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An Employee Perspective of IT Innovation in the Banking Industry: Evidence from a Canadian Bank Branch

Nabil Messabia, DBA, CPA, CGAa, Ngo Ngue Marguerite, MBAb, Chokri Kooli, Phdc, aAssociate professor, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Gatineau, Canada, bDoctoral candidate, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Canada, cAssistant professor, Lusail University, Doha, Qatar, Email: anabil.messabia@uqo.ca, bnmaguy2004@yahoo.fr, cibm4chk@yahoo.fr     

The purpose of this paper is to understand the perceived impact of check imaging service as a technological innovation on bank employees. Following a substantive literature review, we conducted an empirical research aiming at understanding how bank employees perceive the adoption of such IT innovation by their bank. An inductive approach and qualitative methodology helped to understand employees' feelings and perceptions following the adoption of check imaging by their institution. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all three staff members of a Canadian banking agency taken as a unit of analysis in a unique case study approach. We used grounded theory as the qualitative data analysis method. Research findings show that technological and organisational innovation has improved the work systems. It has also fostered a close relationship between the client, the staff and the financial institution. From the employees’ standpoint, the new check processing technology allowed them to tighten their relationship with clients, to improve compliance with enacted regulations and to learn to better share their knowledge. Pages 1 to 17

 

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An Overview of Entrepreneurial Risk - A Bibliometric Analysis

Ali Murad Syed, Department of Economics and Finance, College of Business Administration, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain, amuradsyed@gamail.com

The entrepreneurship literature is giving more and more attention to risk aspects. However, in literature, only a fragmented comprehension is known about the contextual influence of risk aspects of entrepreneurship. In our article, we contribute by finding the relationship between Entrepreneurship and Risk by analysing the production and visualising the themes and evolution in this field. In our research approach bibliometric technique has been used to analyse 10 years of publications in Web of Science (WoS) database and present a comprehensive contextual picture of risks in entrepreneurial research. We analysed 1595 publications by identifying the most prominent journals, authors, articles, countries and collaboration among authors and countries. Also, a co-occurrence analysis among keywords, authors and the sources were done along with cluster analysis, and thematic analysis was also performed to find the evolutionary trends. Our analysis showed that risk taking is the evolving theme and its occurrence is increasing and becoming more prominent in the domain of entrepreneurship. Pages 18 to 37

 

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Intention to Adopt Mobile Applications Services: A Study Among Pakistani Academic Librarians

Mohamad Noorman Masreka, Abid Husseinb, aFaculty of Information Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia, bLibrary Officer, Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad (ISSI) , Pakistan

Not much is really known to what extend academic librarians in Pakistan are interested in adopting and embracing mobile application for enhancing their services and work performance. In addition, little is also known about the factors that may shape or influence their behaviour with regards to mobile application services. Against this background, a study was undertaken with the aim of examining the behavioural intention of adopting mobile application services in the context of academic librarians in Pakistan. A research model was developed based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. Five constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, perceived credibility, facilitating conditions and social influence were hypothesised to have significant relationship with intention to adopt mobile applications. Using a survey research methodology, data was collected from 212 academic librarians in Pakistan. The results revealed that performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions were significant in determining behavioural intention. The findings have contributed significantly to the body of knowledge from several perspectives, namely theoretical, managerial and practical. Pages 38 to 54
 
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Exam Grades in Architecture Classes: A Comparative Assessment of Before and During COVID-19 Pandemic Modes of Teaching and Learning

Mohammed A M Alhefnawia, Umar Lawal Danob, Mohamad Jalal Istanboulia, Wadee Ahmed Ghanem Al-Gehlania, Hazem M. Nour Afifya, Gamal Abd Elghanycand Mohamed Saad Rahaala, aDepartment of Architecture, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 2397, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia, bDepartment of Urban and Regional Planning, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 2397, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia, cDepartment of Interior Architecture, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 2397, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia, Email: uldano@iau.edu.sa

Over the last couple of months, universities worldwide have unprecedentedly switched to online teaching due to the recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. This has changed the teaching and learning methods of both faculties and students. Therefore, this study assesses the learning effectiveness of the two instructional modes using students’ performance records. Data on full-time undergraduate students of architecture was obtained and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Chi-square analysis test indicates no statistically significant positive relationship between the traditional and web-based modes of instruction with respect to learning effectiveness (χ2= 0.003, α = 0.05, p<α). The study concludes by recommending certain practices that will improve students’ participation and performance in the web-based classes during emergency periods, for example, the current period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Pages 54 to 68
 
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The Nexus between R&D, Innovation and Economic Growth Revisit: The Case of South Africa and Saudi Arabia

Yusuf Opeyemi Akinwalea, Jhalukpreya Babs Surujlalb, aCollege of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, bNorth West University, South Africa, Email: a yoakinwale@iau.edu.sa

It is evident in many countries that having abundant natural resources does not guarantee an increased economic growth. In order to diversify the economy, each one of South Africa and Saudi Arabia has developed Vision 2030 as related to their country. The aim of this paper is to study the role and impact of research and development (R&D) and innovation towards economic growth. Using ARDL and ECM for the period 2001-2018, the study finds that R&D and innovation have a long run association with economic growth in both countries, and a long run causality from R&D and innovation to economic growth is also established. Meanwhile in the short run, it is only R&D which has significant impact on economic growth in both countries. The study suggests that the policy makers should continue to advocate for more spending on research and innovative efforts as well as creating a strong collaboration among the stakeholders of national innovation systems as this would boost indigenous innovation capabilities which lead to economic growth. Pages 69 to 85
 
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Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) and Organizational Culture for Knowledge Sharing Strategy: Case Study of a Center for Continuing Education

Muhammad Mohiuddina, Md. Samim Al Azadb, Zhan Suc, aAssociate Professor, bPost-doctoral Fellow, cProfessor of International Management & Strategy, Director, Stephen A. Jarislowsky chair on International Business, a,b,cFaculty of Business Administration, Laval University, Quebec, Canada, Email: amuhammad.mohiuddin@fsa.ulaval.ca, bsamim.azad@northsouth.edu, czhan.su@fsa.ulaval.ca

The role of knowledge management is essential for any organization today. This study analyzes the knowledge value chain of a center for continuing education offering skill development related short courses and training for adult learners. Besides, this study analyzes how the Center can improve sustainability in terms of efficiency and capacity building by implementing effective knowledge sharing strategies utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT) and the organizational cultures. The case study methodology was used to study the factors that influence knowledge sharing in an academic institute. Organizational factors that influence the knowledge management process in the organization are studied. Knowledge sharing depends on the type of knowledge, motivation, and opportunity to share. The results show that both knowledge management systems and a conducive organizational culture are needed to implement a knowledge-sharing strategy effectively. Thus, the study focuses on the emergent approach (focusing on interpersonal dynamics and the nature of their daily tasks) and engineering or management approach (focusing on the infrastructure of knowledge-sharing). This qualitative study shows how systematic and organized knowledge sharing can help an organization offers continuing education services effectively and survive in its competitive marketplace. This study analyzes the knowledge value chain of a center for continuing education. How can knowledge management strategies help it to improve organizational sustainability in terms of efficiency and capacity? Knowledge management systems (tools and infrastructure) and conducive organizational culture are needed. Systematic, organized knowledge management improves competitive survival. Pages 86 to 108
 
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The Local Wisdom of the  Kajang Community

Mithen Lullulangia, Onesimus Sampebuab, Armiwaty, Tawanic, Bakhrani Abdul Raufd a,b,c,dLecturer Civil Engineering Education Universitas Negeri Makassar.

