data was collected through questionnaires from SME companies in Saudi Arabia. SmartPLS was used to analyse the research data and to test the hypotheses. Findings prove that organisational, technological and financial capabilities can be  driving forces for E-business application in a different way. Pages 903 to 912

Geochemical Proxy of Palaeoclimate of the Pleistocene Coals in Bintuni Basin, West Papua

Ahmad Helman Hamdania, Syaiful Alamb, a,b,Faculty of Geology, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang Km. 21, Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia 45363, Email: a*ahmad.helman@unpad.ac.id, bsyaiful.alam@unpad.ac.id 

The aim of this research is to determine the paleo depositional and palaeoclimatic conditions of coal succession from the Steenkool Formation, Dataran Beimes District, Bintuni Regency, West Papua, Indonesia. The major oxide elements were obtained by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry ICP-MS) analyses were used to identify trace element composition. The moderate-to-high value of paleo-weathering parameters such as the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Index of Composition Variable (ICV), a plot of CIA against Al2O3, as well as the Al2O3-CaO+Na2O-K2O Ternary diagram, suggest a moderate-to-strong degree of weathering of the source rocks. The positive correlation between Al2O3 with TiO2, K2O, Fe2O3, and MgO implies that they occur in clay minerals formed from weathering. The palaeoclimatic index (C-value) ranges from 0.47 to 2.06 and low Sr/Ba (0.15–1.22) ratio values, indicating a humid condition during the sedimentation of the coals. The paleo-redox parameters based on Ni/Co, V/Cr and V/(V+Ni) ratios indicate that all the samples were deposited under oxic to anoxic conditions. The coals from Steenkool Formation were deposited in freshwater to low saline water and shows a strong marine influence, due to the alternating salinity and desalinity processes during sedimentation. Pages 913 to 930

A Study on Time Use of Nurses and Paramedical Staff, Working in Public Hospitals of District Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

Humera Gul1*, Dr. Syed Shakir Ali Ghazali2, Dr. Muhammad Yaseen3, Huma Qasim4, 1Assistant Professor, The Govt. Sadiq College Women      University Bahawalpur, Pakistan. 2Retired Professor, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. 3University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.  4District Health Authority, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Email: 1humeragul3@gmail.com, 2shakir.ghazali@iub.edu.pk, 3myaseen208@gmail.com, 4huma.qasim89@gmail.com

The aim of the present study was to identify the drivers of inefficiencies existent in nurses’ and paramedics’ work and to detect the factors liable for decline in this profession, especially nursing. All the public sector hospitals of District Rahim Yar Khan were included in the study. A sample of size 118 was selected from the population of 1296 nurses and paramedics by the stratified random sampling technique. The analysis was done in R-programming. Comparisons made were made showing that female nurses/ paramedics go through a tough time routine and time poverty as compared to their male counterpart which seems to be the cause of deterioration in this profession in the perspective of Pakistani society. Pages 931 to 944

Relationship between Teacher Educators' Professional Development, Workplace Related Basic Need Satisfaction and Researcherly Disposition

Lubna Oada, Kiran Hashmib, Najmonnisa Khanc, aPhD-Scholar, Department of Education, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Karachi Pakistan, bAssistant Professor at Ziauddin University, College of Education, Karachi Pakistan, cAssociate Professor, Department of Education, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Karachi Pakistan.

As the 21st century commenced, both policy and research literature has acknowledged the need for teacher educators – or teachers – professional growth. A growing publication highlights a teacher educators' role in performing research, and becoming a teacher as a researcher is an essential part of education. This quantitative research study aims to determine the relationship between professional development, basic need satisfaction, and attitude towards conducting research (researcherly disposition) of teacher educators at the workplace. This study was conducted only in Karachi. The study population comprises of teachers of public and private educational institutions of Karachi in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. The scales are adopted and duly permitted to be potent measuring instruments. The random sampling technique is selected with a sample of 300 teacher educators. Data was analysed in three phases through SPSS and Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling. The study's findings reveal a relationship between basic need satisfaction of teachers and researcherly disposition. The study recommends policymakers and educational administration plan such types of programs that meet the four dimensions of researcher disposition with the specific need of teacher educators. Pages 945 to 967

The Socio-economic and Political Role of Women’s Empowerment towards Inclusive Growth: Comparative and Regional Analysis

Adnan Ali Shahzada*, Hafiz Asimb, Aftab Anwarc, aLecturer, Department of Economics, University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan. bPh.D. Scholar at Department of Economics, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, cAssistant Professor, Department of Economics, University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: a*adnanalishahzad@gmail.com; a*adnan.ali@ue.edu.pk

One of the vigorous components of inclusive growth is to encourage equitable participation. Almost half of the world’s population consists of women, however their participation, subject to empowerment, is constrained by many factors in developing countries. The present study has explored the socio- economic and political dimensions of women’s empowerment and estimated their impact on inclusive growth for different income groups of countries for the period of 1996 to 2017. It pursues to explore that social and political empowerment of women contributes towards inclusive growth in the developing countries, while the economic empowerment of women remains insignificant. In emerging countries, social and economic empowerment of women positively affects inclusive growth, while political empowerment of women is insignificant. On the other hand, only economic empowerment of women strongly contributes towards inclusive growth in developed countries. The study concludes that greater social and political empowerment of women is required in developing countries in order to promote inclusive growth. Once developing countries achieve a standard level of social and political empowerment of women, the role of economic empowerment of women will  emerge towards inclusive growth as observed in the case of developed countries. The study suggested that there is a dire need to introduce an environment for work-oriented culture and eradicate gender disparities in society. As women become more powerful, their positive contribution towards the economy will surely increase and ultimately stimulate inclusive growth. Pages 968 to 986

The Influence of Reclamation of Singapore on Indonesia in a Marine Law Perspective

Erny Herlin Setyorinia, Tomy Michaelb, Yovita Arie Mangestic, a,b,cFaculty of Law, Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya - Indonesia

The State of Indonesia is a sovereign state and has jurisdiction over the state and the entire territory of the Republic of Indonesia. Sovereignty resides in all maritime areas. A region has a border which is sovereignty for the country. Unclear state boundaries must be resolved which will have an impact on a relationship in a country as well as the country's sovereignty. In fact, there are still many countries that are having problems at national borders. This problem has been occurring for a long time in the relationship between Indonesia and Singapore and until now it has not been able to solve the problem. This study uses normative legal research based on legal principles and a case approach. Singapore's reclamation from the perspective of the law of the sea has a harsh impact. Promises and formal or informal meetings should be accompanied by strong action from Indonesia. Such as carrying out the arrest of ships and imposing the death penalty for the ship transporter and removal of regional heads to the expulsion of Singapore representatives in Indonesia. Pages 987 to 997

Illegal Act Composition  in Indonesia: a Study from Legal Responsibility Perspective

Krisnadi Nasutiona, aFaculty of Law, Universitas 17 Agustus Surabaya, Email: akrisnadin@yahoo.com

In Indonesia, composition of illegal act is always formulated based on Article-1365 of KUHPerdata (Code of Indonesian Civil Law) that shall meet the elements of:  action violates the law, the existence of error or fault, the existence of loss and there is a causal relation between the action and the loss. On its development, such composition has undergone the changes, particularly the one related to the element of fault. In determining the fault element, it must be classified whether there is or there is not any illegal act which is absolutely determined by the liability principle implemented based on the applicable law. Pages 998 to 1013

The Use of WhatsApp in Teaching and Learning English During COVID 19: Students Perception and Acceptance

Haeza Harona, Abdullah Al-Abrib, Nasser Masoud Alotaibic, aUniversiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8337-3184, bUniversity of Technology and Applied Sciences, Nizwa, Oman, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7198-9643, cMinistry of Education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6346-5321, Email: ahaezaharon@gmail.com, babdullah.alabri@nct.edu.om,  cnasser_masoud@hotmail.com

Researchers across the world are examining the educational value and effectiveness of integrating mobile technology into the teaching-learning activities. As an attempt to help improve the mastery of writing skills, WhatsApp as an alternative tool to help the students master in their writing as they face a lot of difficulties in executing a good write up. However, the university level syllabus does not provide ample time for the students to exercise this ability in the classroom due to time constraints. The low-level students will find it hard to master the skill within the time given in a semester. A total of 66 students in Penang who have smartphones with WhatsApp were assigned into experimental and control groups. Besides the traditional classroom learning for both groups, the experimental group was also supported by the teacher-student interaction via WhatsApp. The intervention of WhatsApp improved the learning achievement of the participants. The strength of the intervention between the two groups was medium to large. A questionnaire designed by the author was administered and the participants showed positive perception and acceptance of the use of WhatsApp for teaching and learning. The typical usability issues on mobile learning were found to be valid. Pages 1014 to 1033


Ownership Structure and Firm’s Financial Policies: A Case of Pakistan Stock Exchange

Kiran Farooqa, Najia Shaikhb, Khalid H. Abbasic, Ashfaque Ali Banbhand, aAssistant professor, Institute if health and business management (Dow university of health sciences), b,c,dAssistant professor, Institute of commerce University of Jamshoro, Email: akiran.farooq@duhs.edu.pk, bshaikhnajia@hotmail.com, ckhalid.abbasi@usindh.edu.pk, dAshfaque.banbhan@usindh.edu.pk

This research examined the impact of ownership structure on financial policies of the firm. The study used debt to equity and dividend payout ratio to examine financial policy decisions. The study finds that director and foreign equity is caused by significant reduction in the dividend payout ratio, and they prefer to retain the firm’s earning instead of distributing to the stockholder. Further, this study finds that foreign ownership has no significant impact on debt-to-equity ratio, but in the case of director equity firms, equity finance is more preferred than debt financing. Future studies may consider the interest rate, market valuation, government's laws, and various other external factors while analyzing the structure of ownership and firm’s financial policies in Pakistan. Pages 1034 to 1049

Pensioners and their Time Use: A Case Study of District Rahimyar Khan, Pakistan

Huma Qasima*, Dr Syed Shakir Ali Ghazalib, Dr Muhammad Yaseenc, Humera Guld, a,b,dDepartment of Statistics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan, cDepartment of Statistics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, Email: ahuma.qasim89@yahoo.com

The main objective of the study is to find out how the retied people spend their time. A survey study was conducted in District Rahimyar Khan, Pakistan. Statistical analysis was done using R programming. Results revealed that average time spent on most of the activities is influenced by gender and education. Most of the daily life activities like eating, time spent with family and physical exercise/sports are affected by the interaction of education and gender. Pages 1050 to 1060

The Association between Psychological Capital and Burnout: The Moderating Effect of Job Fulfilment

Dr. Farah Iqbala, Mahwish Saeed2, aProfessor – Department of Psychology, University of Karachi, Pakistan, bUniversity of Karachi, Pakistan

The study aims to focus on determining the association among the psychological capital and employee burnout along with the moderating effect of job fulfilment. This study is quantitative in nature in which the data has been gathered from the primary sources of information. The researcher instrument used in the study is survey questionnaire. The researcher has adopted the convenience sampling in order to gather the data. The data in this study is analysed with the help of SEM technique in which CFA and path analysis were considered using SmartPLS. The analysis carried out in this study has determined that there is a significant effect of psychological capital over the employee burnout which is also positive. On the other hand, with respect to the moderating effect job fulfilment, it has been determined that there is insignificant moderating effect of job fulfilment over the relationship of psychological capital and employee burnout. However, the direct effect of job fulfilment was determined over the employee burnout. This study has focused on determining the association of psychological capital over the employee burnout in the moderation of job fulfilment. This study is restricted to psychological capital as the factor which influence the employee burnout. However, there are other factors which must be considered while determining the causes of employee burnout. Pages 1061 to 1074

Workplace Spirituality, Emotions and Turnover Intentions

Abida Shaheena*, Zaki Rashidib, aPhD Scholar, a,bIqra University, Main Campus, Defence View, Shaheed-e-Millat Road Extension, Karachi-75500, Pakistan, Email: aabida.shaheen@iqra.edu.pk , b zaki@iqra.edu.pk

This research study aims to explore the role of emotions (happiness, love, sadness, fear and anger) in the relationship between the dimensions of workplace spirituality (namely Team’s sense of community, Alignment between organizational and individual values, Sense of contribution to the community, Sense of enjoyment at work & Opportunities for the inner life) and the turnover intentions. Three separate instruments were adapted to collect the data. The data were collected at three different points in time from employees of the IT Sector of Karachi. Cronbach alpha and confirmatory factor analysis were used for establishing the reliabilities and validities of the instruments used in the study. Whereas five separate Structural Equation Models were used to test the hypotheses. Results indicated that majority of the dimensions of workplace spirituality have significant relationship with the emotions and turnover intention. Whereas, dimensions of workplace spirituality have significant negative association with turnover intention. It is also found that emotions mediate the relationship between the dimensions of workplace spirituality and turnover intention. Pages 1075 to 1090

Determining the Influence of Socio-Economic Factors on Entrepreneurship Activities in Pakistan

Nadia A. Abdelmegeed Abdelwaheda, Bahadur Ali Soomrob, aBusiness Management School, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, bDepartment of Economics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan,

In the present era, entrepreneurship has a good reputation for creating jobs and wealth in the economy with small business management support. To overlook the situation, the current study investigates the role of socio-economic factors towards entrepreneurial activities in Pakistan's SMEs sector. The study employed a conceptual framework based on the prevalent literature. The study employed cross-sectional data, which is randomly collected from entrepreneurs. In total, 336 usable cases are applied to gain outcomes. Using the structural equation model, the overall findings highlighted a positive and significant impact of socio-economic and cultural factors (norms, beliefs, religion, and other social values) on entrepreneurial activities. Further, entrepreneurial activities resulted in a positive and significant impact on entrepreneurial performance. The study recommends that the government and policymakers should reduce the interest rate to allow flexible borrowing for entrepreneurs. A lower tax regime should encourage low-level income earners to access funding for entrepreneurship activities in Pakistan's SMEs sector. Finally, the study's findings may further enrich the validity of the concerned literature, particularly in developing national context. Pages 1091 to 1106

Clinical Assistance Model: Providing an Ongoing Professional Teacher Program

Suyanta1*, Anik Ghufron2, Pujianto3, Esti Swastika Sari4, Woro Sri Hastuti5, Rizki Arumning Tyas6, Illyas MD Isa7, 1-6Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 7Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia, Email: 1suyanta@uny.ac.id

This study aims to firstly determine the design of effective mentoring programs in the self-development of teachers at the primary and secondary education levels; secondly, to determine the design of effective training programs to improve the writing competence and scientific publications for teachers at the primary and secondary education levels; thirdly, to determine the design of effective training programs for teachers, so they can develop innovative work; and fourthly, to determine the effectiveness of the Sustainable Professional Program, the results of the development are shown through the active role of the teacher in the strategic activities supporting teacher professionalism. The research was conducted to support the development of teacher competencies in improving professionalism. This study is a development study using the design development model R2D2 from Willis. This model consists of three components: determination, design and development, and dissemination. The subjects of this study were elementary school teachers, junior high school teachers, and teachers who participated in PPG. The data was obtained through the implementation of an online application with an Android platform and documentation of the products produced by the respondents. The data was analysed using a descriptive-qualitative method. The findings showed that: firstly, the offline and online mentoring system, in the form of the Klipengproberu application, has helped the self-development of the elementary and junior high school teachers; secondly, the writing assistance program, which is utilised by developing reports on the results of the implementation of the class action research (CAR) into scientific articles, is effective to train the writing skills of the teachers; thirdly, making innovative work to improve the quality of learning in CAR settings is effectively used as a means of training the development of learning innovation for teachers; and fourthly, the mentoring program has helped teachers to create innovative work to achieve the standard criteria of a teacher. The applications and models that have been developed can be applied in the MGMP, and KKG forums. Pages 1107 to 1120

Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Mediating and Moderating Role of Organizational Commitment and Workplace Ostracism  

Wasim ul Rehmana, Faryal Jalilb, Masood Hassanc, Zunaira Naseerd and Hina Ikrame, aDepartment of Business Administration, University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus, Pakistan, b,e Institute of Quality & Technology Management, University of the Punjab Lahore Campus, Pakistan, cInstitute of Business Management (IoBM), Karachi, d MS scholar Institute of Business Administration, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Email: awasimulrehman@yahoo.com, bfaryal.iqtm@pu.edu.pk, cmasoodhassan1@hotmail.com; std_21855@iobm.edu.pk 

This study attempts to investigate the impact of workplace spirituality on organizational citizenship behavior through the intervening function of organizational commitment whereas workplace ostracism acts as a moderator between organizational commitment and citizenship behavior. Using the quantitative research design data has been collected from 361 employees working in financial sector from one of the most advance and populated province (Punjab) Pakistan. The moderation-mediation was tested by using SPSS Process Macro. The results reveal that the workplace spirituality significantly influence the organizational citizenship behavior, whereas presence of workplace ostracism reduces the influence of organizational commitment on organizational citizenship behavior. This study serves as a guideline for practitioners and academicians in banking sector to achieve optimal organizational citizenship behavior. This research enhance knowledge regarding the workplace spirituality’s impact as an essential determinant of organizational citizenship behavior.  It also contributes towards better knowledge of organizational commitment and workplace ostracism. Pages 1121 to 1144



Investigating the Impact of COVID 19 Outbreak on Stock Market Returns: Evidence from Pakistan

Nazima Ellahia, Jamshaid ur Rehmanb, Numair Ahmad Sulehric, Muhammad Abrar Ahmadd, Tanzeela Qureshie, aAssociate Professor, Department of Economics & Finance, Foundation University Islamabad, Pakistan, bAssistant Professor, Department of Economics, Government College University Lahore, Pakistan, cAssistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Foundation University Islamabad, Pakistan, dAssistant Professor, Department of History and Arts, Division of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Education, Lower Mall Campus, Lahore, eResearch Assistant, Department of Economics & Finance, Foundation University Islamabad, Email: anazimaellahi@yahoo.com, bjamshaidrehman@gcu.edu.pk, csulehri39@gmail.com, droyal_rana@hotmail.com, etanzeelaq@gmail.com

Since the world has entered the second wave of COVID 19, empirical studies discussing the Covid-19 outbreak and its impact on stock market returns and liquidity are very limited. This study expects to fill the gap and aims to find the impact of the COVID 19 pandemic on stock market returns and the relationship between market liquidity and Pakistan's stock market returns. In general, it finds that the spread of COVID-19 had a statistically negative impact on daily market returns and liquidity. Pages 1 to 9 




A Comparative Analysis of Marketing Strategies among Public and Private Secondary Schools

Dr. Nazir Haider Shaha, Dr. Ghulam Nabib, Ms. Naveeda Zebc, Dr. Muhammad Naqeeb ul Khalil Shaheend, Ms. Nadia Nazire, Syed Javad Ahmad Gillanif, Sakina Jumanig aAssistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Kotli, AJ&K, b,cAssistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, University of Kotli AJ&K, dLecturer, Department of Education, University of Kotli AJ&K, eLecturer, Department of Education, Mohi-Ud-Din Islamic University, Nerian Sharif AJ&K, fM. Phil Scholar, Department of Education, Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University, Nerian Sharif, AJ&K, g Lecturer, Department of Education, University of Sufism and Modern Technology, Bhit Shah Singh

 Email: anazirshah786@gmail.com, bdr.ghulamnabi@uokajk.edu.pk, cnaveeda.zeb@uokajk.edu.pk, dnaqeeb.shaheen@gmail.com, enadianazir481@yahoo.com 

The main purpose of the present study was to compare the marketing strategies of public and private secondary schools. The study was descriptive in nature and survey method was applied for the collection of data. 347 secondary schools head teachers/principals working in 150 public and197 private secondary schools of Azad Jammu & Kashmir were the population of the study. 245 head teachers/principals were selected as a sample by using proportionate stratified random sample technique. A questionnaire on the five point Likert Scale was developed to collect data from head teachers/principals. The data was analysed through percentage and mean score. For the comparison of public and private school marketing strategies the researcher used independent sample t-test analysis. It was found that head teachers/principals of public schools were using marketing strategies of promotion, people, process, physical facilities, prominence, programs and that head teachers/principals of private schools were using marketing strategies of price, programs, promotion, prospectus, people, premium, process and physical facilities. It was found that head teachers/principals of private secondary schools were using better marketing strategies than public secondary schools. It is recommended that government may allow the public sector schools to utilise these strategies of Private sector schools. Pages 10 to 25




Impact of Despotic Leadership on Organisational Citizenship Behaviour and Employee Performance: Interactive Effect of Islamic Work Ethics

Ms. Naveeda Zeba, Dr. Ghulam Nabib, Dr. Nazir Haider Shahc, Dr. Muhammad Naqeeb ul Khalil Shaheend, Dr. Faheem Ghazanfare, a,bAssistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, University of Kotli AJ&K, cAssistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Kotli AJ&K, dLecturer, Department of Education, University of Kotli AJ&K, eAssociate Professor, Department of Public Administration, University of Kotli AJ&K, Email: anaveeda.zeb@uokajk.edu.pk, bdr.ghulamnabi@uokajk.edu.pk, c*nazirshah786@gmail.com, dnaqeeb.shaheen@gmail.com, ff.ghazanfar@uokajk.edu.pk

Leadership is said to be the attitude of an individual to influence their followers who are the source of an organisation’s performance. The intention of this study was to check the impact of despotic leadership on employee performance and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) with the moderating effect of Islamic work ethics (IWE).  The researchers collected data from various organisations operating in the banking and education sectors located in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The study sample consisted of the 300 employees and respondents belonging to different managerial levels which  ranged from entry-level clerical staff to high management positions.  Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by using the convenient sampling technique. The results indicated that Islamic work ethics moderated in despotic leadership and performance relationship. Whereas in case of organisational citizenship behaviour no moderation was observed. It is recommended that practitioners may add a personality test in the process of selection and recruitment and the organisation also can find out the efforts of employees which ultimately assert the job satisfaction among employees. Pages 26 to 41




The Effect of Sustainable Asymmetric Market Conditions on Returns & Volatility in Stock Markets during a Global Financial Crisis

Majid Imdad Khan1, Aftab Ahmad2*, Rana Shahid Imdad Akash3, Asif Mahmood4, Ayyaz Ahmad5 and Shagufta Yasmin6, 1Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore, Pakistan, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, NFC Institute of Engineering and Fertlizers Research (NFC-IEFR), Faisalabad, Pakistan,  3School of Business Management, NFC Institute of Engineering and Fertlizers Research (NFC-IEFR), Faisalabad, Pakistan, 4Department of Business Studies, Namal Institute, Mianwali, Pakistan, 5Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia, 6School of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Technology Management (UMT), Lahore, Pakistan, Email: 1scc.ranamajid@gmail.com, 2*aftabahmadrao@gmail.com, 3shahid.imdad@yahoo.com, 4asif.mahmood@namal.edu.pk, 5ay.ahmad@uoh.edu.sa, 6s2018262012@umt.edu.pk;

Sustainable asymmetric market conditions’ development and volatility in stock returns play a vital role in investment decisions during a global financial crisis. Rational investment decisions and portfolio diversification can have the optimum returns. However, portfolio diversification through Islamic stock returns is perceived as a model of safer flight than that of conventional stocks. In the present study, the GARCH (1,1) - (Mean and Variance equations) has been employed to predict the impact of asymmetric market conditions on returns and volatility of Islamic stock markets (Dow Jones Islamic Market Malaysia (DJIM), Dow Jones Islamic Market Indonesia (JKII) and Dow Jones World Islamic Index (DJWI) Benchmark), and Conventional stock markets (Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE-China), Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE-India) and Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSE-Pakistan), during the global financial crisis. The analysis reveals that the bullish effect was higher in all stock markets. Overall results suggested that Islamic stock markets have a sustainable impact of asymmetric market conditions on returns and volatility of Islamic stock markets & conventional stock markets during the global financial crisis. The asymmetric market conditions in stock markets are strongly recommended for economic globalisation during a global financial crisis. Pages 42 to 56




Enhancing Organisational Productivity: Dependence of Transformational Leadership on Organisational Culture and Organisational Justice

Dr. Irfan Ullah Khan1, Dr. Muhammad Idris2, Dr. Tariq Mehmud3, 1Department of Public Administration, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan, 2Department of Education, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan (AWKUM), Pakistan, 3Deputy Director ORIC, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan (AWKUM), Pakistan, Email: 1irfanullah@gu.edu.pk

The qualities of a transformational leader are neither enough nor suffice the creation of leadership impacts on organisational productivity, rather they need support of the organisational culture and justice system. While having the requisite organisational culture and justice for transformational leadership, the leader has less to do. However, it also suggests that introducing transformational leadership in the organisation begins with a lot of efforts on the part of leaders in developing the required background of organisational culture and prevalence of justice as a just culture is helpful in building organisational justice. The leaders’ success is first to create this kind of work-environment emerging in the form of a line of transformational leaders across the organisational hierarchy. The current study, thus, measures the support of the organisational culture and justice, once created, for the relationship between leadership and organisational productivity. The results surprisingly show that despite the significant relationship between the transformational leadership and organisational productivity, both the mediators (organisational culture and justice) disconnect this link and take over the whole responsibility of generating positive variation in organisational productivity. While adopting the transformational-leadership style, the findings are helpful to the managers and administrators of higher education. Pages 57 to 70




Social Entrepreneurship Looks at Poverty Reducing Policy of Rural Support Programs in Sindh, Pakistan

Syed Muneer Ahmed Shaha, Shoukat Ali Maharb, Nazar Hussainc, Mujeeb ur Rehmand, Abdul Shakoore, a,b,c,Department of Public Administration SALU Khairpur Mirs, Pakistan, dDepartment of Media and Communication Studies SALU Khairpur Mirs Pakistan, eDepartment of Sociology SALU Khairpur Mirs, Pakistan, Email: cnazar.hussain@salu.edu.pk

Social entrepreneurship is a tool to handle social issues by developing innovative ideas that are carried out by organisations to achieve their goals and objectives. So function of social entrepreneurship in Sindh Rural Support Organisation (SRSO) is seen in reducing poverty in Khairpur District. In this research random sampling was used by applying Krejcie and Morgan table. It is concluded that SRSO is going to maintain this intention and it works at great extend in poverty alleviation in Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan. In this regard, research objectives, research questions and hypotheses were discussed in light of regression analysis that is comprised of model summary, Anova and Coefficient, further Pearson Correlation was applied to see the relationship of social entrepreneurship with poverty alleviation. Hence it is investigated that social entrepreneurship related with poverty reduction and it also positively and significantly worked in reducing poverty. Pages 71 to 81




Outstretching Feminism and Rerouting the Course of Society: A Pakistani Perspective

Ali Ammara, Saima Yasinb, aAssistant Professor (English), Govt. Gordon College, Rawalpindi, bLecturer, Department of English, University of Jhang, Email: aaliammar26812@gmail.com, bsaimayasin@uoj.edu.pk

The current paper focuses its attention on the theorising of feminism; activism based on these theories and politics within. It holds the hypothesis that the off-shoots of contemporary feminist theories have become common and established clichés to challenge the established principles that are beneficial for both sexes. Current feminist agenda has fallen prey to its internal politicising and extreme activism in different spheres of life which has disturbed the essential appropriateness of social institutions and needs to be revised with peaceful minds in order to avoid the already deteriorating harmony in roles of sexes and the extremists positioning of biases of both sexes. Applying textual analysis on the currents of feminist theory, its activism and politics within, the paper probes into the practical manifestations of feminist politics activism from Pakistani society and places it in juxtaposition with the evolution of feminist theories to enumerate the gap between the theory and practicalities which seems to be evermore increasing. The results of this exploration try to establish the concept that in finding their freedom and equality, feminist theorists have boarded on an extremist agenda which has harmed them more politically, socially and psychologically than putting them at par with male sex in different spheres of life. Pages 82 to 89




Consumers’ Attitudes Towards the Purchase of Counterfeit Fashion Products in Pakistan

Bahadur Ali Soomroa Nadia A. Abdelmegeed Abdelwahedb, aDepartment of Economics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan, bBusiness Management School, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia,

This study examines the constructs that predict the consumers’ attitudes towards counterfeit fashion products in Pakistan. This study confirms these predictions by using a survey questionnaire to collect responses from 396 consumers of Pakistan. We employed structural equation modeling to ensure the proposed relationships. The study's findings found a positive and significant impact of value consciousness, brand consciousness, materialism, and social influence on consumers’ attitudes towards counterfeit fashion products (ATCFP). However, the perceived risk has an insignificant impact on consumers’ ATCFP. Further, among the respondents, ATCFP has a positive and significant impact on their intentions to purchase such products. This study’s findings provide industrialists and retailers with guidelines in developing better policies and designs to attract and capture new consumers and, more particularly, in the context of a developing country. The study theoretically extends the understanding of consumer attitudes to purchasing counterfeit fashion products in developing countries and consumers purchase intention and reasons to buy counterfeit fashion products. Besides, this study’s results may help the manufacturers of original fashion brand products to comprehend that a developing country’s consumers are affected by others. The innovative sellers of branded fashion products should be ambitious in connecting with their consumers and attaining word-of-mouth recommendations. Pages 90 to 111




Impact of Participative Leadership on Proactive Work Behaviour:  The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital Evidence of Higher Educational Institutions Pakistan

Dr. Nagina Gula*, Rabia Qurbanb, Dr. Muhammad Anwerc, Dr. Niamatullahd, Dr. Safdar Hussaine, aAssistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Faculty of Management Sciences, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering & Management Sciences, (BUITEMS) Quetta 87650, Pakistan, bPh.D. Scholar  Department of Management Sciences, Faculty of Management Sciences, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering & Management Sciences, (BUITEMS) Quetta 87650, Pakistan, cPrincipal Special Education Department Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan, dAssistant Professor Department of Education, Faculty of Education LUAWMS Uthal, Balochistan, Pakistan, eDepartment of Educational Development, Karakoram International University, Gilgit. Pakistan. Email: a*nagina.gul@buitms.edu.pk, bmeeltingsnow@gmail.com, cdr.manwer19@gmail.com, dniamat.edu@luawms.edu.pk, esafdar_tla@yahoo.com

This study explores the role of leadership style as an effectivemotivational mechanism in recent  years that the effect mechanism of leadership will become a warm situation in organisational behaviour and management fields. The paper used structural equation modelling and go-sectional layout to test suggestion hypotheses based totally on the empirical statistics accrued from 378 contributors inside the higher schooling group of Quetta. The results of this  found out the fine and essential impact of the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between participative leadership and proactive work behaviour. The findings highlighted the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between participative leadership and proactive work conduct. Through  participation, the organisation may also improve the personnel’ proactive work behaviour because the observation supported this argument. The examination has contributed to growing the relationship between the participative management and worker overall performance by including an unexplored moderator, that is – positive psychological capital – in an overlooked social setting of the social public area organisation. Pages 112 to 131




Quality of Work Life among Faculty Members in Saudi Arabia Based on the Walton Model

Soad Alfrahana, Eman I Ahmedb, a,bDepartment of Educational Administration, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

The aim of this study was to determine the quality of work life (QoWL) among faculty members working in the college of education at Imam Abdulrahaman bin Faisal University in Saudi Arabia. The QoWL scale is based on Walton model and was used to gather the responses from 62 faculty members. Means, standard deviations, t-test and one-way Anova tests were used to analyse the data. Of the seven categories of QoWL, "social integration in the work organisation" had the highest mean (M=3.18), while '' adequate and fair compensation'' had the lowest mean (M=2.42). The results also indicated that no significant differences were found among averages of the research sample estimates regarding the level of QoWL attributed to the research variables of gender, academic rank, and years of service. Several recommendations were proposed to enhance the QoWL of the faculty members. Pages 132 to 146




The Impact of Fiscal Decentralisation on Economic Growth in Indonesia and Pakistan: A Comparative Study between Central Sulawesi and Balochistan

Mir Hassana, Nagina Gulb*, Saubia Ramzanc, Muhammad Anwerd, Dr. Niamatullahe aMS. Scholar, School of Government & Public Policy (SGPP) Indonesia, bAssistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Faculty of Management Sciences, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering & Management Sciences, Quetta (BUITEMS), cDean, Faculty of Management Sciences, Business and IT, University of Balochistan Quetta, dPrincipal Special Education Department Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan, eAssistant Professor Department of Education, Faculty of Education LUAWMS Uthal, Balochistan, Pakistan

This paper examines the impact of fiscal decentralisation on economic growth in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, and Balochistan, Pakistan. Within the framework of a Pooled OLS (Ordinary Least Square), the fixed-effect model and random effect model were employed in this thesis on a set of dynamic panel data models with latent variables from 1990 to 2019 in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, and from 1992 to 2019 in Balochistan, Pakistan. There are two indicators of fiscal decentralisation, namely local revenue and local expenditure, which were used to estimate the impact of fiscal decentralisation. Data for this study came from secondary sources; BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Indonesia and PBS (Pakistan Bureau of Statistics). The empirical findings of this study suggest that two fiscal decentralisation indicators and employment (LFPR) have a significant positive impact on economic growth in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. However, human capital (education) is negatively correlated with economic growth in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. On the other hand, the empirical findings of this study also suggest that two fiscal decentralisation indicators and human capital (education) have a significant positive impact in Balochistan, Pakistan. However, employment (LFPR) is negatively correlated with economic growth. Finally, there is a high consensus on the relationship between fiscal decentralisation and economic growth in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, and Balochistan, Pakistan. Pages 147 to 164




The Impact of Organisational Commitment and Job Embeddedness on Employee Turnover Intention in the Hotel Industry of Pakistan: The Mediating Impact of Job Satisfaction

Abuzar Khana, Syed Muneer Ahmed Shahb, Nazar Hussainc, Sanaullah Abrod ,Shoukat Ali Mahare, aSchool of Management Science QAU Islamabad, Pakistan, b,c,d,eDepartment of Public Administration SALU Khairpur, Pakistan, Email: cnazar.hussain@salu.edu.pk

This quantitative research study, based on primary data, aims to identify the relationship and signification of the job embeddedness and organisation commitment on employees’ turnover intention in the hotel industry in Pakistan. The data was collected from five hotels based in twin metropolitan cities of Pakistan (Rawalpindi and Islamabad), and equal opportunity to participate was provided to both males and females. The convenience random dappling strategy was used to opt the data. The current study identified that organisational commitment has a significant relationship with job satisfaction, showing data as (ΔR2  = .736 at p < 0.01), while a significant and positive relationship of job embeddedness and job satisfaction has been identified, with highly correlated values between the variables. There has been mediation impact supported by the results of the study, which says that organisational commitment and job embeddedness is significant and highly inverse with (β=-0.396 at p< 0.05) against employees’ turnover intention. Thus, in the hotel industry of Pakistan, job satisfaction highly mediates the prelateship of the embeddedness and commitment with the turnover intention. Pages 165 to 178




Too Busy, Too Bad? Grey, Outside, Busy and Overlap Directors and Financial Performance in Pakistan

Muhammad Rizwan Ullaha*, Ahmed Chandb, Sadaf Akramc, Aamir Inam Bhuttad, Muhammad Ahmede, a,d,eLyallpur Business School, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan. bDepartment of Commerce and Finance, Superior University, Lahore, Pakistan. cDepartment of Commerce, Government College Women University, Faisalabad, Pakistan, Email: a*mrizwanullah77@gmail.com, bahmedchand186@gmail.com, csadafakramgcwuf@gmail.com, daamirinam@gcuf.edu.pk, eraianjum@gmail.com 

Regardless of the belief of reformers that a greater percentage of independent directors on a corporate board is better for good governance, it is relatively unknown whether the enhanced focus on independence of a board is able to increase firm performance in the current framework of corporate governance. Thus, this study analyses the impact of grey, outside, busy and overlap directors on firm performance in Pakistani listed firms, using data for the period 2014-2019. The study uses grey directors, outside directors, busy directors and overlap directors as explanatory variables, while firm performance is used as the main outcome variable. The potential ways for interactions between directors and firm performance (FP) are built on the basis of theories and past empirical findings. In line with theories and code of corporate governance standards, the study draws conclusion that grey, outside and busy directors (overlap directors) positively (negatively) contribute to improving FP. The study suggests increasing (decreasing) the ratio of grey, outside and busy directors (overlap directors). Pages 179 to 196



Legal Frameworks on the Right to Know in Iraq

Marwan Kamel Jomaah Alkhalidya, Zalina Binti Abdul Halimb, aPh.D candidate, College of Law University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, bCollege of Law, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

The right to know as a fundamental human right recognised in major international instruments has been identified as a corollary of freedom of expression and an extension of freedom of speech. Within this perspective the RTK shows its significance to the implementation of democracy and the implementation of other rights. In contrary, states without RTK law can hide vital material that is exposing the governments’ wrongdoings through controlling the flow of information. In such an environment, massive corruption increases and violations against human rights continue concealed. Accordingly, many international conventions, including the United Nation Convention Against Corruption, require state members to implement the right to know laws. Pages 197 to 208