mithen@unm.ac.ud, onesimus.sampebua@unm.ac.id,  armiwaty@unm.ac.id, bakhrani@unm.ac.id

This study aims to determine the local knowledge of communities to preserve the environment in Kajang South Sulawesi. This research utilised a qualitative research approach. Data collection was completed through the methods of interview, field observations, documentation, and library research, which compared what is obtained in the field with what was written by previous researchers. The variable of this study was the local wisdom of the indigenous peoples of Kajang. The data analysis involved a descriptive analysis of the results that were obtained from the interviews. The results highlighted several findings. Firstly, according to the local wisdom of the Kajang, they believe in Pasang as customary law that must be respected and upheld by the Kajang communities in relation to environmental protection, and in particular, with respect to forest resources. Secondly, the local wisdom of the Kajang community is known as Ambuang Balla, which is a form of community cooperation, if there are community members who want to build houses. Thirdly, the local wisdom of the Kajang community is Tallase kamase-mase, which is part of the Pasang that commands the Kajang people to live simply and modestly, and reject everything that has a technological smell. Finally, the local wisdom of the Kajang  ommunity is Magig Power, Anttunu Panroli, to test the honesty of the people suspected of stealing. Pages 109 to 119
 
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Risk Factors Associated with the Pre-Eclampsia Incidence on Pregnant Women at Local Hospital of Bengkulu

Ida Rahmawati1*, Mika Oktarina2, Choralina Eliagita3, Winda Dewanty Yulandasari4, 1Lecture in Nursing Science Study Program, STIKES Tri Mandiri Sakti Bengkulu, Indonesia, 2,3Lecture in midwifery study program applied undergraduate program, STIKES Tri Mandiri  Sakti Bengkulu, Indonesia, 4Student in midwifery study program applied undergraduate program, STIKES Tri Mandiri Sakti Bengkulu, Indonesia, Email: 1*idarahmawati1608@gmail.com

Preeclampsia is an obstetric emergency characterised by high blood pressure in pregnant women which has a risk of causing death. This research aimed to study the risk factors associated with the incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant women at the Local Hospital of Bengkulu. This study applied case control design. The population in this research were all multiparous pregnant women who were hospitalised in C1 room of RSUD Dr. M. Yunus of Bengkulu in 2018, which amounted to 484 pregnant women. Case sampling selection in this research was done by using 1:1 total sampling with systematic random sampling method. Data analysis was performed by using univariate and bivariate. Statistical test was conducted by calculating the Chi-Square (x2). While to determine the closeness of the relationship among the variables, the Contingency Coefficient (C) was used. The results of this research are : there was a relationship between maternal age and the incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant women; there was no relationship between history of previous preeclampsia with the incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant women; there was no relationship of multiple pregnancy with the incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant women. Preeclampsia can be influenced by several factors. The results showed the age factor can greatly influence the occurrence of preeclampsia. The importance of reproductive system education for mothers and adolescents aims to reduce the risk of death from pre-eclampsia. Therefore, it is expected to officers and health services to provide necessary information regarding this issue. Pages 120 to 134
 
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Developing a Green Brand Through Co-Creation Process of Krabi, Thailand

Siwarit Pongsakornrungsilpa, Theeranuch Pusaksrikitb, Pimlapas Pongsakornrungsilpc* a,cCenter of Excellent for Tourism Business Management and Creative Economy, School of Management, Walailak University, Thailand, bChulalongkorn Business School, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand,

Email: apsiwarit@wu.ac.th, btheeranuch@cbs.chula.ac.th, c*kpimlapa@wu.ac.th Corresponding Author: Asst.Prof.Pimlapas Pongsakornrungsilp, Ph.D.

This paper has shed light on how stakeholders participate in the branding process through the concept of co-creation, whereby a brand may be managed for sustainability. Data was collected by focus group interviews from tourism and environmental stakeholders, together with projective techniques from domestic and international tourists. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the data. The results indicated that a brand culture of green tourism plays an important role in developing green behavior, whereby it requires the cooperation of, and co-creation by all stakeholders to develop a strong brand identity in a single message. The analysis provides a template for using destination branding to drive green tourism culture. This study did not investigate the success of the new brand identity in attracting tourists. Therefore, a longitudinal study should be conducted to follow up the brand development process, in order to demonstrate the success of the branding.  Pages 135 to 158
 
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COVID-19 and Social Change in Indonesia

Rilus A. Kinseng1, 1Department of Communication and Community Development, Faculty of Human Ecology; Head of Knowledge Production Division, CTSS, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia, Email: 1rilus@apps.ipb.ac.id

The pandemic Covid-19 has caused disruption and a crisis all over the world, including Indonesia. It is important to describe and analyse the identity and magnitude of social changes due to the pandemic Covid-19 in Indonesia more precisely. The objective of this paper is to describe social changes in Indonesia due to the spread of Covid-19. The information is derived from abundant information in mass media, as well as my personal networks and activities related to Covid-19. This paper shows that the Covid-19 outbreak caused a wide range of social changes in Indonesia’s society; from everyday social interactions to basic social institutions such as family, economy, education, health, religion and government. Pages 159 to 174
 
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The Impact of a Proposed Training Program to Develop Selected Physical Abilities among Kickboxing Players

Bassam A. Mismara*, O. M. Al-Omerb, aSchool of Physical Education, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; bMinistry of Education, Amman, Jordan, Email: a*b.mismar@ju.edu.jo

Identifying the impact of a proposed training program to develop selected physical abilities among kickboxing players. The study consisted of 20 (n=20) players who were chosen intentionally from Al-Burini Academy for Self-Defense in Jordan, the study sample was divided into two groups and each one had 10 players. The experimental group was introduced to the proposed training program developed by the researchers. The proposed training program exemplifies significant differences of impact in the post measurements at p-value of 0.05. The differences were measured for selected physical abilities (legs strength, explosive strength of the lower limbs, one repetition max of hamstring muscles) where the performance of the experimental group was better than the control group. Pages 175 to 195
 
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Harmonising Market Orientation and Brand Orientation in the Non-profit Context

Mohammad Ovaisa, Dr. Muhammad Noumanb, aMS-Management Sciences (Gold Medal), MBA, Lecturer in Management Sciences, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, KPK, Pakistan. bPhD, University of Southampton UK, MS and MBA, University of Texas at Arlington USA, Assistant Professor | Coordinator, MS Management Institute of Management Sciences 1-A, E/5, Phase 7, Hayatabad Peshawar, Pakistan, Email: aumerkhelovais@gmail.com, bmuhammad.nouman@imsciences.edu.pk

This paper aimed to investigate the performance implications of non-profit market orientation and brand orientation in a developing country’s context. The paper also aimed to determine the mediating effect of non-profit brand orientation and between non-profit market orientation and its performance. A composite questionnaire was designed through the adaptation of the already existing scales for the aforementioned three variables. The constructs were further subject to refinement following Confirmatory Factor Analysis through SPSS AMOS. Data was collected from the executive level managers from diverse non-profit organisations and was analysed to address the aforementioned objective. The findings suggest a significant impact of the non-profit market orientation and brand orientation on organisational performance. The findings also suggest the mediating effect of non-profit brand orientation between its market orientation and performance. The authors come up with several theoretical and managerial implications and suggest important future research directions. Pages 196 to 218
 
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Cultivating Multicultural Values in Learning History: A Unifier of the Nation’s Plurality