How to Counter Terrorism and Extremism in the Middle East: Jordan’s Measurements and Strategies

Bader Seetan Al-Madi, The German Jordanian University, School of Applied Humanities and Languages, Amman- Jordan 11180, Email: bader.madi67@gmail.com

Radicalisation acts by Muslim extremists consist of a domestic threat to Jordan’s security and safety. Hence, Jordanian political strategies intend to have control over any radical acts to maintain the country’s security. Violent radicalisation has emerged as an essential theoretical and empirical topic aiming to find reliable measurements that counter extremisms. The present paper investigates the existing terrorists threat causes and levels in Jordan and the possible methods of countering this terrorism. More specifically, the study focuses on the Jordanian policies and tactics for preventing and reducing terrorism, radicalisation, encompassing security, diplomatic, and legal efforts. This study’s key conclusion is that Jordan has succeeded in developing ground-breaking measures and techniques to resist and oppose terrorism and radicalisation. Therefore, Jordan is considered to be a key player in the unending battle against terrorism and extremism. Pages 209 to 222

Potential Threats of Consumer Textiles

Asna Mubashra, Incharge Department of Textile Design, College of Art & Design, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan Email: asnamubashra786@gmail.com ; asna.cad@pu.edu.pk

Local is global and global is local. With globalisation, the perception of things and happenings has changed radically. With multidimensional reservations and challenges, the threats that the textile industry proposes and promises assume greater importance, especially when considering potential threats in everyday use consumer textiles. The global concerns regarding various textile processes has surged to an almost alarming extent. The global trend for eco-friendly products has also been extended to textile and apparel products. An effort is being made to create awareness among consumers of textile products regarding their potential safety threats. It involves highlighting the threats and hazards which should be controlled so that this sector becomes a responsible partner in the creation of a nontoxic environment. A review of probable hazardous textile chemicals is presented here along with a discussion on the expected venues of health risks. Such awareness might help in bringing to light a list of damaging textile chemicals that should be restricted for the sake of environmental protection, controlling occupational illnesses among workers in the textile sector, and the provision of nontoxic, safe textile products for consumers. Pages 223 to 234

Nurses’ Knowledge, Trends, and Infection Control Practices toward COVID-19

Samah El Awady Bassam¹, Khaled Fahad Al Hosis 1 Associate Professor, Pediatric Nursing, Collage of Nursing, Qassim University, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia 2Associate Professor, Nursing Administration, Collage of Nursing, Qassim University, Kingdom Of Saudi, Corresponding Email: s.basam@qu.edu.sa; awadysss@yahoo.com

COVID-19 is caused by a viral infection and nurses are at high risk of gaining this infection while providing nursing care to patients. Therefore, it’s vital to evaluate their performance in regard to COVID-19. Research Aims: To examine nurses’ knowledge, trends, and infection control practices toward COVID-19. Methodology: Cross sectional research design conducted at Prince Sultan Cardiac Centre, King Fahd Specialist Hospital and Buraidah Central Hospital. The subjects were 200 nurses, through convenience sample. An online survey was conducted using Google form, which contained four parts (characteristics, knowledge, trends and practice). Results: The mean age of studied nurses was 31.98 (6.94) years, 95% of them were female, 54% were married and 93% of studied nurses had a BSN. Educational level and age were positive predictors in nurses’ knowledge. The total knowledge, trends, experience and educational level had a positive impact on nurses’ practices. The total knowledge, married nurses, age and experience were positive predictors for nurses’ trends. Conclusions: The current study concluded that half of studied nurses had good knowledge and more than one third had an average knowledge level. In related trends, less than two thirds of studied nurses had positive trends. According to practice level, around two thirds of studied nurses had competent practices. Pages 235 to 246


The Influence of Attitude Towards Facebook Advertising on Purchase Intention: Brand Page "Like" Intention to Participate in Word of Mouth as a Mediator

Hafizullaha, Zia Ullah Khanb, Muhammad Kaleemc, Muhammad Khushnoodd, Zeeshan Zaib Khattake, Sammar Abbasf, a,b,c,d,e,fInstitute of Business Studies, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat KP-Pakistan, Email: fsabbas@kust.edu.pk

Brand pages on social networking sites allow consumers to interact directly with the brand. The marketers are using the brand pages tool on social networking sites, especially Facebook, to increase purchase intention. The like intention of a brand page to take part in word of mouth (WOM) is an intentional behaviour found in the literature. The aim of this article is the determination of the impact of attitude towards Facebook advertising on purchase intention, including mediating impact of intention to like a brand page to engage in word of mouth (WOM). The data was collected from different Pakistani clothing brand pages. The data was analysed using a quantitative research method. The online structured questionnaire link was distributed among the brand page followers. First, the reliability and validity were confirmed. The interconnectedness between the constructs was measured by the structural equation modelling (SEM) using Smart PLS version 3. There is a positive and significant impact found between the attitude towards Facebook advertising on purchase intention and mediation impact of the like intention of a brand page to take part in word of mouth (WOM). The results could provide a reference for future research on brand pages and suggest a practical reference for the company business strategy. Pages 247 to 262

Constructivism in Numeracy: Impact Of Inventive Measures on Grade I Students

Sara Sehar a, Dr. S  Khurram Khan Alwib*, Dr. Zobia Zamanc, aPhD Schlor Greenwich University, Karachi, bAssociate Professor, Greenwich University, Karachi, cTrainer at IQCS INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS PTY LTD 7 Korana Street Plympton, South Australia, Email: aseharsara6@gmail.com, bdrkhurramkhan@outlook.com, czobiazaman@yahoo.com  

Constructivist core belief relies on one principle and that is: learning should be built on the existing knowledge of the learner.In constructivists’ view teachers are not the only source of knowledge, rather students construct their own understanding in an environment which is conducive to learning. Mathematic teachers need to adapt transformative roles of facilitators to encourage students in order to develop them into a self-assured learner. 120 students and 10 teachers participated in the study in which 60 students of an experimental group were vigorously involved in meaningful activities. Teachers played roles of facilitators in a student centred environment. An  independent sample t-test was applied to test the research hypothesis. The significant 2 tailed value of the post-test was .000 < .05 which evidenced that the research hypothesis is accepted signifying the impact of material activities on students mathematical learning. Pages 263 to 281 

Integration of Cultural Fit, Strategy Fit and Strategic Fit to Harness the Competitive Advantage: A Dynamic Capabilities Paradigm

Mehreen Waheeda*, Sadia Iftikharb, cDr. Sarwar Azharc, aPh.D Scholar of Management Sciences, a,b Serving as Lecturer in National University of Modern Languages (NUML)Lahore Campus, cPhD from the Nottingham University,UK Business School,Email:a*mehreenwaheed@numl.edu.pk,bsadiaiftikhar@numl.edu.pk,csarwar.azhar@iba-suk.edu.pk

The interaction of the organization in an industry with culture and other forces demands organizations to comply and align for survival and success through building and sustaining competitive advantage. This becomes even more critical when there are intense competition and a dynamic environment. Under these circumstances, there has to be a fit at various levels such as strategy fit, strategic fit and cultural fit. This fit ensures the harmony of what is required and what is to be done to bring prosperity. But in isolation, these fits may not result in maximum output so there has to be an alignment between these fits. This is the conceptual study that strives to answer these riddles along with the role of culture both internal and external in creating strategy, strategic and cultural fit. This study examines the mediating role of dynamic capabilities between business strategies and functional strategies, carrying the domain of HR as HR practices. This study proposed a model which will help managers and researchers to harness competitive advantage under a dynamic environment. Pages 282 to 310

Factors Affecting Consumers’ Impulse Buying Behaviour in Jordan Telecom Operators

Mohamad Alghzawia, Saeed Tarabiehb, Mahmoud Alghizzawic, a,bFaculty of Business, Marketing Department, Mutah University, al karak, Jordan; cFaculty of Business and Management, Marketing Department, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia; Email: aM.alghizawi@gmail.com, btarabieh@mutah.edu.jo, cdr.alghzawi87@gmail.com

This study aims to scrutinise the influence of primary personal characteristics and store factors, including employees’ behaviour, environment and sales promotion, on impulsive purchase decision making by consumers in Jordanian telecom operators. To obtain the study results, a total of n=384 well-structured, self-administered questionnaire surveys were distributed among the telecom customers in Jordan, using a statistical package for social sciences. The empirical results identified that there is a strong significant influence of store and personal characteristics on impulsive purchase decision. Among the personal factors that are significant for reinforcing an impulsive purchasing decision, are: tending to impulsive shop more, spending more money than originally thought; buying products by virtue of the job. Also, among the other contributive factors, store factors were also associated with influencing the buying behaviour of the customers, such as ‘promotional activities like "Buy one get one free" frequently attract me to buy things impulsively’, ‘Staff uniforms affect the purchase of goods for me from friendly employees’.  As the personal factors and store factors strongly affected the buying decision of the potential customers of telecom customers in Jordan,  the researcher also recommended conducting more investigations, especially longitudinal analysis, to examine the mentioned variables in other different situations. Pages 311 to 335

The Development of a Collaborative Training Model for Elementary School Teachers in Remote Area Indonesia

Piter Joko Nugrohoa, Theo Jhoni Hartantob, aEducation Management Departement, University of Palangka Raya, Indonesia, bPhysic Education Departement, University of Palangka Raya, Indonesia, Email: apiter@mp.upr.ac.id, btheo@fkip.upr.ac.id

Teachers in remote areas face many obstacles mainly related to the lack of professional development opportunities. This article proposes the development of an innovative training model (which was called a Collaborative Training Model or CTM) to help teachers use ICT to develop their teaching activities and to support their daily tasks. This study was a research and development which adapted a 4D model by Thiagarajan that was tried out on elementary school teachers in the remote area in Gunung Mas District, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The results showed that the CTM was valid based on expert judgement, the response of participants was categorised as very strong (positive), and the CTM that has been developed can help teachers achieve good learning outcomes. It can be stated that the CTM can be an alternative solution to overcome competency gaps of elementary school teachers in remote areas related to ICT skills for learning purposes and to achieve meaningful training. Pages 336 to 353

Regional Owned Enterprise Policy Strategies to Increase Local Government Revenues in Indonesia

Azhari Aziz Samudraa, Evi Satispib, Agus Suradikac, aProfessor, Department of Public Administration, Postgraduate Doctoral Program, Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta. bAssociate Professor, Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Social and Politic Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta. cProfessor, Department of Public Administration, Postgraduate Doctoral Program, Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta. Email: aazhariazis.samudra@umj.ac.id, bevi.satispi@umj.ac.id, cagus.suradika@umj.ac.id

This study aims to find out how to increase local revenue (PAD). In Indonesia, PAD is a source of regional income, part of which comes from regionally owned enterprises. PT. Bina Bangun Wibawa Mukti (BBWM) is a public regional company founded in 2002 and has contributed significantly to generating regional income, but from 2016 until now, its revenues and profits have decreased, especially with the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. Field observations were carried out by direct research into the location of the activity. This research was conducted for nine months, using qualitative methods with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, with 14 stakeholders and 28 staff (purposive sampling). The results of the study conclude that to increase income and return to the growth stage, the company carried out a strategy of diversifying liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) products into propane and butane. Strategic policies and innovations are continued in other businesses such as hotels, waste management and parking management. With these strategy and innovations, this regional company is expected to return to the growth stage. Pages 354 to 368

Qualitative Study on Millennials’ Housing Preferences in Jakarta, Indonesia

Raden Aswin Rahadia, Yunilson Mulyanob, aSchool of Business and Management, Institut Teknologi Bandung, bSchool of Business and Management, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Email: aaswin.rahadi@sbm-itb.ac.id, byunilson_mulyano@sbm-itb.ac.id

This paper aims to investigate the housing factors that affect millennials when they purchase a property. The housing factors used for the housing preferences are location, accessibility, price, facilities, physical attributes, design and aesthetic aspects, developer reputation and land ownership. The methodology used in this research is a qualitative study with conducting a semi-structured interview with several informants. The questionnaire was developed by reviewing the literature study and the author's interpretation. After conducting the interview, the entire informants agreed on the housing factors stated in the conceptual model. The informants would consider those eight factors before purchasing a property. The findings of this research should be useful for stakeholders like the government, real estate developers, and consumers. The reasons and ideas from the informant could be used as an input for the government to set policies regarding affordable houses. The real estate developers also could use this research to make a business strategy to develop the millennials market segment. Finally, for the consumer, this research could be a guide to help the customer find out about their preferences toward housing. Pages 369 to 382

Family Ownership and Tunneling Effect in South Asian, Lower-Middle Income Economies

Tanvir Ahmeda, Dr. Syed Muhammad Ali Tirmizib, Dr. Babar Zaheer Buttc, a,b,cFoundation University, Islamabad, Rawalpindi Campus, Pakistan, Email: atanvirkhan1979@yahoo.com, bdr.alitirmizi@fui.edu.pk, cbabarzb@gmail.com

This research studies the impact of family ownership (FOWN) on tunneling (TUN), while corporate governance (CGI) moderates this relationship. After reviewing the extensive literature, the relationship of family ownership with tunneling and the moderating role of corporate governance has been established. To investigate the empirical status of the hypotheses, data from 198 non-financial firms for 14 years for the period 2006-2019 has been gathered from the Pakistan Stock Exchange and Dhaka Stock Exchange. Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) has been applied to address the problem of endogeneity. The results depict that family ownership has a negative relationship with tunneling (propping). Moreover, corporate governance also shows the moderating role in the influence of family ownership on tunneling. The results of the empirical study provide insight to investors, regulators and policymakers so they may formulate strategies and establish policies to protect the rights of minority shareholders. Pages 383 to 399

Facets of Internal Marketing and Innovative Work Behaviour: The Intrinsic Motivation Perspective

Safdar Husain Tahira*, Mubarak Hussain Haiderb, Nausheen Syedc, Muhammad Husnaind, Aisha Saleeme, Muhammad Mohsinf, a,e,fLyallpur Business School, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan, bDepartment of Management Sciences, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad 44310, Pakistan, cDepartment of Business Administration, Government College Women University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan, dDepartment of Business Administration, University of Sahiwal, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan Email: a*drsafdargcuf@gmail.com, bphdmaju@gmail.com, cnausheen@gcwuf.edu.pk, dm.husnain@uosahiwal.edu.pk eaishajawad786@hotmail.com, fmdkmohsin83@gmail.com

This article aims to find the impact of rewards, training and empowerment as facets of internal marketing (IM) on innovative work behaviour (IWB) with the mediating role of intrinsic motivation (IMO). A representative sample of 242 employees from the engineering sector of Islamabad and Rawalpindi was collected, using a non-probability purposive sampling technique. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied to test the hypothesis. SEM results reveal the positive impact of training and empowerment on IWB and IMO. Rewards show a negative relationship with IWB and IMO. Results confirm the partial mediation of IMO between IM and its facets of training and empowerment with IWB. The practical and theoretical implications of this study are also presented based on the results. Pages 400 to 415

Eye-tracking in Second Language Reading

Ivana Roncevic, University of Zagreb

In this study eye tracking software was used to analyse the ways in which university students, adult competent speakers of English at C1 level, process information when reading texts in the target language, and which strategies they use in order to summarise a given text. Research results point to four different reading techniques used by the participants in the study: partly selective fast linear, partly selective slow linear, selective structural and nonselective reading strategies. In comparison with previous research with reading tasks in L1, results show that readers take more time when reading in L2. In addition, there is a need for skill enhancement for the purpose of improved text structuring in reading tasks in the English language. Pages 416 to 432

Awareness of Women and Employment Opportunities in Tourism and Hotels Sector and Empowerment According to the Vision of the Kingdom 2030

Alfatma Fatehallah Salamaa, Ghada Abdulrahman AlTurifb, aAssistant Prof, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University College of Community, bProf, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University College of Social Services, Department of Social Planning

This study aims at identifying the extent of women's awareness of employment opportunities in the tourism and hotel sector and how to empower women in accordance with the Kingdom's 2030 vision. The sample of the study consisted of (450) Saudi women distributed geographically over the various regions of the Kingdom. A questionnaire was designed and sent to them, titled “Awareness of women and employment opportunities in tourism and hotels sector and empowerment according to the vision of the Kingdom 2030”. The study concluded with a set of results, the most important of which is that there are many opportunities available for empowering women in the tourism and hotel sector, and they are characterised by diversity and suitability to the nature of women, especially when compared to the lack of employment opportunities in the educational and health sectors. The study reveals a set of challenges that limit the empowerment of women in the tourism and hotel sector; these include the customs and traditions of society. The study sought to present the proposed perception of empowering women in the tourism and hotels sector in light of the Kingdom's 2030 vision. Pages 433 to 454

An Investigation Study of Challenges in the Transition from Traditional to Virtual Teamwork During COVID-19 in UAE Organisations

Fatima AlZaabi1, Maryam AlShehhi1, Noora AlShehhi1, Ranya Wadi1, Ruqayya Alhebsi1, Muataz Hazza Al Hazza1*, Mohammed Alnahhal1, Ahmad Sakhrieh1,2, 1Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, American University of Ras Al Khaimah, 10021, United Arab Emirates. 2Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan, Email: muataz.alhazza@aurak.ac.ae

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many organisations worldwide decided to transfer to remote working. This transition faced different challenges. This research investigates the most emergent challenging factors due to this transition in UAE organisations that affect productivity, motivation, and trust. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the most challenging factors, followed by a questionnaire to achieve the objective. Respondents for the questionnaire were 92 participants from different institutions across the UAE. The questionnaire focused on five main challenges: lack of communication and knowledge sharing; network issues and technological challenges; lack of good leadership practices; lack of coordination and team monitoring; and lack of employee engagement and responsiveness. The questionnaire results were investigated using a t-test and the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results show that productivity severely suffered. On the other hand, motivation was affected significantly due to a lack of good leadership practices and employee engagement. Trust was influenced by a lack of employee engagement and responsiveness, lack of communication and knowledge sharing, and lack of good leadership practices. The results show that gender does not affect the respondents' perception regarding the transition from traditional to virtual teamwork on three performance measures. Pages 455 to 468

The Effect of Personality on Office Politics Perception: An Experience from Malaysian Government Agencies

Daud, Z.a, Saiful Azizi, I.b, Sallehuddin, M.R.c,  a,b,cSchool of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia

Organisational politics or office politics is really about manipulating power and authority to build relationship to get things done. In other words, it is about “stabbing” people to achieve objectives. In the decision making process, management retains the actual right for making decisions. To maintain its authority in the decision making process, the management will exercise its power. This will create politics in an organisation. Kacmar & Carlson (1997) exhibited that the perceptions individuals hold about the political nature of their work environment influence the way they do their job. They defined organisational politics as political activities that have social influences and it is designed to protect one’s own self-interests. Therefore, managers’ personalities may have a relationship with the occurrence of organisational politics. Personality is defined as the stable physical and mental characteristics responsible for a person’s identity (Kinicki & Williams, 2006). The dominant managerial style may result from deep-rooted personality characteristics which predispose an individual to prefer one approach over another (Blake & Mouton, 1968). An individual’s personality constructs their personal attribute. Hence, this study aims to examine the influence of individual’s personalities on the execution of organisational politics. Pages 469 to 482

Management of the Crisis during the COVID-19 Epidemic: Dead Sea Hotels in Jordan - Case Study

AL-Nsour Belal, Ph.D, Assistant Professor, School of business, Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan,   Email: belal@bau.edu.jo

Many investors and researchers couldn't have predicted the impact of COVID-19 and its negative impacts on the tourism sector in Jordan and the Dead Sea sites across the region.  Within three months, Jordan’s visitors and the domestic tourism economy programs cancelled package travel and transport services; from the Ministry of Health, the average occupancy rate of hotels declined, reducing the level of accommodation in Dead Sea hotels by more than 83%, compared to the tourism industry average. The hotel industry in Jordan and tourism groups were largely caught unawares. They had to swiftly make creative solutions to solve problems arising from the crisis, find ways to reduce damage and total costs, and finally, increase revenues. In this paper, we recognise the impact, the consequences of COVID-19 on Dead Sea hotels in Jordan, and the relevant human resources procedures utilised to tackle the economic crisis. Conclusions show that unpaid vacation and layoff programs were the most common among popular Dead Sea hotel manager's decisions. Pages 483 to 496

University Supervisors’ Perceptions on Preservice Teachers’ Lesson Planning During Teaching Practice: The Case of a South African University

Mbusiseni C. Dube1, Chinaza Ulienya2, Dumsani W Mncube3,  1,3University of Zululand, KwaZulu.Natal, South Africa, 2University of South Africa, Gauteng, South Africa

Lesson planning, a pivotal aspect aiding the achievement of any lesson objective and eventually education goal, seems to be not handled as expected in recent times. This is perhaps because preservice teachers tend to fail in meeting the expected demands in their lesson planning. Hence, this study explores the perceptions of university supervisors on preservice teachers’ lesson planning during their teaching practice, using selected schools where preservice teachers from a rural based university in South Africa undertook the teaching practice exercise. The study employed a qualitative method. Thus, structured interviews were conducted for 19 university supervisors who supervised preservice teachers during teaching practice. The findings of the study show that lesson planning is crucial to the delivery and attainment of lesson objectives. Also, a majority of the supervised preservice teachers still lag in the area of lesson planning. The study therefore recommends, among other things, that preservice teachers be taught lesson planning from the early stages of their study and be drilled on it, so that they understand clearly its elements. Pages 497 to 511

Self-Esteem, Peer Pressure, Personality Traits and Parental Bonding as Associated Factors of the Social Competencies of Adolescents

Kehinde C. Lawrencea; Awosanya O. Olabisib. Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education, Faculty of Education University of Zululand, South Africa1; Department of Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, University of Ibadan, Nigeria2. alawrencek@unizulu.ac.za/lawrence.clement@ymail.com; bbisisanya68@yahoo.com

This study advances self-esteem, peer pressure, personality traits and parental bonding as associated factors of the social competencies of adolescents. A quantitative research of correlational type was adopted, while the multistage technique was used to select a sample of 546 adolescents with an average age of 16.5 (56.2% female). Appropriate measuring tools were used for data collection. Three research questions were raised and answered using regression statistical stools. Results revealed that self-esteem, peer pressure, extraversion, agreeableness, openness and parental bonding had a significant positive association, with exception of conscientiousness and neuroticism which had a negative but significant relationship with the social competence. Further, the most potent contributor to social competence was extraversion (β = 28.5%), followed by peer pressure (β = 27.1%), parental bonding ((β = 26.7%), self-esteem (β = 24.6%), agreeableness (β = 17.7%) and openness (β = 7.7%). Findings suggested that adolescents should give adequate consideration to those psychosocial causal factors that positively contributed to social competence and future research efforts can focus on moderating effect on any of these causal factors that have unique association with social competence. Pages 512 to 524

Promotion of Nationalism: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Imran Khan’s National Assembly Speech

Islam Badshah, Assistant Professor Department of English, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan. (https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6808-873X) Email: ibadshah@numl.edu.pk

This study focuses on the critical evaluation of Pakistani nationalism as discursively constructed in Imran Khan’s speech. Imran Khan, Pakistan cricket hero turned prime minister who became world champion in 1992 and then stepped into politics in 1996, has been an icon of producing and propagating Pakistani nationalism under which Pakistanis as one strong nation could progress. The current study applies Fairclough’s (1989) three-dimensional model to Critical Discourse Analysis. The aim of CDA is to analyse Imran Khan’s speech at the micro and macro level from a socio-cultural perspective. The study is also related to the analysis of Imran Khan’s firm determination to build Pakistan as a respected and great nation. Pages 525 to 535

Investigating the Moderating Role of Terrorism Fear on the Relationship between Economic Value and Teachers Job Satisfaction: Evidence from Education Sector

Dr. Noor Ul Hadia*, Ayesha Darb, Ghayur Ahmadc, Dr. Malik F. Salehd, a,c,dCollege of Business Administration, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, bDepartment of Business Administration, Foundation University Islamabad, Email: an_hadi1@yahoo.com, bayeshadar1@live.com, cmarchingdawn@gmail.com,  dmsaleh@pmu.edu.sa

This study aims to examine the impact of economic value on teachers’ job satisfaction in the presence of fear of terrorism in the mind of teachers. To this end, data was collected through self-administered questionnaires from 175 faculty members of educational institutions in Peshawar purposively. 150 responses were analysed via hierarchical regression. The result of the study indicated that there is a positive and significant relationship between economic value and teachers’ job satisfaction. The study also found that the moderating role of fear of terrorism on the relationship between economic value and teachers’ job satisfaction is insignificant. The results deviate surprisingly; indicating that Pakistan is a developing country and has economic depression so people in Pakistan specifically in KP Province are more concerned about their economic value even in the presence of terrorism fear. The study also provides justifications, implications and future research opportunities. Pages 536 to 551

The Role of Lean Production and Other Technologies in Reducing Production Costs

Naji Shayeb Kayem, Baghdad College of Economic Sciences University, Email: najialrekaby@baghdadcollege.edu.iq

The techniques lean production, robot and total quality management are important to reduce production costs and improve the quality of products which then meet the needs and desire of customers, leading to higher sales volume and achieving high levels of profits. The statistical analysis shows the proportion of influence and power between those independent variables (lean production, robot, total quality management) and the dependent variable (reduce of product costs) as follows: 1-The total of regression coefficient of the independent variables (lean production, robot, total quality management) is (0.573). This reflects the strength of the influence of these variables on the dependent variable (reducing the product costs). As the relationship is direct between them, the higher the regression coefficient, leading to a stronger influence of the independent variables on the dependent variable. 2- The coefficient of determination for independent variables (lean production, robot, total quality management) and the dependent variable (reducing the product costs) is the coefficient (0.526), where the percentage of influence of the independent variables is (52.6%) and is a good ratio. As for the complement of ratio, it  is  (47.4%)  back to other factors not covered by this article. 3- Based on the statistical analysis in table 10, with respect to a regression coefficient (R2), the coefficient of   determination (B) and the natural significant relationship, the researcher confirms the importance of the adoption of Iraqi manufacturing, including the service industry, So the use of modern production techniques contributes to improving the competitive position of the Iraqi industry. 4- The researcher indicates that competition in the price led many international companies (Japanese and American) to transfer some of their factories to countries with low operating costs, such as China, even though these companies are technologically advanced and use the best modern production technologies such as lean production, robots, and total quality management. Those who visit the USA will find that the goods produced in China have invaded the markets there due to price competition and the relatively low cost of production in China, as well as the current trend towards at the service industry in USA. Pages 552 to 575

Transformational Leadership and Organizational Performance: A Mediating-Moderating Role of Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Cynicism

Wasim ul Rehmana, Faryal Jalilb, Masood Hassanc, Suleyman Degirmend, Maryam Sarfraz Cheemae, a,e Department of Business Administration, University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus, Pakistan, bInstitute of Quality & Technology Management, University of the Punjab Lahore Campus, Pakistan, , c Institute of Business Management (IoBM), Karachi, dThe School of Social and Human Sciences, Konya Food and Agriculture University, Turkey, Email: awasim.rehman@pugc.edu.pk, bfaryal.iqtm@pu.edu.pk, cmasoodhassan1@hotmail.com, std_21855@iobm.edu.pk, dsuleyman.degirmen@gidatarim.edu.tr

Transformational leaders are instrumental to influence the knowledge sharing amid employees. This study is designed to explore and bridge the research gap based on mediating role of knowledge sharing and moderating role of organizational cynicism in association of transformational leadership and organizational performance. Three hypotheses were established to analyze the conceptual framework of the study. A self-administered questionnaire was developed to collect cross-sectional data through convenient sampling from 415 employees working in the major banks of Punjab, Pakistan. Results showed that the relationship between transformational leadership on organizational performance is weaker, when the organizational cynicism is high. Thus, this study is among rare on cross-sectional research design that investigates the mediating-moderating mechanism of knowledge sharing and organizational cynicism in the banking sector of Pakistan. This study is not only contributing in existing literature but will also be helpful for policy makers to take steps for controlling cynicism at workplace and to encourage employees for participating in knowledge sharing and performance of organization. Pages 576 to 599

Sentiment Analysis through application of Big Data in online Retail Industry: A Conceptual Quantitative Study from the Perspectives of IT experts

Dr. Sadia Shaikha, Muhammad Faisal Sultanb, Dr. Farhan Zeb Khaskhellyc, Nida Zehrad, aAssistant Professor, Benazir School of Business, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University, Karachi, Pakistan. bAssistant Professor, Business Administration Department, KASBIT, Karachi, Pakistan, cAssistant Professor, IBA, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan, dPhD Scholar, IBA, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan, Email: asadiakhurram@live.com

Big-Data is perceived as the source which may provide enormous to research as well as to business through influencing organizational performance. However, there are very few studies which highlighted the role of this evolving technology with the reference of Pakistan as low level of understanding of technology which is even highlighted by Gallop Pakistan. According to research the technology is significantly important for retail sector and might produce effective result for optimization of sales and growth. Hence there is a need to verify these postulates through relating the use of technology with Pakistan. Therefore, this study tried to conceptualize the impact of big-data application on the pricing mechanism of online retail stores of Pakistan through the opinion of IT experts. SMART-PLS has been used to analyze results of perception regarding the use of technology which significantly indicated importance of big-data for online retailers. Pages 600 to 619


Determinants influencing green consumption behaviour of household appliances in Vietnam

Ha Thu Luonga*, Manh Dung Trana*, Duc Canh Leb, Son Khanh Tranc, Chi Ngoc Bao Nguyend, Huyen Khanh Ngoe, Trang Nhat Trand, aNational Economics University, Vietnam, bSchool of Advanced Education Programs, National Economics University, Vietnam, cDepartment of Excellence Business Administration, National Economics University, Vietnam. dDepartment of Advanced Accounting, National Economics University, Vietnam. eDepartment of Excellence HRM, National Economics University, Vietnam. Email: a*haluongthu@neu.edu.vn; a*manhdung@ktpt.edu.vn

This study is conducted to investigate determinants that have effects on green consumption behaviour for household appliances of Vietnamese customers applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The relationship between independent variables (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, knowledge, reasonable price and trend - additional variable from Vietnam typical condition), mediating variable and dependent variable (green consumption intention and green consumption behaviour) was identified. Data was collected through the questionnaire survey which was carried out in Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh cities of Vietnam, an emerging country as the case study. The results show that attitude, perceived behavioural control, knowledge, reasonable price and trend significantly and positively influence the consumption intention. Moreover, consumption intention was found to have a significant positive impact on consumption behaviour. Pages 615 to 634

Improving Corporate Stability Through Regulatory and Financial Reporting Within the Banking Sector in Saudi Arabia

Yosra Hamzaa, Abeer Atallah Aloudatb, Maher Diab Abulailac, Sukinah Abdullah Aljishid, Sara Qasem Al- Suwaidie, Hala Sulaiman Alturkif, Department of Accounting, College of Applied Studies and Community Services, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

As a country, the Saudi Arabia banking sector has experienced a lot of changes and positive development over the last few years. The development within the financial sector has been caused by the positive financial policy measures by the government, the oil economy and the developing construction and real estate industry in the region. Even through Saudi Arabia has one of the largest financial sectors within the MENA region, the banking sector has faced many challenges within the past few years. The research findings show that the banking sector has faced challenging economic times owing to the fluctuating oil prices. Another major factor which has led to the declining banking fortunes in the region is the onset of the COVI-19 pandemic which has also hit other global economies and affected the country’s oil trade. However, the findings also show that the banking sector has still continued to experience positive growth as a result of many factors. Such factors include positive customer perception, increased economic activity in the region and favourable government policy in the region. There are still internal and external challenges that are likely to shape the future of banking in Saudi Arabia. Such include the challenges due to cybersecurity and technology development. Poor cultures related to the customer relationships in the banking sector have also influenced the industry in Saudi Arabia. Pages 635 to 644

Academic Self-Efficacy as a Mediator Between Fear of Failure and Academic Stress Among High School Students During Covid-19

Ayman Gamal Khalifa, PhD, TVTC Directorate of Research and Studies, Saudi Arabia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4178-3481, Email: a.ghanem@tvtc.gov.sa

The goal of this study was to investigate the role academic self-efficacy plays in the relationship between fear of failure, and academic stress among high school students during Covid-19. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit participants in this study. Participants were 320 third year secondary school students (210 female, 65.6% and 110 males, 3.4.%). A cross-sectional study was performed for all secondary schools in the Directorate of Education, Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Results indicate that self-efficacy correlates negatively with both fear of failure and academic procrastination. On the other hand, fear of failure was found to be positively correlated with academic stress. The data set, according to Skewness and kurtosis values, is in the range of ± 1 and shows a normal distribution. Regression coefficients of the empirical model show that self-efficacy had a direct negative effect on both fear of failure and academic stress. According to these findings, self-efficacy had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between fear of failure and academic stress. Pages 645 to 657

Are Islamic and Conventional Stock Indices Temporally Related? Evidence from Pakistan

Dr. Mustafa Afeefa, Dr. Anjum Ihsanb, Dr. Fayaz Ali Shahc, Dr. Shahid Jan Kakakheld, Imran Khane, a,b,cAssistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Islamia College Peshawar, Pakistan, dAssociate Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Islamia College Peshawar, Pakistan, ePhD Scholar, Department of Management Sciences, Islamia College Peshawar, Pakistan, Email: amustafa@icp.edu.pk, bsearchanjum@yahoo.com, cfayaz@icp.edu.pk, dshahidjan@icp.edu.pk, eimrankhan.pk87@gmail.com

This paper investigates the co-movement of the two stock market indices of Pakistan, i.e., the KSE 100 Index and the KSE Islamic All Share Index. Daily data was taken for both the indices and the Johansen Cointegration test was applied to test for any long run linkage between the two variables. Moreover, the Granger Causality test / Block Exogeneity Wald test was also employed to explore whether any of the two indices could be used to forecast the other. Results revealed that long run associations, or Cointegration, did exist between the two indices at the lag length of 365 specified through the Akaike Information criterion. The Vector Error Correction Model showed that the two indices were strongly and positively associated with each other. The Wald test further indicated that the two variables were temporally related with the KSE Islamic All Share Index predicting changes in the KSE 100 Index. However, since the two time-series variables were found to be closely and positively associated specifically in the long-run, creating a portfolio of the two indices in an attempt to achieve diversification benefits may not serve the purpose. Pages 658 to 669

Scope and Conditions of Damages for Air Carrier’s Liability Caused by Delay in Terms of the Travel Contract Issued by Emirate Airlines

Prof. Dr. Mahmoud Fayyada*, Prof. Dr. Koen Byttebierb, aAssociate Prof. College of Law, University of Sharjah, bProfessor, Department of Private and Economic Law, VUB, Email: a*mfayyad@sharjah.ac.ae,  bKoen.Byttebier@vub.be

This article detects the scope and conditions of the damages award compensation for the air carrier’s liability caused by delay, in terms of the Standard Form Contract issued by the UAE air carriers (the sample of the Emirates Airiness). The Travel Contract is drafted by the Air carrier and not individually negotiated, and that the other party is not authorized to influence or modify its terms. It is necessary to examine its fairness, its representation to the interests of the contracting parties equally, and its compatibility with the relevant provisions provided by the relating international conventions and national laws. This study confirms the fairness of the Travel Contract’ provisions relating to the subject of the research, its fair representation as regards the interests of both contracting parties and its adoption to the broad scope of damage award compensation in agreement with the best practices of both national and international law. Pages 670 to 687

University Students’ Assessment of a Service-Learning Project for Developing Teaching Materials

Juan Lucas Onieva Lópeza, John Ramírez Leytonb, Raúl Cremadesc, Soledad Ortegad, a,c,dDepartment of Didactics of Languages, Arts and Sports. Faculty of Education. University of Málaga. Campus Teatinos, s/n. Málaga (29071), Spain. aORDIC: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7843-9054, cORDIC: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9265-6071, dORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4501-0088, bCooperative of Evaluation and Research Services. 210 Calle José Oliver, San Juan, (00918). Puerto Rico. ORDIC: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9638-3349, Email: ajuanlucas@uma.es, bjrleyton@gmail.com, ccremades@uma.es, dsortega@uma.es

The objective of this study is to determine the opinions of university students undergoing primary school teacher training to develop language teaching material for patients from the Children’s Hospital of Málaga, Spain, using the Service Learning (SL) methodology. Students evaluated this methodology by answering a 16-question questionnaire validated by external researchers. Academic performance was analysed using the Student’s t-test by comparing grades between an intervention and a control group. The results indicated improvements in several areas, including: the level of engagement, transversal competencies, academic performance, level of student satisfaction, and acquisition of teaching material related to the subject. Pages 688 to 705

Assessing the Impact of Organisational Practices on Organisational Performance

Shoukat Ali Mahar, Syed Muneer Ahmed Shah, and Nazar Hussain, Department of Public Administration Khairpur Mirs, Sindh Pakistan

Purpose: the main theme of this research is to investigate the impact of organisational practices on organisational performance at the University of Sindh. In this connection there is a significant and positive impact of organisational practice on organisational performance. Research methods: the quantitative research techniques are applied such as descriptive analysis, reliability analysis and regression analysis. It shows how sampling was selected and how the questionnaire was designed. It proved results scientifically. Findings: this research explored that organisational practice (internal communication, high performance work systems and information technology and recruitment and selection) are contributing 9.90%, 24%, 42%, and 22.30% individually and their collective contribution is 68.30%. Further, all hypotheses are accepted by the results. Implications: this study will be helpful for academic researchers and practitioners, management and employees in how internal communication, high performance work systems and information technology lead towards improving organisational performance. Limitations: this research is specified to the University of Sindh and a limited number of sampling was used to understand the impact of independent construction dependent variable. Values: this research provides how organisational practices are worthwhile to forecast organisational performance and will lead organisations to create image in market. Pages 706 to 720

The Principal in Forming Teacher Work Motivation in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period at Senior High School 1 Sigli

Sumarjoa, Basrib, Muhammadc, Muhammad Iqbald, a,b,c,dUniversity of Jabal Ghafur, email: asumarjounigha@gmail.com, bbasriunigha@gmail.com, cmuhammadpenjas84@gmail.com, dmuhammadiqbal@unigha.ac.id

The role of a school principal in the Covid-19 pandemic is to shape teacher work motivation. The purpose of this study is to determine the form of principal activities that are most effective in shaping teacher work motivation during the Covid-19 Pandemic. This study uses Mixed-Method in a high school 1 Sigli. In shaping teacher work motivation during the Covid-19 pandemic, the principal can be assessed when the principal carries out his leadership activities, which include: forms of activities and the school atmosphere created, and the principal's leadership activities in creating a work atmosphere in shaping teacher work motivation. The category of school organisation development which is still simple has an impact on leadership activities and the creation of an interrelated school atmosphere, namely: strengthening organisation, and building communication. Then concerning the creation of a work atmosphere, a school principal can implement: establishing a work system, instilling positive thinking, and realising the Guarantee program. Pages 721 to 735

How Pharmaceutical Marketing Manipulates the Prescription Pattern of Physicians? A Grounded Theory Study

Dr. Fazle Malika, Dr. Muhammad Asifb, Dr. Ilyas Sharifc, Dr. Shakeel Khand, Dr. Luqman Hakeeme, aField manager, Otsuka Pakistan Ltd, Islamabad, bAssistant Professor, Management Sciences Department, City University of Science and IT, Peshawar, Pakistan, cLecturer Quaid e Azam College of Commerce, University of Peshawar, dLecturer, Institute of Management Studies University of Peshawar, eNational Consultant, UNICEF, Country office, Email: afazalmalikopl@gmail.com, basifbaloch@cusit.edu.pk, cPakistan.ilyasqacc@uop.edu.pk, dshakeel.ims@uop.edu.pk, eIslamabad.meetluqman@hotmail.com

This study aspires to scientifically understand the influence of pharmaceutical marketing on the prescribing patterns of healthcare professionals in Pakistan and their ethical considerations. The discipline of marketing is a principal tool used by the industry to induce prescriptions from physicians and significantly affects the purchase, dispense and use of drugs. This abuse of drugs is responsible for the arousal of “superbugs” where the micro-organisms are immune to antibiotics and the subsequent “antibiotic apocalypse” is an emerging threat. If not prevented, it may cost up to a million deaths and $100 trillion lost to the world economy per year which will be a colossal loss. Notwithstanding this necessity, there is little research on this issue from the vantage of marketing ethics. This paper fills the knowledge gap. The population is comprised of physicians, pharmacists, sales managers, and relevant statutory body’ employees and from whom in-depth interviews were conducted to collect data. Grounded theory is applied as a method of inquiry to produce contextually robust comprehension. The data analysis through a proper coding process revealed that unethical behaviours of the industry are the principal reasons for deceptive marketing practices and compel physicians to accept gifts and other cash from marketers and generate prescriptions not on robust scientific evidences but on a commercial basis. Consequently, the misuse, overuse, or even abuses of drugs are evidently common in Pakistan which has manifested in the form of antimicrobial resistance. The contemporary grim situation can be overhauled if the key stakeholders, particularly industry and physicians behave ethically and comply with codes of conduct developed by international and local bodies. Pages 735 to 753

A comparative study of Academic self-efficacy level of secondary school students in Rural and Urban Areas of District Peshawar, Pakistan

Siraj Khan1, Dr. Amjad Reba2, Dr. Adnan shahzad3 1Ph.D Scholar, Institute of Education and Research, University of Peshawar. 2Assistant Professor, Institute of Education and Research, University of Peshawar, 3Subject Specialist, Elementary and secondary Education Department. Email: 1khan1ier@gmail.com, 2amjadreba@uop.edu.pk

The study at hand was designed to compare the academic self-efficacy level of students in rural and urban area schools of district Peshawar at secondary level. The null hypothesis of the study was that there is no significant difference of academic self-efficacy level of students studying at secondary level in rural and urban areas schools of district Peshawar. The study employed a quantitative research approach.  The descriptive research design was used. All the secondary school students of high and higher secondary schools for boys of district Peshawar in the public sector were the population of the study. Stratified random sampling technique was used for the distribution of the sample size and its allocation. The population was categorized into two broad groups (strata) with reference to urban and rural region schools of district Peshawar. 300 students were selected from each stratum i.e. urban and rural areas of the said district. In order to collect data on academic self- efficacy level, a standardized tool established by Forman and Owen was used. Data was analyzed by applying a statistical test i.e. the t-test was used to compare academic self-efficacy level of the students of urban and rural areas of district Peshawar The study found that in the majority of both rural and urban areas, students liked to participate in a class discussion. They agreed with the statement that essay type tests are harder for them than objective type tests. They avoided facing difficulties in their studies and had problems to listening carefully during a lesson on a difficult topic. The majority of the students from urban and rural areas thought that it is a very rewarding experience being a student. They assumed that if they study enough, they can perform better academically. The result of the hypothesis testing showed that there was no significant difference between the academic self-efficacy level of secondary school students in urban and rural areas schools of district Peshawar by applying the sample t-test. Pages 754 to 761  

The Phenomenon of Code-Mixing as Practised in Online Newspapers for Vietnamese Youth and the Issue of Preserving the Purity of Vietnamese

Le Thi Thuy Vinh, Hanoi Pedagogical University No. 2

Currently, code-mixing is a very popular phenomenon in young people's communication. Code-mixing is not only a pure linguistic phenomenon but a perceived phenomenon in linguistic-cultural contact. In this article, we will conduct research on the phenomenon of code-mixing in online articles for Vietnamese youth to find out the types of code-mixing that young people use in online newspapers, thereby raising the issue of protecting, developing and "preserving the purity of Vietnamese" so that Vietnamese still embraces the identity of the Vietnamese cultural language but does not hinder the current integration and internationalisation. Pages 762 to 771

Impact of the Financial Indicators on Bank Performance and a Comparison of Small and Large Banks - Evidence from the Bahrain

Mohammad Adnan1, Ahmad Tisman Pasha2, Dr. Rashid Mehmood3, Maria Sadiq4, Muhammad Waris5, Dr. Rana Tahir Naveed6 (Corresponding Author), 1SBS Swiss Business School, 2Assistant Professor, Institute of Banking and Finance. Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. 3Department of Economics and Business Administration, Art & Social Sciences Division, University of Education, Lahore, 4MS scholar, Institute of Banking and Finance. Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, 5PhD scholar at University Uttara, Malaysia, 6Department of Economics and Business Administration, Art & Social Sciences Division, University of Education, Lahore. Email: 1adnan.abdulhamid@gmail.com, 2tisman@bzu.edu.pk, 3rashid.mehmood@ue.edu.pk, 4mariasadiq66@gmail.com, 5Muhammadwaris.vf@ue.edu.pk, 6Tahir.naveed@ue.edu.pk

The objective of our study is to explore the relationship of the financial indicators on the bank’s performance. For this purpose, we collected the data of the bank working in Bahrain. Data collected from the annual report of the respected banks for the period of five years. Our results show that the large bank is more efficient in term of the efficiency ratios to generate income by utilizing their full economic resources and give the high efficiency ratio as compared to small bank.  The large banks have more resources as compared to the small banks in term of the efficiency ratio. Leverage has the negative impact on the banks performance because the it creates a burden on the bank to recover the cost of the capital. In regards of non-interest income our results are significant, it means that there is significant relationship between non-interest income and the bank performance. In each years the bank performance is very good and that’s why higher means of the non-interest income ratio. There is significant relationship between bank performance and the loan loss provision in our analysis. The performance and size of the bank also directly impact on the loan loss provisions ratio. Higher the loan loss provision higher the risk in that bank. In our analysis there is significant relationship between performance of the bank and the ROA. In our results regarding to return on equity ratio and bank performance relationship, there is significant relationship between them. There is a significant relationship between the nonperforming loan and the bank performance. Non-performing loan is the bad sign for the future of the banking sector in the Kingdome of the Bahrain. Pages 772 to 796

The Role of Service Marketing Mix in Assessing Youths’ Decision-Making Styles

Nor Azlin Sulaimana, Haryanni Harunb*, aPostgraduate Student, Management and Humanities Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Malaysia, bManagement and Humanities Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Malaysia, Email: anor_19001639@utp.edu.my, b*haryanniharun@utp.edu.my

Despite the growth of STEM careers, higher education institutions face a tremendous talent gap crisis. The crisis occurs as students’ enrollment in the STEM programs substantially declined in the last five years. Even though the national education policy employs STEM education as the main agenda compared to non-STEM education, low demands for STEM program signals the mismatch between market needs and programs offered. Thus, this study aims to propose a model to reveal the service marketing mix roles in assessing youths’ decision-making styles in the enrollment of STEM programs. Data was collected from 191 undergraduate students in a reputable private university in Malaysia, specialised in STEM programs, and analysed through the PLS-SEM approach. The findings revealed that three marketing mix dimensions (i.e. product, price, prominence) are dominant factors that influence the program enrollment decision-making, since both styles of decision-making (i.e. novelty, brand-consciousness, perfectionist, and high-quality) recorded significant results. Hence, higher education institutions should consider strengthening the marketability and quality of the program, since the product dimension influences both enrollment decision-making styles. The investment to grow the institution's reputation particularly in improving global, regional, and national ranking is an effective strategy as prominence is related to both enrollment decision-making styles. Pages 797 to 815

The Availability and Use of Information and Communication Technology at Gifted Primary Schools in the Sudan

Dr. Zeinab Abdel Rahman Elhassn Hagge Ahmed1, Prof. Salaheldin Farah Attallah  Bakhiet2, 1Assistant Professor/ Department of kindergarten/ College of Science and Humanities/ Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz, University, 2Professor / Department of Special Education / College of Education / King Saud University. Email: 1Z.haggeahmed@psau.edu.sa, 2bakhiet@ksu.edu.sa

This study explored the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in gifted primary schools from the perspective of teachers. Both availability and use of ICT in those schools were examined. Participants were 56 teachers (51.8% males and 48.2% females). Data was collected using a questionnaire developed and validated by the researchers. Results reported tools of ICT that are always, sometimes and never available at schools. They also reported tools of ICT that are always, sometimes and never used. No correlation was found between use of ITC on one hand and age, years of experience and number of courses in ICT on the other hand. Similarly, no significant differences were found in the teachers’ use of ICT by qualifications (the bachelor’s degree, the Postgraduate Diploma and the Master degree) and gender. However, there were significant differences (a=0.05) by schools (Abdoon Hamad, Mahjoub Obaid and Mohammed Fouad) in favor of Abdoon Hamad School compared with Mohammed Fouad School. Finally, a positive correlation (a=0.01) was found between the availability and use of ICT. Implications based on the results are offered. Pages 816 to 848

Strategic OrientationInnovation and Entrepreneurship Model and Economic Performance - Empirical Analysis from Chinese Data

Zhang Lianfeng1, Chen Zhuanqing2, Yuriy Danko3 1Sumy National Agrarian University, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, 2Henan Institute of Science and Technology, 3Sumy National Agrarian University

Through a systematical combination of domestic and foreign literature on strategic orientation, this paper proposes an exploratory model for the relationship between strategic orientation, innovative entrepreneurship model and economic performance, with 485 pieces of valid sample data collected for empirical testing. It was found that entrepreneurial orientation and network orientation have positive effects on economic performance to a significant extent. The impact of entrepreneurship orientation on business model innovation is far more significant compared with product innovation, while the impact of network orientation on product innovation is clearly more significant in contrast to business model innovation. Business model innovation plays an intermediary role between entrepreneurial orientation and economic performance, while product innovation plays an intermediary role between network orientation and economic performance. Based on the empirical results obtained, the following suggestions are made in this paper for innovation and Entrepreneurship Model Selection. Resource-deficient enterprises can rely on network-oriented product innovation to improve economic performance and risk-preferring firms can receive benefit from economic performance through entrepreneurial-oriented business model innovation. Pages 849 to 869

Rapid Prototyping Technology Roadmapping For SMEs: Issues, Challenges & A Pragmatic Implementation Approach

Ayyaz Ahmad1*, Isam A.Q.Elbadawi2, Asif Mahmood3, 1,2Department of Industrial & System Engineering University of Hail, Saudi Arabia,  3Department of Business Studies, Namal Institute, Mianwali 42250, Pakistan, Email: 1*ay.ahmad@uoh.edu.sa or ayz90@hotmail.com, 2i.elbadawi@uoh.edu.sa or isam149@gmail.com, 3asif.mahmood@namal.edu.pk or mahmood.engineer@gmail.com

In the advanced era of globalization, the changing demands of customers and trends of the market have changed the business world. The changing scenario of the global village has an indelible impact on Small and Medium Entrepreneurs (SMEs) but these small business firms are incapable to tackle all these challenging issues and maintain the market positions due to limited human resources and technological infrastructure. Though Rapid Prototyping technology has a great potentiality to address all these challenging issues, yet there is not much application of this technology in the large proportion of SMEs. This paper highlights the key barriers, their impact on competitive capabilities and introduces a practical roadmap. It also discusses its implementation mechanism through industrial case studies for the understanding of the market dynamics, competitor’s ability and internal business analysis to facilitate the RP technology link with the challenges they are facing, to ensure an effective adoption process. Pages 870 to 904

Risk Management Practices in Small and Medium Enterprises: A Bibliometric Analysis

Manzar Abbas Hydaria, Dr. Alia Ahmedb, Dr. Taseer Salahuddinc, aResearcher at National College of Business Administration & Economics, Lahore, bDean Business School, National College of Business Administration & Economics, Lahore, cAssistant Professor, Economics, Government Sadiq College Women University, Bahawalpur, Email: amahydari@gmail.com, bdralia@ncbae.edu.pk, csalahuddin.taseer@gmail.com

Bibliometric analyses are the studies of bibliographic contents that provide the general picture of the specific research area by identifying and classifying the journals. This explanatory research focuses on Risk Management (RM) practices for Small and Medium Enterprises’ (SMEs) sustainability.  The SMEs are always at higher risks in terms of small size and limited resources. This bibliometric review evaluates 3,709 Scopus-indexed documents to examine the effects of risk management practices on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) for Sustainable Development (SD), that have accrued in the last 30 years (1991 – 2020).  The review goals are to compile the volume, evolution trends, and geographical allocation of the literature, identify prominent authors, relevant journals, as well as publications; and finally to analyse the conceptual, intellectual, and social structures prevalent in this field. This review presents a yardstick for impending research reviews on the RM of SMEs for SD, shows the evolving intellectual structure of this inter-disciplinary arena, and proposes reference points for researchers entering this discipline. This research paper will be a valuable source for future researchers and publications interested in SMEs’ risk management for sustainable development to capture the current research flashpoints and prospective research tips. Pages 905 to 926

The Post-Cold War International Political Development in Europe: From Bipolar to Unipolarity Structure

Mohd. Noor Yazid, Programme of International Relations, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, Email: mohdnoor@ums.edu.my

This paper explores the international political development in Europe during the post-Cold War era starting from 1989. The focus of discussion is Europe in the first decade of the post-Cold War era. The end of the Cold War had a great impact on the political and institutional development in Europe. The economic weaknesses of the Soviet Union since the mid-1980s and the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1991 strongly influenced the changes of the former communist states of Eastern Europe. The former communist states in Eastern Europe became democratic states and then became members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Why did the former communist states become democratic-capitalist states after the Cold War ended? Why they join NATO? Which International Relations Theory could be applied in explaining and analysing the changes and political development in Europe? The former communist states becoming democratic-capitalist states had relationship to their political economic position during the communist regime and the achievement and position of the Soviet Union’s economic state since the mid-1980s. The role played by American is important in influencing the foreign policies of the former communist states and why they joined NATO? The structure of international politics is important in explaining the post-Cold War Europe. There was a close relationship between the international structure and the changes at the European regional level. This paper concludes that the changes of international political structure in the European continent from a bipolarity structure to a unipolarity structure strongly influenced the policies of the former Eastern European communist states. The existence of only one single strong power, a unipolarity structure, made it easier for America to control and dominate Europe. The Theory of Structural Realism (especially Offensive Realism) could be applied in explaining the international politics and institutional development in post-Cold War Europe. Pages 927 to 939

Understanding the Contemporary Innovation Orientation of Informal Micro-Enterprises

Dr Lavhelesani Mulibanaa, Prof Ravinder Renab, aNWU Alumnus, NWU Business School, Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, North-West University, Mahikeng Campus, Republic of South Africa, bProfessor of Economics, NWU Business School, Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, North-West University, Mahikeng Campus, Republic of South Africa, Email: amulibanalav@gmail.com

The existence of innovation fostering and limiting factors in a firm's micro, market, and macro environment determines whether the firm is oriented towards or against innovation. Little is known about the innovation orientation of informal micro-enterprises. Thus, this study sought to determine the contemporary innovation orientation of informal micro-enterprises. Through the application of sequential explanatory mixed-methods research and pragmatism research philosophy, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 400 informal micro-enterprises in four townships of the Gauteng Province, South Africa. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, thematic, and constant comparison methods. The results revealed that curiosity drives innovation among informal micro-enterprises, whereas customers’ lack of disposable income limits innovation activities. Moreover, there is more innovation fostering than limiting factors among informal micro-enterprises. Thus, the study concludes that the informal sector is conducive to innovation activities. Nonetheless, there is a need for researchers, the government, and other relevant role-players to determine solutions or alternatives to the existing innovation limiting factors. Pages 940 to 960

The Choice Between Internal and External Sources of Financing of SMEs in Pakistan: A Provincial-Level Analysis

Maryam Jabeena, Shahid Alib, Muhammad Alic, aLecturer, Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar, Pakistan, b,cTenured Associate Professor, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan, Email: amaryam.jabeen@imsciences.edu.pk, bshahid.ali@imsciences.edu.pk

This survey research covered 341 SMEs operating across seven districts of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan to assess the financing preferences of SMEs’ owner-managers and  determining the preferred funding options for enterprises operating in sampled districts of the province. The study used descriptive statistics followed by extended analysis of the survey data by using a range of different statistical analysis techniques to describe and to validate the interrelationship among diverse characteristics of the survey respondents. The findings confirm that angel financing, leasing and hire purchase are preferred by majority of SMEs that are owned by men.  Surveyed SMEs that are owned by families and sole proprietors have a strong preference for capital provided by family and friends. However, extreme preference for retained earnings is also reported by SMEs engaged in partnership businesses. Leasing and hire purchase are highly preferred by SMEs that are operating in the agriculture sector and service sector of the surveyed districts respectively.  The survey findings reveal that VC funds are highly preferred by enterprises which are a branch of a foreign company. The findings for a government scheme verify that female entrepreneurs and SMEs working in industrial sectors do not prefer borrowings from government. Pages 961 to 978

Work Environment Stress: Causes and Outcomes

Muhammad Umair Sajida, Mashal Ihsanb, cDr. Amjad Reba, a,bM. Phil Scholars, cAssistant Professor, University Of Peshawar

The motivation behind this paper was to review workplace stress. A number of various articles, from 2010 to 2020 have been investigated. The findings of the survey reveal that work environment stress influences the physical and mental state, as well as adversely affecting family, and the public activity, of employees. The findings likewise uncover significant job environment stressors and adapting systems that lessen the pressure. This review article therefore assists with understanding the applied information on work environment stress, and its causes and outcomes in the work environment. Reasonable ramifications of the paper are that stress management workshops could be directed in various associations on the standard premise, which can instruct workers about the causes of stress and its destructive outcomes on their wellbeing, and how they can adequately decrease pressure in  the work environment. The paper outlines previously researched procedures for adapting to stress. Pages 979 to 992

The Role of Human Capital, Corruption and Quality of Life in Determining the Crime Rate: Empirics from Pakistan

Alina Qamara, Maria Safdarb, aScholar at Faculty: Business, Government and Law, University of Canberra, Australia, bLecturer at Department of Economics, University of Sahiwal, Pakistan.

Crime is an evil that is increasing day by day in Pakistan. Different factors contribute to the increasing crime trend. This study investigates the impact of human capital, corruption, quality of life, economic misery and rule of law on the crime rate in Pakistan over the period 1985-2019. To find out short-term and long-term dynamics, the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) is used. For checking casual relationships among variables, the Toda Yamamoto Causality test is used. The results confirm the significant and long-term impact of human capital, corruption, quality of life, economic misery and rule of law on the crime rate in Pakistan. Three channels of bidirectional causality are found with the economic misery index from corruption and human capital, and between the rule of law and corruption. Unidirectional causality runs from human capital, corruption, quality of life and economic misery to crime. Pages 993 to 1013

Ritual Arwah Nimaliling of Taba People in Makian Island North Maluku (Between Blessings and Prestige)

Santri Sahar1, Supriadi Hamdat2, Munsi Lampe3, Muhammad Basir4, 1Anthropology Doctoral Program, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia, 2.3,4Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia, Email: santrisahar@gmail.com1supriadihmdat.sh@gmail.com2, munsilampe257@gmail.com3, muhammad.basir.unhas@gmail.com4

Generally ritual is the human form of religion stated to be confidence in the power of invisibility. One of them is the belief in ancestral spirits which is practiced by the Taba people on Makian Island through the Arwah Nimaliling Ritual. From the results of interviews and content analysis of the data, it shows that the Arwah Nimaliling is a collaboration of Islamic traditions and local traditions into local Islamic traditions. This can be seen from mosques, cemeteries and houses which are used as cultural fields. The Taba people overseas try to be present to celebrate the ritual because it is believed that all the successes obtained are the blessings of their ancestors, which are only obtained on the second day of the sixth month of Ramadhan. But presence in the ritual of Arwah Nimaliling, cannot now be separated from the influence of change. Using symbolic interpretative perspective, this paper presents the occurrence of a change of group orientation by Taba people who now makes Arwah Nimaliling as a venue for social prestige. Pages 1014 to 1020

The Influence of Entrepreneurial Leadership on Business Performance with Innovative Human Resource Practices Mediation on Creative Economy Entrepreneurs in Malang Raya

Armanua*, Ana Sofia Aryatib, Susanti Dwi Ilhamic and Ratih Ameliad, a,b,c,dDepartment of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia, Email: a*armanu@ub.ac.id

A leader who has an entrepreneurial spirit will have implications for the progress of his business. This study aims to analyse and explain the influence of entrepreneurial leadership on business performance by mediating innovative human resource practices. This research was conducted on the creative economy actors in Malang Raya using a sample of 137 entrepreneurs. The sampling technique used in the study was convenience sampling. The analysis used SEM-PLS analysis. Based on the research results, it was found that entrepreneurial leadership had a positive and significant effect on Business Performance and Innovative Human Resource Practices, but what was interesting was that Innovative Human Resource Practices had an insignificant effect on Business Performance, and Innovative Human Resource Practices did not mediate the influence of Entrepreneurial Leadership on Business Performance. Pages 1021 to 1030

CEO Duality and Firm Performance in the Pharmaceutical Industry of China: The Moderating Role of Ownership Type

Noheed Khana,  Muhammad Mobeen Shafqatb, Salman Ali Qureshic, Anum Shafiqued, Muhammad Bilale*, Waseemullahf, aAssistant Professor, Department of Management Studies, The University of Faisalabad (TUF), Pakistan, bAssistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, GC Women University, Sialkot, Pakistan, cAssistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan, dLecturer, University Institute of Management Sciences, PMAS-University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi, Pakistan, e*BBA Faculty Member/Coordinator, Department of Business & Economics, FG Sir Syed College Rawalpindi, Pakistan, fLecturer, Department of Management Sciences, University of Gujrat, Pakistan, Email: anoheed.khan@tuf.edu.pk, bmobeen.shafqat@gcwus.edu.pk,  csalman_qureshi@aiou.edu.pk, danum.shafique@uaar.edu.pk, e*rao.muhammad.bilal@gmail.com, fwaseem.ullah@uog.edu.pk

CEO duality means one individual can hold the position of CEO and chairman of the board at the same time. Prior research is inconclusive whether CEO duality has a positive or negative impact on financial performance. Previous positive results support agency theory, supporting that CEO duality damages financial performance because CEO duality compromises control and monitoring. The opposite argument supports stewardship theory, arguing that unity of command is useful for financial performance. This recent study explores CEO duality impact on financial performance in the pharmaceutical industry of China. More specifically, it tests ownership type as a moderating role in the relationship between CEO duality and firm performance. The random effect model was used, for the period 2011- 2019 in China. The findings reveal that CEO duality has a positive impact on firm performance in the pharmaceutical industry, which supports the stewardship theory. Moreover, the findings of the study do not support the moderating effect of ownership type in the association between CEO duality and firm performance in the pharmaceutical industry of China. The sensitivity analysis also confirms the main findings of the study. The empirical findings suggest important policy implications for the pharmaceutical industry of China. Pages 1031 to 1045



An Employee Perspective of IT Innovation in the Banking Industry: Evidence from a Canadian Bank Branch

Nabil Messabia, DBA, CPA, CGAa, Ngo Ngue Marguerite, MBAb, Chokri Kooli, Phdc, aAssociate professor, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Gatineau, Canada, bDoctoral candidate, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Canada, cAssistant professor, Lusail University, Doha, Qatar, Email: anabil.messabia@uqo.ca, bnmaguy2004@yahoo.fr, cibm4chk@yahoo.fr     

The purpose of this paper is to understand the perceived impact of check imaging service as a technological innovation on bank employees. Following a substantive literature review, we conducted an empirical research aiming at understanding how bank employees perceive the adoption of such IT innovation by their bank. An inductive approach and qualitative methodology helped to understand employees' feelings and perceptions following the adoption of check imaging by their institution. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all three staff members of a Canadian banking agency taken as a unit of analysis in a unique case study approach. We used grounded theory as the qualitative data analysis method. Research findings show that technological and organisational innovation has improved the work systems. It has also fostered a close relationship between the client, the staff and the financial institution. From the employees’ standpoint, the new check processing technology allowed them to tighten their relationship with clients, to improve compliance with enacted regulations and to learn to better share their knowledge. Pages 1 to 17




An Overview of Entrepreneurial Risk - A Bibliometric Analysis

Ali Murad Syed, Department of Economics and Finance, College of Business Administration, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain, amuradsyed@gamail.com

The entrepreneurship literature is giving more and more attention to risk aspects. However, in literature, only a fragmented comprehension is known about the contextual influence of risk aspects of entrepreneurship. In our article, we contribute by finding the relationship between Entrepreneurship and Risk by analysing the production and visualising the themes and evolution in this field. In our research approach bibliometric technique has been used to analyse 10 years of publications in Web of Science (WoS) database and present a comprehensive contextual picture of risks in entrepreneurial research. We analysed 1595 publications by identifying the most prominent journals, authors, articles, countries and collaboration among authors and countries. Also, a co-occurrence analysis among keywords, authors and the sources were done along with cluster analysis, and thematic analysis was also performed to find the evolutionary trends. Our analysis showed that risk taking is the evolving theme and its occurrence is increasing and becoming more prominent in the domain of entrepreneurship. Pages 18 to 37



Intention to Adopt Mobile Applications Services: A Study Among Pakistani Academic Librarians

Mohamad Noorman Masreka, Abid Husseinb, aFaculty of Information Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia, bLibrary Officer, Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad (ISSI) , Pakistan

Not much is really known to what extend academic librarians in Pakistan are interested in adopting and embracing mobile application for enhancing their services and work performance. In addition, little is also known about the factors that may shape or influence their behaviour with regards to mobile application services. Against this background, a study was undertaken with the aim of examining the behavioural intention of adopting mobile application services in the context of academic librarians in Pakistan. A research model was developed based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. Five constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, perceived credibility, facilitating conditions and social influence were hypothesised to have significant relationship with intention to adopt mobile applications. Using a survey research methodology, data was collected from 212 academic librarians in Pakistan. The results revealed that performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions were significant in determining behavioural intention. The findings have contributed significantly to the body of knowledge from several perspectives, namely theoretical, managerial and practical. Pages 38 to 54

Exam Grades in Architecture Classes: A Comparative Assessment of Before and During COVID-19 Pandemic Modes of Teaching and Learning

Mohammed A M Alhefnawia, Umar Lawal Danob, Mohamad Jalal Istanboulia, Wadee Ahmed Ghanem Al-Gehlania, Hazem M. Nour Afifya, Gamal Abd Elghanycand Mohamed Saad Rahaala, aDepartment of Architecture, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 2397, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia, bDepartment of Urban and Regional Planning, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 2397, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia, cDepartment of Interior Architecture, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 2397, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia, Email: uldano@iau.edu.sa

Over the last couple of months, universities worldwide have unprecedentedly switched to online teaching due to the recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. This has changed the teaching and learning methods of both faculties and students. Therefore, this study assesses the learning effectiveness of the two instructional modes using students’ performance records. Data on full-time undergraduate students of architecture was obtained and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Chi-square analysis test indicates no statistically significant positive relationship between the traditional and web-based modes of instruction with respect to learning effectiveness (χ2= 0.003, α = 0.05, p<α). The study concludes by recommending certain practices that will improve students’ participation and performance in the web-based classes during emergency periods, for example, the current period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Pages 54 to 68

The Nexus between R&D, Innovation and Economic Growth Revisit: The Case of South Africa and Saudi Arabia

Yusuf Opeyemi Akinwalea, Jhalukpreya Babs Surujlalb, aCollege of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, bNorth West University, South Africa, Email: a yoakinwale@iau.edu.sa

It is evident in many countries that having abundant natural resources does not guarantee an increased economic growth. In order to diversify the economy, each one of South Africa and Saudi Arabia has developed Vision 2030 as related to their country. The aim of this paper is to study the role and impact of research and development (R&D) and innovation towards economic growth. Using ARDL and ECM for the period 2001-2018, the study finds that R&D and innovation have a long run association with economic growth in both countries, and a long run causality from R&D and innovation to economic growth is also established. Meanwhile in the short run, it is only R&D which has significant impact on economic growth in both countries. The study suggests that the policy makers should continue to advocate for more spending on research and innovative efforts as well as creating a strong collaboration among the stakeholders of national innovation systems as this would boost indigenous innovation capabilities which lead to economic growth. Pages 69 to 85

Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) and Organizational Culture for Knowledge Sharing Strategy: Case Study of a Center for Continuing Education

Muhammad Mohiuddina, Md. Samim Al Azadb, Zhan Suc, aAssociate Professor, bPost-doctoral Fellow, cProfessor of International Management & Strategy, Director, Stephen A. Jarislowsky chair on International Business, a,b,cFaculty of Business Administration, Laval University, Quebec, Canada, Email: amuhammad.mohiuddin@fsa.ulaval.ca, bsamim.azad@northsouth.edu, czhan.su@fsa.ulaval.ca

The role of knowledge management is essential for any organization today. This study analyzes the knowledge value chain of a center for continuing education offering skill development related short courses and training for adult learners. Besides, this study analyzes how the Center can improve sustainability in terms of efficiency and capacity building by implementing effective knowledge sharing strategies utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT) and the organizational cultures. The case study methodology was used to study the factors that influence knowledge sharing in an academic institute. Organizational factors that influence the knowledge management process in the organization are studied. Knowledge sharing depends on the type of knowledge, motivation, and opportunity to share. The results show that both knowledge management systems and a conducive organizational culture are needed to implement a knowledge-sharing strategy effectively. Thus, the study focuses on the emergent approach (focusing on interpersonal dynamics and the nature of their daily tasks) and engineering or management approach (focusing on the infrastructure of knowledge-sharing). This qualitative study shows how systematic and organized knowledge sharing can help an organization offers continuing education services effectively and survive in its competitive marketplace. This study analyzes the knowledge value chain of a center for continuing education. How can knowledge management strategies help it to improve organizational sustainability in terms of efficiency and capacity? Knowledge management systems (tools and infrastructure) and conducive organizational culture are needed. Systematic, organized knowledge management improves competitive survival. Pages 86 to 108

The Local Wisdom of the  Kajang Community

Mithen Lullulangia, Onesimus Sampebuab, Armiwaty, Tawanic, Bakhrani Abdul Raufd a,b,c,dLecturer Civil Engineering Education Universitas Negeri Makassar.

mithen@unm.ac.ud, onesimus.sampebua@unm.ac.id,  armiwaty@unm.ac.id, bakhrani@unm.ac.id

This study aims to determine the local knowledge of communities to preserve the environment in Kajang South Sulawesi. This research utilised a qualitative research approach. Data collection was completed through the methods of interview, field observations, documentation, and library research, which compared what is obtained in the field with what was written by previous researchers. The variable of this study was the local wisdom of the indigenous peoples of Kajang. The data analysis involved a descriptive analysis of the results that were obtained from the interviews. The results highlighted several findings. Firstly, according to the local wisdom of the Kajang, they believe in Pasang as customary law that must be respected and upheld by the Kajang communities in relation to environmental protection, and in particular, with respect to forest resources. Secondly, the local wisdom of the Kajang community is known as Ambuang Balla, which is a form of community cooperation, if there are community members who want to build houses. Thirdly, the local wisdom of the Kajang community is Tallase kamase-mase, which is part of the Pasang that commands the Kajang people to live simply and modestly, and reject everything that has a technological smell. Finally, the local wisdom of the Kajang  ommunity is Magig Power, Anttunu Panroli, to test the honesty of the people suspected of stealing. Pages 109 to 119

Risk Factors Associated with the Pre-Eclampsia Incidence on Pregnant Women at Local Hospital of Bengkulu

Ida Rahmawati1*, Mika Oktarina2, Choralina Eliagita3, Winda Dewanty Yulandasari4, 1Lecture in Nursing Science Study Program, STIKES Tri Mandiri Sakti Bengkulu, Indonesia, 2,3Lecture in midwifery study program applied undergraduate program, STIKES Tri Mandiri  Sakti Bengkulu, Indonesia, 4Student in midwifery study program applied undergraduate program, STIKES Tri Mandiri Sakti Bengkulu, Indonesia, Email: 1*idarahmawati1608@gmail.com

Preeclampsia is an obstetric emergency characterised by high blood pressure in pregnant women which has a risk of causing death. This research aimed to study the risk factors associated with the incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant women at the Local Hospital of Bengkulu. This study applied case control design. The population in this research were all multiparous pregnant women who were hospitalised in C1 room of RSUD Dr. M. Yunus of Bengkulu in 2018, which amounted to 484 pregnant women. Case sampling selection in this research was done by using 1:1 total sampling with systematic random sampling method. Data analysis was performed by using univariate and bivariate. Statistical test was conducted by calculating the Chi-Square (x2). While to determine the closeness of the relationship among the variables, the Contingency Coefficient (C) was used. The results of this research are : there was a relationship between maternal age and the incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant women; there was no relationship between history of previous preeclampsia with the incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant women; there was no relationship of multiple pregnancy with the incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant women. Preeclampsia can be influenced by several factors. The results showed the age factor can greatly influence the occurrence of preeclampsia. The importance of reproductive system education for mothers and adolescents aims to reduce the risk of death from pre-eclampsia. Therefore, it is expected to officers and health services to provide necessary information regarding this issue. Pages 120 to 134

Developing a Green Brand Through Co-Creation Process of Krabi, Thailand

Siwarit Pongsakornrungsilpa, Theeranuch Pusaksrikitb, Pimlapas Pongsakornrungsilpc* a,cCenter of Excellent for Tourism Business Management and Creative Economy, School of Management, Walailak University, Thailand, bChulalongkorn Business School, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand,

Email: apsiwarit@wu.ac.th, btheeranuch@cbs.chula.ac.th, c*kpimlapa@wu.ac.th Corresponding Author: Asst.Prof.Pimlapas Pongsakornrungsilp, Ph.D.