Slamet. Slameta*, Eko H. Widiastutib, Nuryanti. Nuryantic,  Kabri. Kabrid, Budi Utomoe,  Partono. Partonof, a.b.cIvet University, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia. d.e.fSmaratungga Buddhist College, Boyolali, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia. Email: a*slamet.doktor@gmail.com;  bekoheriwidiastuti2@gmail.com; emeitasari233@gmail.com; dkmbrata@gmail.com; editthisampanno@gmail.com; fpsnadi@gmail.com

Indonesia is full of diversity, either ethnic, religious, culture, custom, racial, territorial, and so on. In having a common perception on Indonesian diversity as a nation, multicultural education has become a necessity. Incorporating multicultural education into the curriculum is very urgent, at least by incorporating it with other relevant subjects, such as Civics, History, and Religion. Multicultural education is a response to the growing diversity of school populations, as well as the demands of equal rights for every citizen. Another dimension, multicultural education is the development of curricula and educational activities to tap into the views, history, achievements and concerns of non-Europeans. Multicultural education encompasses all learners regardless of group, such as: gender, ethnic, racial, cultural, social, territorial, and religious strata, which has become a demand and necessity in building a new Indonesia. However, multicultural education requires an in-depth study of the concepts and praxis of its implementation, even to the present the concept of multicultural education has not been studied seriously in education. However, when judicially judged, Act no. 20/2003 on the National Education System has provided an opportunity to elaborate further on the concept of multicultural education, particularly in Article 4 paragraph (1) which regulates the implementation of education which takes into consideration the diverse cultural values ​​of society. Pages 219 to 232 
 
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Does Organisational Commitment Moderate the Relationship between Internal Marketing and Market Orientation of the Public Sector Universities in Pakistan? A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

Muhammad Ovaisa, Dr. Faqir Sajjadul Hassanb, Dr. Muhammad Noumanc, Dr. Siraj ud Dind, aLecturer, Department of Management Sciences, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, bPhD, Asst. Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, cPhD, University of Southampton UK, MS and MBA, University of Texas at Arlington USA, Assistant Professor | Coordinator, MS Management, Institute of Management Sciences, 1-A, E/5, Phase 7, Hayatabad, Peshawar, Pakistan, dHead of the Department/ Asst. Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, Email: aovais.khan@kkkuk.edu.pk, bfaqirphd@yahoo.com, cmuhammad.nouman@imsiences.edu.pk, ddr.siraj@kkkuk.edu.pk

This paper builds on the notion that positive culture and behaviours, for example market orientation of internal marketing, are sensitive to positive attitudes like organisational commitment and non-profits’ contextual peculiarities. Thus, the paper aimed to validate the positive moderating effect of organisational commitment on the market orientation related implications of internal marketing in the non-profit context of public sector higher educational institutes. The paper utilised a composite questionnaire in a survey design, through the integration of market orientation scale by Kohli and Jaworski (1993), the internal marketing scale by Foreman and Money (1990) and the organisational commitment scale by Allen and Mayer (1990). The data collected was subject to Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modelling (CFA) through SPSS AMOS for reliability, validity and hypotheses testing. The results of the CFA led to multiple items reduction in the aforementioned three scales, indicating the contextual sensitivity of the construct. The outcomes of the SEM on the refined scale supported the hypotheses that internal marketing has a significant impact on market orientation and that organisational commitment positively moderates the relationship. The findings may contribute towards the scholarly understanding of the three constructs and the way they can be harmonised in the academic context to yield performance implications. The research may guide managers in public sector higher educational institutes to synergies their internal marketing programs and human resource policies to create a positive market-oriented culture that may lead to better learning facilitation and human development. Pages 233 to 253  
 
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Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility Model: The Implementation on Domestic Forestry Company in Indonesia

Aisa Tri Agustini1*,  Ririn Irmadariyani2*, Yosefa Sayekti3, Indah Purnamawati4, Bunga Maharani5, Djoko Supatmoko6, Bayu Aprillianto7, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Jember, Email: 1aisa.agustini@unej.ac.id, 2irmadariyaniririn@gmail.com  

The purpose of this study is to analyse the strategic implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility. The research method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. The object of the research is the Domestic Forestry Company in Indonesia. The results shows that the implementation of strategic CSR in Domestic Forestry Company is higher than the non-strategic CSR. This indicates that the company's strategy to implement CSR is already done well, because the company has a strategy, and that the implementation of CSR does not only benefit stakeholders, but also provides value for the company. Pages 254 to 266
 
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Exploring the Social Psychology Responses among the Female Practice of Bodypump during the Coronavirus Epidemic

Ayed Zureigata , Osama Abdel Fattahb*,  Alaa Elayyanͤ , aFaculty of Physical Education, the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0003-4545-5562, bThe Ministry of Education, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0003-4545-5562, ͨ       Les Mills bodypump certified instructor,  Amman, Jordan, Email: aA.Zureigat@ju.edu.jo, b*osamhsaf.2811@gmail.com,   ͨ alaaissa_84@hotmail.com             

Experts advise individuals to remain in self-isolation during the Corona pandemic,            where these restrictions can have short and long-term negative effects on individuals'    mental and physical health as the culture of society depends on social support and social cohesion and may be accompanied by stress disorders and negative effects on           the mental health of individuals. Accordingly, the study aimed to explore the social psychology responses among the female practice of bodypump during the coronavirus epidemic. To achieve this we used the descriptive approach on 57 untrained healthy females who regularly practice bodypump before and during the Corona pandemic (age, 28.4±2 years; height, 168± 3.2cm; body mass, 66.8± 3.8kg). Because of the home    quarantine an electronic questionnaire was built using Google forms, which consisted of 12 paragraphs to measure the social psychology effects among females that the bodypump             practitioner could achieve during the Corona pandemic by sending the link via      WhatsApp. To achieve the objectives of the study the researchers used mean, standard deviations and percentages by using SPSS version 24 with a confidence level of 95%      (p value= 0.05). The results of the study have shown that bodypump has contributed     positively to improving the level of satisfaction of life, communication with family and others with a very high average. It has also contributed to reducing the level of stress and            anxiety from rumours with a high average. Finally, the practice of bodypump among the  females has contributed positively in improving social psychology responses. Pages 267 to 276
 
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The Role of Intellectual Capital Strategies in Raising the Level of Organizational Performance: Field Research in the Directorate of Municipalities of Anbar

Khamees Naser Mohammeda, Ahmed Diaalddin Salahb, aAssistant professor, College of Administration and Economic, University of Anbar, bAssistant lecturer, College of Administration and Economic, University of Anbar, Email: adr.khamees_mohammed@uoanbar.edu.iq , ba.besiness@yahoo.com

This research has highlighted two main variables: intellectual capital strategies and organizational performance. The first is a modern tool that is very reliable in raising the levels of the future performance of the organizations, as it tried to provide an ideological and philosophical framework for the most prominent of the scientific writers and researchers in the literature of management and organization to the extent whether, sample of (125) individual were applied on them from different administrative levels in the Directorate of Municipalities of Anbar. The independent variable represents intellectual capital strategies through three areas (human capital strategy, structural capital strategy, and relative capital strategy), while the approved variable represents organizational performance through its four perspectives (Financial Perspective, customer Perspective, Internal processes Perspective, Environmental Perspective, and Learning, growth and creativity Perspective). Questionnaire used in research as a main tool for collecting data and information. It sought to test the main and sub-research hypotheses between the correlation variables and the effect to answer the questions of the problem and achieve the goals set. the data was processed using some statistical methods and tool appropriate to the nature of research. A positive relationships and effects were found of intellectual capital strategies in raising the level of organizational performance, which came in line with the hypotheses. Pages 277 to 301
 
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A Business Model Framework for  Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Entrepreneurship for Filipinos

Jocelyn S. Ojeda-Jintalan, St. Paul University Manila, Philippines, Email: jhojintalan@gmail.com

A business model framework generally describes the corporate organisation or management structure or may generally outline company policies. An organisation might develop a framework to achieve a particular goal, or an innovation framework may outline policies, procedures, and management changes the company will use to achieve innovation and growth. This study focused on the search for a business model framework suited for the proposed PhD in Entrepreneurship for Filipinos. Using a qualitative design, data was collected from documentary analysis of Commission on Higher Education (CHED) memorandum orders, documentary analysis of foreign literature and entrepreneurship programs of international schools;  textual analysis of top entrepreneurial gurus from TEDx events; interviews; and focus group discussions in academic sectors, business sectors and the government sector, all from Region V. Results show that a PhD in Entrepreneurship is guided by the new CHED Memorandum orders and the new directions of Philippine Education. Also, the global trends in entrepreneurial education are gearing towards experiential learning, technological innovation, and building innovative infrastructures. Moreover, there are various required competencies needed to become successful, the global business sector provides an entrepreneurial DNA model: builder, opportunist, specialist, and innovator. Lastly, a business model framework shall serve as a guide in the offering of a PhD in Entrepreneurship that will strengthen the knowledge and skills of Filipinos. Collaboration among the government, business, and academic sectors is needed to improve the entrepreneurial direction of Filipinos. Pages 302 to 324
 
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Challenges Faced by the Teachers and Students in Online Learning

Muhammad Hafeez1*, Fouzia Ajmal2, Qaiser Abbas Kazmi3

1*Research Scholar, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2Department of Education, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan, 3 Regional Director, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad,

Email: 1*mh9589041@gmail.com, 2fouzia.ajmal@iiu.edu.pk,  3rajanpur911@gmail.com

Most of the educational institutions (Universities, Schools and Colleges) in Pakistan are based on traditional method of learning and teaching. Although various institutions are now converting the learning methods from traditional to technology based online learning. At the end of 2019, the sudden outbreak of Pandemic disease Covid-19 has totally changed the learning and teaching system. Many educational institutions that were based on traditional methods of learning and teaching have to shift entirely on online learning and teachings. A survey-based research has been conducted to highlight the challenges faced by students and teachers during Covid-19 in learning and teachings at undergraduate and graduate levels. The results of the research indicated that the students and teachers faced a lot of problems during the online learning and teaching. The online learning system of Pakistan, problems during online learning and solutions to the online learning problems are also discussed. This research will give a direction for the solution of problems associated with online learning and teachings. Pages 325 to 346  
 
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Skill-based Competency of Teacher Educators in English Language: Professional and Pragmatic Diversity

Dr. Kamal Haidera, Dr. Muhammad Yousuf Sharjeelb, Dr. Ann Samsonc, Sonia Manzoord, Dr. Nazia Abdul Rehmane, Dr. Safia Niazif, aAssistant Professor/ Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology Karachi, bDepartment of Education-SZABIST-Karachi, c,dFederal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, e,fBenazir Bhutto Shaheed University Lyari Karachi Pakistan, Email: akamalhaider@fuuast.edu.pk, byousufsharjeel@hotmail.com, cDr.annsamson@fuuast.edu.pk, dSoniaayaz10@gmail.com, enzshakir@gmail.com, fdr.safianiazi@gmail.com

The significance of English language since the inception of Pakistan as a lingua franca, a medium to reach the scientific and technological asset of the developed nations has become quite distinct. Moreover, it is significant for correspondence and interaction within and outside the country. It is serving a vital purpose for higher studies and study abroad. Its importance in business communication, civil service and employment is inevitable. The aim of the study was to evaluate the competency of teacher educators and its impact on the communicative skills of trainee teachers. Survey method and sequential explanatory design was followed to integrate the mixed-method data collected through the administration of the questionnaire and interviews. The result depicted an uncertain ad incompetent professional skills of trainee teachers. These competencies encompassed skills in developing a lesson plan, constructing instructional learning objectives, adopting student-centered approaches and methods, using instructional technologies and managing classrooms of English language in formal situations.  The study concludes that English language must be taught in all the schools irrespective of private or public, rural or urban. It's teaching, however, needs intensive training and evaluation of the competencies of teacher educators who train the trainees (school teachers). Pages 347 to 365
 
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The Significance of Knowledge Management in the Knowledge Economy of the 21st Century

Dr. Alex Jones, Roozbeh Shideh, College of Business Administration, American University in the Emirates, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Loosing knowledgeable and experienced employees is on the rise across the world and in many organisations. The later is on the search for multiple solutions. The economy we live in has become a knowledge economy. The later concept focuses on getting knowledge to as many working professionals and employees in their organisations using multiple channels. All of which should focus on making information and knowledge accessible to many and all. That contributes significantly to the percentage of turn over in organisations. That itself makes the concept of knowledge management even more on demand than ever. Therefore, a systematic well-developed approach should be drafted in place to achieve the desired purpose. Each of which should have two integrates components as part of the process: evaluation and implementation. There isn’t a standard format for such but rather a developed framework that suits the purpose of organisations. In this article, and after a thorough analysis in the field backed with professional experiences, we provide a well-developed model of framework in the field of knowledge management that is going to contribute significantly in the field to many organisations and across multiple disciplines. Pages 366 to 377
 
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The Relationship between Principals' Transformational Leadership and Teachers' Work Engagement in Saudi Arabia

Eman I Ahmed, Department of Educational Administration, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Email: eiahmed@iau.edu.sa

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of principals' transformational leadership on work engagement among teachers in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Most of the research on principal transformational leadership has been conducted in western countries and thus, the generalisability of the extent to which transformational principals are contributing to teacher engagement to other contexts is questioned. The perceptions of 407 public school teachers in Saudi Arabia about the relationship between transformational leadership and work engagement were identified through descriptive, cross-sectional design. The findings of the study revealed that transformational leadership had significant positive effect on work engagement among teachers. By supporting teachers and recognising their contributions, setting and articulating vision for the future, and encouraging them to take new perspectives and reframe challenges; teachers become more engaged toward their work. The findings of this study have some practical implications for the school principals in Saudi Arabia and other contexts. The results suggest the need for preparing school principals on how to inspire their teachers, motivate them in envisioning future states and increase their dependency. More specifically, professional preparation programs should provide the principals with skills and the knowledge to transfer their inspirational motivation to their teachers and build required power and energy among them.  The value of this study resides in two areas. Firstly, this study corresponds with current reform efforts in Saudi Arabia to develop more appropriate principal leadership styles to enhance teacher engagement toward work. Secondly, this study seeks to develop the knowledge base on principal's transformational form of leadership within non-western context. Pages 378 to 398
 
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Managing Talented Professionals at the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand: Success and Challenges

Sudarat Yodhaboribala, Siriporn Yamnillb*, aD.P.A. Candidate in Public Policy and Public Management, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom Thailand 73170, bPh.D, Associate Professor of Public Policy and Public Management, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom Thailand 73170, Email: asudarat.yo.pa@gmail.com, b*siriporn.yam@mahidol.ac.th