This paper has shed light on how stakeholders participate in the branding process through the concept of co-creation, whereby a brand may be managed for sustainability. Data was collected by focus group interviews from tourism and environmental stakeholders, together with projective techniques from domestic and international tourists. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the data. The results indicated that a brand culture of green tourism plays an important role in developing green behavior, whereby it requires the cooperation of, and co-creation by all stakeholders to develop a strong brand identity in a single message. The analysis provides a template for using destination branding to drive green tourism culture. This study did not investigate the success of the new brand identity in attracting tourists. Therefore, a longitudinal study should be conducted to follow up the brand development process, in order to demonstrate the success of the branding.  Pages 135 to 158

COVID-19 and Social Change in Indonesia

Rilus A. Kinseng1, 1Department of Communication and Community Development, Faculty of Human Ecology; Head of Knowledge Production Division, CTSS, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia, Email: 1rilus@apps.ipb.ac.id

The pandemic Covid-19 has caused disruption and a crisis all over the world, including Indonesia. It is important to describe and analyse the identity and magnitude of social changes due to the pandemic Covid-19 in Indonesia more precisely. The objective of this paper is to describe social changes in Indonesia due to the spread of Covid-19. The information is derived from abundant information in mass media, as well as my personal networks and activities related to Covid-19. This paper shows that the Covid-19 outbreak caused a wide range of social changes in Indonesia’s society; from everyday social interactions to basic social institutions such as family, economy, education, health, religion and government. Pages 159 to 174

The Impact of a Proposed Training Program to Develop Selected Physical Abilities among Kickboxing Players

Bassam A. Mismara*, O. M. Al-Omerb, aSchool of Physical Education, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; bMinistry of Education, Amman, Jordan, Email: a*b.mismar@ju.edu.jo

Identifying the impact of a proposed training program to develop selected physical abilities among kickboxing players. The study consisted of 20 (n=20) players who were chosen intentionally from Al-Burini Academy for Self-Defense in Jordan, the study sample was divided into two groups and each one had 10 players. The experimental group was introduced to the proposed training program developed by the researchers. The proposed training program exemplifies significant differences of impact in the post measurements at p-value of 0.05. The differences were measured for selected physical abilities (legs strength, explosive strength of the lower limbs, one repetition max of hamstring muscles) where the performance of the experimental group was better than the control group. Pages 175 to 195

Harmonising Market Orientation and Brand Orientation in the Non-profit Context

Mohammad Ovaisa, Dr. Muhammad Noumanb, aMS-Management Sciences (Gold Medal), MBA, Lecturer in Management Sciences, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, KPK, Pakistan. bPhD, University of Southampton UK, MS and MBA, University of Texas at Arlington USA, Assistant Professor | Coordinator, MS Management Institute of Management Sciences 1-A, E/5, Phase 7, Hayatabad Peshawar, Pakistan, Email: aumerkhelovais@gmail.com, bmuhammad.nouman@imsciences.edu.pk

This paper aimed to investigate the performance implications of non-profit market orientation and brand orientation in a developing country’s context. The paper also aimed to determine the mediating effect of non-profit brand orientation and between non-profit market orientation and its performance. A composite questionnaire was designed through the adaptation of the already existing scales for the aforementioned three variables. The constructs were further subject to refinement following Confirmatory Factor Analysis through SPSS AMOS. Data was collected from the executive level managers from diverse non-profit organisations and was analysed to address the aforementioned objective. The findings suggest a significant impact of the non-profit market orientation and brand orientation on organisational performance. The findings also suggest the mediating effect of non-profit brand orientation between its market orientation and performance. The authors come up with several theoretical and managerial implications and suggest important future research directions. Pages 196 to 218

Cultivating Multicultural Values in Learning History: A Unifier of the Nation’s Plurality

Slamet. Slameta*, Eko H. Widiastutib, Nuryanti. Nuryantic,  Kabri. Kabrid, Budi Utomoe,  Partono. Partonof, a.b.cIvet University, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia. d.e.fSmaratungga Buddhist College, Boyolali, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia. Email: a*slamet.doktor@gmail.com;  bekoheriwidiastuti2@gmail.com; emeitasari233@gmail.com; dkmbrata@gmail.com; editthisampanno@gmail.com; fpsnadi@gmail.com

Indonesia is full of diversity, either ethnic, religious, culture, custom, racial, territorial, and so on. In having a common perception on Indonesian diversity as a nation, multicultural education has become a necessity. Incorporating multicultural education into the curriculum is very urgent, at least by incorporating it with other relevant subjects, such as Civics, History, and Religion. Multicultural education is a response to the growing diversity of school populations, as well as the demands of equal rights for every citizen. Another dimension, multicultural education is the development of curricula and educational activities to tap into the views, history, achievements and concerns of non-Europeans. Multicultural education encompasses all learners regardless of group, such as: gender, ethnic, racial, cultural, social, territorial, and religious strata, which has become a demand and necessity in building a new Indonesia. However, multicultural education requires an in-depth study of the concepts and praxis of its implementation, even to the present the concept of multicultural education has not been studied seriously in education. However, when judicially judged, Act no. 20/2003 on the National Education System has provided an opportunity to elaborate further on the concept of multicultural education, particularly in Article 4 paragraph (1) which regulates the implementation of education which takes into consideration the diverse cultural values ​​of society. Pages 219 to 232 

Does Organisational Commitment Moderate the Relationship between Internal Marketing and Market Orientation of the Public Sector Universities in Pakistan? A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

Muhammad Ovaisa, Dr. Faqir Sajjadul Hassanb, Dr. Muhammad Noumanc, Dr. Siraj ud Dind, aLecturer, Department of Management Sciences, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, bPhD, Asst. Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, cPhD, University of Southampton UK, MS and MBA, University of Texas at Arlington USA, Assistant Professor | Coordinator, MS Management, Institute of Management Sciences, 1-A, E/5, Phase 7, Hayatabad, Peshawar, Pakistan, dHead of the Department/ Asst. Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, Email: aovais.khan@kkkuk.edu.pk, bfaqirphd@yahoo.com, cmuhammad.nouman@imsiences.edu.pk, ddr.siraj@kkkuk.edu.pk

This paper builds on the notion that positive culture and behaviours, for example market orientation of internal marketing, are sensitive to positive attitudes like organisational commitment and non-profits’ contextual peculiarities. Thus, the paper aimed to validate the positive moderating effect of organisational commitment on the market orientation related implications of internal marketing in the non-profit context of public sector higher educational institutes. The paper utilised a composite questionnaire in a survey design, through the integration of market orientation scale by Kohli and Jaworski (1993), the internal marketing scale by Foreman and Money (1990) and the organisational commitment scale by Allen and Mayer (1990). The data collected was subject to Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modelling (CFA) through SPSS AMOS for reliability, validity and hypotheses testing. The results of the CFA led to multiple items reduction in the aforementioned three scales, indicating the contextual sensitivity of the construct. The outcomes of the SEM on the refined scale supported the hypotheses that internal marketing has a significant impact on market orientation and that organisational commitment positively moderates the relationship. The findings may contribute towards the scholarly understanding of the three constructs and the way they can be harmonised in the academic context to yield performance implications. The research may guide managers in public sector higher educational institutes to synergies their internal marketing programs and human resource policies to create a positive market-oriented culture that may lead to better learning facilitation and human development. Pages 233 to 253  

Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility Model: The Implementation on Domestic Forestry Company in Indonesia

Aisa Tri Agustini1*,  Ririn Irmadariyani2*, Yosefa Sayekti3, Indah Purnamawati4, Bunga Maharani5, Djoko Supatmoko6, Bayu Aprillianto7, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Jember, Email: 1aisa.agustini@unej.ac.id, 2irmadariyaniririn@gmail.com  

The purpose of this study is to analyse the strategic implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility. The research method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. The object of the research is the Domestic Forestry Company in Indonesia. The results shows that the implementation of strategic CSR in Domestic Forestry Company is higher than the non-strategic CSR. This indicates that the company's strategy to implement CSR is already done well, because the company has a strategy, and that the implementation of CSR does not only benefit stakeholders, but also provides value for the company. Pages 254 to 266

Exploring the Social Psychology Responses among the Female Practice of Bodypump during the Coronavirus Epidemic

Ayed Zureigata , Osama Abdel Fattahb*,  Alaa Elayyanͤ , aFaculty of Physical Education, the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0003-4545-5562, bThe Ministry of Education, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0003-4545-5562, ͨ       Les Mills bodypump certified instructor,  Amman, Jordan, Email: aA.Zureigat@ju.edu.jo, b*osamhsaf.2811@gmail.com,   ͨ alaaissa_84@hotmail.com             

Experts advise individuals to remain in self-isolation during the Corona pandemic,            where these restrictions can have short and long-term negative effects on individuals'    mental and physical health as the culture of society depends on social support and social cohesion and may be accompanied by stress disorders and negative effects on           the mental health of individuals. Accordingly, the study aimed to explore the social psychology responses among the female practice of bodypump during the coronavirus epidemic. To achieve this we used the descriptive approach on 57 untrained healthy females who regularly practice bodypump before and during the Corona pandemic (age, 28.4±2 years; height, 168± 3.2cm; body mass, 66.8± 3.8kg). Because of the home    quarantine an electronic questionnaire was built using Google forms, which consisted of 12 paragraphs to measure the social psychology effects among females that the bodypump             practitioner could achieve during the Corona pandemic by sending the link via      WhatsApp. To achieve the objectives of the study the researchers used mean, standard deviations and percentages by using SPSS version 24 with a confidence level of 95%      (p value= 0.05). The results of the study have shown that bodypump has contributed     positively to improving the level of satisfaction of life, communication with family and others with a very high average. It has also contributed to reducing the level of stress and            anxiety from rumours with a high average. Finally, the practice of bodypump among the  females has contributed positively in improving social psychology responses. Pages 267 to 276

The Role of Intellectual Capital Strategies in Raising the Level of Organizational Performance: Field Research in the Directorate of Municipalities of Anbar

Khamees Naser Mohammeda, Ahmed Diaalddin Salahb, aAssistant professor, College of Administration and Economic, University of Anbar, bAssistant lecturer, College of Administration and Economic, University of Anbar, Email: adr.khamees_mohammed@uoanbar.edu.iq , ba.besiness@yahoo.com

This research has highlighted two main variables: intellectual capital strategies and organizational performance. The first is a modern tool that is very reliable in raising the levels of the future performance of the organizations, as it tried to provide an ideological and philosophical framework for the most prominent of the scientific writers and researchers in the literature of management and organization to the extent whether, sample of (125) individual were applied on them from different administrative levels in the Directorate of Municipalities of Anbar. The independent variable represents intellectual capital strategies through three areas (human capital strategy, structural capital strategy, and relative capital strategy), while the approved variable represents organizational performance through its four perspectives (Financial Perspective, customer Perspective, Internal processes Perspective, Environmental Perspective, and Learning, growth and creativity Perspective). Questionnaire used in research as a main tool for collecting data and information. It sought to test the main and sub-research hypotheses between the correlation variables and the effect to answer the questions of the problem and achieve the goals set. the data was processed using some statistical methods and tool appropriate to the nature of research. A positive relationships and effects were found of intellectual capital strategies in raising the level of organizational performance, which came in line with the hypotheses. Pages 277 to 301

A Business Model Framework for  Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Entrepreneurship for Filipinos

Jocelyn S. Ojeda-Jintalan, St. Paul University Manila, Philippines, Email: jhojintalan@gmail.com

A business model framework generally describes the corporate organisation or management structure or may generally outline company policies. An organisation might develop a framework to achieve a particular goal, or an innovation framework may outline policies, procedures, and management changes the company will use to achieve innovation and growth. This study focused on the search for a business model framework suited for the proposed PhD in Entrepreneurship for Filipinos. Using a qualitative design, data was collected from documentary analysis of Commission on Higher Education (CHED) memorandum orders, documentary analysis of foreign literature and entrepreneurship programs of international schools;  textual analysis of top entrepreneurial gurus from TEDx events; interviews; and focus group discussions in academic sectors, business sectors and the government sector, all from Region V. Results show that a PhD in Entrepreneurship is guided by the new CHED Memorandum orders and the new directions of Philippine Education. Also, the global trends in entrepreneurial education are gearing towards experiential learning, technological innovation, and building innovative infrastructures. Moreover, there are various required competencies needed to become successful, the global business sector provides an entrepreneurial DNA model: builder, opportunist, specialist, and innovator. Lastly, a business model framework shall serve as a guide in the offering of a PhD in Entrepreneurship that will strengthen the knowledge and skills of Filipinos. Collaboration among the government, business, and academic sectors is needed to improve the entrepreneurial direction of Filipinos. Pages 302 to 324

Challenges Faced by the Teachers and Students in Online Learning

Muhammad Hafeez1*, Fouzia Ajmal2, Qaiser Abbas Kazmi3

1*Research Scholar, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2Department of Education, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan, 3 Regional Director, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad,

Email: 1*mh9589041@gmail.com, 2fouzia.ajmal@iiu.edu.pk,  3rajanpur911@gmail.com

Most of the educational institutions (Universities, Schools and Colleges) in Pakistan are based on traditional method of learning and teaching. Although various institutions are now converting the learning methods from traditional to technology based online learning. At the end of 2019, the sudden outbreak of Pandemic disease Covid-19 has totally changed the learning and teaching system. Many educational institutions that were based on traditional methods of learning and teaching have to shift entirely on online learning and teachings. A survey-based research has been conducted to highlight the challenges faced by students and teachers during Covid-19 in learning and teachings at undergraduate and graduate levels. The results of the research indicated that the students and teachers faced a lot of problems during the online learning and teaching. The online learning system of Pakistan, problems during online learning and solutions to the online learning problems are also discussed. This research will give a direction for the solution of problems associated with online learning and teachings. Pages 325 to 346  

Skill-based Competency of Teacher Educators in English Language: Professional and Pragmatic Diversity

Dr. Kamal Haidera, Dr. Muhammad Yousuf Sharjeelb, Dr. Ann Samsonc, Sonia Manzoord, Dr. Nazia Abdul Rehmane, Dr. Safia Niazif, aAssistant Professor/ Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology Karachi, bDepartment of Education-SZABIST-Karachi, c,dFederal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, e,fBenazir Bhutto Shaheed University Lyari Karachi Pakistan, Email: akamalhaider@fuuast.edu.pk, byousufsharjeel@hotmail.com, cDr.annsamson@fuuast.edu.pk, dSoniaayaz10@gmail.com, enzshakir@gmail.com, fdr.safianiazi@gmail.com

The significance of English language since the inception of Pakistan as a lingua franca, a medium to reach the scientific and technological asset of the developed nations has become quite distinct. Moreover, it is significant for correspondence and interaction within and outside the country. It is serving a vital purpose for higher studies and study abroad. Its importance in business communication, civil service and employment is inevitable. The aim of the study was to evaluate the competency of teacher educators and its impact on the communicative skills of trainee teachers. Survey method and sequential explanatory design was followed to integrate the mixed-method data collected through the administration of the questionnaire and interviews. The result depicted an uncertain ad incompetent professional skills of trainee teachers. These competencies encompassed skills in developing a lesson plan, constructing instructional learning objectives, adopting student-centered approaches and methods, using instructional technologies and managing classrooms of English language in formal situations.  The study concludes that English language must be taught in all the schools irrespective of private or public, rural or urban. It's teaching, however, needs intensive training and evaluation of the competencies of teacher educators who train the trainees (school teachers). Pages 347 to 365

The Relationship between Principals' Transformational Leadership and Teachers' Work Engagement in Saudi Arabia

Eman I Ahmed, Department of Educational Administration, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Email: eiahmed@iau.edu.sa

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of principals' transformational leadership on work engagement among teachers in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Most of the research on principal transformational leadership has been conducted in western countries and thus, the generalisability of the extent to which transformational principals are contributing to teacher engagement to other contexts is questioned. The perceptions of 407 public school teachers in Saudi Arabia about the relationship between transformational leadership and work engagement were identified through descriptive, cross-sectional design. The findings of the study revealed that transformational leadership had significant positive effect on work engagement among teachers. By supporting teachers and recognising their contributions, setting and articulating vision for the future, and encouraging them to take new perspectives and reframe challenges; teachers become more engaged toward their work. The findings of this study have some practical implications for the school principals in Saudi Arabia and other contexts. The results suggest the need for preparing school principals on how to inspire their teachers, motivate them in envisioning future states and increase their dependency. More specifically, professional preparation programs should provide the principals with skills and the knowledge to transfer their inspirational motivation to their teachers and build required power and energy among them.  The value of this study resides in two areas. Firstly, this study corresponds with current reform efforts in Saudi Arabia to develop more appropriate principal leadership styles to enhance teacher engagement toward work. Secondly, this study seeks to develop the knowledge base on principal's transformational form of leadership within non-western context. Pages 378 to 398

Managing Talented Professionals at the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand: Success and Challenges

Sudarat Yodhaboribala, Siriporn Yamnillb*, aD.P.A. Candidate in Public Policy and Public Management, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom Thailand 73170, bPh.D, Associate Professor of Public Policy and Public Management, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom Thailand 73170, Email: asudarat.yo.pa@gmail.com, b*siriporn.yam@mahidol.ac.th

This study aims to analyze factors affecting the successful implementation of a talent management (TM) system at the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) of Thailand. The study employs qualitative research methods, particularly documentary research and in-depth interviews with 50 MOPH executives, policy-level officers, implementors, and public health professionals targeted by the ministry’s TM policy. The results of this study indicate that the implementation of the MOPH’s TM policy would not succeed without (a) transformational leaders serving as TM advocates and mentors and (b) effective communication methods, including the use of informal channels like instant messaging services. However, the lack of appropriate organisation exemplified by a highly hierarchical structure, formal rules and communication channels, and centralised TM decision-making and negative stakeholder attitudes towards TM regarded as an administrative burden, were associated with the failure of the MOPH’s TM system. Pages 399 to 414

Learning from the Greats: Identifying Three Knowledge Sharing Pillars to Direct Knowledge Management Initiatives in Higher Education Institutions           

Ivy Chan1, Yui-yip Lau2, 1,2Division of Business and Hospitality Management, College of Professional and Continuing Education, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

In the ever-changing business environment, knowledge is regarded as a strategic asset for an organisation to sustain organisational competitive advantages. The ability to harness, integrate, disseminate, share, and apply knowledge in corporate strategies can contribute to desirable performance and results. In the higher education sector, management devises to instigate effective management of their knowledge assets in order to cope with the stiff competition and substantial demand on quality teaching, scholarly work and resources deployment. The findings from semi-structured, in-depth interviews with two Hong Kong knowledge-intensive organisations are summarised and thematised on three pertinent KM pillars, people, process, and technology (PPT) that constitute to effective KM practices and contribute to competitive advantages.  The study provides an implication on how business PPT KM practices can be deployed and instilled in higher education institutions for their KM initiatives. Pages 415 to 430

Knowledge Dissemination for Indonesian Dental Communities Through Telemedicine - A Report

Aqsa Sjuhada Oki1, Shuji Shimizu2, Melissa Adiatman3, Miftakhul Cahyati4, 1Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya – Indonesia, 2Telemedicine Development Center of Asia (TEMDEC), International Medical Department, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka – Japan, 3Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta – Indonesia, 4Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Brawijaya, Malang – Indonesia, Email: 1aqsa@fkg.unair.ac.id

Knowledge dissemination in dental science is a routine activity required by dentists in Indonesia. Through scientific updates, dentists can increase their capacity and lead to the health service quality improvements. To gain quality knowledge dissemination, it often takes time and cost to attend scientific meetings, so we need a breakthrough to help with this problem. Since 2016 the Faculty of Dentistry, Airlangga University, in collaboration with the Telemedicine Development Center of Asia (TEMDEC) has initiated international dental telemedicine which is performed on a regular basis, featuring both national and overseas speakers to discuss particular topics. These activities are expected to support dentists to get knowledge updates easily, as they are available in video streaming. From the questionnaires, it was concluded that the dental telemedicine program brought the benefits of knowledge dissemination to Indonesian dental communities and improved the value of the institutions involved. Pages 431 to 440

Transformational Leadership Practices and Staff Personnel Administration 

Khuda Bakhsh¹, Muhammad Azim², Javed Iqbal³. ¹Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. ²Professional Researcher, Department of Cybernatics, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Králové, Czechia, ³Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan. Email: ¹khudabakhsh@gcuf.edu.pk  

The achievement of the objectives of secondary education depends on, among other things; strategies adopted by the head teachers for improving staff personnel administration of secondary schools. In an attempt to carry out the study, two research questions were formulated.  A questionnaire measuring the transformational leadership practices and staff personnel administration was developed and administered to one hundred secondary school teachers in government high schools. Means and regressions were used to answer the research questions. Strategies for improving staff personnel administration in the area of transformational leadership behavior was the focus of the study. Transformational leadership practices contributed forty one percent to the variance of staff personnel administration. Based on the findings of this study, some practical recommendations were made. The principal should display transformational leadership activities to get the work done in a limited time with due interest and utmost pleasure. Pages 441 to 447

The Effect of Visionary leadership on Employee’s Innovation in King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan

Prof. Mohammad T. Bataineha, Prof. Alhazaimeh Ahmad Salehb, aProfessor, Business Administration Department, Jarash University, Jordan, bFaculty of Economics and Administration, King Abdulaziz University/Jeddeh,

Email: aaboqais2003@gmail.com, bAh_jrash@yahoo.com, bamefleh@kau.edu.sa

The purpose of this study is to explore how visionary leadership effects  employee’s innovation in King Abdullah University Hospital located in Irbid, Jordan. A survey was conducted on 92 managers in King Abdullah University Hospital. Hierarchical regression was used to model the effect of visionary leadership on employee’s innovation through its internal and external elements. The internal elements are knowledge and imagination, and the external elements are resources and culture.  The results show that visionary leadership  improved employee’s innovation in King Abdullah University Hospital. Moreover, the elements of employee’s innovation (knowledge, imagination, resources and culture) are improved also by visionary leadership. To the best of our knowledge, we are not aware of any study that has previously investigated effects of visionary leadership on employee’s innovation, where  this type of leadership style is recommended to enhance employee’s innovation; in King Abdullah University Hospital, visionary leadership is positively related with employee’s innovation and its elements. Pages 448 to 459

Cooperative Learning: The Effects towards Students' Achievement

Badaruddin Ibrahima, Nurul iHaerani iMohamadb, Dina Najihah Dawaric, ia,b,cFaculty of Technical and VocationaliEducation,iUniversiti Tun HusseiniOnn iMalaysia,iEmail: abadar@uthm.edu.my, bhaeranimohamad@gmail.com, cdinanajihahdawari@gmail.com

Cooperative learning is widely recognised as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialisation and learning among students from pre-school through to tertiary level and across different subject domains. It involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks – goals and tasks that they would be unable to completed by themselves. Therefore, this study quantitatively examined the efficiency and relationship between cooperative learning methods on students' achievement in Hydraulics & Mechanics of the Material Laboratory subject and the Transportation & Environmental Engineering Laboratory subject. The data for this study was obtained through a structured questionnaire which involved sixty technical students of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Based on the descriptive analysis presented, attempts to show that the success of cooperative learning as a pedagogical practice that promotes both socialisation and learning, was overwhelmingly supported. Pages 460 to 469

The Mediating Role of Proactive Environmental Behavior between Environmental Knowledge and Green Discipline Management

Azhar Khan1, Hamid Ullah2, Afifa Anjum Khattak3, Asiya Khattak4, Arif Hussain5, Farah Nadir6, Muhammad Nasir7, Muhammad Khan8.

1PhD scholar Department of Management Sciences Islamia College Peshawar, 2Assistant Professor Department of Management Sciences Islamia College Peshawar, 3Lecturer, Institute of Management Studies University of Peshawar, 4Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, Northern University Nowshera, 5&8Assistant Professor, Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan, University Mardan, Pakistan, 6Associate Prof GCGC Gulbahar, Peshawar, 7Lecturer Bacha Khan University, Charsadda Principal and corresponding Author: Azhar khan Joint Director ISPaR, Peshawar Pakistan

Environmental knowledge, its principles and evolving attitudes towards green discipline management have been used to build on the theory of reasoned action (TRA). The goal of this comprehensive analysis was to explore the direct effect of environmental knowledge on green discipline management and the indirect impact of proactive environmental behaviour between environmental knowledge and green discipline management. The study is quantitative, the adopted philosophy is positivism, and the approach is deductive while a cross-sectional time horizon was employed. Four established hypotheses were tested which are based on the theory of reasoned action (TRA). The adapted questionnaire was circulated among the faculty and administrative staff of one university located in the district of Nowshera KP, Pakistan. The total number of faculty and administration staff was 215. Therefore, the university's whole community was selected as a representative for the analysis. In relation to this, the SMART PLS was used to analyze the data. Due to the pandemic and lockdown situation in the education sector of Pakistan, the study focused on and was limited to one University located in district Nowshera. The results of the present study will provide a useful contribution to theory and also for academia, policymakers, students and society. This research may offer motivation for further researchers in this field. The proposed framework will provide new insights into how proactive environmental behavior plays a mediating role between knowledge behavior and green discipline management. The novelty of this study shows how the use of proactive environmental behavior strengthens the relationship between environmental knowledge and green discipline management.  Pages 470 to 491

The Demand for Shadow Education: Socioeconomic Determinants and Implications.

Ghulam Mustafa1, Ayesha Ishaque2, Asim Iqbal3, Nawaz Ahmad4, Summaira Malik5, Dr Aftab Anwar6, 1Assistant Professor, Department of Economics and Business Administration, Division of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Education Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan 2Research Scholar, Department of Education, Uuniversity of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan 3Assistant Professor, Department of Economics and Business Administration, Division of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Education Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan 4Associate Professor, Department of Economics, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan 5Assistant Professor. Department of Economics, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Lahore Campus, Lahore, Pakistan, 6Department of economics and business administration,  University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: 1ghulam.mustafa@ue.edu.pk, (author’s correspondence) 2ayeshaasim85@gmail.com, 3asim.iqbal@ue.edu.pk, 4nawaz.ahmad@econ.uol.edu.pk, 5drsummairamalik@cuilahore.edu.pk 6aftab.anwar@ue.edu.pk

The supplementary tutoring, broadly known as shadow education (SE) has proliferated around the globe and become a multi-billion dollar industry. The participating households devour a substantial amount of income on SE by considering it as a future investment to build the beneficiaries’ scholastic accomplishments. The present study is endeavoured to examine the various factors which lead to provoke families to choose supplementary tutoring. The primary data has been collected from 240 households by utilising a multi-stage random sampling technique through questionnaire from the Sargodha Division of Pakistan. The study used logit regression to explore the socio-economic drivers of SE and simple regression, to investigate the effect of SE on students’ performance. The study found the significant impact of location (rural and urban), gender, income and parents’ education on SE. Moreover, the results indicate that SE has a positive effect on students’ performance at the cost of substantial budget share of households and thus it may create gender and regional inequality in terms of education. The policymakers should revamp educational policies to increase the performance of educators and students, to bring about educational and social equalities. Pages 492 to 513

An Investigation of Satisfaction Regarding Electronic Exams among KSA Nursing Students: A Multi-University Study

Shereen Ahmed Ahmed Qalawa1, Samia Eaid Elgazzar 2, Mashail Saleh Alsalamah3,Sahar Mohamad Aly4, Manal Tharwat Soliman5, Noha Mohammed Ibrahim6,Khadiga Abd Elgied Gomea Hassan7, Elham Youssef Elhanafy8, Mona M Abdelhamid Younes9,1Associate Professor of Medical-surgical Nursing, Nursing College, Qassim University, KSA 1Professor of Medical-surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, Egypt , 2 Assistant Professor of Medical-surgical Nursing, Nursing College, Qassim University, KSA, 2Assistant Professor of Medical-surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, Egypt,3Assistant Professor of MIS, College of Business and Economics, Dean of Nursing College, Qassim University, KSA, 4Associate Professor of Nursing Administration, faculty of nursing, Umm AlQura University, Mecca, KSA,4Assistant Professor of Nursing Administration, faculty of nursing, Port-Said University, Egypt, 5Lecturer of Medical surgical nursing, Nursing department. Applied Medical Sciences College, university of hafr Albatin, KSA,6Lecturer of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port -Said University, Egypt,6Assistant Professor of Medical –Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Bisha University, KSA, 7Lecturer of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Shaqra&Portsaid university, KSA & Egypt, 8Associate Professor of Nursing Administration, faculty of nursing, Taibah University , KSA, 8Assistant Professor Nursing Administration, faculty of nursing, Damanhur University, Egypt, 9Assistant Professor of Community Health Nursing,Jazan University, KSA, 9Lecturer of Community Health Nursing, faculty of nursing, Port-Said University, Egypt

Technology can be an important method for learning transformation. It can help to strengthen and foster relationships between educators and students, to re-create learning and collaborative approaches, to narrow long-standing gaps in equity and accessibility, and to adapt learning experiences to meet the needs of all learners. to investigate student nurse's satisfaction regarding electronic exams in selected KSA universities. A descriptive exploratory research was used with a convenience sample of all available students (1574) from Qassim, Umm AL-QURA, Taiba, Jizan, Bisha, Hafr Al Batinand Shaqra universities. One tool divided into two main parts; demographic data, and student's satisfaction tool regarding using electronic exam. The majority of the students had higher mean score of satisfaction regarding electronic exams at Umm al-Qura (82.3 %,) Qassim (80.5%), Shaqra (74.3%), Tiba (72.3%) than the students in other universities with statistically significant difference (p - <0.001). The majority of the students ranged from strongly agree to agree in level of satisfaction to all items of satisfaction regarding electronic exams. It is imperative for students to maintain and receive regular, periodic in-service computer skills courses. Maintaining and improving learning environments facilitated with technologies is seen in the quality of learning, availability of training and education, and cost-effectiveness of education. Pages 514 to 531

The Role of Strategic Sourcing in Facing Uncertainty of the Manufacturing Business Environment during COVID-19

Luay Jum’aᵃ, ᵃLogistic Sciences Department, School of Management and Logistic Sciences, German Jordanian University, Amman, Jordan. E-mail: ᵃLuay.juma@gju.edu.jo

The study examines effect of strategic sourcing on operational and financial performances of manufacturing firms in Jordan during COVID-19. Based on a literature review, four strategic sourcing dimensions: strategic purchasing, internal integration, information sharing, and development of key suppliers were focused on. Data collected from various levels of managers in manufacturing firms of food products in Amman, Jordan was used to test the proposed research model. A quantitative approach was employed, and a survey conducted using a structured questionnaire to collect primary data during COVID-19 period. The final sample included 196 respondents, representing a 65% response rate. Structural equation modeling (SEM) method was applied to test and validate the proposed research model. The research model confirmed that there is a significant effect of internal integration and development of key suppliers on operational performance of manufacturing firms during COVID-19. Furthermore, the model confirmed that there is a significant effect of strategic purchasing, internal integration and development of key suppliers on financial performance of manufacturing firms during COVID-19. In order to face challenges created by COVID-19, purchasing managers can use strategic sourcing model to make continuous improvements to numerous activities in each dimension to enhance operational and financial performances of firms. Pages 532 to 546

Shifting Strategies: Changes in Brand Advertising During Covid-19

Bassant Eyada, Associate Professor, City University College of Ajman, United Arab Emirates

Covid-19 pandemic has revolutionised the world in several aspects; generally several human behaviour elements have changed, and more is predicted to change in the future. Consumer behaviour has also witnessed a change in terms of purchase decisions, prioritising and eliminating products, as well as a shift in media usage and online purchase patterns. Researchers estimate that these changes will be lasting, even after the pandemic is over. Brands therefore have to re-evaluate their advertising and marketing structures, budgets and strategies. Rethinking and shifting the type of messages and campaigns, focusing on new modified and developed advertising assets that emphasise different key messages, addressing consumer concerns, pivoting towards solutions, linking their products to the new lifestyle people are living, reorganising relationships with consumers and shifting strategies of product-consumer engagement are all possible adaptions. This research aims to explore the impact of the pandemic on the advertising industry in terms of content, strategies and media usage, by analysing the shift in consumer behaviour and its relation to brand perception, advertising placement and conveyed messages. Pages 547 to 565 

Administration Control Law in Public Facilities

Mohammed Kadhim Hamzah, Iraqi Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research / Dijlah University College /Department of Law                       Email: mohammad.kazemh@duc.edu.iq

This paper presents the administrative control law in the sustainable performance of public facilities. The failure or success rates of managing organisations are based on internal stakeholder managements. Through the facilities maintenance managements, the internal stakeholder roles should be well identified to ensure the efficiency of works executed. This is because the controlling hierarchy possesses different powers and authorities, which is needed for them to carry out the work methodically with more efficiency to provide the sustainable presentation of a facility. This paper focuses on the accountability of the internal people, that is, the local authority involved in the preservation management of public facilities. Quantitative approaches have been used to analyse the secondary information to build the structure that identifies the internal people's accountability in public facilities management. This structure supports the facility management holistic view during complete strategies and processing by internal people, which integrates the main component of people and technologies toward providing organisation objectives.  The results show the conceptual structure could indicate the flow of maintenance executions depending on the responsibility of internal peoples. Pages 566 to 584

The Development of MSMEs and the Growth of  Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Lending in Indonesia

Tulus Tambunan*, Wimboh Santoso**, Ida Busneti* , Sukarela Batunanggar**, *Center for Industry, SME and Business Competition Studies, University of Trisakti, Jl. Kyai Tapa No,1, Grogol, Jakarta 11440, Indonesia.** Financial Services Authority (OJK), Menara Mulia 2, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Jakarta 12710, Indonesia

The aim of this research is to examine recent development of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), their main constraints and access to financing, and the growth of online-based Peer-to-Peer (P2P) lending in Indonesia. This is a descriptive study which analyses secondary and primary data. Primary data were collected from: (i) a survey of 60 respondents, i.e. 30 owners of MSMEs and 30 managers/directors of P2P lending companies, of which a total of 40 were deemed usable (i.e. 10 MSMEs and 30 P2P), and (ii) a series of focus group discussions (FGD) with some of the selected P2P companies. This study’s results show the number of MSMEs continue to grow even though they face a number of obstacles with limited access to funding as the most serious. Although commercial banks are required by the government to extend credit to MSMEs, the percentage of total commercial credit to these enterprises is still very small. Therefore, as the survey’s finding suggested, the emergence of P2P is important as an alternative source of funding for MSEs. and bank is the main investor in P2P lending companies. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study ever done, at least in Indonesia. It takes stock of the empirical evidence in the literature through the lens of MSMEs’ owners. Pages 585 to 611

Analysis of Critical Thinking Abilities of Office Administration Education Students in Surakarta

Patni Ninghardjantia, Sigit Permansahb aDoctoral Student of Economics Educational, Sebelas Maret University, 57126, Surakarta, Indonesia. bOffice Administration Education Study Program, Universitas Sebelas Maret, 57126, Surakarta, Indonesia. ning@staff.uns.ac.id; sigitpermansah@gmail.com

Critical thinking has become essential in teaching office administration education (PAP). It needs to be carried out because the student’s critical thinking will affect their ability to comprehend lecture material and its implementation when they graduate to become a teacher. PAP students as prospective educators definitely need to know the level of their critical thinking, then hone their critical thinking according to their field of ability. That way, it is expected that after they become educators, they can transmit, share, and provide learning to improve students’ critical thinking abilities. Therefore, finding out critical thinking abilities for prospective teaching staff or students of office administration education is considered essential. This study aimed to determine and analyse the critical thinking abilities of office administration education students. The research type used in this article was descriptive research with quantitative methods performed in the office administration education study program in Surakarta with a total sample of 74 students. The results obtained a percentage score of 77% from the test given to 74 samples with the critical thinking test indicator. Based on the criteria of the measurement scale, the results show that critical thinking ability of office administration education students was in a good category, indicating that this ability can still be improved to achieve better criteria. The results of this study only represent the critical thinking ability of office administration education students in Surakarta. Pages 612 to 624

The Smartphone Addiction Scale for University Students: Psychometric Characteristics and Factor Structure