This study aims to analyze factors affecting the successful implementation of a talent management (TM) system at the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) of Thailand. The study employs qualitative research methods, particularly documentary research and in-depth interviews with 50 MOPH executives, policy-level officers, implementors, and public health professionals targeted by the ministry’s TM policy. The results of this study indicate that the implementation of the MOPH’s TM policy would not succeed without (a) transformational leaders serving as TM advocates and mentors and (b) effective communication methods, including the use of informal channels like instant messaging services. However, the lack of appropriate organisation exemplified by a highly hierarchical structure, formal rules and communication channels, and centralised TM decision-making and negative stakeholder attitudes towards TM regarded as an administrative burden, were associated with the failure of the MOPH’s TM system. Pages 399 to 414
 
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Learning from the Greats: Identifying Three Knowledge Sharing Pillars to Direct Knowledge Management Initiatives in Higher Education Institutions           

Ivy Chan1, Yui-yip Lau2, 1,2Division of Business and Hospitality Management, College of Professional and Continuing Education, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

In the ever-changing business environment, knowledge is regarded as a strategic asset for an organisation to sustain organisational competitive advantages. The ability to harness, integrate, disseminate, share, and apply knowledge in corporate strategies can contribute to desirable performance and results. In the higher education sector, management devises to instigate effective management of their knowledge assets in order to cope with the stiff competition and substantial demand on quality teaching, scholarly work and resources deployment. The findings from semi-structured, in-depth interviews with two Hong Kong knowledge-intensive organisations are summarised and thematised on three pertinent KM pillars, people, process, and technology (PPT) that constitute to effective KM practices and contribute to competitive advantages.  The study provides an implication on how business PPT KM practices can be deployed and instilled in higher education institutions for their KM initiatives. Pages 415 to 430
 
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Knowledge Dissemination for Indonesian Dental Communities Through Telemedicine - A Report

Aqsa Sjuhada Oki1, Shuji Shimizu2, Melissa Adiatman3, Miftakhul Cahyati4, 1Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya – Indonesia, 2Telemedicine Development Center of Asia (TEMDEC), International Medical Department, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka – Japan, 3Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta – Indonesia, 4Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Brawijaya, Malang – Indonesia, Email: 1aqsa@fkg.unair.ac.id

Knowledge dissemination in dental science is a routine activity required by dentists in Indonesia. Through scientific updates, dentists can increase their capacity and lead to the health service quality improvements. To gain quality knowledge dissemination, it often takes time and cost to attend scientific meetings, so we need a breakthrough to help with this problem. Since 2016 the Faculty of Dentistry, Airlangga University, in collaboration with the Telemedicine Development Center of Asia (TEMDEC) has initiated international dental telemedicine which is performed on a regular basis, featuring both national and overseas speakers to discuss particular topics. These activities are expected to support dentists to get knowledge updates easily, as they are available in video streaming. From the questionnaires, it was concluded that the dental telemedicine program brought the benefits of knowledge dissemination to Indonesian dental communities and improved the value of the institutions involved. Pages 431 to 440
 
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Transformational Leadership Practices and Staff Personnel Administration 

Khuda Bakhsh¹, Muhammad Azim², Javed Iqbal³. ¹Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. ²Professional Researcher, Department of Cybernatics, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Králové, Czechia, ³Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan. Email: ¹khudabakhsh@gcuf.edu.pk  

The achievement of the objectives of secondary education depends on, among other things; strategies adopted by the head teachers for improving staff personnel administration of secondary schools. In an attempt to carry out the study, two research questions were formulated.  A questionnaire measuring the transformational leadership practices and staff personnel administration was developed and administered to one hundred secondary school teachers in government high schools. Means and regressions were used to answer the research questions. Strategies for improving staff personnel administration in the area of transformational leadership behavior was the focus of the study. Transformational leadership practices contributed forty one percent to the variance of staff personnel administration. Based on the findings of this study, some practical recommendations were made. The principal should display transformational leadership activities to get the work done in a limited time with due interest and utmost pleasure. Pages 441 to 447
 
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The Effect of Visionary leadership on Employee’s Innovation in King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan

Prof. Mohammad T. Bataineha, Prof. Alhazaimeh Ahmad Salehb, aProfessor, Business Administration Department, Jarash University, Jordan, bFaculty of Economics and Administration, King Abdulaziz University/Jeddeh,

Email: aaboqais2003@gmail.com, bAh_jrash@yahoo.com, bamefleh@kau.edu.sa

The purpose of this study is to explore how visionary leadership effects  employee’s innovation in King Abdullah University Hospital located in Irbid, Jordan. A survey was conducted on 92 managers in King Abdullah University Hospital. Hierarchical regression was used to model the effect of visionary leadership on employee’s innovation through its internal and external elements. The internal elements are knowledge and imagination, and the external elements are resources and culture.  The results show that visionary leadership  improved employee’s innovation in King Abdullah University Hospital. Moreover, the elements of employee’s innovation (knowledge, imagination, resources and culture) are improved also by visionary leadership. To the best of our knowledge, we are not aware of any study that has previously investigated effects of visionary leadership on employee’s innovation, where  this type of leadership style is recommended to enhance employee’s innovation; in King Abdullah University Hospital, visionary leadership is positively related with employee’s innovation and its elements. Pages 448 to 459
 
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Cooperative Learning: The Effects towards Students' Achievement

Badaruddin Ibrahima, Nurul iHaerani iMohamadb, Dina Najihah Dawaric, ia,b,cFaculty of Technical and VocationaliEducation,iUniversiti Tun HusseiniOnn iMalaysia,iEmail: abadar@uthm.edu.my, bhaeranimohamad@gmail.com, cdinanajihahdawari@gmail.com

Cooperative learning is widely recognised as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialisation and learning among students from pre-school through to tertiary level and across different subject domains. It involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks – goals and tasks that they would be unable to completed by themselves. Therefore, this study quantitatively examined the efficiency and relationship between cooperative learning methods on students' achievement in Hydraulics & Mechanics of the Material Laboratory subject and the Transportation & Environmental Engineering Laboratory subject. The data for this study was obtained through a structured questionnaire which involved sixty technical students of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Based on the descriptive analysis presented, attempts to show that the success of cooperative learning as a pedagogical practice that promotes both socialisation and learning, was overwhelmingly supported. Pages 460 to 469
 
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The Mediating Role of Proactive Environmental Behavior between Environmental Knowledge and Green Discipline Management

Azhar Khan1, Hamid Ullah2, Afifa Anjum Khattak3, Asiya Khattak4, Arif Hussain5, Farah Nadir6, Muhammad Nasir7, Muhammad Khan8.

1PhD scholar Department of Management Sciences Islamia College Peshawar, 2Assistant Professor Department of Management Sciences Islamia College Peshawar, 3Lecturer, Institute of Management Studies University of Peshawar, 4Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, Northern University Nowshera, 5&8Assistant Professor, Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan, University Mardan, Pakistan, 6Associate Prof GCGC Gulbahar, Peshawar, 7Lecturer Bacha Khan University, Charsadda Principal and corresponding Author: Azhar khan Joint Director ISPaR, Peshawar Pakistan

Environmental knowledge, its principles and evolving attitudes towards green discipline management have been used to build on the theory of reasoned action (TRA). The goal of this comprehensive analysis was to explore the direct effect of environmental knowledge on green discipline management and the indirect impact of proactive environmental behaviour between environmental knowledge and green discipline management. The study is quantitative, the adopted philosophy is positivism, and the approach is deductive while a cross-sectional time horizon was employed. Four established hypotheses were tested which are based on the theory of reasoned action (TRA). The adapted questionnaire was circulated among the faculty and administrative staff of one university located in the district of Nowshera KP, Pakistan. The total number of faculty and administration staff was 215. Therefore, the university's whole community was selected as a representative for the analysis. In relation to this, the SMART PLS was used to analyze the data. Due to the pandemic and lockdown situation in the education sector of Pakistan, the study focused on and was limited to one University located in district Nowshera. The results of the present study will provide a useful contribution to theory and also for academia, policymakers, students and society. This research may offer motivation for further researchers in this field. The proposed framework will provide new insights into how proactive environmental behavior plays a mediating role between knowledge behavior and green discipline management. The novelty of this study shows how the use of proactive environmental behavior strengthens the relationship between environmental knowledge and green discipline management.  Pages 470 to 491
 
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The Demand for Shadow Education: Socioeconomic Determinants and Implications.

Ghulam Mustafa1, Ayesha Ishaque2, Asim Iqbal3, Nawaz Ahmad4, Summaira Malik5, Dr Aftab Anwar6, 1Assistant Professor, Department of Economics and Business Administration, Division of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Education Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan 2Research Scholar, Department of Education, Uuniversity of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan 3Assistant Professor, Department of Economics and Business Administration, Division of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Education Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan 4Associate Professor, Department of Economics, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan 5Assistant Professor. Department of Economics, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Lahore Campus, Lahore, Pakistan, 6Department of economics and business administration,  University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: 1ghulam.mustafa@ue.edu.pk, (author’s correspondence) 2ayeshaasim85@gmail.com, 3asim.iqbal@ue.edu.pk, 4nawaz.ahmad@econ.uol.edu.pk, 5drsummairamalik@cuilahore.edu.pk 6aftab.anwar@ue.edu.pk

The supplementary tutoring, broadly known as shadow education (SE) has proliferated around the globe and become a multi-billion dollar industry. The participating households devour a substantial amount of income on SE by considering it as a future investment to build the beneficiaries’ scholastic accomplishments. The present study is endeavoured to examine the various factors which lead to provoke families to choose supplementary tutoring. The primary data has been collected from 240 households by utilising a multi-stage random sampling technique through questionnaire from the Sargodha Division of Pakistan. The study used logit regression to explore the socio-economic drivers of SE and simple regression, to investigate the effect of SE on students’ performance. The study found the significant impact of location (rural and urban), gender, income and parents’ education on SE. Moreover, the results indicate that SE has a positive effect on students’ performance at the cost of substantial budget share of households and thus it may create gender and regional inequality in terms of education. The policymakers should revamp educational policies to increase the performance of educators and students, to bring about educational and social equalities. Pages 492 to 513
 
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An Investigation of Satisfaction Regarding Electronic Exams among KSA Nursing Students: A Multi-University Study

Shereen Ahmed Ahmed Qalawa1, Samia Eaid Elgazzar 2, Mashail Saleh Alsalamah3,Sahar Mohamad Aly4, Manal Tharwat Soliman5, Noha Mohammed Ibrahim6,Khadiga Abd Elgied Gomea Hassan7, Elham Youssef Elhanafy8, Mona M Abdelhamid Younes9,1Associate Professor of Medical-surgical Nursing, Nursing College, Qassim University, KSA 1Professor of Medical-surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, Egypt , 2 Assistant Professor of Medical-surgical Nursing, Nursing College, Qassim University, KSA, 2Assistant Professor of Medical-surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, Egypt,3Assistant Professor of MIS, College of Business and Economics, Dean of Nursing College, Qassim University, KSA, 4Associate Professor of Nursing Administration, faculty of nursing, Umm AlQura University, Mecca, KSA,4Assistant Professor of Nursing Administration, faculty of nursing, Port-Said University, Egypt, 5Lecturer of Medical surgical nursing, Nursing department. Applied Medical Sciences College, university of hafr Albatin, KSA,6Lecturer of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port -Said University, Egypt,6Assistant Professor of Medical –Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Bisha University, KSA, 7Lecturer of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Shaqra&Portsaid university, KSA & Egypt, 8Associate Professor of Nursing Administration, faculty of nursing, Taibah University , KSA, 8Assistant Professor Nursing Administration, faculty of nursing, Damanhur University, Egypt, 9Assistant Professor of Community Health Nursing,Jazan University, KSA, 9Lecturer of Community Health Nursing, faculty of nursing, Port-Said University, Egypt

Technology can be an important method for learning transformation. It can help to strengthen and foster relationships between educators and students, to re-create learning and collaborative approaches, to narrow long-standing gaps in equity and accessibility, and to adapt learning experiences to meet the needs of all learners. to investigate student nurse's satisfaction regarding electronic exams in selected KSA universities. A descriptive exploratory research was used with a convenience sample of all available students (1574) from Qassim, Umm AL-QURA, Taiba, Jizan, Bisha, Hafr Al Batinand Shaqra universities. One tool divided into two main parts; demographic data, and student's satisfaction tool regarding using electronic exam. The majority of the students had higher mean score of satisfaction regarding electronic exams at Umm al-Qura (82.3 %,) Qassim (80.5%), Shaqra (74.3%), Tiba (72.3%) than the students in other universities with statistically significant difference (p - <0.001). The majority of the students ranged from strongly agree to agree in level of satisfaction to all items of satisfaction regarding electronic exams. It is imperative for students to maintain and receive regular, periodic in-service computer skills courses. Maintaining and improving learning environments facilitated with technologies is seen in the quality of learning, availability of training and education, and cost-effectiveness of education. Pages 514 to 531
 
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The Role of Strategic Sourcing in Facing Uncertainty of the Manufacturing Business Environment during COVID-19

Luay Jum’aᵃ, ᵃLogistic Sciences Department, School of Management and Logistic Sciences, German Jordanian University, Amman, Jordan. E-mail: ᵃLuay.juma@gju.edu.jo

The study examines effect of strategic sourcing on operational and financial performances of manufacturing firms in Jordan during COVID-19. Based on a literature review, four strategic sourcing dimensions: strategic purchasing, internal integration, information sharing, and development of key suppliers were focused on. Data collected from various levels of managers in manufacturing firms of food products in Amman, Jordan was used to test the proposed research model. A quantitative approach was employed, and a survey conducted using a structured questionnaire to collect primary data during COVID-19 period. The final sample included 196 respondents, representing a 65% response rate. Structural equation modeling (SEM) method was applied to test and validate the proposed research model. The research model confirmed that there is a significant effect of internal integration and development of key suppliers on operational performance of manufacturing firms during COVID-19. Furthermore, the model confirmed that there is a significant effect of strategic purchasing, internal integration and development of key suppliers on financial performance of manufacturing firms during COVID-19. In order to face challenges created by COVID-19, purchasing managers can use strategic sourcing model to make continuous improvements to numerous activities in each dimension to enhance operational and financial performances of firms. Pages 532 to 546
 
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Shifting Strategies: Changes in Brand Advertising During Covid-19

Bassant Eyada, Associate Professor, City University College of Ajman, United Arab Emirates

Covid-19 pandemic has revolutionised the world in several aspects; generally several human behaviour elements have changed, and more is predicted to change in the future. Consumer behaviour has also witnessed a change in terms of purchase decisions, prioritising and eliminating products, as well as a shift in media usage and online purchase patterns. Researchers estimate that these changes will be lasting, even after the pandemic is over. Brands therefore have to re-evaluate their advertising and marketing structures, budgets and strategies. Rethinking and shifting the type of messages and campaigns, focusing on new modified and developed advertising assets that emphasise different key messages, addressing consumer concerns, pivoting towards solutions, linking their products to the new lifestyle people are living, reorganising relationships with consumers and shifting strategies of product-consumer engagement are all possible adaptions. This research aims to explore the impact of the pandemic on the advertising industry in terms of content, strategies and media usage, by analysing the shift in consumer behaviour and its relation to brand perception, advertising placement and conveyed messages. Pages 547 to 565 
 