Elsayed Mohammed Abu hashem Hassana, Ismael Salamah Albursanb, Mohammad Farhan Al. Qudahc, Salaheldin Farah Attallah Bakhietd*, Hafidha Sulaiman Al-Barashdie, Ahmad   M. Thawabiehf, Khalid Ahmed Othman Alghamdig, Ahmed Haddadih, Youssef Galal Youssef Abouelmeatyi, a,b,c,hKing Saud University, Department of Psychology, College of Education, Saudi Arabia, dKing Saud University, Department of special education, College of Education, Saudi Arabia, eThe Research Council, Sultanate of Oman, fTafila Technical University, Department of Educational Psychology, gTaif University, Department of psychology, College of Education, Saudi Arabia, iKing AbduAziz University, Faculty of Educational Graduate Studies, Email: ashashem@ksu.edu.sa, bibursan@ksu.edu.sa, cmalqudah@ksu.edu.sa, d*bakhiet@ksu.edu.sa, eHafidhaalbarashdi@gmail.com, fahmadthawabieh@yahoo.com, gkhalid.A.alghamdi1@gmail.com, hAhn.1984@yahoo.com, iYoussef_galal@hotmail.com

This study examined the psychometric characteristics, including validity and reliability indices, of a previously developed smartphone addiction scale.   The scale was administered to 1986 university male (54%) and female students (46%). The proposed five-factor model was tested with a confirmatory factor analysis.   Fit indices were acceptable for the five factors (time and overuse, psychological/social, health/physical, preoccupation, and technological). Correlation coefficients among items and dimensions were strong, suggesting good internal consistency. The scale also yielded good concurrent validity. However, the rating scale’s fit to data was not acceptable. Moreover, the scale's reliability coefficients were high.   The scale is recommended for use with other similar samples in other Middle Eastern countries. Future research should further evaluate the scale to promote its psychometric efficiency. We examined the psychometric properties of a smartphone addiction scale, - A confirmatory factor analysis supported a five-factor model, - University students (N = 1986) responded to the scale, - The scale was shown to be valid and reliable through several indices. Pages 625 to 642

Analysing Metaphors in Female Rectors’ Speech in American Universities: A Translation Study

Endang Purwaningsiha,  Djatmikab,  Mangatur Rudolf Nababanc, Agus Hari Wibowod, aDoctor Candidate, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta & Gunadarma University, Indonesia, b,c,dSebelas Maret University, Indonesia, Email: aepurwaningsih59@gmail.com, bdjatmika@staff.uns.ac.id, camantaradja@yahoo.com, dagushari67@staff.uns.ac.id

The purposes of this research are multiple: to investigate the metaphorical forms found in the speech of female rectors; to find out the translation techniques, methods and ideology used in translating these metaphorical forms into Indonesian; to discover the different translation techniques produced by the translators; to identify the different forms of metaphors which are found in translations; to analyse the impact on the quality of translation of applying translation techniques; and to investigate the factors behind translators translating metaphors. This study used a qualitative descriptive method with an interdisciplinary approach. The text of the speech is taken from four female rectors from four of the best universities in America. The results show that there were three types of metaphors, being structural, ontological and orientational. The female translator used eleven types of translation techniques: established equivalents, modulation, literal, generalisation, discursive creation, explication, pure borrowing, transposition, addition, deletion and reduction. The male translator used seven types of translation techniques: established equivalents, modulation, literal, generalisation, discursive creation, pure borrowing, and addition. There were 152 structural metaphors translated into structural metaphors and non-metaphors by the female translator, and structural metaphors by the male translator. In addition, 58 ontological metaphors become ontological metaphors by the female translator and ontological metaphors by the male translator. Eight orientational metaphors are translated into the same types of metaphors. The application of these translation techniques has implications for the average quality of the translation. Pages 643 to 660

Exploring the Complex Adaptive Behaviour of Asian Countries in Innovation amidst Global Gender Gap: Implications to the Sustainable Development Goals

Omar A. Tantoya, Derren N. Gayloa,bCollege of Education, Bukidnon State University, Philippines

Email: omartantoy@buksu.edu.ph, gaylo_derren@buksu.edu.ph

With the ambiguous link between innovation and gender, this paper explored Asian countries’ complex adaptive behaviour in innovation amidst the global gender gap. Data sets from the Global Innovation Index 2019 the Global Gender Gap Report 2020 to represent innovation productivity and gender equality accordingly. Applying descriptive-analytic research, approaches like data mining, factor analysis, clustering, and complex adaptive systems were used. Factor analysis results revealed features of gender parity in innovation. Based on synergy count, there are more prevalent dissimilarities in innovation and gender equality characteristics among Asian. Highly innovative countries lead in synergy counts, while less innovative countries lag in it. However, moderately innovative countries have irregular results. Based on the clustering, Asian countries innovation appeared to behave in a non-linear upward trend amidst the global gender gap. Their complex adaptive behaviours show random, albeit cycles with downward and upward shifts that vary in amplitude. These characteristics indicated that countries can still innovate as long as they adapt within their contexts. With multi-dimensionality of innovation, a holistic approach to productivity is necessary. Embracing gender equality will be a good source of innovation and sustainable development follows. Pages 661 to 673

Maximising Green Computing in Utilising ICT to Support the Performance of the Academic Community: An Analysis 

Eka Julianti, Information System Department, Universitas Terbuka, Indonesia, Email: ekajulianti@ecampus.ut.ac.id

The rapid development of information technology makes ICT (Information Communication Technology) a prima donna in streamlining every business process in almost all institutions. However, a few uses of ICT actually pollute the work area because of a lack of concern in choosing and using the ICT equipment appropriately and correctly. Users only look at the function of the process speed by ignoring the functional and integration aspects of the technological device. For this reason, it is necessary to apply a green computing technology so that the use of ICT equipment becomes more effective and efficient, especially in supporting performance, in this case  for the academic community. In the process of collecting data and information, the approach used in this research is the study of literature on green computing and the use of ICT sourced from national and international articles and journals, and supported by sources from text books, e-books, magazines and newspapers. The purpose of this study is to see how effective and efficient the use of ICT devices is in supporting the performance of the academic community and its impact on the environment. The results of this study are in the form of an analysis of the application of green computing technology in the work environment of the academic community, which is expected to encourage changes in governance in the use of ICT devices or equipment to be more efficient so as to reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2).  Pages 674 to 686

An Alternative Education Centre for Teaching Staff in the Continuity of Education among the Rohingya Community in Malaysia

Mohd Irfan Mohd Terina, Abd. Hakim Mohadb, Ros Aiza Mohd Mokhtarc, a,b,cCentre for Core Studies, Faculty of Leadership and Management, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Email: airfanalhikmah@gmail.com, babdhakim@usim.edu.my, crosaiza@usim.edu.my

This article explains the role and participation of the teaching staff from alternative education centres in Malaysia. Statistics record the ever-increasing number of Rohingya Muslims in Malaysia. Thus, non-governmental organisations (NGO) have taken the initiative to establish alternative education centres, appointing volunteers as teaching staff. Studies found the NGO-appointed teaching staff play a comprehensive role in developing human capital among the risk community, such as the Rohingya Muslims, who have been in Malaysia since 1995. Four categories of NGOs with different backgrounds worked to rescue this risk community with the help of volunteer teaching staff. The teaching staff have introduced several variations and approaches to establish alternative education centres, and these variations are explored for the first time in this article. Based on this research, alternative methods and continuity is necessary to prevent education dropouts, in line with the moral development of a civilised society. The teaching staff are a key driving element to the importance of education focussed on the Rohingya Muslims. This article concludes that education scholars and policy makers must formulate education methods and variations according to academic and practical results. Pages 687 to 700

Intrinsic Rewards and Employee Creative Performance: Moderating Effects of Job Autonomy and Proactive Personality: A Perspective of Self-Determination Theory

Sayed Sami Muzafarya, Ihtesham Alib, Mudassir Hussainc*, aKabul University, Kabul, Afghanistan, bHuazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, c*School of International Education, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan, China.

Email: c*mudassirokz@gmail.com, as.muzafary@yahoo.combihteshamali@hust.edu.cn

The purpose of this research was to explore the effects of intrinsic rewards on employee creativity. It also explored the moderating effects of job autonomy and proactive personality for the linkage between intrinsic rewards for employee creativity in public universities. This research utilized a cross-sectional survey method to investigate four Kabul public universities in Afghanistan. A total of 400 matching pairs of subordinates and their immediate supervisor's questionnaires were returned. Results demonstrated that intrinsic rewards positively correlated to employee creative performance.  Furthermore, moderated path analysis showed that when job autonomy and proactive personality was high, intrinsic rewards for creativity had a positive direct effect on employee creative performance. This result adds to employee creative performance literature by empirically testing the moderating role of job autonomy and proactive personality in the intrinsic rewards for creativity and employee-creative performance link. Moreover, the outcomes showed that self-determination theory could be utilized as an overarching theory to explain how and why intrinsic reward for creativity affect on employee creative performance. Pages 701 to 725

Effect of Servant Leadership on Knowledge Sharing: The Role of Job Crafting and Proactive Personality

Maria Ansera, Muhammad Anwar ul Haqb, Nazar Hussain Phulpotoc, Shaista Khalidd, Mirza Ashfaq Ahmede, a,b,eDepartment of Management Sciences, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Pakistan, cDepartment of Public Administration SALU Khairpur-Mirs, dDepartment of Education, University of Sargodha, Pakistan, Email: banwar.haq@uog.edu.pk

The purpose of this paper was to find out the effect of servant leadership (SL) on knowledge sharing (KS). Job crafting (JC) was proposed to mediate between SL and KS, whereas, proactive personality (PP) was hypothesised to moderate the effect. Knowledge is an important asset for organisations in order to gain competitive advantage. Although the telecommunication sector of Pakistan is progressing well there is still need of innovation in this sector. As cellular companies are facing major issues regarding KS, managerial level employees of mobile  companies from the telecommunication sector of Pakistan were the target population. A total of 420 questionnaires were distributed among managerial level staff. After initial data screening  only 267 questionnaires were left for further analysis. Structural Equations Modelling, two-step approach, was used to perform the confirmatory factor analysis and test the hypotheses. Results revealed that SL has a positive effect on KS, and JC partially mediates the effect of SL and KS. PP strengthened the effect of SL on JC and KS. This study has important implications for the literature on SL, KS, JC and PP and gives insight into the relationship between JC and PP. Findings guide the managers to practice SL in order to create a KS climate in their organisations. Moreover, encouragement for JC would also have important implications. Pages 726 to 744

Risk in Accounting Research: Findings from Trend Analysis

Dr. Asma Khatoon, Department of Accounting, College of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

This article aims to present the use and applications of ‘risk’ in accounting research during last five years (2015-19). This study has extracted 598 journal articles from 66 dedicated ‘accounting’ journals having ‘risk’ mentioned as a keyword having cumulative citations of 2407. These articles were extracted from Scopus indexing services. Analyses were made using Microsoft Excel and SPSS.  Many trends can be witnessed from the data; (1) The trend of articles published on ‘risk’ in dedicated accounting journals is increasing over the last five years; (2) Three publishers Elsevier, Emerald and the American Accounting Association emerged as the highest number of publication and citations on this issue; (3) The USA emerged as a major source country for publications and citations on this subject area. The paper provides a research guideline for early stage researchers to choose the topic, select the keywords, and select the co-authors.  It also cites the work of individual researchers and universities for collaboration purposes. Pages 745 to 759

Climate Change and Rice Productivity: Evidence from Pakistan

Abdur Raufa, Hidayat Ullah Khanb, Ghulam Yahya Khanc, a,bAssistant Professor, Department of Economic, Abbottabad UST, cAssistant Professor, KIE, UAJ&K, Muzaffarabad, AJK, Pakistan, Email: aab.rauf.khattak@gmail.com, bmasmaleo@yahoo.com, cyqureshi79@gmail.com

The impacts of climate change on various domains of economy have been the focus of recent literature. Amongst them, agriculture is the most important one which is greatly affected by a slight change in climate. The current study analysed the climate change and agricultural productivity taking rice as a sample of agriculture output in case of Pakistan. Quantitative analysis for the period of 1981 to 2018 was conducted and the data was taken from World Development Indicators (WDI). An Autoregressive Distributive Lag model was employed to extract the long run estimates of the model. Climate change was measured through CO2 emission. Results of the study revealed that CO2 emission reduces rice productivity in long run. Amongst the other control variables like fertilizers offtake, water availability and area under cultivation, all have a positive contribution in the rice production. Diagnostic tests confirm that the model is best fitted, and stability of the coefficient is verified by CUSUM and CUSUMQ. On the basis of the findings of this study there is an urge for making strong decisions to curb the effects of climate change by switching the economy to efficient energy usage and recycling of wastes to reduce CO2 emissions. Pages 760 to 770

The Jordanian Dialects through the Jordanian Folk Proverbs' Book in Light of the Ancient Dialects of the Arabs - A Linguistic Descriptive Study           

Nayif Alnjadat, Associate Professor, Language studies, Al-Balqa Applied University

This phonological linguistic research is an overview of the Jordanian dialects as they appeared in the book of popular proverbs by Dr. Hani Al-Amad, in light of the ancient Arabic dialects; it has been shown that the Jordanian dialects have preserved a number of old dialects, including: replacing the dental sounds with sounds easier than them, and expanding the substitution converging place of articulation of sounds. Some new dialect phenomena appeared, including the tendency to calm the first silent and start with Alif Al-Wasl, as well as a tendency to Alnahet, the phenomenon of changing the sound's place, and other phenomena shown in the research. Pages 771 to 786

Textile Material Trends in Fashion Magazines from 2017 to 2019

Tyar Ratuannisa¹, Imam Santosa², Kahfiati Kahdar3, Achmad Syarief4, Annisaa Nurfitriyana5, ¹Doctoral Study Program of Visual Arts and Design, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung, Indonesia, 2,3,4Faculty of Visual Arts and Design, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung, Indonesia, 5Master of Design Study Program, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung, Indonesia, Email: ¹tyar@fsrd.itb.ac.id, 2imamz.santosa@gmail.com, 3kahfiati@gmail.com, 4asyarief.phd@gmail.com,     5annisaa.nurfitriyana@gmail.com

Textile material, as research objects, can be observed by examining visual and tactile aspects as the main research information. The visual appearance is also an important aspect in recognising past objects in printed images with certain messages, such as in fashion magazines. However, for textile objects, particularly fabric on clothes, this means that there is no tactile element and little information can be found about the original surface. The information about fabrics in images can be recognised using the visual perception technique. Basically, the technique on clothes is to identify the type of clothes, maintenance, and the condition of the fabric (new, worn, faded, torn or wrinkled). The source of the documentation is a fashion magazine, which consists of pictures containing information on how clothes are worn by consumers, in selected editions between 2017 to 2019. This study identifies groups of fabric, made from both natural and synthetic fibres. The first visual indicator is the surface or texture of the fabric, as well as the thickness, shine, and wrinkles. The second indicator is the logic of using a fabric for the type of clothes. For example, a kaftan usually uses a soft, flowing fabric, such as chiffon. The results showed that the latest fashion trends and the majority of consumer preferences affected the identification of textiles in visual perception techniques. The fabric classification represented in fashion magazines from 2017 to 2019 showed the tendency of consumer preferences towards sustainability trends, which are manifested in natural textile choices, as well as classic and timeless clothes choices, but are also balanced with the use of synthetic materials along with the development of digital print trends for clothes. This research provides a new insight into an alternative focus of research related to textiles and fashion in observing the application of fabric to clothes based not only on consumer’s personal taste and preference, but also the fabric trend. Pages 787 to 803

The Determinants of CustomersIntention to Use Smart Lockers for Last-Mile Deliveries: A Case of Pakistan

Amjad Alia, Dr. Muhammad Asim Rafiqb, aResearch Scholar at Hamdard University, Karachi Faculty of Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University Lyari, Karachi, bFaculty in Management Sciences at Hamdard University, Karachi, Email: aAmjadbbsulk@gmail.com, bAsim_r83@hotmail.com

The purpose of this study to analyse the determinants of consumers’ intention to use smart lockers in las mile delivery in Pakistan. Synthesized theories of perceived value, transaction cost economics and resource match theory. Survey of the questionnaire gathered from 375 respondent of the densely populated city of Pakistan, Karachi using SEM analysis. The findings show that the five dimensions (Convenience, Reliability, Corporate Image, Service Quality, Privacy Security) and mediating variables (Transaction cost and Perceived Value) effects on consumer intention. This study enhances the area of study in logistics and e-commerce transaction deliveries to the end consumers with the use of technology. Pages 804 to 832

Preserving Nature - Messages from Contemporary Vietnamese Poetry

Hue Hoang Thi,  University of Education, Hue University, Vietnam, Email: hoangthihue@hueuni.edu.vn, hoangthihue@dhsphue.edu.vn

This research affirms the importance of protecting nature and the environment, through messages calling for, forecasting, warning about natural disasters, epidemics, and destruction of the natural environment in contemporary Vietnamese poetry by the method of survey and text analysis. The protection of nature is an urgent issue for all countries in the world. The research results confirm the effectiveness of education and propaganda measures to protect nature through Vietnamese poetry. At the same time, it shows that the interdisciplinary coordination in educating the sense of protecting nature is extremely important, especially when the Covid 19 pandemic is raging around the world today. Pages 833 to 843

Malin Nan Kundang: An Aesthetic Response Of The Opera Creation In Minagkabau West Sumatera

R.M. Pramutomoa, Iswandib, Lili Suparlic, Edi Suisnod, a,b,c,dIndonesia Institute of the Arts Surakarta

Malin Kundang is a form of Minangkabau speech literature. The Malin with his arrogance said in a rebuke tone and so forth.  This article talks about the Minangkabau Opera Malin Nan Kundang. The word "nan" as a form of interpretation is at odds with oral traditions. This article is the result of research exploring an aesthetic response from the creation of a new form of musical drama which is a genre of Minangkabau opera. A study of aesthetic responses uses artistic approaches used in the creation of works of art. Malin Nan Kondang's position as a vehicle in the context of new works is realised through the method of creating works of art. In the realm of artistic research it contains creation by research art creation methods consisting of: (1) observation and study of literature; (2) interpretation and experimentation; (3) formation; and (4) performance style of performance. Pages 844 to 857

McDonaldization of Education in Pakistan: A Step towards Dehumanization

Muhammad Umer Azima*, Zaheer Hussainb, Azhar Munir Bhattic, Dr. Muhammad Iqbald, aPhD Linguistics (Student), University of Management & Technology, Lahore Pakistan, Assistant Professor (English), Government Township College, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, b,cPhD Linguistics (Student), The University of Lahore, Lahore Pakistan, cLecturer (English), Government Dyal Singh College, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, dEnglish Program Manager, US Consulate, Lahore, Email: abecketlove@hotmail.com, amumerazim@gmail.com, bzhussain@numl.edu.pk, dme_iqbal@hotmail.com

McDonaldization in society is the concept originated by George Ritzer in the last decade of 20th century (1992). This concept was applied on higher education by Dennis Hayes and Robin Wynward (2002, 2017). This analytical study is focusing the McDonaldization of education in Pakistan. The effects of McDonaldization on Pakistan’s Education system are analyzed in terms of four characteristics suggested by Ritzer i.e. efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. The analysis is based on observation, experiences and opinion of the educationists including researcher. It is observed that ‘efficiency’ is increased by mechanical teaching, ‘calculability’ is ensured through good profit making, ‘predictability’ is maintained through standardize testing and franchising and ‘control’ is exercised through online activities. Pages 858 to 869

Application and development of products from Yellow Millettia Wood Leaf

Amornrat Anunvrapong, Program of Thai Wisdom Product Development, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Rajamangala University of Technology Krungthep

Corresponding author, e-mail: amornrat.a@mail.rmutk.ac.th

The purpose of this research is to study the paper production process, paper test, paper assessment satisfaction, and the development of a multi-purpose shelf prototype from yellow Millettia wood leaf paper. The results showed that after the pulp boiling process, which comprises 30 kilograms of full-grown leaves from the yellow Millettia wood, the pulp would acquire a weight of approximately 8–10 kgs. The physical property test assessed 100 per cent yellow Millettia wood leaf paper, yellow Millettia wood leaf paper mixed with banana plants at a ratio of 50:50 per cent, and yellow Millettia wood leaf paper mixed with a ratio of 50:50 per cent pineapple leaves. The burst strength was equal to 75.00, 76.60, and 70.60 k.Pa, respectively. The tear resistance values were equal to 471, 1,640, and 706 mN, respectively. The basis weight values are 36.40, 30.00, and 21.50 g/m2, respectively. When photographing with stereo microscopes at 10, 15, 20, and 30-times magnification, the texture of all three types of paper is rough. Comparing the satisfactions of 250 product design and development students with the paper, it was found that their satisfactions with the three types of yellow Millettia wood leaf paper were statistically significant and different (p<0.05). Pages 870 to 892

Kinematics and Accuracy of The Upward Jumping Throw in Handball

Iyad A. Yousefa, Hashem A. Kilanib, Abdulsalam S. Al-Za’abic, Jamal Alnuaimid, Laila F. AlKilanie, Waleed M. Shaheenf, Sana M. Liftawig, and Tariq G. Rajah, a,f,g,hPhysical Education Department, Beir Zeit University, Ramallah, Palestine,bKinesiology and training  Department, School of Sport Sciences, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, c,dPhysical Education Department, College of Education, UAEU, Al-Ain, AbuDhabi, UAE, eDepartment of Physical & Sport Sciences. Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Email: bhashemkilani@gmail.com

Purpose: To investigate the effect of using a proposed training program on selected kinematic variables of accuracy of shooting by an upward jumping throw at different backcourts for a school’s team of beginners at Handball. Methods: Ten players were selected from a schools’ team of the Directorate of Education in the Bethlehem Governorate, and they were divided into two groups, 5 experimental and 5 controlled. Two Sony HDR-CX220E cameras (50 images/sec) were used to capture the upward jumping throw in two styles of shooting with a defense wall and without a defense wall.  A proposed training program was applied to the experimental group while the controlled group went in to traditional training routine. Pre- & post- analyses were administered using Kinovea software. Results: the proposed training program had a positive effect on the height of the jump and the vertical velocity of the shooter for the experimental group. Accuracy of shooting also improved in the experimental group. A decrease in the values of the kinematic variables of shooting by an upward jumping throw was also found when aiming from the left side in the case of the existence of a defense wall. Conclusion: It is suggested to use the kinematics’ approach when designing the training program. Pages 893 to 907

Designing Presidentialism Cabinet Under a Multiparty System in Indonesia

Ibnu Sina Chandranegaraa, Syaiful Bakhriab, aUniversity of Muhammadiyah Jakarta, Email: aibnusinach@umj.ac.id, bsyaiful.bakhri@umj.ac.id

According to the 1945 Constitution, the composition of the Cabinet is the prerogative power of the President. Still, it does not mean that the President can use it conveniently without considering the political parties' coalition. This configuration is created because the position of political parties depends on the presidents' candidacy. It means that Indonesia's political party controls the upstream and downstream facets of executive power. After the election, the President who is elected will face an inherent problem of determining his Cabinet's composition. This article aims to find a formula that can minimise political transactions when forming the Cabinet to strengthen the Presidential preference for selecting cabinet members from pre-election engagement with political parties. Pages 908 to 922

Effect of Technological Innovations on Logistics and Supply Chain Management (LSCM) in the context of Belt and Roads Initiative (BRI): A moderating effect of Adoption and Diffusion

Tahir Iqbala, aDepartment of Management, College of Business Administration,   Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O.Box 1982, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, E-mail: a* timuniruddin@iau.edu.sa

Purpose/Aim: The primary aim of this study was to determine how technology innovation can support logistics and supply chain management in the context of Belt and Road Initiatives (BRI). Method: In this study, the researcher has the following primary data collection methods and quantitative research design. The data has been gathered through a survey questionnaire, whereas the sample size of the study was 430. Data analysis has been conducted through Structural equation modelling (SEM), in which the researcher has conducted different tests, including confirmatory factor analysis, discriminant validity, model assessment, and path assessment. Findings: The findings of this study confirm the significant impact of all the independent variables on logistics and supply chain management (LSCM) in BRI. The independent variables of this study include artificial intelligence, big data, enterprise resource planning, social media, and blockchain. Apart from that, this study's results also reveal the significant moderating effect of adoption and diffusion (AD) on the association between technology innovation and LSCM in BRI. Limitations: The absence of qualitative data and the narrow scope of the study have been some of the significant limitations of this study. In the future, it is suggested that a mixed research design will be used to make a valuable contribution to the existing literature. Pages 923 to 947

The Impact of Smartphone Addictive Use by Students with Learning Disabilities on Social, Psychological and Academic Domains

Mayada Al-Natour1, Khaled Al-Ajlouni2, Hatem AlKhamra3, 1,3School of Educational Sciences, The University of Jordan, Jordan, 2College of Education, Arab Open University - Jordan, Email: 1mnatour@ju.edu.jo, 2k_ajlouni@aou.edu.jo, 3h.alkhamra@ju.edu.jo

The current study aimed at identifying the impact of the addictive use of smartphones by students with learning disabilities on the social, psychological and academic domains. The sample of the study consisted of 210 male and female students enrolled in classes of resource rooms of grades five to nine in public and private schools at the Ministry of Education in Amman governorate. The researcher developed two measures to achieve the goals of the study; the first is “a scale to measure the addiction of smartphones use”, which contains 32 items, and another scale to measure the “impact of smartphones excessive use on social, emotional and academic domains”, which contains (30) items. This process was preceded by a review of previous similar pedagogic studies. Validity and reliability significance were extracted. Results revealed that the estimation of the addictive use of smartphones by students of learning disabilities aged 11-15 was rated as average. Results also revealed that impact of smartphone use dominated the social and emotional aspects over the academic. Results call for the need to develop and practise some precocious interventions and early detection of the excessive use of smartphones in general, but above all by students with learning disabilities. Pages 948 to 965

Did Expected Credit Loss Fair for Indonesian Banks in COVID-19?

Septian Bayu Kristanto, Center of Tax and Accounting Studies, Universitas Kristen Krida Wacana, Jakarta, Email: septian.bayu@ukrida.ac.id

In this paper, we explore the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the accounting practices associated with the Expected Credit Loss (ECL) approach by Peryataan Standar Akuntasi Keuangan (PSAK) 71. Given the complexity of the pandemic, the neutral application of existing accounting standards is of more importance than ever as it ensures objective decision-useful information that serves comparability, maintenance of a level playing field and transparency. Worldwide interventions by banking regulators, however, have considerable potential to interfere with these fundamental contributions of financial statements. The result is that for banks under PSAK 71 it is not even entirely clear what assessments banks can and will use in their calculations estimating the effects of COVID-19. Pages 966 to 971

Decolonising Fiscal Management Practices for African Growth, Development and Change

Olawale R. Olaopa PhD, Department of Economics, College of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ORCID ID: 0000-0002-7937-9177, Email: orolaopa@iau.edu.sa

Despite that the management of public fund is highly legislated and the discipline populated with vastly skilled personalities in Africa, the rate of leakages of fiscal resources and the magnitude of waste recorded through the public treasuries is absurd. Consequently, this paper intends to answer: What are the critical issues mostly responsible for these leakages and the magnitude of waste across African continent and how can Africa be innovatively rescued from this quagmire? The paper relies on literature review, policy documents, reports, archival sources and library research covering the subject matter and uses 'Ajo' or 'Esusu', a tool for local fiscal resource mobilisation and allocation, as the theoretical framework. The paper discovered that the disconnect between indigenous practice, typified by the use of African Indigenous Knowledge, and western practices in fiscal management is extremely responsible for lack of pro-poor macro fiscal management and inclusive growth as exemplified by poor governance, slow economic development, lack of social equity and change in Africa. Decolonising fiscal management practices through the use of African Indigenous Knowledge in fiscal management will be an effective innovative antidote for achieving pro-poor macro fiscal management, inclusive growth and change in Africa. Pages 972 to 991

The Impact of Internet Banking Adoption in The Kingdom of Bahrain - Overcoming Barriers to Adoption Through the Use of Biometrics

Dr Yusuf Janahi1,2, 1PhD from University of Bradford, Uk, 2Ahlia University, Kingdom of Bahrain, Email: yjanahi@ahlia.edu.bh

The emergence of the Internet in business as a marketing tool and as a communication medium is one of the existing challenges for the banking industry. The Internet has influenced the evolution and the innovation of the banking industry and for the provision of information about products and services. Based on the ideas mentioned, this study aimed to examine the factors which may affect the intention to use and adopt Internet banking in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The cultural context has rarely been commented on in previous research, but as a result of taking this factor into account in addition to the more technical issues, a number of practical implications became evident for banking in Bahrain that may have applicability elsewhere in the Arab world. These strategies also have potential to attract new market segments. Pages 992 to 997

The Element of Research Skills for the Implementation of Research by Postgraduate Students in Malaysia

Sri Sumarwati1*, Mohd Hasril Amiruddin2, Ahmad Rizal Madar3, 1,2,3University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja 86400, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia, Email: 1*sri_fatoni78@yahoo.com

Postgraduate research is more demanding of the ability of students to be independent, where throughout the process conducting research it is a challenging journey. This study was conducted to know the expert opinion about the research skills for postgraduate students in Malaysia. This study uses the Fuzzy Delphi Method to identify expert agreement about the elements of research skills. The total sample is 13 experts in the social sciences and humanities were selected using purposive sampling. Data were analysed based on the calculation of the Fuzzy set. This study found that the element of research skills are inference skills, research design skills, moral and ethical research skills, and integrity skills. The implementation of research skills for conducting research is expected to provide opportunities for students to increase the potential and personal qualities during their studies at the postgraduate level. Pages 998 to 1006

SITRANS: A Design of Laboratory Management System

Emmy Wahyuningtyasa, Shofiya Syidadab, Firman Pratamac, a,b,cInformatic Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Wijaya Kusuma Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia. Email: aemmy@uwks.ac.id, bshofiya@uwks.ac.id, cfirmanpratama@uwks.ac.id

The Covid19 pandemic has changed the culture of human civilisation, including in the field of higher education. The learning process has switched to online and requires educational institutions to provide facilities that support the carrying out of online activities for regular and non-lecture courses such as practicum, research, thesis, practical work and real work lectures. At Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya, regular lectures have been facilitated by the existence of a moodle-based learning management system (LMS) called Elena, but the implementation and monitoring of non-lecture activities has not been facilitated by online media so there are many obstacles and it is less than optimal. This study aims to design a system to facilitate the management of these activities that is integrated with the institution's integrated e-campus system. The design uses a unified modelling language (UML) which consists of a package diagram, use case, class and sequence diagram. The system is named Transitoris Information System (SITRANS). Pages 1007 to 1025

A Study of a Korean Speaking Class Using Online Platforms During COVID-19

Eunmi Yu, Ankara University, Department of Korean Language and Literature, Ankara, Turkey, Email: eyu@ankara.edu.tr

Online education consists of courses conducted through the internet. In these courses, students generally conduct e-learning management and can view their course content and academic progress as well as communicate with their classmates and teachers. Although online classes require a greater amount of motivation compared to a classroom-based course, it became a necessity out of precaution concerning the coronavirus disease. Turkey, like other countries, wanted to continue students’ education, but COVID-19 required an educational shift to online systems to prevent the spread of the disease. Although online education does not require a specific space for learning, it does require students to be self-paced and have a peaceful environment. It also requires the preparation of all lecture materials. Teachers and students both should be attentive to facilitate successful delivery and acquisition of knowledge. Online education is an effective way of teaching, but is less effective in comparison to traditional education. In this study, the author would like to share some findings and suggestions for effective online classes for students studying Korean as a foreign language in Turkey while participating in an online Speaking Korean class during the coronavirus period. Pages 1026 to 1035

Several of the Most Important Crimes Committed by Public Employees in Jordan

Dr. Moayd Hosni Ahmad Al-Khawalda, Assistant professor –faculty of law, Philadelphia University, alkaoldahmoayd@yahoo.com

The significance of this study emerged against the backdrop of increasing corruption in Jordanian society, especially within the governmental institutions. Therefore, the mechanisms against corruption shall be demonstrated due to the corruption’s consequences upon the Jordanian economy. The problem of this research concerns demonstrating the concordance of Jordan Civil Service Regulation, the Jordanian Penal Code, and the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), which Jordan was a part of, in fighting against corruption. Moreover, it demonstrates the extent of the application of fighting against corruption in Jordan that occurred on the ground. Pages 1036 to 1053

An Investigation on Grade VIII Students’ Mathematical Self-Efficacy and Math Anxiety

Victoria Josepha, Dr. Sherwin Rodriguesb, aPhD Scholar, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan. bDirector, Notre Dame Institute of Education, Karachi, Pakistan,

Email: avictoria.v.joseph63@gmail.comvictoria.joseph@njv.edu.pk, bsherwin.rodrigues2@gmail.com

This quantitative research study aimed to investigate the mathematical self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety among grade VIII students’ of Karachi across gender and school systems. The study explored the subscales of self-efficacy and math anxiety (i.e. general mathematical self-efficacy, test anxiety factor, future anxiety and classroom anxiety). Mathematical Self-Efficacy and Math Anxiety (MSEMA) questionnaire (May, 2009) for finding out various factors which influence mathematical self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety was used. Data from six private community and nine government schools in Karachi were collected and an independent samples t-test was used to compare differences across gender and school systems. On the whole, results revealed that male students showed greater mathematical self-efficacy than female students. The government school students displayed more self-efficacy and less anxiety towards mathematics in comparison to the private community school students. The study recommends a student centred approach which serves the purpose of providing effective classroom activities that encourages students’ motivation, interest and added performance. Furthermore, qualitative research studies are needed to identify the reasons for students’ mathematical anxiety and address these in order for schools and educators to teach mathematics in an enjoyable manner. Pages 1054 to 1078

Better Late than Never: An Interplay of Hope and Child Schema Modes among Young Adults

Meh Para Siddique*, Rubina Hanif, National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan, Email: *mehpara1612@gmail.com

This article presents the interplay of Child Schema Modes and Hope among young adults. Schema modes are intense, active, emotional, cognitive, and behavioural states, which occur when underlying personality schemas are activated by emotional events. Thus, at first, the author translated and validated the Adult Hope Scale (AHS) on the sample of 313 Pakistani young adults. Afterwards, this Urdu translated version of AHS was used to assess the hope, and Schema Mode Inventory was utilised to estimate the child schema modes on the sample of 300 young adults. The results depicted that the adequate reliability and construct validity was attained for AHS. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) supported both unidimensional and bidimensional structure (agency and pathways) of the AHS. Considerable gender differences on vulnerable child, enraged child, and happy child modes were obtained. Meanwhile a significant negative relationship was present between hope and vulnerable child, and impulsive child modes; whereas hope was positively correlated with happy child mode. Afterwards, the moderating role of gender was significant for happy child mode where relationship was eventually stronger in males. In conclusion, it is evident that AHS is a valid instrument to measure hope, and there is an association between hope and child schema modes. Pages 1079 to 1090

Investigating the Impact of Brand Image and Brand Loyalty on Brand Equity: the Mediating Role of Brand Awareness

Anas Zia1, Sohail Younus2, Farhan Mirza3, 1Corresponding Author and Lecturer GIFT Business School, GIFT University Gujranwala, 2Lecturer University of the Punjab, Jhelum Campus, 3Lecturer The Melliuem University and College, Queenberry Campus Gujranwala, Email: 1Anas.zia@gift.edu.pk

This research aims to examine the impact of brand loyalty and brand image upon brand equity given the involvement of  brand recognition as a mediator. The technique used for the collection of data was simple random sampling. The information was collected from the general public, colleges, and university students via the survey method strategy. The research design is quantitative, and the data was collected by implementing the non-probability and convenience sampling technique with a sample size of 390. The results show that brand image has a positive and significant relationship with brand awareness. Moreover, brand image and brand loyalty have a considerable brand equity relationship, and brand recognition mediates the brand image and brand equity relationship. This study will serve to help marketers to attain customer satisfaction and concentrate on the wants of customers to obtain a superior competitive advantage. Pages 1091 to 1106


Factors Affecting Illustration Creation for Children’s Books in Laos

Panuphong Tanakhotea, Dr. Niyom Wongpongkhamb, Dr. Kham Chaturongakulc, a,b,cFaculty of Fine and Applied Arts, Khon Kaen University, Nai Muang Subdistrict, Muang District, Khon Kaen University 40002, Thailand, bAdvisor, cCo-Advisor, Email: aPanuphong.tanakhote@gmail.com, bWniyom@kku.ac.th, cCkham@kku.ac.th

The purposes of this research were to 1) study the development and the situation of illustrations of children book in Laos, and 2) study the factors affecting illustration creativity of the artist. This study is a qualitative study taking place in Vientiane, Laos. The participants of this study consisted of 1) 10 scholars from government sectors and private publishers, 10 artists from 3 publishers and 2 non-profit organisations, and 10 stakeholders—readers and purchasers. The target books were books for 7 to 9 years old children which were published in Laos People's Democratic Republic from 2008 to 2018. The data from a field trip: survey form, uninstructed interview and focus group was analysed based on the objectives and the conceptual framework of the qualitative study. The results revealed that: In term of the development and the situation, three main types of illustrations were found in this study: drawing, painting and computer graphic illustrations. Picture story books were the most popular children books for 7 to 9 years old in Laos. In 1986 to 2006, Lao local tales were the most popular content for children’s book whereas after 2007, most of the content of the books was written by Lao writers. In addition, three styles of illustration were found: realistic, analogical and surrealistic styles. A single page which was created focusing on the image of the main characters of the story was the most popular style for the cover. Finally, both single-page illustrations and double-page spreads were used as the arrangement for the illustrations. There were two types of factors affecting the creativity of the artists: internal and external factors. Internal factors were impression, education, aptitude and, expansion of other artists. External factors were experience to work with the experts, need of the customers, trends and training by their organisation. Pages 1107 to 1120

Contemporary Interiors Inspired by Sustainable Solutions in Vernacular Design

Wael Rashdana, Vrushali Mhatreb, a,bAssociate Professor, College of Architecture & Design, Department of Interior Design, Al Ghurair University, Dubai, UAE, Email: awrushdan@hotmail.com, bvmhatre@agu.ac.ae

Vernacular design has historical and cultural value that represents a local identity. It emerges from the surrounding environment, is inspired by nature, utilises local materials and traditional construction methods, and considers the geographical and climate features of the region. Therefore, most vernacular designs offer sustainable solutions. Despite the abundance of research on sustainable design, few studies have addressed the relationship between vernacular and contemporary sustainable interior design solutions. Hence, the objective of this research is to examine whether sustainable vernacular design solutions can be revived and how they can inspire modern concepts of sustainability. The present article offers a review of literature on sustainable applications of heritage design, including a selection of architectural and interiors, examples showcasing the revival of vernacular design. A survey was conducted to determine the potential of extending and implementing traditional concepts into contemporary design. This research reveals that sustainable solutions are an integral part of vernacular design, which may bolster the effectiveness of contemporary sustainability. Pages 1121 to 1140

Environmental Law that Affects the Green Behaviour of Undergraduates at Northeastern University

Sapphasit Kaewhao, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, Mahasarakham 44000, Thailand, Email: sapphasit1981@gmail.com

The objectives of this study were.to study environmental damage, natural resource damage, ecological damage, civil liability, criminal liability, administrative liability, and green behaviour levels and to study the independent variables comprising environmental damage, natural resource damage, ecological damage, civil liability, criminal liability, and administrative liability affecting the dependent variable of the green behaviour of undergraduates. The research instrument was the questionnaire, and it was used for data collection from 400 undergraduates. The inferential statistics that were used was the multiple regression analysis. Research results was revealed that the mean scores of environmental damages, natural resource damage, ecological damage, civil liability, criminal liability, administrative liability, and green behaviour levels were at high levels for all aspects. Moreover, it was found that the criminal liability had the most effect towards people’s air quality maintenance behaviour at a rate of 23.6 percent and was statistically significant at the level of 0.01. It was followed by administrative liability with 17.00 percent, which was statistically significant at the level of 0.01. This might indicate that the undergraduates realized to the important of criminal liability to enforces the people’s air quality maintenance. Therefore, in order to control air quality effectively, the criminal liability is needed to use to accomplish the air quality control. Pages 1141 to 1157

Revisiting the Role of Servant Leadership and Workplace Spirituality on Employees’ Retention: A Mediating Role of Employee Engagement

Wasim ul Rehmana, Suleyman Degirmenb, Masood Hassanc, Faryal Jalild, Fahad Islame, a,e Department of Business Administration, University of the Punjab Gujranwala Campus, Pakistan, bThe School of Social and Human Sciences, Konya Food and Agriculture University, Turkey, cInstitute of Business Management, Karachi, dInstitute of Quality & Technology Management, University of the Punjab Lahore Campus, Pakistan, Email: awasim.rehman@pugc.edu.pk, bsuleyman.degirmen@gidatarim.edu.tr, cmasoodhassan1@hotmail.com, dfaryal.iqtm@pu.edu.pk,

The aim of this paper is to explore the instilling role of servant leadership and workplace spirituality on employees’ retention through a mediating role of employee engagement. Cross sectional data was collected from 310 employees working in the hospitality sector of Pakistan. Survey instrumentation typology was used to collect data from employees working in the hospitality sector of Pakistan. For data analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied and found that all the measurements items successfully meet the minimum thresholds to make the model better fit. Further, the results of the study also depict that employees’ engagement partially mediates the relationship between servant leadership and employees’ retention, and fully mediates the relationship between workplace spirituality and employee retention. Thus, this study postulates that role of servant leaders and workplace spirituality might be the significant indicators to enhance the employees’ retention by increasing their work engagement. Pages 1158 to 1176  



Financial Literacy and Financial Planning in the Retirement Family

Neti Budiwatia, Fazar Nuriansyahb, Deni Nugrahac, a,b,Faculty of Economics, Universitas pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia, cFaculty of Economics Education, Universitas Swadaya Gunung Jati, Indonesia, Email: netibudiwati@upi.edu a, fazar@upi.edub, deni.babeh@gmail.comc

This theoretical literature study aims to provide an overview of the concept of the importance of financial literacy in financial planning, especially in old age. Financial knowledge in managing finances is very important, especially towards retirement age. Readiness to face retirement is the ability of individuals to make their lives comfortable in retirement, this can be achieved if the individual makes preparations. Individuals who work must be responsible for the life in retirement that they will face, including individuals who work in government. Government employees with pension fund facilities are not guaranteed to be able to live comfortably in retirement. The method used in this study is literature study. The findings of the study in general show that there are still many workers who have not done financial planning properly, due to a lack of understanding of the financial aspects that must be prepared for retirement. This condition is a serious problem considering financial literacy has a positive effect on financial planning, especially readiness to face retirement. Pages 1 to 14




Finding Unexpressed Good Faith in a Commercial Contract in Australia

Muhammad Jibril, Melbourne Law School, The University of Melbourne Email: Muhjibril.law@gmail.com

Good faith is one of the doctrines in contract law. The Renard Constructions (ME) Pty Ltd v Minister for Public Works (‘Renard Constructions’) case in 1992 is acknowledged as the watershed of the good faith doctrine in Australia. However, it is well known that good faith’s existence and position in Australian contract law is uncertain. The source of this uncertainty is because even though a lot of courts support the existence of good faith in commercial contracts, the High Court of Australia is still reluctant to elucidate this issue. Moreover, the good faith obligation is used on many occasions, which leads to the difficulty to formulate such a duty. Therefore, this paper will discuss how Australian courts do find the duty of good faith, especially when such duty is not expressly stipulated in the contract. In answering this issue, this paper has used a case-based approach. The researchers found that the courts incorporate good faith through implication in fact, implication in law, and in construction methods. However, each court has its own perspective in using these methods to find good faith in a contract. Pages 15 to 30




The Impact of the Coronavirus Pandemic on Auditing Quality in Jordan

Dr. Khalil S. M. Abu Saleem, Associate professor in accounting, Faculty of Business & Finance, The World Islamic Sciences & Education University (W.I.S.E), Amman, Jordan. Email: Khalil.Abosaleem@wise.edu.jo

The research aimed to identify the impact of the coronavirus on auditing quality in Jordan. Due to the hazardous situation of movement in Jordan, the researcher contacted six international audit firms by phone to examine the impact of the pandemic on the auditing quality to collect the data. All of the auditors who were contacted by the researcher confirmed that the coronavirus affected the audit quality in Jordan, and due to social distancing and restrictions on movement, the auditors face difficulties in collecting proper evidence which may increase the possibility of making wrong opinions regarding the auditing performance by them. For carrying out an effective study, the researcher used a secondary method of data to gather information on the research topic. Also, in order to carry out the research in a dynamic manner, the researcher has adopted a systematic review method to clarify the processing auditing pattern in the field. Pages 31 to 40




The Effects of COVID-19 on International Students in South Africa

Sunday Olawale Olanirana, Chinaza Uleanyab, a,bEducation Leadership and Management, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, Email: bchinazauleanya@yahoo.com

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has put the entire world in a state of abrupt confusion and panic. This has affected different sectors in various walks of life: inclusive of education. People tend to continuously live in fear while seeking support from their governments. Conversely, governments and institutions of learning attempt to combat the pandemic by employing different strategies in order to help their citizens, however, foreign nationals in different countries seem to be left-out. Hence, this paper was targeted at examining the lived experiences of international students in developing nations during the COVID-19 pandemic. A review method was adopted for the study. Hence, relevant literature was reviewed. The findings of the study show that developing nations like the world have been badly hit by the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, and the effect tends to be more severe for international students as focus was more on the citizens than foreign nationals. Also, the increasing rate of the pandemic affected the operation of higher education institutions through the imposed closure of university residences which exposed many international students to undue hardship. The study therefore recommends that there is an urgent need for the institutions of higher learning in developing nations to rethink their policy on internalisation towards a better welfare structure for international students. Pages 41 to 53




Measuring the Implementation and Adoption Gap of Strategic Foresight in Organisations: A Case Study at Al-Mustansiriya University

Sanaa A. Alubadia, Adel Abdulwadood Taherb, , a,bCollege of Administration and Economics / University of Baghdad – Iraq, Email: asanaaubadi@gmail.com bAdel1968aa68@gmail.com,

The study aims to measure the gap in the application and adoption of strategic foresight in an organisation. The problem of the theoretical study was derived from the existence of a knowledge gap due to the lack of Iraqi and Arab studies and research that dealt with the study variable and its dimensions (environmental monitoring, strategic choice, and integrating capabilities). The study adopted the case study method by using a questionnaire. Al-Mustansiriya University was chosen as a community for study because of its importance in providing educational services. For the study sample, it was an intentional sample of (48) managers from supervisory departments (director of administration, director of department, and Division manager). The study identified a critical gap in applying and adopting strategic foresight in the study population (that is, in Al-Mustansiriya University). Pages 54 to 72




The Effect of Purchasing Strategy Creativity and Supply Chain Practices on Business Performance

Pirmanta1, Zeplin Jiwa Husada Tarigan2, 1Associate Professor Tama Jaga Karsa University, Jakarta, Indonesia, 2Associate Professor, Petra Christian University, Indonesia.

The current global competition has forced manufacturing companies to implement purchasing strategies in the pursuit of competitive advantage. The ability of the company to integrate the supply chain enables the company to provide the effectiveness and efficiency in the business process of the company. This research examines the effect of purchasing strategy, supply chain practices, and green supply chain on business performance. The study collects data from 107 manufacturing companies in East Java, Indonesia, which has a deep concern for a green environment. Data collection used a questionnaire designed with a five-point Likert scale. Data analysis used the PLS technique. The results found that all indicators of each variable are considered valid and reliable. Hypothesis testing found that purchasing strategy had a significant impact on supply chain management practices and green supply chains, but did not have a direct impact on economic performance. Supply chain management practices does not have an impact on green supply chain management but does have an impact on improving economic performance. The green supply chains also have an impact on economic performance. This finding provides an insight for the practitioner on how to improve firm performance. This study also contributes to the current research in supply chain management. Pages 73 to 86




The Impact of Top Management Commitment, Green Purchasing, and Supply Chain Management Practices on Operational Performance

Hotlan Siagiana, Zeplin Jiwa Husada Tariganb, aAssistant Professor, Faculty of Business and Economics, Petra Christian University, Indonesia, bAssociate Professor, Faculty of Business and Economics, Petra Christian University, Indonesia, Email: ahotlan.siagian@petra.ac.id

Globalisation has forced the manufacturing industry to take care of environmental sustainability. This research examines the impact of top management commitment, green purchasing, supply chain management practices on operational performance. This research distributed questionnaires to 150 manufacturing companies in East Java, Indonesia, and 135 questionnaires were returned and completed correctly. Of the 135, only 81 questionnaires were considered valid due to the respondent profile relevance. Data analysis used the Partial least square, utilising the SmartPLS software. The results reveal that top management commitment directly influences green purchasing and supply chain practices. However, top management commitment does not directly affect operational performance. Green purchasing affects supply chain management practices and operational performance. Supply chain practices directly affect operational performance. This study provides insight for managers to improve the company's operational performance. This study also contributes to the current research on supply chain management theory. Pages 87 to 102




Speaking Difficulties and Pedagogical Implications in a Multicultural Setting

Melanie A. Turco, Western Mindanao State University, Zamboanga City, Philippines, Email: turco.melanie@wmsu.edu.ph

One of the essential skills to develop when learning a language is the ability to speak. However, becoming actual speakers of a language is understood to be the most challenging skill to achieve. Further, speaking difficulty is articulated from the teachers’ standpoint with little regard for learners’ perspectives. This study reports on perceived speaking difficulties among second language learners in a multicultural context. Analysis reveals speaking difficulties as social anxiety, linguistic difficulties, inhibition and language anxiety. Among these difficulties, language anxiety emerges as most prevalent. On social anxiety, the impact of a positive learning atmosphere and establishing rapport among second language learners cannot be understated. It is evident that a focus on reading unfavourably disturbs the balance of instruction among the four skills. Also, activities focus more on reading skills and less on oral communicative tasks. Inhibition emanates mostly from the fear that committing mistakes will result in criticism, bullying, and annoyance. Assessment comes usually in a form of graded recitation that heightened students’ anxiety. Further, the significance of speaking is stressed but activities are very limited to enhance this skill. Teachers always emphasised the importance of speaking skills but examinations mostly assess writing and reading skills. Pages 103 to 114




Inspecting the Language of Exclusion: Transitivity Analysis of the Orang Asli Community in Selected Malaysian Print Media

Marlina Jamal1*, Marcia Jane Ganasan2, 1Senior Lecturer, School of Languages, Literacies and Translation, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang, Malaysia. 2Independent Researcher. Email: 1*jmarlina@usm.my, 2g.marcjane@gmail.com

Purpose of the study: This study deals with the examination of micro structures (transitivity structures) in chosen news articles regarding the Orang Asli community published in The Star. The primary aim of this research is to scrutinise the portrayal of the community in the aforementioned newspaper. Methodology: Analysis was conducted on a total of 12 news articles which appeared in The Star. The study utilised Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistic and van Dijk’s Theory of Ideology and the community's portrayal is reviewed through transitivity analysis of the selected news articles. The linguistic analysis was complemented with van Dijk’s Theory of Ideology in order to discover the ‘self’ versus the ‘other’ polarisation in the news reports chosen for this study. Main Findings: Findings revealed that similarities and consistencies in terms of findings can be clearly observed whereby the community is labelled as being dependent and traditional, as well as being protestors and liable toward their own pitiful state of life. Applications of this study: The method proposed in this study is replicable in studying elements of discrimination in media texts and other discourses. Novelty/Originality of this study: The findings of this study are important in bringing to the surface the need to diminish discrimination towards the community, and the study advocates for media to practice fair portrayal of the Orang Asli community. Pages 115 to 132




Loan Repayment Status Prediction

Natthaphong Luangnaruedom1, Somchai  Prakancharoen2 , 1Lecturer of Information System for Digital Business Department, College of Innovative Business and Accountancy, Dhurakij Pundit University, 110/1-4 Prachachuen Road, Lak Si District, Bangkok 10210 Thailand, e-mail : Natthaphong.Lua@dpu.ac.th, 2Research consultant, College of Innovative Business and Accountancy, Dhurakij Pundit University, 110/1-4 Prachachuen Road, Lak Si District, Bangkok 10210 Thailand     e-mail : Somchai.Pra@dpu.ac.th

The aim of this research is to construct the debtor’s loan repayment status pattern. These patterns were used to classify the new arrival of a prior debtor. There were two kinds of loan repayment status patterns: certain, uncertain rule (can’t classify to particular decision variable value). Exclusion of inconsistent classifying of a decision attribute observation, the research classification rules are generated by the Rough set technique, and a decision tree. The best accuracy classification rule is used to predict loan repayment status of a new interest observation. A new arrival debtor could be classified by their possibility of their loan repayment status by using a similarity measurement with trained loan repayment status pattern. The attribute selection is performed in order to choose the significance attribute which is related to the decision variable.  The experimental classification rules, that are generated from only a relevant attribute on a class variable loan repayment status, gives more accuracy than the model that is generated with all the conditional variables. The inconsistent observations are composed of type I and type II error which reduce the accuracy in the classification prediction. Nevertheless, inconsistent observations were also generated in their pattern. These patterns are used to predict whether the newly arrived customer and current customer will be an uncertain LRS level or not. Pages 133 to 153 




Determinant of satisfaction of Medan city people for medical treatment abroad

Rahmat Alyakin Dakhia and Ivan Elisabeth Purbab a,bSari Mutiara Indonesia University

There has been a tendency in the community of Indonesia to conduct health checks and treatment abroad which is a separate challenge in health services. This study aims to analyze predisposing factors, supporting factors, and need factors related to the satisfaction of the people of Medan who utilize health services abroad. This research is a survey research with an explanatory research approach conducted at the Port Health Office of Kuala Namu International Airport.  The study population was all residents of Medan City who had been treated abroad for the period March - July 2019 with a sample size of 86 respondents. Data collection was done through direct interviews with respondents using interview guidelines. Data processing is done through editing, coding, entry and data cleaning. Analysis was performed using Chi Square Test. The results of this study indicate that there are two predisposing factors related to satisfaction, namely: previous medical history and family income; there are eight supporting factors related to satisfaction, namely: admission services, doctor services, nurse services, patient food services, medical support services and medicines, hospital physical facilities, inpatient room facilities, and cost services; and there are four need factors related to the satisfaction of the people of Medan who utilize health services abroad, namely: confidence in recovery, cost assurance, information clarity of disease and medical action, and medical technology. Based on these results, the researchers suggest that improvements in these factors are needed to reduce the tendency for Indonesian society to increase, especially Medan City, to provide health services abroad. Pages 154 to 174




The Function of the State in the National Innovation System in Some Developed Countries and Valuable References for Vietnam

Nguyen Trong Binh, Academy of Politics Region IV, Can Tho City, Vietnam, Email: trongbinh195@yahoo.com

In the current time of knowledge economy, globalisation and changing times, the capacity to innovate is decisive for the development of a country. The Government of Vietnam affirmed that innovation is the driving force of development and a key factor for rapid and sustainable development. As a country in transition, to promote innovation in Vietnam, it is necessary to solve many different problems, in which the State's positioning of the right function and good implementation of the role in building a national innovation system is of particular importance. In this context, it is necessary to study the function and role of the state in building the national innovation system in some countries around the world, thereby drawing some experiences for Vietnam. By clarifying the concept of the national innovation system, this study mentions and analyses the experiences of some developed countries in building the national innovation system, thereby drawing some suggestions for Vietnam. Pages 175 to 186




An Indonesian Case Study of Computer Operating Familiarity Levels on Computer Based Tests at Vocational High Schools

Riana T. Mangesa1; Iwan Suhardi2; Jumadi Mabe Parenreng3, 1,2,3Department of Electrical Engineering Education, 1,2,3State University of Makassar, Indonesia

The research was applied to two groups respondent students of class XII Vocational High School with the ability to do the same questions, but different test media. Computer Based Tests (CBT) respondents were assigned random assignments. The results showed the average difference in the results of the assessment between the Paper Based Test (PBT) and CBT was 19.85 with a standard deviation of 2.076. The results of statistical calculations showed a t count (9.562) > t table (1.972) with a probability < 0.05. The level of familiarity in respondents corresponds with operating a computer, but it turns out that the average score of the CBT test model is lower (49.87) compared to PBT (69.72). This shows that testing using CBT requires students to be more than able to operate computers. It requires the habit of using the CBT model so as not to be psychologically burdened by anxiety factors. Pages 187 to 200




Explanatory Factors for Asymmetric Cost Behaviour: Evidence from Jordan

Dr. Lina Fuad Hussiena*, Dr. Samer Mohammed Okourb, Dr. Hani Ali Al-Rawashdehc, Prof Dr. Osama Abdul Moniem Alid, Dr. Omar Mohammed Zraqate, Prof Dr. Qasim Mohammad Zureigatf, a,c,d,eAccounting Department, Jerash University, Jerash, Jordan, bAccounting Department, The World Islamic Sciences & Education University, Amman, Jordan, fSulaiman AlRajhi School of Business, Sulaiman AlRajhi University, Al Bukariyah, Al Qassim Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Email: a*l.foaad@jpu.edu.jo

This study aimed to explore the explanatory factors associated with agency problems in the phenomenon of asymmetric cost behaviour in Jordanian companies, where the effect of board compensation, free cash flow, company size and internal control quality on the level of cost stickiness in industrial and service companies in Jordan were explored during the period 2009-2019 in Jordanian companies. The asymmetric cost behaviour was measured using the Weiss (2010) model. The study found that there is no effect of board compensation on the level of costs stickiness. The results also showed that there is an effect of the free cash flow ratio available to Jordanian companies on cost stickiness; also results showed that the size of firms is an important explanatory factor in cost stickiness. Regarding the quality of the internal control, the study indicates that the decrease in the quality of the internal control system increases the degree of cost stickiness. Pages 201 to 219




The Extent of the Effect of Distance Learning on the Acquisition of Basic Learning Skills Among First-Grade Students from Jordanian Schools’ Teachers’ Perspective During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Abeer N. Deranieh, Department of Educational Studies, Arab Open University – Jordan Branch, Email: a_deranieh@aou.edu.jo

This study aimed to identify the extent of the effect of distance learning on the acquisition of basic learning skills among first-grade students from the perspective of Jordanian school teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The descriptive analytical approach was used to suit the purposes of the study, and the study sample was chosen randomly from (356) male and female teachers in public and private schools affiliated to Qasabat Amman District in Jordan, and the results of the study showed that the effect of distance learning on the acquisition of basic learning skills (reading, writing, and numeracy) among first-grade students from the perspective of Jordanian school teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic was of an average level, and that distance learning had a negative impact on students' acquisition of basic learning skills (reading, writing, and numeracy), and the results showed statistically significant differences at a significance level of (0.05) in the effect of distance learning on the acquisition of basic skills among first-grade students from the perspective of Jordanian school teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. These differences are attributed to the school type variable, and in favor of private schools, and the study recommended the necessity of holding training courses for teachers on distance learning to be able to interact with educational content and deliver it to students during crises which that call for the practice of distance learning. Pages 220 to 244



Examining the Relationship Between PsyCap and Readiness for Change: Implementation of E-learning Among Lecturers During Covid-19

Endo Wijaya Kartikaa, Zeplin Jiwa Husada Tariganb, Adrie Oktavioc aAssistant Professor, Faculty of Business and Economics, Petra Christian University, Indonesia, bAssociate Professor, Faculty of Business and Economics, Petra Christian University, Indonesia, cAssistant Professor, Faculty of Tourism, Universitas Ciputra Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: aendo@petra.ac.id

The impact of the Covid-19 disease pandemic caused the official government ministry of education in Indonesia to take a strategic step, conducting teaching by e-learning. In the university context, for lecturers who are technologically illiterate, the use of e-learning could be a burden and difficult to learn quickly. It required a readiness for change to adapt and learn e-learning. An antecedent that is considered to shape readiness for change from an individual perspective is Psychological Capital (PsyCap). Therefore, this study, in addition to understanding the readiness for change based on PsyCap by Indonesian lecturers, also provides empirical evidence of the PsyCap dimensions of readiness for change. The data process was conducted using SmartPLS 2.0. The results indicate that self-efficacy, optimism and resilience have significant effects on readiness for change, while hope has no significant effect on readiness for change. Pages 245 to 261


A Comprehensive Bibliometric Survey on Women’s Empowerment at an Organisational Level

Zahra Afridia, Anees Janee Alib, a,bSchool of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: azahraafridi@student.usm.my, baneesali@usm.my

This article highlights a bibliometric survey for Saudi Women’s Empowerment at an organisational level. Empowering women may benefit development at a managerial level in various organisations. Various material from journals, books, and reports, were reviewed and eleven indicators of women's empowerment in the Saudi Arabian setting were identified. A detailed bibliometric analysis has been conducted for all the keywords related to the topic and subtopic of women’s empowerment and organisational behaviour. The databases for which the analysis has been performed are Web of Science, Scopus, Summon, and Google scholar. The details of the analysis provide additional information regarding the categorisation of articles related to affiliation on women’s empowerment. The resultant indicators obtained in the processing of bibliometric analysis are training, intergender communication, organisational culture, government support and organisational policies in the context of women’s empowerment. Pages 262 to 275


Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM): Validity and Reliability

Haifa Al-Bokaia, Ali A. Al-Subaihib, aAssociate professor in Educational and psychological Measurement and Evaluation, Princess Rahmah University College, Al-Balqaa' Applied University, Jordan, bFull Professor in Psychological Measurment, College of Education, Taibah University, Madinah Monawwarh, Saudi Arabia, Email: ahayfaelbokai@gmail.com, balialsubaihi@yahoo.com

The aim of this research was to study the validity and reliability of Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) in Jordan. To achieve this goal, the researchers applied the test on a stratified random sample, which consisted of 414 subjects chosen from a selection of secondary schools in Amman, whose ages ranged from fifteen to seventeen years old. The research reached a number of results, the most important for the validity section were: (1) good difficulty and discrimination indexes for the items; (2) significant correlation with the achievement test; (3) a significant difference between the average scores of the normal students and the gifted students when used Contrasted Groups method (4) a significant correlation with the SCAT; (5) a significant difference between the highest 15 percent of scores and the lowest 15 percent of scores when selected from the extremes of the distribution; (6) Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), which insured the theoretical building for the items according to Spearman’s theory of intelligence. Alongside, the results for the reliability section were: (1) internal consistency – with an alpha coefficient of 0.92; (2) split halves – 0.81; (3) test-retest – 0.69 – which showed significant correlation; (4) correlation between each item individually with the total score of the tests, which showed significant correlation for 59 items. The study recommend developing norms for the test, then to use it as a primary step to select the talent. Pages 276 to 293

Contemporary Printmaking Art between Marginalisation and Regeneration

Dr. Wael A. Sabour A. Kader Mohamed, Faculty of Architecture & Design, Middle East University, PO box 383, Amman 11831, Jordan, Faculty of Fine Arts, El Minia University, El Minia 61519, Egypt. Email: Wabdelkader@meu.edu.jo , wael161270@hotmail.com

Historically printmaking emerged first as a craft associated with book-making, and then developed as a social anti-aristocratic genre of visual arts. Consequently, printmaking has not acquired the attention and support of the art establishment that other media of visual arts such as painting and sculpture was privileged with. One major critical issue with printmaking is the conventional classification system of visual arts media was based on the notions of ‘rarity’ and ‘authenticity’, which may have contributed to the downgrade of the value of printmaking due to its repeatable nature. The consequences of that limiting classification of printmaking are still evident in contemporary art despite the widespread recognition of printmaking as a creative medium of visual arts. The survival of contemporary printmaking art as an art medium depends greatly on the flexibility of embracing the ideological liberation that has changed the contemporary art practice in general, by opening up the printmaking medium to all the creative potentials of interaction, integration, and incorporation with other media of visual arts regardless of the limiting traditional classifications. Pages 294 to 305

Effectiveness of First Aid Training Program Package on Teacher Performance at Secondary Industrial Technical Schools

Shereen Ahmed Ahmed Qalawa1,MahaMoussa Mohamed Moussa2,Naglaa Ibrahim Mohamed Gida3, 1Professor of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University, Egypt,1Associate professor of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Nursing College, Qassim University , KSA,2,3Assistant professor of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University, Egypt

Background:In the supervision and prevention of health hazards, teachers of secondary industrial techniques have an important role. Therefore, due to their curiosity, lack of experience, those teachers are exposed to injuries and accidents. Aim of the study: to evaluate the effectiveness of the first aid training program package for teachers of secondary industrial technical schools on their performance. Design: A Quasi- experimental study design was used in this study. Setting:the current study was done in Farsckour industrial technical secondary school in Damietta City on all  available teachers is using three tools:First tool: A questionnaire with two main components: the first partinvolved socio-demographic data and the second partinvolved knowledge ofindustrial technical school teachers about first aid. Second tool:Psychological and coping questionnaire.Third Tool: common emergency problems in the Observational Checklist. It included two parts: assessment of the safety of the school environment and assessment of schoolteachers' practice regarding first aid.Results: There was a statistically significant improvement (P<0.0001) in the mean score of the total study sample’s knowledge regarding first aid.Post and follow up implementation of the program were 80.0±9.9and 71.9±11. There was a statistically significant improvement (P<0.0001) in the mean score of the study sample's overall practice with respect to first aid.Post and follow up implementation of the program were75.2±9.7 and 74.3±11.4 compared to pre implementation of the program which was60.1±6.2. Conclusion: implementation of training program package for industrial technical schoolteachers improved their performance regarding first aid. Recommendations: Continuous implementation of educational training programs for secondary teachers regarding first aid for the early prevention and management of injuries and accidents among students. Pages 306 to 327

The Mediating Role of Career Development: A Study of the Effect of Job Characteristics and Job Placement on Employee Performance

Widowati Dyaha, Nimran Umarb, Al Musadieqc, Utami Hamidah Nayatid*, a,b,c,dFaculty of Administrative Science, University of Brawijaya, Indonesia, Email: adiahayudw@gmail.com, d*hamidahn@ub.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of the effect of job characteristics on job placement, career development, and employee performance at the Steam Power Plant (PLTU) outside of Java Island PT PJBS. The research sample is organic employees who received training at least once, with a total of 300 employees. The research sampling method is based on area proportional random sampling, The analysis method of SEM-PLS is used to analyse the relationship between job characteristics and job placement, career development and employee performance. The results showed that job characteristics had a significant positive effect on job placement, job characteristics had a significant positive effect on career development, job characteristics had a significant positive effect on employee performance, job placement had no significant effect on employee performance, and career development had no significant effect on employee performance. Job placement and career development cannot mediate the relationship between job characteristics and employee performance. It is hoped that further studies can further explore the role of job characteristics on employee performance at the PLTU unit outside Java island, PT PJBS Indonesia. It is important to carry out further studies where data are taken from various work units and research areas of PT PJBS or other organisations. Job characteristics play an important role in the PLTU unit outside the Java island of PT PJBS. The results of this study can be used to redesign jobs and training for employees of PT PJBS to ensure a high level of performance. Pages 328 to 343

Asynchronous Learning Initiatives: Case Study during COVID-19

[1]Muhammad Azeem, [2] Sehar Asghar, [3] Rab Nawaz Lodhi [4]Amjad Hussain, [5] Ayyaz Ahmad, [6]Farkhanda Naz [1] Department of Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore Pakistan, [2] Institute of Business & Management, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore Pakistan, [3] Associate Professor, UCP Business School, University of Central Punjab, Lahore Pakistan, [4] Department of Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore Pakistan, [5] Assistant Professor, Institute of Quality & Technology Management, University of the Punjab, Lahore Pakistan, [6] Institute of Business & Management, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore Pakistan, Email: 1ehmetazim@gmail.com, 2sehar.asghar528@gmail.com, 3rabnawaz.lodhi@ucp.edu.pk, 4chamjad@gmail.com, 5ayz90@hotmail.com, 6farkhandanaz234@gmail.com

Disruption to education and the havoc of a health crisis have been common trends found in every region of the globe as a consequence of the COVID-19 epidemic. This pandemic has interrupted educational activities worldwide. Countries have taken significant measures to continue education via asynchronous learning. Cases were selected to explore “how have countries taken initiatives in switching from synchronous learning to asynchronous learning during the critical time of the COVID-19 pandemic?” Secondary data was collected from existing literature and published reports. Yin explanatory, embedded case study design was employed and thematic analysis was carried out using NVIVO 12. It is observed that 95 percent of countries of the world have taken steps toward asynchronous learning in the emergency period for each level of education, and some common emerging tools for asynchronous learning are also identified in the study. This study was first conducted to investigate the trend of countries in a state of emergency providing a continuation of educational activities utilising their available resources. The study is believed to be helpful for countries of different regions wanting to modify the existing asynchronous learning infrastructure. Post emergency measures may be considered for further studies. Pages 344 to 367

Trauma-Informed Neurofeedback and Expressive Arts Therapy: Wilson Disease Case Report

Kian Yong Koo, M.S.1, Azizah Binti Abdullah, Ph.D.2, and Jun Ming Loh, B.S.3, 1School of Education, UUM College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 2School of Education, UUM College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 3New Mind Brain Health Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Email: hirokoo09@gmail.com, zyzah@uum.edu.my, newmindcentre@gmail.com

A case report on enhancing self-regulation skills through QEEG-guided neurofeedback was conducted for a subject who has been diagnosed with Wilson Disease (WD). The trauma-informed neurofeedback training protocols were developed to improve the client’s self-regulation skills in order to address his psychological symptoms and cognitive impairment. The protocols were developed based on the findings of the prior empirical research as well as the QEEG brain mapping assessment of the client. In this case report, the utilisation of expressive art therapy application was highlighted in facilitating the therapeutic process for the clients having difficulty in verbal communication. The QEEG brain mapping assessment result pre-and-post intervention were compared to determine the progress of the client’s brainwave activity pattern. Meanwhile, the self-report diary of the client’s parent was used to follow up his conditions. The outcome indicated that the developed protocols of trauma-informed neurofeedback training and expressive art application were helpful in improving the self-regulation skills of the client. Pages 368 to 387

Exploring International Postgraduate Students’ Experiences at a South African University

1Sunday Olawale Olaniran, 2*Chinaza Uleanya, 1,2Department Educational Leadership and Management, Faculty of Education, University of Johannesburg, Email: 2*chinazauleanya@yahoo.com

South Africa is one of the few countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa that are making concerted efforts to attract international students to institutions of higher learning. However, an array of studies has revealed both pleasant and unpleasant experiences faced by international students while studying in South African institutions. This study explored the experiences of international postgraduate students studying at a University in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Qualitative research method was employed in the study. Data was collected from nineteen (19) international students currently registered for postgraduate studies in the university. The social learning theory was used to underpin the study in relation to the experiences of the international students while studying in South Africa. A questionnaire with open-ended questions was used to collect data from the participants. Data collected was analysed through thematic data analysis method which brought about construction of various themes which include acclimatisation, socialisation, academic terrain, and financial affordability, among others. Findings of the study revealed affordability of tuition, a conducive environment, adaptability, quality of education provided, amongst others, are experiences which incite international students migrate to study in the selected South African based university. However, securing funding is a major challenge to many of the participants. Based on the findings, therefore, the research study recommends the introduction of a special endowment fund by South African universities to attract the attention of prominent wealthy personalities within the continent. Such an endowment fund could be used to sponsor indigent students from Africa to study and conduct research in any of the South African universities. Pages 388 to 406

Multicultural Education Design Based On “Doing Good” According to the Old Testament

GP Harianto1, Sukarna2, Maria Titik Windarti3, David Ming4, 1Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Excelsius Surabaya, Indonesia, 2,3Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Kadesi Bogor, Indonesia, 4Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Abdi Gusti Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: 1hariantogp@stt.excelsius.ac.id, 2timotiussukarna@gmail.com, 3karnamaria@gmail.com, 4davidmingming3@gmail.com

Doing good is universal in which all people with various religious, ethnic and other backgrounds must be happy to do good. The problems that arise in the question are as follows: What are the values ​​of doing good according to the Bible? What is the challenge of "doing good" according to the dimensions of Multicultural Theology? How is the implementation of Multicultural Theology education about doing good into a Christian ministry? The answer is: (1) Good deeds are commands given by God to His people. If a human being wants to be said to be good, he is obliged to do good. Because good deeds have a universal character. (2) The challenge of “doing good” in the dimension of multicultural theology is: the challenge of “doing good” in theocentric, the challenge of “doing good” in Christocentric (the principle of the Incarnation, the principle of salvation, the principle of the Holy Spirit, and the principle of the Naturality of the Church) and (2) the challenge "Doing Good" from Theocentric to Christocentric. (3) Multicultural theology regarding "doing good" becomes a very influential implementation to lead someone to enter the concept of theocracy which is then sharpened to Christocentric. Here the value of the Great Commission of Jesus Christ to win people becomes real and can be implemented properly. But, of course, the work of the Holy Spirit in the believer is critical to the success of the Great Commission mission. Pages 407 to 419

Effect of Microfinance & SME Facilities on the development of Agriculture and entrepreneur Women: Evidence from Punjab, Pakistan

Dr. Taseer Salahuddina, Rana Muhammad Awais Qamarb, Dr. Rana Tahir Naveedc*, Dr. Muhammad Qasim Maqboold, Muhammad Warise, aAssistant Professor, Government Sadiq College Women University Bahawalpur, bDepartment of Engineering Management, NUST College of Electical & Mechanical Engineering Rawalpindi, cDepartment of Economics and Business Administration, Art & Social Sciences Division, University of Education, Lahore, dAssistant professor at University of Okara, ePhD scholar at University Uttara, Malaysia, Email: asalahuddin.taseer@gmail.com, c*Tahir.naveed@ue.edu.pk,  dqasimmaqbool007@gmail.com, eMuhammadwaris.vf@ue.edu.pk

Working Women have highly contributed to the economic growth of developing economies. The disappointment of the vast majority of women was entrepreneurial and agriculturist, particularly, in the country and semi-urban territories are to a great extent because of the failure to completely misuse the Microfinance Institution administrations offered to them. The reason for this paper is analysing the power of microfinance benefits for women development, possessed little and moderate undertakings and farming part in Pakistan. To accomplish this target, the investigation concentrated on three MFI offices including Micro credit, Business the board preparing and Group reserve funds. Every factor was investigated to decide its impact on the development of SMEs which was estimated as far as rate development in deals. We utilized the elucidating research approach and gathered the information from 240 women possessed SMEs in Southern Punjab by utilizing irregular inspecting strategy. The examination proof that women need collaterals to meet the criteria for small scale credit offices, while advance application process was long and financing costs on miniaturized scale advances was high. The examination additionally settled that business preparing administrations were offered to an extremely little degree, participation was not normal and there was no follow up on execution warning administrations offered during such preparing. The examination likewise settled the women SME and little agrarian landowners exceptionally take part in bunch investment funds, that degree of gathering reserve funds impacts the measure of smaller scale credit given. The investigation additionally uncovered that there was a solid positive connection be tween’s gathering reserve funds and development of women claimed SMEs, while there was a feeble relationship between small scale credit and development of women possessed SMEs and furthermore a frail connection amongst preparation and development of women claimed SMEs in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Pages 420 to 445

Bureaucracy Transformation to Address Globalisation Challenges

Hidayat, Universitas Nurtanio Bandung, Jl. Pajajaran No. 219 Lanud Husein S. Bandung 40174, West Java, Indonesia, Email: hidayat_dr@ymail.com & hidayat.dr@unnur.ac.id

Transformation is a pre-requisite for all layers of society to survive any global and internal challenges. Despite being the most critical, bureaucratic transformation should not be conducted only at the structural level as the transformation should apply holistically. It should start with the readjustment of a mindset that improves the clarity of organisational vision and mission, followed by the strengthening and renewal of organisational work. Bureaucratic transformation must simultaneously apply four steps: reframing, restructuring, revitalisation, and renewal, to cope with globalisation. In this era, investment and trade liberalisation positively trigger countries to produce the best goods and services to attract global markets. To have competitive products and gain market trust, enterprises need to meet the performance requirements in terms of time, cost, responsiveness, product line, and quality. Driving institutions to meet the requirements and increasing their competitive performances are the positive effect of investment liberalisation and free trade. Pages 446 to 456

Comparative Study About the Effectiveness of Promoted and Selected Educational Leadership

Khuda Bakhsh1, Uzma Shahzadi2, Javed Iqbal3, Muhammad Arshad4*, Muhammad Arif5, 1Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. 2Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Sargodha, Pakistan. 3Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan. 4SST Science, School Education Department, Government Fazilka Islamia Model High School Pakpattan, Punjab-Pakistan, 5PhD Scholar, Department of Education, The University of Lahore, Lahore-Punjab, Pakistan. Email: 4*marshadzakki@gmail.com. 4*ORCID iD https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2030-6851.