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Administration Control Law in Public Facilities

Mohammed Kadhim Hamzah, Iraqi Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research / Dijlah University College /Department of Law                       Email: mohammad.kazemh@duc.edu.iq

This paper presents the administrative control law in the sustainable performance of public facilities. The failure or success rates of managing organisations are based on internal stakeholder managements. Through the facilities maintenance managements, the internal stakeholder roles should be well identified to ensure the efficiency of works executed. This is because the controlling hierarchy possesses different powers and authorities, which is needed for them to carry out the work methodically with more efficiency to provide the sustainable presentation of a facility. This paper focuses on the accountability of the internal people, that is, the local authority involved in the preservation management of public facilities. Quantitative approaches have been used to analyse the secondary information to build the structure that identifies the internal people's accountability in public facilities management. This structure supports the facility management holistic view during complete strategies and processing by internal people, which integrates the main component of people and technologies toward providing organisation objectives.  The results show the conceptual structure could indicate the flow of maintenance executions depending on the responsibility of internal peoples. Pages 566 to 584
 
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The Development of MSMEs and the Growth of  Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Lending in Indonesia

Tulus Tambunan*, Wimboh Santoso**, Ida Busneti* , Sukarela Batunanggar**, *Center for Industry, SME and Business Competition Studies, University of Trisakti, Jl. Kyai Tapa No,1, Grogol, Jakarta 11440, Indonesia.** Financial Services Authority (OJK), Menara Mulia 2, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Jakarta 12710, Indonesia

The aim of this research is to examine recent development of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), their main constraints and access to financing, and the growth of online-based Peer-to-Peer (P2P) lending in Indonesia. This is a descriptive study which analyses secondary and primary data. Primary data were collected from: (i) a survey of 60 respondents, i.e. 30 owners of MSMEs and 30 managers/directors of P2P lending companies, of which a total of 40 were deemed usable (i.e. 10 MSMEs and 30 P2P), and (ii) a series of focus group discussions (FGD) with some of the selected P2P companies. This study’s results show the number of MSMEs continue to grow even though they face a number of obstacles with limited access to funding as the most serious. Although commercial banks are required by the government to extend credit to MSMEs, the percentage of total commercial credit to these enterprises is still very small. Therefore, as the survey’s finding suggested, the emergence of P2P is important as an alternative source of funding for MSEs. and bank is the main investor in P2P lending companies. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study ever done, at least in Indonesia. It takes stock of the empirical evidence in the literature through the lens of MSMEs’ owners. Pages 585 to 611
 
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Analysis of Critical Thinking Abilities of Office Administration Education Students in Surakarta

Patni Ninghardjantia, Sigit Permansahb aDoctoral Student of Economics Educational, Sebelas Maret University, 57126, Surakarta, Indonesia. bOffice Administration Education Study Program, Universitas Sebelas Maret, 57126, Surakarta, Indonesia. ning@staff.uns.ac.id; sigitpermansah@gmail.com

Critical thinking has become essential in teaching office administration education (PAP). It needs to be carried out because the student’s critical thinking will affect their ability to comprehend lecture material and its implementation when they graduate to become a teacher. PAP students as prospective educators definitely need to know the level of their critical thinking, then hone their critical thinking according to their field of ability. That way, it is expected that after they become educators, they can transmit, share, and provide learning to improve students’ critical thinking abilities. Therefore, finding out critical thinking abilities for prospective teaching staff or students of office administration education is considered essential. This study aimed to determine and analyse the critical thinking abilities of office administration education students. The research type used in this article was descriptive research with quantitative methods performed in the office administration education study program in Surakarta with a total sample of 74 students. The results obtained a percentage score of 77% from the test given to 74 samples with the critical thinking test indicator. Based on the criteria of the measurement scale, the results show that critical thinking ability of office administration education students was in a good category, indicating that this ability can still be improved to achieve better criteria. The results of this study only represent the critical thinking ability of office administration education students in Surakarta. Pages 612 to 624
 
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The Smartphone Addiction Scale for University Students: Psychometric Characteristics and Factor Structure

Elsayed Mohammed Abu hashem Hassana, Ismael Salamah Albursanb, Mohammad Farhan Al. Qudahc, Salaheldin Farah Attallah Bakhietd*, Hafidha Sulaiman Al-Barashdie, Ahmad   M. Thawabiehf, Khalid Ahmed Othman Alghamdig, Ahmed Haddadih, Youssef Galal Youssef Abouelmeatyi, a,b,c,hKing Saud University, Department of Psychology, College of Education, Saudi Arabia, dKing Saud University, Department of special education, College of Education, Saudi Arabia, eThe Research Council, Sultanate of Oman, fTafila Technical University, Department of Educational Psychology, gTaif University, Department of psychology, College of Education, Saudi Arabia, iKing AbduAziz University, Faculty of Educational Graduate Studies, Email: ashashem@ksu.edu.sa, bibursan@ksu.edu.sa, cmalqudah@ksu.edu.sa, d*bakhiet@ksu.edu.sa, eHafidhaalbarashdi@gmail.com, fahmadthawabieh@yahoo.com, gkhalid.A.alghamdi1@gmail.com, hAhn.1984@yahoo.com, iYoussef_galal@hotmail.com

This study examined the psychometric characteristics, including validity and reliability indices, of a previously developed smartphone addiction scale.   The scale was administered to 1986 university male (54%) and female students (46%). The proposed five-factor model was tested with a confirmatory factor analysis.   Fit indices were acceptable for the five factors (time and overuse, psychological/social, health/physical, preoccupation, and technological). Correlation coefficients among items and dimensions were strong, suggesting good internal consistency. The scale also yielded good concurrent validity. However, the rating scale’s fit to data was not acceptable. Moreover, the scale's reliability coefficients were high.   The scale is recommended for use with other similar samples in other Middle Eastern countries. Future research should further evaluate the scale to promote its psychometric efficiency. We examined the psychometric properties of a smartphone addiction scale, - A confirmatory factor analysis supported a five-factor model, - University students (N = 1986) responded to the scale, - The scale was shown to be valid and reliable through several indices. Pages 625 to 642
 
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Analysing Metaphors in Female Rectors’ Speech in American Universities: A Translation Study

Endang Purwaningsiha,  Djatmikab,  Mangatur Rudolf Nababanc, Agus Hari Wibowod, aDoctor Candidate, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta & Gunadarma University, Indonesia, b,c,dSebelas Maret University, Indonesia, Email: aepurwaningsih59@gmail.com, bdjatmika@staff.uns.ac.id, camantaradja@yahoo.com, dagushari67@staff.uns.ac.id