A comparative study was designed to measure the effectiveness of promoted and selected educational leadership working in the public secondary schools. This research framework was descriptive in nature and survey design was followed. Study was limited to the province of Punjab. All the SSTs working under the control of promoted and selected leadership were the population of the study. The sample comprised of 648 SSTs selected via multistage random sampling technique. Researchers framed a survey questionnaire for data collection based on the four point likert scale having 30 items. The validity and reliability were assured through expert opinions and pilot testing. The reliability of the questionnaire was 0.95. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used for data analysis. The findings of the study showed that a significant difference was found between both types of educational leadership. Direct selected leaders were highly effective as compared to promoted leaders regarding exertion for making a good school team, passion for the academic achievement of students and use of NSB & FTF. That the education department should arrange continuous professional development and in-service training regarding utilization of school funds was recommended. Pages 457 to 471

Exploring the Perceptual Modalities and Achievement in the Higher Education Settings

Dr. Nahla M. Moussa, Assistant professor – Department Chair, College of Education, American University in the Emirates, Dubai Int. Academic City, PO Box: 503000, Dubai, UAE, Email: nahla.moussa@aue.ae

The learning process is an essential component of learning experiences. Enhancing the learning process is a vital aim for many researchers and educators. Exploring students’ various perceptual learning modalities helps instructors to integrate different learning styles into teaching and learning environments. This research study aims to explore the learning styles of higher education students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and their academic achievement, and present recommendations for best practices to enhance pedagogy, assessment, and achieve learning outcomes. For this paper, learning styles are explored through using the Perceptual Learning Style Inventory (Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 1995). Academic achievement is measured by students' Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA). Data analysis revealed that visual and interactive perceptual modalities were found to be the dominant learning styles among higher education students in the UAE. Haptic and olfactory were found to be the less preferred learning styles among students. Higher education students in the UAE are identified with high academic achievements. Pages 472 to 486

Hedonic or Utilitarian Value Prevails? A Satisfied Clientél Creates Positive Word of Mouth

Asif Mahmood1, Hafiz Haroon ur Rashid2, Edina Molnár3, Shah Ali Murtaza4, 1Department of Business Studies, Namal Institute, Mianwali 42250, Pakistan, 2Institute of Business & Management, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, 3,4Institute of Management and Organizational Sciences, University of Debrecen, Hungary, Email: 1mahmood.engineer@gmail.com; 3molnar.edina.phd@econ.unideb.hu; 4shah.ali.murtaza@econ.unideb.hu

The domain of hedonic and utilitarian values remains relatively unexplored in Eastern countries. Utilitarian evaluation of the consumption experience is intellectual, while hedonic evaluation is full of feelings. Prior studies call for the investigation of hedonic and utilitarian values in the retail outlets in Eastern countries, which present an ideal environment for exploration. A conceptual model marks the relationships between hedonic value, utilitarian value, customer satisfaction and word of mouth. This model is empirically tested using survey data collected from retail store shoppers, and analysed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The results reveal a significant and positive relationship between hedonic value and utilitarian value on word of mouth with the mediating effect of customer satisfaction. This study bridges the research gap by examining the link between hedonic value and utilitarian value and its impact in the retail context. It also provides valuable consideration for managers to know how these values affect word of mouth with the mediating effect of customer satisfaction. Pages 487 to 506

Cost Efficiency During Construction

Toni Yuri Prastowoa, Mawardi Aminb, Budi Susetyoc, aMaster Civil Engineering, Universitas Mercu Buana, Jakarta, Indonesia, bMaster Civil Engineering, Universitas Mercu Buana, Jakarta, Indonesia, cMaster Civil Engineering, Universitas Mercu Buana, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: atoniyuri19@gmail.com, bmawardi@mercubuana.ac.id, cbudi.susetyo@mercubuana.ac.id

This study aims to provide advice for project management in improving cost performance. This study adopts value engineering methods and lean construction in the case study of high-rise buildings at the time of construction. Trigunarsyah (2004) identified that only 30% of the projects studied completed their work within budget, 34% completed less than the budget, and 36% completed projects outside the stipulated budget, so that there  is an effort to help reduce project cost overruns due to various factors, such as many design changes, poor project management, natural and environmental factors, estimation error factors, labor factors and other factors. Then it was found that 5 main factors  helped these problems, namely: (1) Selection of appropriate work methods (2) Increased productivity of workers (3) Alternative Material (4) Reduction / suppression of material waste (5) Use of BIM technology and application of value engineering concepts through fast diagrams and lean construction through the utilisation of construction waste. Pages 507 to 525

Cyber Security Threats Mitigation through Governance Framework and Cyber Security Market Solutions in Vietnam

Dr. Luong Cao Dong, Dai Nam University, Ha Noi, Viet Nam

Over the years, Vietnam has witnessed an increase in the number of internet users along with an increase in social media users who are always at risk of cyber threats in Vietnam. According to government statistics, internet users in Vietnam were witnessed to be around 64 million with active social media users to be around 62 million. In addition to this, mobile social media users reached approximately 58 million and the mobile subscription of Vietnam was witnessed to be around 143.3 million in the first quarter of 2019. Online payment transactions have increased which has increased the threat probability pertaining to user’s data and systems. This has augmented the growth of the cyber security market in Vietnam.  The specific objectives of this study are to examine the relationship of governance framework and oversight, market solutions - physical security, market solutions - logical security, market solutions - Internet of Things (IoT) and cyber security threats in Vietnam’s businesses.  The respondents are the businesses that have some sort of internet-enable computer system in Ho Chi Minh. The reason why this study only wanted to survey these people is because they are running the business themselves and they understand the cybersecurity threat factors that can contribute to the business success.  Research outcomes shows that governance framework & oversight and market solutions - logical security have a significant positive relationship with cyber security threats mitigation among businesses in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam.  But, research findings showed that market solutions - physical security and market solutions – Internet of Thing (IoT) have no significant relationship with cyber security threats mitigation among businesses in Ho Chi Minh. Besides, from the R2 value of this study, the four exogenous constructs; namely (i) governance framework & oversight, (ii) market solutions - physical security, (iii) market solutions - logical security and (iv) market solutions - Internet of Things (IoTs) explained 38% of variations in the endogenous construct of cyber security threats mitigation in Vietnam’s businesses.  In addition, from the outcome of the blindfolding procedure, the endogenous variable of this study has a Q2 value of 0.270, which is described as medium because the value is far above 0.02. Pages 526 to 539

The Impact of Corporate Governance and Disclosure on Non-Jordanian Ownership in Jordanian Manufacturing and Service Companies: An Empirical Study

Noor Majid Saifana, Mishiel Said Suwaidanb, Ahmad Hani Al-Dmourc and Abeer Fayes Al-Khouryd, a,c,dBusiness School, Al Ahliyya Amman University, Jordan, bFaculty of Economic and Administrative Science, Yarmouk University, Jordan. Emails: an.esaifan@ammanu.edu.jo; bmsuwaidan@yu.edu.jo ca.dmour@ammanu.edu.jo; da.alkhoury@ammamu.edu.jo  

This paper provides empirical evidence of the impact of corporate governance and the extent of disclosure on non-Jordanian ownership in Jordanian manufacturing and service companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE). The study was conducted on 68 companies for the year 2019. Data was collected from the annual reports of the companies and from the website of the ASE. Corporate governance was measured by board size, the proportion of non-executive directors, existence of the audit committee and institutional ownership. The extent of disclosure was measured by a disclosure index. While non-Jordanian ownership was measured by the percentage of shares owned by non-Jordanian investors (Arab and Foreign investors). In addition, company size, profitability, liquidity, and financial leverage were used as control variables. To examine the study hypotheses, multiple regression analysis was used. The results revealed that non-Jordanian ownership is positively related to institutional ownership ratio, proportion of nonexecutive directors as a proxy for board independence, company size and extent of disclosure. In addition, the results indicated the existence of a negative relationship between non-Jordanian ownership and debt ratio, though, at the 10% level of significance. Conclusions drawn from the current study may be of interest to policy makers and regulators in developing countries who want to improve the flow of foreign capital in their markets. Pages 540 to 558

Trend Shifting in Risk-Taking Behaviour of the Banking Sector: Islamic Bank's Perspective

Safdar Husain Tahira*, Filza Nosheenb, Sumaira Aslamc, Faiza Rehmand, Zeeshan Qamare, a,b,eLyallpur Business School, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan, cDepartment Management Studies, The University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan, dDepartment of Public Administration, Government College Women University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan, Email: a*safdartahir@gmail.com, bfilzanosheen@yahoo.com, csamas7480@yahoo.com, dfaizamsbf30@gmail.com, ezeeshanqamar226@gmail.com

The previous decade has evidenced a paradigm shift in the banking industry from conventional banks to Islamic banking's system, particularly in Muslim countries worldwide. Consequently, the banking industry uses a different product mix, impacting corporate governance and banks' earnings volatility. This article contributes by investigating the nexus of product mix, internal corporate governance, and earnings volatility. Data was retrieved from the annual reports of fourteen banks of each conventional bank and Islamic banks of Pakistan ranging from 2010 to 2019. Earnings volatility is taken as the dependent variable. Loan based revenue, fee-based revenue, board size, board independence and CEO power are the independent variables. At the same time, bank age and rate of return are taken as control variables. Different techniques, such as multiple regression models, variance inflation factors, Ramsey RESET test and Coke Weisberg / Breusch Pagan test, are applied to analyse the data. The results indicate an increasing trend of risk-taking behaviour in the banking sector due to the system's induction of Islamic banks. Moreover, the impact of fee-based revenue is lesser on earnings volatility in conventional banks than Islamic banks. Pages 559 to 576

The Role of Social Support and Perceptual Barriers on the Work-life Balance of Female Employees in Pakistan – A Phenomenological Study

1Ibrahim Noorani, 2Dr. Khurram Shakir, 3Dr. Nazia Abdul Rehman, 4Bushra Umerdin, 1Department of Public Administration, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University Lyari, Karachi, 2,3,4Benazir School of Business, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University Lyari Karachi, Email: 1ibrahimnoorani@gmail.com, 2khurramshakir@yahoo.com, 3nzshakir@gmail.com, 4bushraumerdin@gmail.com

The study attempted to examine the lived experiences of female employees on the lines of support system, and perceptual barriers they face during their career progression and how that influences the management of their dual roles at both the workplace and at home. A phenomenological approach is adopted to carry out this research, through designed conversational interviews drawn from a sample of 12 working women from different organisations in Karachi, Pakistan. The study investigates various support systems upon which women depend to fulfill their multiple roles and have found husbands, parents, mothers-in-law, and bosses, along with sound management policies to be of significant importance. The study also identified greater acceptance of working women and found that there streams a positive attitude about their work from their social constructs. The findings of the study may help to improve management policies at workplaces, allowing them to alter their strategies while dealing with female workforce. Pages 577 to 597

The Ostracism Effect on Counterproductive Work-Behaviours through the Mediating Role of Defensive-Silence, Emotional-Exhaustion, and Job-Dissatisfaction

Naveed Saifa, Muhammad Tahir Khanb, Imrab Shaheenc, Aziz Javidd, Irfan Ullah Khane, aAssistant Professor, Department of Business, Management and Economics, University of Lakki Marwat, bAssistant Professor, Department of Economics and Business Administration, Division of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Education. Lahore. Pakistan, cAssistant Professor, Department of Public Administration, University of Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, dAssistant Professor, Institute of Business and Management, Gomal University D.I.Khan, eAssistant Professor, Department of Education and Research, University of Lakki Marwat, Email: adr.naveed.saif@hotmail.com, bdr.tahirkhanm@gmail.com,cimrabs@yahoo.com,dazizjavid_mba@yahoo.com, eirfanapulm@gmail.com

The purpose of the current study is to determine the relationship between workplace ostracism and counterproductive work behaviour (CPWB) among banking sector employees in Pakistan. However defensive silence, employee’s emotional exhaustion, and the role of job dissatisfaction are also assessed through a sequential meditational approach. For this purpose, data were collected through an adopted construct from 500 employees working in various commercial banks in the district of Bannu, Pakistan. Principle component analysis via SPSS and a serial mediation approach were applied to validate the model through Preacher and Hayes macros. Results indicate that only two paths (emotional exhaustion and job dissatisfaction) depict a significant relationship during single mediation, while double mediation results show significant path association. Finally, the relationship between ostracism and CPWB through triple variables in serial mediation also depicts significant results. The direct relationship between ostracism and CPWB can be better explained by the meditational role of defensive silence, emotional exhaustion, and job dissatisfaction. Pages 598 to 618

The Challenges of Integrating Women in Leadership Positions in the Technology Industry

Dionisia Richilene Vaz Cidrea, Lisa Weidmanb, aBachelor of Commerce Honours in Management, 13022328, bSupervisor

The technology industry seems lacking as in the sector women are more underrepresented in leadership positions; not only that but they are also underpaid, often passed for promotions and faced with everyday sexual harassment (McDonald and Charlesworth, 2015; Vivek, 2016; Waldring, Crul and Ghorashi, 2015). This paper aims to explore the challenges of integrating women in leadership positions in the technology industry. Therefore, to reach the aim of this study, a qualitative research method was used, and an in-depth interview approach was employed to explore the challenges of integrating women in leadership positions in the technology industry. The findings revealed that the main challenges faced by women in the advancement of their careers in the technology industry involve gender discrimination, the working environment and sexual harassment. Pages 619 to 653

The Degree of the Change Management Practice from the Leaders of Public Education Schools Point View in the Governorate Jeddah - Field Study

Dr Othman Shaddad al-Maliki, Professor of Educational Administration and Assistant Planning

Objectives: Revealing the degree of change management practice from the point of view of the leaders of public education schools in Jeddah, and identifying the strengths and opportunities for improvement. The impact of each of the variables (scientific qualification, experience in education, number of training courses in the field of leadership) in the reality of the practice of change management from the point of view of the leaders of public schools in Jeddah. The study methods: In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher used the descriptive approach. The current study population consists of the leaders of the public schools of public education in the governorate of Jeddah, who numbered (510) leaders.After studying the educational literature and previous studies on the topics of change management, the researcher built and developed a questionnaire to identify the degree of leadership of the school leaders to manage change from the point of view of the leaders of public schools in Jeddah. The main results: The practice of the leaders of public education schools in Jeddah to manage change came at (very high) from their point of view. There were statistically significant differences at the level of (0.01) among the average responses of the leaders of general education schools in Jeddah in favor of the responses of school leaders who have a scientific qualification(BA). Study Recommendations: - Support senior management of change to achieve internal and external beneficiary satisfaction. - Raising the level of change management for school leaders. - To spread the culture of change management and improve its level in general education schools. - Provide an effective incentive system to contribute to the achievement of the goals of the school and linking it to the performance of employees. Pages 654 to 679

Tourism’s Personnel Competency in the Eastern Economic Corridor

Ravipa Thummachote, Email: ravipa_t123@hotmail.com 

The objectives of this research are to study the competency prototype of tourism personnel in the Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC), to study factors and conditions that affect the development of core competency of tourism personnel in the EEC, and to investigate the guideline promotion of the competency prototype of tourism personnel in the EEC. A mixed methods research methodology was used in the study to compose  the quantitative research with qualitative research. The questionnaire was used as tool for data collection from 470 tourism personnel for quantitative research. In  the  qualitative research an in-depth interview was conducted with 5 groups of people that represent provincial tourism offices. The quantitative research results revealed that the research core of tourism’s personnel competency in the EEC was at a moderate level. The prototype of tourism competency is composed of 3 core components are; knowledge competency, skill competency and attitude competency. The knowledge competency covers 3 aspects of 1) Basic knowledge in foreign language such as English and, Asian groups in the aspect of knowledge on basic Asian language, history of each country, local products. 3) Special knowledge of technology and tourism management and 4) analytical thinking and skill development  including communication skills with tourists, place introduction skill, technological skill, traditional conservation or local  value skill including the skill of facticity of administration and management. The attitude aspect covered awareness cultivation in aspects of human relationship and leadership. Most of the aspects were at a moderate level. Moreover, factors and conditions that affected development of the core tourism personnel competency in EEC were organization factors and personal factors, factor and condition of the organization. The guideline of core competency promotion of tourism personnel in the EEC also covered the upstream period, the governmental sector should build the alliance group and at the downstream period, the government sector should establish a work unit to monitor and evaluate the training results and competency development of tourism personnel  by considering their achievements. Pages 480 to 492

Integrity and Commitment of Local Government: Perspective of the Value of Kalo Sara Local Wisdom

Tuti Dharmawati1, Hasbudin2, Andi Basru Wawo3, Muntu Abdullah4, 1,2,3,4Department of Accounting, Economic and Business Faculty, Halu Oleo University, Email: 1tuti_balaka@yahoo.co.id

This article describes the integration between the salient values ​​of Kalo Sara's local wisdom and internalisation in maintaining commitment and integrity. This paper provides an insight into the urgency of commitment and integrity found from the principles of local wisdom values. There are two principles of opinion on which to base it. First, the Tolaki people have a variety of local cultures that automatically bring out noble values ​​in their lives. Second, the local government policy makers in a government.  Unfortunately, based on statistical data, currently the commitment and integrity in governance still lacks understanding of the value of honesty, so that the implementation of local wisdom values ​​is still lacking in the management of local government. And the steps must be started from reform and reorientation of education that is based on values. Pages 493 to 504

The Impact of Music’s Volume on Consumer Reactions

Dr. Rafika ben Guirat, Higher Colleges Of Technology, UAE

This article describes the impact of a variation of the loudness on the responses of the customers in a supermarket. Following experiments on the field, the results revealed the existence of some variations of some cognitive and emotional answers of the customers due to the variation of musical volume (low vs. high). Also, comparisons of the responses between the Individuals Subjected to a position of lack of music and others Subjected to a musical condition (low volume and high volume) Revealed-have notable differences in Some Behaviors. Pages 505 to 527

The Implementation of Qur’anic Management to Develop the Islamic Campus at UIN Malang Indonesia

Mulyonoa, Tutut Sholihahb, Diah Rusmingsihc, Efy Setiawati Atanjuanid, Imam Riadie, a,d Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, Indonesia,bIAIN Palangkaraya, Palangkaraya, Indonesia, cSTIEKN Jaya Negara Tamansiswa Malang, Indonesia, eIslamic Studies Department, Faculty of Education at King Saud University (KSU) Riyadh - Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Email: amulyonouin@gmail.com; btutut.iainpalangkaraya@gmail.com; cdiahrusminingsih@stiekn.ac.id, defysetiawati@gmail.com; eimamr85@gmail.com

This study aims to analyze the implementation of Qur’anic management to develop the Islamic Campus at UIN Malang Indonesia. Researchers used the qualitative research methods and the data analysis techniques with interactive analysis models, the results can be concluded as follows: 1) Making the values ​​of the Qur’an as the guides in developing the campus in activities of dhikr, think and do good deeds; 2) Inspire “IQRO = READ” from QS. al-Alaq: 1-5 to analyze the campus internal and external environment; 3) Being an inspiration from “QUM = RISE” from QS. al-Muddatstsir: 1-7 to develop the campus; 4) Formulating a vision, mission, and Islamic campus traditions that contain the core of values ​​and the core of belief; 5) Developing the concept of Arkan al-Jami’ah (University Pillars) which consists of nine components which include: a) reliable human resources, b) mosques, c) student Islamic boarding schools (ma’had), d) libraries, e ) laboratories, f) study/lecture rooms, g) offices as service centers, h) dormitories, i) broad and solid sources of funding. The success of implementing the Quranic management to develop the Islamic campus is if it succeeds in changing the vicious circle full of problems into the circle of angels full of grace in the campus environment. This study found the model for implementing Qur’anic management to develop the Islamic campus. Pages 528 to 545

Effects of Dodge & Crick's SIP on Developing Working Memory, Inhibition and Cognitive Flexibility Among   Children with ASD 

Mourad Ali Eissa Saada, Ayman Gamal Khalifab, aPhD, Full Professor of Special Education, Vice President of KIE University, KIE University, Egypt, bPhD, TVTC Directorate of Research and Studies, Saudi Arabia, Email: aprofmouradali@gmail.com, ba.ghanem@tvtc.gov.sa

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Dodge and Crick's Social Information-Processing Model on developing working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility among primary school children with autism spectrum disorder. For the purpose of this study, a two-way repeated measures ANOVA, with pre-post testing in two groups was employed. 32 (29 boys and 3 girls) were previously diagnosed by the school licensed psychologists not associated with the current study, based on the DSM-5. Findings from this study revealed the effectiveness of Dodge and Crick's Social Information-Processing Model on developing working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility among primary school children with autism spectrum disorder. Pages 546 to 567  

Entrepreneurial Leadership and Creativity in Projects: A Moderated-Mediated Mechanism.

Sayyam1, Muhammad Nisar2, Fazal Hanan3, Arif Hussain4, Yasir Jehan5, Dr. Muhammad Rovidad6, Azhar khan7, Zia Ur Rahman8, 1,4,7Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan, 2Lecturer, Department of Sociology and Political Science, Bacha Khan University Charsadda, Pakistan, 3Assistant Professor, Department of sociology FATA University, FR Kohat, Pakistan, 5Lecturer Department of Economics, Bacha khan university charsadda, Pakistan, 6Assistant professor, department of economics, Bacha khan university charsadda, Pakistan, 8Department of computer science, Bacha khan University Charsadda, Pakistan, Email: 4arifhussain@awkum.edu.pk

For managers/leaders without creativity and innovation, it's difficult to compete effectively on the market. Employee top success is not often enough to achieve a strategic edge in which creative attitudes and innovation can be counted as materials to create. An entrepreneurial leadership style is recognised as a crucial source of enhancing creativity in project-based organisations. However current research will provide empirical evidence in which leadership leads to creativity in projects through Innovative Work Behaviour (IWB) and Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy (ESE) as a moderator. For this purpose, the leaders/managers in the project-based organisations are in the twin cities of Peshawar and Nowshera, KP; Pakistan was taken as a population of the study. All the four variables were measured through adopted instruments from the previous studies.  Due to time, cost and other constraints, the study has employed the convenience sampling technique to gathered data.  The collected data was run through various statistical techniques such as data cleaning, internal consistency, CFA and relationship via Structural Educational Modelling using CB AMOS 23. The results of the study found that Entrepreneurial leadership has significant and positive association with creativity in projects. The study also examined that innovative work behaviour partially mediates the association between Entrepreneurial leadership and has significant and positive association with creativity in projects. Further, the study also found that entrepreneurial self-efficacy moderates the association between entrepreneurial leadership and has significant and positive association with creativity in projects. Pages 568 to 586

Barriers to the National Innovation System of Pakistan: Exploring the Stakeholders’ perspectives

Muhammad Anwar ul Haq*, Mirza Ashfaq Ahmedb, Mirza Naveed Shahzadc, Sobia Shabeerd, Sana Muneere, a,b,dDepartment of Management Sciences, University of Gujrat, Pakistan, c,eDepartment of Statistics, University of Gujrat, Pakistan, Email: aanwar.haq@uog.edu.pk

This research has explored the barriers to the National Innovation System (NIS) of Pakistan from a stakeholder’s perspective. This study contributes to literature on the innovation system by recognising the significance of NIS for economic performance. The semi-structured interviews were conducted to gather data from directors of ORICs and selected Chambers of Commerce and Industry from the Federal capital and the Punjab province in Pakistan. After the collection, the data was analysed through NVIVO software, version 11. The participants highlighted the barriers to innovation in Pakistan. The thematic analysis shows the systematic problems which may stimulate policy makers to improve policy. This research has proposed to reduce the barriers to innovation in Pakistan and therefore encouraging innovation, through increased efficiency and effectiveness, to accomplish higher competitiveness levels. Pages 587 to 608

Roles of Universities in Rural Farmers’ use of Extension Suite Online System as Solution for Subsistence

aOlukayode Oki bChinaza Uleanya, , cJose Manappattukunnel Lukose, a,cInformation Technology Department, Walter Sisulu University, Eastern Cape, South Africa, bDepartment of Education Leadership and Management, University of Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa, Email: achinazauleanya@yahoo.com

Agriculture plays a pivot role in the economic development of any area: urban and rural inclusive because it is a source of employment and sustainable livelihood. Conversely, Information Communication Technology has brought to the fore efficient ways of information dissemination for agricultural development. This study investigates the impact of using Extension Suite Online System (ESOS) for farming. Qunu Area in the Eastern Cape Province was selected for the study. Qualitative method was adopted for data collection through the use of semi-structured interviews conducted for eight conveniently selected subsistence farmers servicing the area. The collected data was coded and thematically analysed. A finding of the study amongst others showed that information is paramount for farmers. Also, the introduction of the ESO system to the Qunu rural farmers helped to close the information gap that was initially a challenge and it fascinated young people who perceived agriculture as a sector for older people. However, findings further revealed that most farmers in the rural area are computer illiterate and this affects their appreciation and use of the ESO system. The study recommends amongst others that universities should organise short term programmes on computer literacy and other useful skills for rural farmers. Pages 609 to 625


Improving Environmental Quality Through the Empowerment of Dryland Farmers: A Case Study in Walanae Watershed, South Sulawesi

Mithen Lullulangia, Faizal Amirb, Bakhrani Abdul Raufc, Nurlita Pertiwid, Rahmansah Lecturere, a,b,c,d, Lecturer Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Makassar, eCivil Engineering and Planning Universitas Negeri Makassar, Email: mithen@unm.ac.id, faizalamir64@unm.ac.id, bakhrani@unm.ac.id, nurlita.pertiwi@unm.ac.id, rahmansah@unm.ac.id

The aim of this research is to improve the environmental knowledge and attitudes of dryland farmers in the Walanae watershed. It was conducted using the Pre-test-Post-Test Control Group Design. A total of 40 respondents, consisting of 20 people each in the experimental and control groups, were selected by purposive random sampling. In addition, several experimental steps including (1) a preliminary test to determine the environmental knowledge and attitudes of the farmers before empowerment, (2) empowering them to improve those qualities, and (3) a final test to determine the level of improvement, were conducted in the experimental group. Furthermore, some other tests were performed for the control group, including (1) a preliminary examination to specify the attitudes and environmental knowledge of the members of the group, and (2) a final test to determine the level of those qualities in comparison to that of the experimental group. Data was analysed through descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, with the inferential model using the Paired-Sample T-Test. The results showed that the empowerment had a positive and significant effect on the farmers, as it improved their environmental knowledge and attitudes from an extremely low category to a high category. Furthermore, it could be a model for empowerment in other places. Improving the above qualities in farming communities can protect the environment, especially in Indonesia, one of the largest oxygen-producing countries in the world. In addition, it can reduce global warming for the interest of the international community. Pages 626 to 636

The Role of E-WOM Communication impact to Consumer’s Purchasing Intention to Healthy Food Products: An Empirical Study to Testing the Mediator and Moderator Variables

Wasutida Nurittamont, Marketing Department, Faculty of Business Administration and Information Technology, Rajamangala University and Technology Suvarnabhumi. 60 Moo 3 Asian Highway, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya,13000, Thailand, Email: wasutida_9919@hotmail.com                                                                                                                                                                                      

The growth of information technology was significant to environment dynamic change. This study aimed to examine the impact of electronic Word Of Mouth (e-WOM) communication on purchasing decisions to healthy food products of working-age consumers in Bangkok, Thailand, and testing the mediator and moderator variables. The questionnaire was the tool to collect data from 385 consumers purchasing healthy food products. Non-probability sampling was done by purposive and descriptive statistics and regression analysis by entering for testing hypotheses. The result found that e-WOM communication impacts purchasing decisions of working consumers to healthy food products. Also, consumers' data exposure was a partial mediator variable, and technology acceptance was a moderated variable. The result can be used as a guideline for healthy food product businesses to develop marketing communication channels and enhancing consumer’s acceptability of technology, leading to creating a marketing strategy for competitive advantage. Pages 637 to 652

Foreign Direct Investment, Financial Development and Economic Growth: New Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

Samia Nasreena*, Fatima Mubashirb, Muhammad Awais Anwarc, a,bDepartment of Economics, Lahore College for Women University Lahore, (Pakistan), cDepartment of Economics and Business Administration, University of Education, Lower Mall Campus, Lahore (Pakistan), Email: a*sami_lcu@yahoo.com, bfatimamubashir3@gmail.com, cawaisanwar007@yahoo.com

The main objective of the present study is to explore the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) and financial development on economic growth in Pakistan using time-series data covering the period from 1986 to 2018. The role of financial development in FDI-growth nexus as well as contribution of FDI in finance-growth relationship is also examined. A composite measure of financial development index is constructed by utilising various indicators from banking sector development and stock market development. Existence of cointegration among variables has been checked using Johansen cointegration and Gregory-Hansen cointegration tests. Moreover, fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) techniques have been employed to assess long run parameters. Findings of long run estimates indicate that FDI and financial development are positively related to economic growth. Moreover, the influence of FDI on growth is enhanced with the improvement in financial sector development. Empirical findings also support the view that FDI inflows contribute in augmenting the effect of financial development on economic growth. The findings of the present study offer some important implications to policy makers in Pakistan. Pages 653 to 675

Protection of the Elderly from Abuse in Jordanian Law 

Dr. Shatha Ahmad Al-Assaf, Assistant Professor in Constitutional Law, Faculty of law, Isra University, Jordan. Email: shatha.alassaf@iu.edu.jo

The increase in the numbers of elderly globally and nationally has led to more attention to the rights of this most vulnerable group and the necessity to provide an effective legal protection against elder abuse. The significance of this research lies in the fact that it is necessary to protect elder people against abuse, as they are a vulnerable and susceptible group. Hence, this research revolves centrally around the extent to which the legal protection Jordanian laws provide to elder persons against abuse compared to the international standards. The research followed the analytical and comparative method, by conducting a comprehensive review of the Jordanian legal texts, analysing them and comparing them to the international standard. This research concludes that the protection provided by the Jordanian legislations and international conventions against elder abuse is not sufficient. The research provides several recommendations including criminalising all types of elder abuse, imposing deterrent sanctions and explicit provision for mandatory reporting of abuse cases. Pages 676 to 688

The Key Drivers of Rising Healthcare Spending in the USA

Dr. Yaseen Hayajneha, Dr. Dan Weltmannb, aAssociate Professor, Management Department, Ancell School of Business, Western Connecticut State University, bAssistant Professor, Management Department, Ancell School of Business, Western Connecticut State University

Healthcare in the United States of America is the most expensive in the world. Despite this, Americans had poorer health outcomes compared to other high-income countries. This study aimed to identify the key drivers of rising healthcare spending in the US and better understand these drivers’ interrelationships. The researchers conducted a thematic content analysis of high-quality content on Quora, a question-and-answer website. The content analysis revealed many different drivers of the rise in spending. The top five drivers identified were regulatory capture, profit-focus of the system, the health insurance industry, misaligned incentives, and greed. Regulatory capture was the root driver of most of the identified drivers. The health sector and the insurance industry have been consistently among the top financial contributors to lobbyists and political campaigns in the United States. Fixing the American healthcare system requires setting the foundation for a legislative environment free from the influence of political money. Pages 689 to 707

Using Moodle for Curriculum Delivery in Higher Institutions during the Covid-19 Pandemic

Oluwatoyin Ayodele Ajani, Edu-HRight Research Unit, North-West University, South Africa. oaajani@gmail.com

This study presents a discursive review on the use of Moodle as an online tool to salvage education during the COVID-19 pandemic, most especially in developing countries across the globe. The author explores and discusses various studies to establish what is known and unknown about the use of Moodle by academics to deliver the curriculum in higher institutions. Learning Management System (LMS), with the most popular - Moodle known among students in South African higher institutions, is not a new concept. It has globally been used in most developed countries for many decades to significantly impact the education system across the globe. Its use has been a huge success in the educational system as it makes learning experiences to be available to students at their convenience. Thus, the declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO), did not affect curriculum delivery in the developed countries. However, with the lockdown procedures in many developing countries, educational institutions including higher institutions of learning (HEIs) in Africa ceased all teaching and learning activities for several months. However, South African higher institutions reviewed curriculum delivery and resulted in full use of Moodle for teaching and learning activities to salvage the 2020 academic year. Pages 708 to 727  

Omar Haroon Al-Khaleefa: A Sudanese Scientist in the Fields of Creativity, Intelligence, Giftedness, & Educational Psychology - a Biographical and Bibliographic Study in the Period (1987-2019)

Prof. Salaheldin Fararh Attallah Bakhieta, Dr. Samir Ibrahim Bakhitb, aKing Saud University, Department of special Education, College of Education, Saudi Arabia. bAssociate Professor, Department of library & Information Science, Alneelain University, Sudan, Email: abakhiet@ksu.edu.sa, bsamirbakhit2@yahoo.com

This study aimed to introduce the Sudanese psychologist, Professor Omar Haroon Al-Khaleefa, through monitoring of his biography, as well as a bibliographic work of his scientific and intellectual contributions in the field of educational psychology for the period 1987-2019.  The investigation revealed that his scientific, intellectual, counseling and training contributions were varied. The study established Professor Omar Haroon Al-Khaleefa as a distinguished scientist with 157 scientific and intellectual publications: the MA thesis, the Ph. D dissertation, 9 books, 1 edited chapter, 97 articles in Arabic journals, 47 articles in English journals, 1 article in a French journal. These articles were published in 59 journals: 15 in international journals, 34 in regional journals and 10 in local journals. He supervised 42 Ph. D dissertations and 31 MA theses. Furthermore, he participated in 43 conferences in more than 20 countries. He was the main speaker and a prominent member in the organizing committees of some of those conferences. He even chaired some of those conferences. Pages 728 to 766

The Mediating Role of Creativity in the Influence of the Entrepreneurial Mindset on Corporate Entrepreneurship

Shadi Altahat1 , Yousef Alsafadi2*, 1First Author Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, School of Business, Jadara University, Jordan. 2Second and Corresponding Author. Assistant Professor, Department of Entrepreneurship, School of Business, Irbid National University, Jordan [Postal Address: Irbid, Jordan], Email: 1shadialtaha@yahoo.com, 2Yousefalsafadi83@yahoo.com

Entrepreneurship is one of our economy's most significant component and  a skill that is taken into account  when starting a business or even when   striving to be an excellent worker. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the role that creativity in the northern Jordanian banks plays in the relationship between the entrepreneurial mindset and corporate entrepreneurship. The sample consists of 363 bank employees from various departments. They were conveniently selected and analysed by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results showed that creativity has a positive and significant impact on the relationship between the entrepreneurial mindset and corporate entrepreneurship. The results also showed that   the entrepreneurial mindset had a significant and positive impact    on corporate entrepreneurship. According to the research results it was recommended that: All bank employees need to work on an entrepreneurial strategy at their various levels and roles in positions of responsibility in the fundamental concepts, associated with methods of the entrepreneurial mindset in terms of enhancing their operations to provide their clients with a successful and modern service. Pages 767 to 783

A Comparative Analysis of Unlevered and Levered Beta and its Impact on Firm Performance

Asad Zainul Abidina, Dr. Adnan Ahmadb, Dr. Naveed Hussain Shahc, Muhammad Naeem Khand, Dr. Muhammad Arife, Dr. Ihtisham Khanf a,b,d,fInstitute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, bCorresponding Author, c,eDepartment of Management Science, University of Swabi, Email: aZainiiui92@gmail.com, badnankhattak@awkum.edu.pk, cdr.naveedshah@uoswabi.edu.pk,  dnaimkhn@gmail.com, ddr.arif@uoswabi.edu.pk, dihtishamkhan@awkum.edu.pk  

This paper examines a comparative analysis of unlevered beta and levered beta and its impact on firm performance. Panel data of 15 cement companies listed on PSX with duration ranges from 2008-2017 are used. For analysis of data descriptive statistics, correlation and Panel estimate generalised least square (Cross-section weights) are employed. A Firm performance indicator comprises of return on assets, return on equity and Tobin’q are used as dependent variables, whereas unlevered and levered beta as independent variables. In addition to that, control variables comprising of firm size, firm growth and firm age are also used. Finding from panel estimated generalised least square (Cross-section weights) states that beta levered and beta unlevered have a positive association with all three firm performance indicators i.e; Tobin’s q, return on equity and return on assets. But the value of coefficient of beta levered and unlevered varies with each firm performance indicators. It is therefore proved that unlevered beta and levered beta have an impact over firm performance, thus management should adopt necessary carefulness while taking decisions regarding inclusion of debt in capital structure and its associated risk. Pages 784 to 800

Systematic Review of Psychological Treatments for Methamphetamine

Darunee Phukao, PhD. Assistant Professor, Department of Society and Health, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand

No previous systematic reviews on evidence-based psychological treatments for methamphetamine use disorders were found. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) offers a broadly applicable framework for categorising types of psychological treatments based on the processes of change involved. The objective of this systematic review of psychological treatments for methamphetamine use disorders was to identify current treatments and the processes of change they rely on, following the categorisation provided by the Transtheoretical Model. The study method is a systematic review with narrative synthesis. The following psychological treatments had the best evidence for efficacy: Gay-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Motivational Enhancement, Contingency Management and STAGE-12. The most common processes of change belonged to the consciousness-raising and self-reevaluation categories. The least frequently used processes of change belonged to the helping-relationship categories. The available evidence indicates that training therapists to form better therapeutic relationships (the “helping-relationship” process of change in the TTM) is efficacious, but it is rarely used as the basis of treating methamphetamine use disorders. Focusing more on the helping-relationship categories is a key approach for increasing the efficacy of treatments for methamphetamine use in real-world settings. Pages 801 to 813

Survey of the Current Situation of Linguistic Students' Informational Text Competence in Vietnam

Huong Thu Do Thia, Vinh Thuy Le Thib, Phuong Hanh Tran Thic, Hang My Duong Thid, Hien Do Thie, Hien Thu Pham Thif,   a,b,c,d,e Hanoi Pedagogical University 2, fUniversity of Education, Vietnam National University, Email:adothuhuong@hpu2.edu.vn,blethithuyvinh@hpu2.edu.vn, ctranthihanhphuong@hpu2.edu.vn,dduongthimyhang@hpu2.edu.vn,edothihien@hpu2.edu.vn, fpthien@vnu.edu.vn

This survey studies the current status of the informational text writing competence of Philological Pedagogy students in Vietnam. In order to have a complete and comprehensive view of the literacy competence of Philology Pedagogy students, we have surveyed 366 students of 11 Philology Pedagogy Universities in Vietnam. The survey questions focused on a number of issues such as students' perceptions of informational texts and their role in learning and living, informational writing skills, and awareness of factors affecting informational writing skills, and teaching methods of informational writing skills. This study uses survey methods, analytical - synthesis methods, descriptive methods, etc. The survey results are the basis for us to design teaching methods of informational text writing effectively. At the same time, it is also the basis for us to propose changes in the curriculum for students of Philology Pedagogy, in which it is imperative to focus on testing, assessing writing competence in general, and informational text writing competence in particular. Pages 814 to 831

The Impact of Customer Relationship Management Technology Use on the Firm Performance Mediating and Moderating Role of Marketing Capabilities

Maimoona Sajid Butt, National University of Modern Language, Lahore Campus, Email: mnsajid@numl.edu.pk

In this aggressive market competition, firms are trying to make extensive efforts to handle their firm performance in terms of profitability, market share and customer satisfaction. Today due to advance technology world is enjoying the pace of development. But the firms in industry of Pakistan which is the main sector of economy are still fighting with the gigantic records (especially about customer). Academic and practitioner current literature purposed that customer relationship management technology use is a cause to increase the firm performance, so far literature has mixed performance assessments in the existing literature. These equivocal results may be search a mediator or moderator. For this reason, the purpose of this research paper is to see the sights of customer relationship management technology use impacts on firm performance by considering the moderating effect of architectural marketing capabilities. A theoretical model developed which is based on the information and literature. Simple random sampling technique was used for gathering the data. This study used primary data through a questionnaire.180 out of 470 questionnaires used in this study and used correlation and regression for analyses and testing. The findings suggest that CRM technology use is associated with the three dimensions of organization performance (i.e. financial, customer, and growth).The results highlight that specialized marketing capability mediates the association between CRM technology use and performance and  architectural marketing capabilities moderates the association between  CRM technology use and performance. Pages 832 to 861

An Empirical Study of the Adoption of Fintech in the Banking Sector of Saudi Arabia

Amina Amirata, Tagreed Alsulimanib, aAssistant Professor of Finance, College of Business, University of Jeddah, KSA, bAssistant Professor of MIS, College of Business, University of Jeddah, KSA, Email: a*aamirat@uj.edu.sa, tsalsilimani@uj.edu.sa

The unceasing evolution of technological innovations has lead to a new area of study called “FinTech”. FinTech affected the shape of financial services and transformed the entire banking system from a branch-specific process to various digital channels, which are online, social, and mobile. In this context, our work aims to produce a survey of FinTech by collecting and reviewing contemporary achievements, by which a theoretical data driven FinTech framework is proposed. The methodology is based on face to face interviews with 10 bank managers that was concerned with the adoption of FinTech in Saudi banks according to Saudi Vision 2030. The findings confirm that despite a lack of budget and skills, they are continuously working to adopt the FinTech products and improve financial services in order to increase profit, market share, customers’ confidence and competitiveness. Pages 862 to 873

The Aftermath of Ostracism at the Workplace - A Moderated Mediational Approach

Mariam Arshada*, Amir Gulzarb, Noor Ul Hadic, a,bDepartment of Business Administration, Foundation University Islamabad, cCollege of Business Administration, Prince Muhammad Bin Fahd University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Email: a*mariamarshad000@gmail.com, bamirgulzar@fui.edu.pk, cn_hadi1@yahoo.com

More exploration and examination about the circumstances that force individuals to behave unethically in an organisation is needed, as an unethical culture in an organisation discourages organisational innovation. Therefore, the present study aims to examine the relationship between employee expediency and workplace ostracism, which will allow the researchers to gain more insight into it practical implications. The research will draw upon the affective event theory (AET) to examine the hypothesised relationship between workplace ostracism and employee expediency, using the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion and the moderating role of moral identity.  In order to test these hypotheses, 272 responses were analysed via PROCESS macro Findings show that when employees face ostracism at their workplace, the feeling of social rejection develops into a situation in which they show affective response, which may trigger employee expediency even in the presence of moral identity. Hence, this study proves that workplace ostracism develops such feelings in employees, which makes them indulge in unethical behaviour. Pages 874 to 892

Does Deep Acting and Surface Acting Play a Role Between Customer Orientation and Job Outcomes? A Study of Fast Fashion Boutiques

Asif Mahmood 1, Dil Muhammad 2, Shah Ali Murtaza 3*, Edina Molnár4 and Muhammad Sikandar Jahangir Wahla5, 1Department of Business Studies, Namal Institute, Mianwali, Pakistan, 2Institute of Business & Management, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, 3,4Institute of Management and Organisational Sciences, University of Debrecen, Hungary, 5School of Business and Management, Queen Mary University of London, UK, Email: 1asif.mahmood@namal.edu.pk, 2dil_sanan@yahoo.com.au, 3*shah.ali.murtaza@econ.unideb.hu, 4molnar.edina.phd@econ.unideb.hu, 5sikandar_wahla@hotmail.co.uk

Since an essential element of service quality is how employees communicate with customers, customer orientation and employee’s emotions become significant for sales personnel. The proposed study investigates how a relationship is drawn in the fashion clothing industry by using the person-job fit theory perspective on emotional labour. The study has employed a quantitative research method. A sample containing data of 250 people has been collected from frontline sales employees and managers working in fashion clothing boutiques of Lahore. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyse measurement and structural model. The study outcome suggested that worker’s customer orientation is positively associated with employee job satisfaction (work attitude outcome) and deep acting emotional labour perspective while negatively related to emotional exhaustion and surface acting emotional labour perspective. Results also revealed that deep acting emotional labour perspective positively mediates and surface acting negatively mediates the connection between customer orientation and job satisfaction. Whereas, in the case of customer orientation and emotional exhaustion, surface acting positively and deep acting negatively mediates the relationship. The findings also discussed the practical and theoretical implications. The research investigates a unique model in the context of the fashion clothing textile industry. Pages 893 to 912

Appraising Concepts, Conditions, Justifications and Implications of Chain Remand Practices

Ifa Sirrhu Samsudin, Ramalinggam Rajamanickam, Rohaida Nordin, Faculty of Law, National University of Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia,Email:ifa28011@gmail.com,rama@ukm.edu.my,rohaidanordin@ukm.edu.my 

Remand for investigation by the enforcement authorities is an important stage in the process of gathering evidence before a suspect is charged for any offence. This is also known as pre-trial detention. However, under certain circumstances, the suspect can be remanded repeatedly depending on the number of police reports filed against him or her. Such a practice is also known as chain remand and is said to infringe on the rights of the arrested suspect. However, this practice is technically permissible under the law, as provided under section 117 of the Criminal Procedure Code (“CPC”). This article aims to study the application of the law with regards to chain remand and identify weaknesses in the existing legal provisions. Furthermore, this study also seeks to explore the justifications for practicing chain remand in Malaysia and its implications on the detainees at large. Through its findings, this study highlights the existing loopholes in the law that need to be addressed to ensure that justice is upheld. Pages 913 to 928

Evaluation Study of the Physical Condition of Sports Sciences Faculty Students at the Arab American University During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Dr. Islam Mohammad Abbasa, Dr. Mahmoud Wajeh Kayedb, aArab American University, bBirzeit University, Email: aIslam.abbas@aaup.edu, bDr.Mahmaud.Kayed@gmail.com

This study aims at identifying the physical condition of Sports Sciences Faculty students at the Arab American University. To achieve study objectives, the researchers used the descriptive methodology and the physical condition description test designed by Allawi (1998). Data was collected using a questionnaire with a reliability factor of 0.89, which surveyed the sample of the study consisting of 97 students from the Faculty of Sports Sciences at the Arab American University; this sample represents 23.5% of study population. The researchers used the Cronbach Alpha equation to measure the study’s reliability factor scale, t-tests for two independent groups (Independent -t -test), and the One-way ANOVA test. Results of the study showed that the physical condition of students of the Faculty of Sports Sciences at the Arab American University is intermediate, and that there are statistically significant differences at the level of α ≤ 0.05 for fitness elements of agility and flexibility in favour of female students. However, there are no statistically significant differences at the level of α ≤ 0.05 for fitness elements of muscle strength, endurance and speed among students of the Faculty of Sports Sciences at the Arab American University. Moreover, there are no statistically significant differences at the level of α ≤ 0.05 in the overall degree of physical condition nor in any of the fitness elements due to the study year variable. Researchers recommend teachers to acquaint their students with descriptions of their physical condition for its importance in improving their physical, motor and skill performance. Pages 929 to 946

Preferred Learning Styles of Management Students of Pakistan

Bahadur Ali Soomroa, Nadia A. Abdelmegeed Abdelwahedb, aDepartment of Economics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan, bBusiness Management School, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

The preferred learning styles of management students are of interest among the educators of the relevant field. The various studies explored how learning styles are the best predictors of academic performance. However, this study aims to explore the learning styles of management students in Pakistan. Henceforth, the research study focuses on the descriptive quantitative research design applied as the instrument for such a task. The outcomes of the research study highlighted that the participants are: reflective; introverted; visual; closure-oriented, random-intuitive; sharpener; synthesising; particular; field-independent; and deductive. The respondents themselves recognised as both literal and metaphoric due to their preferred learning style. As a result, the students are classified concerning their preferred styles. Furthermore, the study's findings would be fruitful to enhance preferences and learning capabilities among the students. Also, the outcomes would be favourable for teachers to develop their teaching plans connected with the learning styles. Thus, it requires a dire need for the revision of the curriculum at the university level. The students resort to learning preferences and potentials among the students, which should be relevant, adaptive and useful in a real sense for management students. Pages 947 to 959

Selective and Sustained Attention among Fencing Athletes

Aida Al-Awamleh1, Aws Khaled Aljbour2, Ahmad Hamdan3, Hasan Al khaldi4, 1The University of Jordan School of Sport Sciences, 2The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Ministry of Education, 3Bana Center For Consultation, Research & Training, 4The Hashemite University Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Email: 1Aida.awamleh@ju.edu.jo

Attention is awareness of the here and now in a focal and perceptive way; it is the interface between the vast amount of stimulation provided by our complex environment and the more limited set of information of which we are aware. Attention especially affects athletes; it is important in fencing, and effects the levels of performance and achievement in fencers. The aim of the present study was to determine the attention types (selective & sustained) and processing speed and to find the gender differences of fencing athletes regarding attention types. The study sample consisted of 20 subjects who were selected from the Jordan Fencing Federation. The Leiter International Performance Scale (Leiter-3) was used to evaluate the two attention types and processing speed. The results indicated that fencing athletes show greater ability in attention types; sustained attention and selective attention (Stroop effect) were high. The fencing athletes recorded higher scores on the Stroop colour congruent than the Stroop colour incongruent. Some differences were found regarding gender differences, females having significantly higher scores in the most of attention types than males, females having significantly higher Stroop colour congruent stimuli and Stroop colour incongruent stimuli results than males. Pages 960 to 967

The Taxation Constraints and Potential Solutions For Indonesian MSMEs

Herni Kurniawati1 and Septian Bayu Kristanto2, 1Accounting Department, Faculty of Business and Economics, Tarumanagara University, Jakarta, Indonesia. Email: hernik@fe.untar.ac.id, 2Assistant Professor, Head of Tax Center, Accounting Department, Faculty of Business and Economics, Krida Wacana Christian University, Jakarta, Indonesia. Email: septian.bayu@ukrida.ac.id

This study aims to know the constraints of taxation that is currently faced by Indonesian Micro Small Medium Enterprises (MSMEs), and also to find out the potential solutions expected by Indonesian MSMEs. Researchers have conducted interviews and also observations to obtain the information needed in the study. The place chosen by the researchers was the UMKM exhibition located in the Jakarta and Tangerang areas. Researchers used the location of the MSME exhibition to facilitate research covering MSMEs throughout the territory of Indonesia. The results of this study indicate that most of MSMEs respondents in Indonesia do not yet have a sufficient understanding of taxation especially income tax rates for MSMEs. Until now, the main focus of Indonesian MSMEs is still limited to the area of marketing or market education. The paper suggests development of the brand image, managing the business finances and marketing as an identified solutions for MSME to survive in business. Pages 968 to 979

Analysing Historical Dialectics in Shahid Nadeem's Play Here Comes Basant Again

Muhammad Umer Azima, Dr. Muhammad Saleemb, Dr. Umar-ud-Dinc, aAssistant Professor of English, Government College Township, Lahore, Pakistan, bProfessor of English, Govt College Township, Lahore, Pakistan, cAssociate Professor of English, Government College Civil Lines, Lahore, Pakistan, Email: amumerazim@gmail.com, bsaleem6319@gmail.com

The present study aims at analysing the artistic role of dialectics in the context of different ideologies in Shahid Nadeem’s play Here Comes Basant Again that was produced in 2014 by a Lahore based Pakistani playhouse Ajoka. The theoretical framework for the present study comes from Bertolt Brecht’s theories on theatre and playwriting that are collected in his famous book Bertolt Brecht on Theatre: Development of an Aesthetic (1964). The surge of terroristic fanaticism that appeared in Pakistan in the last decades of the previous century is still continuing. Terroristic activities of the Taliban, in the play under discussion, are dynamically pitched against the indigenous centuries’ old cultural festivities like kite-flying in the spring; this festival is called Basant in the local idiom. This dialectical confrontation is on various levels and in multiple configurations. The interrogative text and the ‘quotational acting’ both stir the rational faculties of the reader/spectator to prepare them to reject the unexciting ideology and vote for the healthy structure.  The dialectical moves and volleys between the colonial forces of terrorism and the playfulness based local modes of entertainment theatricalise/aesthticise both the negative image of the Talbanistic zealotry and the positive face of the culturally sweet Pakistan. This agitprop theatrical production, on the one hand, effectively alerts the spectators of the dehumanising invasion of religious bigotry and, on the other hand, it encounters them to their own life giving forces like kite-flying. Pages 980 to 990

The Impact of Transformational Leadership Style and Organisational Commitment: Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University as a Case Study

Mahmoud M. H. Alayisa, Nadia A. A. Abdelwahedb, aAssistant professor, Business administration department, College of Applied Studies & Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, bAssistant professor, Business administration department, School of Business Administration, King Faisal University, Email: ammhali@iau.edu.sa, bnabdelwahed@kfu.edu.sa

Based on the review of the existing literature on the topic, this study’s findings show that the style of transformational leadership may influence employees’ organisational commitment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of transformational leadership on the organisational commitment of the staff members working at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University. A total number of 384 questionnaires were distributed out of which 171 were returned representing a 45% response rate.  This study’s findings show that the style transformational leadership has a positive effect on the organisational commitment of the University’s staff members. Also, in terms of employee gender, there are no significant differences between the members of staff with respect to their opinions about the availability of leadership styles for managers and the organisational commitment. Pages 991 to 1012

The Advancement in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Economic Development: A Panel Analysis

Marc Audia, Amjad Alib, Yannick Rousselc, aProvost/ Director of Academic Affairs at European School of Administration, Management, Finance and Law (ESAM)-France. University Paris 1 Pantheon Sorbonne-France. bAssociate Researcher; European School of Administration, Management, Finance and Law (ESAM)-France. Assistant Professor at Lahore School of Accountancy and Finance, University of Lahore, Pakistan. cRector; European School of Administration, Management, Finance and Law (ESAM)-France. 

This study analyses the impact of advancement in information and communication technologies (ICT) on economic development over the period of 2000 to 2017 in the case of 87 developed and developing countries. The developed and developing countries are selected following the ranking of the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018. This article uses three types of analysis: the first is based on the whole sample, and for comparative analysis developed and developing countries’ analysis are done separately. The results of panel least squares reveal that advancement in information and communication technologies has an insignificant relationship with economic development, whereas the advancement in information and communication technologies is playing a positive and significant role in the economic development of developing countries. This shows that developed countries are getting more benefits from advancement in information and communication technologies in comparison with developing countries in the process of economic development. The developed countries have a more stable macroeconomic environment in comparison with developing countries, so macroeconomic stability is playing a more significant role in the case of developed countries. If developing countries want to achieve higher economic development, they must increase trade and physical capital within a stable macroeconomic environment. Moreover, developing countries should adopt advancement in information and communication technologies (ICT) to compete with developed countries in the process of economic development. Pages 1013 to 1039

A Plan of “SHINE” In Search of Sustainable Synergy

Asna Mubashra, Incharge Department of Textile Design, College of Art & Design,

University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan Email: asnamubashra786@gmail.com; asna.cad@pu.edu.pk

Applicability of the concept of sustainability is essential to all areas of human society; efficient synergies can be successfully searched if efforts are associated with responsible business practices. An attempt was extended to initiate marketing activities from a widespread network of District Industrial Homes, a non-profit government organisation projected for capacity building of the low-income class in underdeveloped countries. SHINE was designed for District Industrial Homes in Punjab, Pakistan. This product plan was an organised effort to acquire economic growth and self-sustainability, through establishing a marketing line by diversifying the current activities of the institute. Pages 1040 to 1064

 Predictors of Money Management Behaviour Among University Students

Maimoona‌ ‌Majid‌a‌,‌ ‌Hamza‌ ‌Ahmad‌ ‌Qureshi‌b‌,‌ ‌‌Hira‌ ‌Aftab‌c‌,‌ ‌‌abc‌Institute‌ ‌of‌ ‌Business‌ ‌&‌ ‌Information‌ ‌Technology‌ ‌(IBIT),‌ ‌University‌ ‌of‌ ‌the‌ ‌Punjab,‌ ‌Lahore,‌ ‌Pakistan,‌

Email: a‌maimoonamajid.mm@gmail.com,‌b‌hamza.aq@ibitpu.edu.pk,‌c‌hira.aftab@ibit‌pu.edu.pk‌

Purpose – Management of money, a global problem, is a capability essential for students enrolled in universities as they are considered responsible for organisations and the nation in the future. The literature lacks pieces of evidence from developing nations and factors other than financial literacy, as previous studies have been done in developed nations. This study aims to fill this research gap and investigate influencing factors, other than financial literacy and understanding the level of influence of those factors. Design/methodology/approach - This study has been conducted in Pakistan with the help of the quantitative survey method using a self-administered questionnaire among university students in Pakistan. Findings The findings indicate that all the factors used as independent variables have a positive and statistically significant effect on the money management behaviour of university students in Pakistan. This study also shows that there is a deviation in the behaviour of the students concerning their institutes, academic year, type of degree, residence, income, and working hours. Research limitations/implications - Due to Covid-19 data was gathered online using a convenient, non-random sampling technique instead of a random sampling technique. Moreover, implications and future research directions are provided. Originality/value – This study contributes to the literature of developing nation perspective and studies’ predictors beyond financial literacy, debt management, and financial well-being. This study adopted a quantitative approach as much of the previous work has been done through a qualitative approach. Pages 1065 to 1084


Descriptive Dimensions of Brand Equity in the Insurance Industry of Pakistan: A Literature Review

Masood Hassana, Samia Nadeem Zakaib, Dr. Muhammad Azeem Qureshic, Dr. Muhammad Adnan Bashird, Dr Muhammad Sufyan Ramishe, Dr Mehboob-ul Hassanf and Imam Udding, a,b,c,d,e,gInstitute of Business Management (IoBM), Karachi, Pakistan.gDepartment of Economics, College of Business Administration, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA., Email: amasoodhassan1@hotmail.com, astd_21855@iobm.edu.pk, bstd_21736@iobm.edu.pk, cazeem.qureshi@iobm.edu.pk, dadnan.bashir@iobm.edu.pk, esmsufyan@gmail.com, fmehassan@ksu.edu.sa, gimamuddin@iobm.edu.pk

Insurance companies have recognised the intrinsic importance of products and treated them as valuable assets in the changing business scenario even in Pakistan. Any company's strategic potential is highly impacted by products in its portfolio. Brands are undoubtedly worthwhile brand tools. Brand is a multidimensional system that incorporates practical and emotional principles to fulfill customer, performance and behavioural needs. One of the aims of branding is to make the brand special in the specific and valued aspects of the consumers. Provided that the brand is a significant factor of every marketing campaign, the definition of its equity must be understood. Because of consumer perception, brand equity is the trust accrued in a brand. Brand equity’s value is projected to produce potential sales from the branded product compared with the non-branded product, provided that products are expanding on the market; insurance firms of Pakistan are seeking to preserve brand resources by appropriate brand differentiation and other ways. This article seeks to explain these facets, as discussed in specialist literature: brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand association, brand perceived quality, brand image, brand trust and brand credibility. Pages 1085 to 1097

Differences in Authority Between Satpol PP and Polri in Creating General Order

Tri Suhartantoa, Dr.Indra Perwirab, Dr.Elis Rusmiatic, Dr.Lies Sulistianid, Email: aTri_sil@yahoo.com

The purpose of this study is to analyse firstly, differences in law enforcement authority between Satpol PP and Polri in creating public order and peace of society. Secondly, differences in law enforcement authority between Satpol PP and Polri can cause overlap in their implementation. The research method used is normative juridical legal research using a statutory, conceptual, and comparative approach. The results showed first, differences in law enforcement authority between Satpol PP and Polri in creating public order and peace of society is if Satpol PP has the authority to maintain public order, while the National Police is more concerned with maintaining domestic security; Secondly, in carrying out their duties the Satpol PP often overlaps and clashes with other law enforcers, especially the National Police. It cannot be denied that it often happens that the National Police finally have to become a "fire brigade" when in carrying out their duties the Satpol PP finally has to clash with the community which then leads to an anarchic situation. When in situations that could lead to further disturbance in security and public order, the National Police finally intervene. What often happened was that the National Police collided with the community because of the anarchist situation that had developed too far. Pages 1098 to 1114

Volume 15, Issue 1, 2021

Special Edition: Innovative Ways Forward in Mental Health and Higher Education Practices


Guest Editor: Prof. Margaret Anne Carter

Australian College of Applied Psychology (ACAP), Brisbane, Australia



Forward by Prof. Margaret Anne Carter

Pages i to iii




Why Librarians Matter in the Promotion of Mental Health Literacy in Higher Education

Dr. Philip Kwaku Kankam1, Frank Darkwa Baffour2, 1Department of Information Studies, University of Ghana., 2College of Arts, Society and Education, James Cook University.

All over the world, mental health problems have been found to affect persons and institutions negatively. It has contributed to poor academic performance, education dropout rates and poor output in higher educational institutions.  In order to develop suitable interventions on mental health for use in higher education settings, it is important to promote and strengthen the Mental Health Literacy (MHL) of staff and students. Particularly, tertiary students and staff need to acquire relevant knowledge so they can act and deal with mental health problems. This study investigated how well librarians could be, or are, positioned to promote and strengthen MHL in higher education. Using relevant keywords and search strategies, 46 articles were retrieved from two databases (LISTA and PubMed). The literature analysis was fused into a narrative review report based on themes. The study reveals that librarians are perfectly positioned to promote and strengthen MHL in higher education with their skills and expertise to serve as keepers of mental health information; facilitators of mental health information literacy; and liaisons to students and staff who strive to improve their MHL. The study recommends the need for stakeholders to observe and develop continuing interest of MHL within librarianship. Pages 1 to 17




Embedding Graduate Resilience into Legal Education for a Disrupted 21st Century

Dr. Ozlem Suslera, Dr. Alperhan Babacanb, aLecturer, Law, Latrobe University Law School, bBarrister & Solicitor of the Supreme Court (Vic) and High Court of Australia.  

Whilst a fundamental role of legal education is to ensure that graduates are adequately prepared for professional practice, it cannot be said that legal education holistically prepares graduates to cope with the complexities of the 21st Century which is characterised by significant change and disruption.This paper commences with a critical review of the current context, scope and practice of resilience in higher education. Much of the work on resilience undertaken in higher education has focused on the provision of supports to students to transition into university and to cope within an academic setting. Narrow conceptions of resilience which focus on perseverance, as opposed to an adaptive and developmental construct, are context specific and likely to be short lived. It is advanced that resilience building activities for professional practice following graduation can benefit from the incorporation of transformative pedagogies which will provide law graduates with skills relating to endurance and understanding for a disrupted and changing career in the legal profession following graduation. Concentrating on the centrality of critical reflection, dialogue and experiential learning, teaching and learning strategies which are grounded in critical and emancipatory pedagogies are suggested to be incorporated into legal education, as a means of building graduate resilience. Pages 18 to 33




Promoting Mental Health through Creativity in Social Work Practice: The Role of Preparation and Self-Care

Associate Professor Justin Francis Leon V. Nicolas, University of the Philippines Diliman, College of Social Work and Community Development

This article is based on the author’s PhD thesis at the University of Newcastle Australia. The study is a product of original research. The original contribution of the study includes the first historical literature review on creativity in social work practice.  The study also contributes by theorizing on the dimensions and process of creativity in social work practice. In this article, the author focused on results and portions of the theorizing relevant to mental health and self-care. It contributes to knowledge of self-care as preparation for creative practice, and overall, understanding the role of creativity in social work practice. Purpose: This paper discusses part of the findings of the author’s graduate thesis research at the University of Newcastle, NSW ‘Articulating creativity in social work practice’. It aims to describe how self-care and health, as part of the preparation for creative practice, assists in the promotion of mental health both for the practitioner and the service user. The paper aims to give an overview of the factors that promote and inhibit creativity in social work but focuses on the personal and professional factors where self-care and health are discussed. Subsequently, it introduces the form of creativity that social workers identified in the study and focuses on the integrative-reflexive level and presents a beginning theory how self-care and health are related to creative practice. Methods and Procedures: The author interviewed 18 social workers from 8 countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Israel, New Zealand, UK and US) using Skype as medium and asked of the their understanding of creativity, ideas of creative practice, how social workers are creative in their work, meanings of creativity, conditions for creativity, valuing creativity, and factors holding creativity in the margins. The author introduced creative critical phenomenology which combined phenomenology and critical realism to highlight the lived experiences of the participants on creativity and self-care and explain the connection of self-care and mental health to creativity in social work practice by re-examining literature on creativity and self-care. New Results: All participants revealed a paradox behind the facilitating and hindering factors of creativity in social work practice. Participants identified wellbeing and mental health as one of the major factors that could influence the practitioner’s creativity. Several participants experienced being most creative during periods of optimum health. Conclusions: Self-care as preparation for creative practice is achieved through the combination of the use of personhood, engaging in creative activities, healthy living, and developing creative habits.  Self-care and being healthy help prepare the social worker for creative practice and at the same time creative practice leads the social worker to self-care and creative living. This paper provides recommendations for practitioners in developing creative habits and mental health in preparing for creative practice and discusses implications for human and social development. In turn, it shows how 10 habits of creative social workers promote mental health and self-care. Pages 34 to 56




COVID-19: Challenges, Opportunities, and the Future of Social Work

Hyacinth Udaha, Abraham Francis,b abSocial Work, and Human Services, College of Arts, Society, and Education (CASE), James Cook University, Australia

Social workers have essential life-saving roles, possessing many important skills to help clients and community access services, and obligation to facilitate equality of outcomes. In this time marked by a pandemic, we are becoming more aware of the importance of futuring for social work. Social work’s response to the COVID-19 crisis is critical now and in the future. This article attempts to bring attention to ways social work as an idea, as a project, as an institution, and as a profession might respond and change due to what is happening (COVID-19 pandemic) and grow in dealing with future challenges. It makes contribution to social work’s response to COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. It suggests that the success of social work is very much dependent on social work educators, researchers and practitioners recognising the current challenges as opportunities, and responding in ways that advance social work profession’s theories, models, and practice framework. Pages 57 to 74




Tails of Canine Co-Counselling

Dr Bronwyn Robson (BAppSci (Micro/Biochem); BAppSci (Hons-PopGen); GradDipEdStud; MCouns; PhD) – The University of Queensland, Student Services – Student Affairs Division.

Having animals in their lives can provide people with physical health, mental health and social benefits (Fung, 2017). At the University of Queensland, an Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) program has been trialled, which aims to validate the value of this treatment modality in a tertiary context. A team of counsellor, trained therapy dog and professional dog handler worked individually with students experiencing a range of well-being concerns. The program has demonstrated that a therapeutic Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI) program can be successfully implemented in a university counselling service to provide measurable (using the Feedback Informed Treatment Outcomes Rating Scale/Session Rating Scale measure (Miller & Bargmann, 2012)) benefits to students. A small number of therapy sessions equivalent in length to standard counselling sessions, and utilising a primarily Solution Focused Brief Therapy approach, has provided the best results to date. Further potential refinements are explored. Pages 75 to 100




Weathering the Storm: Community Impact

Danielle J. Rancie, James Cook University, Supervised by Dr Sarah Lutkin

Climate change is a growing concern in today’s society and extreme weather events (EWEs) are increasing every year. Attitudes towards climate change and the perception of EWEs on community wellbeing is paramount to mitigating future health risks. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of climate change attitudes and how this impacts the perceptions of community wellbeing, community resilience, and EWEs. A quantitative study was conducted to measure opinions across the Australian general public with 124 people (76% female), aged between 18-73 years (M = 38.98, SD = 13.36) from rural (53%) or urban (47%) regions of Australia. Participants completed an online survey examining demographics, climate change attitudes, exposure to EWEs, community wellbeing, community resilience, perceptions of severity and harm. Overall, climate change attitudes had significant correlations with gender, age, education level, EWE, perceived severity and global warming concerns. Age, gender, and education accounted for 26% of the variability in climate change attitudes, while an additional 35% was explained by locality, EWE, place attachment, overall community wellbeing, future community wellbeing, community resilience, harm perceptions, perceived severity and global warming concern. Perceived severity being the only significant predictor of climate change attitudes when controlling for age, gender, and education. Climate change attitudes were significantly stronger in urban communities. Pages 101 to 125




Strengths Based Approach to Transinclusion in Indian Higher Education: A Way Towards Enhancing Mental Health and Well-Being

Catherine Elisa Johna, Abraham Francisb, aMPhil Research Scholar, Department of Social Work, University of Delhi, India, bAssociate Professor, Social Work and Human Services, College of Arts, Society and Education, James Cook University, Australia

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Constitution of India enshrines provisions on safeguarding the right to equality of all individuals. Trickling down to implementation, many are deprived of the same right of equality on the basis of their identities. Across the globe, the transgender community is one group among these vulnerable populations affected by the right to equality as evidenced by societal stigma and discrimination (Willging, Salvador, & Kano, 2006). Currently available research on transgender mental health and well-being suggest that anti-transgender discrimination creates a hostile and stressful social environment and is a direct correlate of lower mental health outcomes (Meyer, 2003). This research involving critical social work theory identifies social inclusion in various settings including education as a potential solution to improve mental health outcomes (Leonard & Metcalf, 2014). India’s first ever legislation on transgender rights, The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019 falls short of including the right to educational opportunities and reservation in educational institutions among its provisions (Padhi & Mohanty, 2019). Failing to keep up with the contemporary global discourse on transgender persons' rights, the legislation took a myopic view, with the problem focused and pathology oriented approach. As an alternative to this approach, the authors of this chapter attempt to integrate a strengths-based approach into policy and legislations to facilitate trans-inclusion in India. Writing form an analytical and descriptive perspective, the authors proposes inclusion as an effective tool to enhance mental health and well-being of transgender persons. Pages 126 to 148




The Power of Language – Removing the Blocks: Conversations around Mental Health in Higher Education

Professor Margaret Anne Carter, Australian College of Applied Psychology and James Cook University

Conversations around mental health are growing in prominence and starting to become part of the fabric of higher education workplaces, with initiatives and resources being introduced to develop and sustain a culture of mental health and wellness. Academics are being asked to communicate more frequently with students and with one another about wellbeing and mental health and the institutional and community services available to them. This interaction is fundamental in promoting wellbeing and mental health help seeking behaviours in higher education. Exploring the conundrum of academics instigating conversations with students about their mental health and wellbeing, next moves for academics that fosters meaningful and enabling mental health and wellbeing conversations with students, are considered. Pages 149 to 164


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