The purposes of this research are multiple: to investigate the metaphorical forms found in the speech of female rectors; to find out the translation techniques, methods and ideology used in translating these metaphorical forms into Indonesian; to discover the different translation techniques produced by the translators; to identify the different forms of metaphors which are found in translations; to analyse the impact on the quality of translation of applying translation techniques; and to investigate the factors behind translators translating metaphors. This study used a qualitative descriptive method with an interdisciplinary approach. The text of the speech is taken from four female rectors from four of the best universities in America. The results show that there were three types of metaphors, being structural, ontological and orientational. The female translator used eleven types of translation techniques: established equivalents, modulation, literal, generalisation, discursive creation, explication, pure borrowing, transposition, addition, deletion and reduction. The male translator used seven types of translation techniques: established equivalents, modulation, literal, generalisation, discursive creation, pure borrowing, and addition. There were 152 structural metaphors translated into structural metaphors and non-metaphors by the female translator, and structural metaphors by the male translator. In addition, 58 ontological metaphors become ontological metaphors by the female translator and ontological metaphors by the male translator. Eight orientational metaphors are translated into the same types of metaphors. The application of these translation techniques has implications for the average quality of the translation. Pages 643 to 660
 
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Exploring the Complex Adaptive Behaviour of Asian Countries in Innovation amidst Global Gender Gap: Implications to the Sustainable Development Goals

Omar A. Tantoya, Derren N. Gayloa,bCollege of Education, Bukidnon State University, Philippines

Email: omartantoy@buksu.edu.ph, gaylo_derren@buksu.edu.ph

With the ambiguous link between innovation and gender, this paper explored Asian countries’ complex adaptive behaviour in innovation amidst the global gender gap. Data sets from the Global Innovation Index 2019 the Global Gender Gap Report 2020 to represent innovation productivity and gender equality accordingly. Applying descriptive-analytic research, approaches like data mining, factor analysis, clustering, and complex adaptive systems were used. Factor analysis results revealed features of gender parity in innovation. Based on synergy count, there are more prevalent dissimilarities in innovation and gender equality characteristics among Asian. Highly innovative countries lead in synergy counts, while less innovative countries lag in it. However, moderately innovative countries have irregular results. Based on the clustering, Asian countries innovation appeared to behave in a non-linear upward trend amidst the global gender gap. Their complex adaptive behaviours show random, albeit cycles with downward and upward shifts that vary in amplitude. These characteristics indicated that countries can still innovate as long as they adapt within their contexts. With multi-dimensionality of innovation, a holistic approach to productivity is necessary. Embracing gender equality will be a good source of innovation and sustainable development follows. Pages 661 to 673
 
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Maximising Green Computing in Utilising ICT to Support the Performance of the Academic Community: An Analysis 

Eka Julianti, Information System Department, Universitas Terbuka, Indonesia, Email: ekajulianti@ecampus.ut.ac.id

The rapid development of information technology makes ICT (Information Communication Technology) a prima donna in streamlining every business process in almost all institutions. However, a few uses of ICT actually pollute the work area because of a lack of concern in choosing and using the ICT equipment appropriately and correctly. Users only look at the function of the process speed by ignoring the functional and integration aspects of the technological device. For this reason, it is necessary to apply a green computing technology so that the use of ICT equipment becomes more effective and efficient, especially in supporting performance, in this case  for the academic community. In the process of collecting data and information, the approach used in this research is the study of literature on green computing and the use of ICT sourced from national and international articles and journals, and supported by sources from text books, e-books, magazines and newspapers. The purpose of this study is to see how effective and efficient the use of ICT devices is in supporting the performance of the academic community and its impact on the environment. The results of this study are in the form of an analysis of the application of green computing technology in the work environment of the academic community, which is expected to encourage changes in governance in the use of ICT devices or equipment to be more efficient so as to reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2).  Pages 674 to 686
 
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An Alternative Education Centre for Teaching Staff in the Continuity of Education among the Rohingya Community in Malaysia

Mohd Irfan Mohd Terina, Abd. Hakim Mohadb, Ros Aiza Mohd Mokhtarc, a,b,cCentre for Core Studies, Faculty of Leadership and Management, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Email: airfanalhikmah@gmail.com, babdhakim@usim.edu.my, crosaiza@usim.edu.my

This article explains the role and participation of the teaching staff from alternative education centres in Malaysia. Statistics record the ever-increasing number of Rohingya Muslims in Malaysia. Thus, non-governmental organisations (NGO) have taken the initiative to establish alternative education centres, appointing volunteers as teaching staff. Studies found the NGO-appointed teaching staff play a comprehensive role in developing human capital among the risk community, such as the Rohingya Muslims, who have been in Malaysia since 1995. Four categories of NGOs with different backgrounds worked to rescue this risk community with the help of volunteer teaching staff. The teaching staff have introduced several variations and approaches to establish alternative education centres, and these variations are explored for the first time in this article. Based on this research, alternative methods and continuity is necessary to prevent education dropouts, in line with the moral development of a civilised society. The teaching staff are a key driving element to the importance of education focussed on the Rohingya Muslims. This article concludes that education scholars and policy makers must formulate education methods and variations according to academic and practical results. Pages 687 to 700
 
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Intrinsic Rewards and Employee Creative Performance: Moderating Effects of Job Autonomy and Proactive Personality: A Perspective of Self-Determination Theory

Sayed Sami Muzafarya, Ihtesham Alib, Mudassir Hussainc*, aKabul University, Kabul, Afghanistan, bHuazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, c*School of International Education, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan, China.

Email: c*mudassirokz@gmail.com, as.muzafary@yahoo.combihteshamali@hust.edu.cn

The purpose of this research was to explore the effects of intrinsic rewards on employee creativity. It also explored the moderating effects of job autonomy and proactive personality for the linkage between intrinsic rewards for employee creativity in public universities. This research utilized a cross-sectional survey method to investigate four Kabul public universities in Afghanistan. A total of 400 matching pairs of subordinates and their immediate supervisor's questionnaires were returned. Results demonstrated that intrinsic rewards positively correlated to employee creative performance.  Furthermore, moderated path analysis showed that when job autonomy and proactive personality was high, intrinsic rewards for creativity had a positive direct effect on employee creative performance. This result adds to employee creative performance literature by empirically testing the moderating role of job autonomy and proactive personality in the intrinsic rewards for creativity and employee-creative performance link. Moreover, the outcomes showed that self-determination theory could be utilized as an overarching theory to explain how and why intrinsic reward for creativity affect on employee creative performance. Pages 701 to 725
 
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Effect of Servant Leadership on Knowledge Sharing: The Role of Job Crafting and Proactive Personality

Maria Ansera, Muhammad Anwar ul Haqb, Nazar Hussain Phulpotoc, Shaista Khalidd, Mirza Ashfaq Ahmede, a,b,eDepartment of Management Sciences, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Pakistan, cDepartment of Public Administration SALU Khairpur-Mirs, dDepartment of Education, University of Sargodha, Pakistan, Email: banwar.haq@uog.edu.pk

The purpose of this paper was to find out the effect of servant leadership (SL) on knowledge sharing (KS). Job crafting (JC) was proposed to mediate between SL and KS, whereas, proactive personality (PP) was hypothesised to moderate the effect. Knowledge is an important asset for organisations in order to gain competitive advantage. Although the telecommunication sector of Pakistan is progressing well there is still need of innovation in this sector. As cellular companies are facing major issues regarding KS, managerial level employees of mobile  companies from the telecommunication sector of Pakistan were the target population. A total of 420 questionnaires were distributed among managerial level staff. After initial data screening  only 267 questionnaires were left for further analysis. Structural Equations Modelling, two-step approach, was used to perform the confirmatory factor analysis and test the hypotheses. Results revealed that SL has a positive effect on KS, and JC partially mediates the effect of SL and KS. PP strengthened the effect of SL on JC and KS. This study has important implications for the literature on SL, KS, JC and PP and gives insight into the relationship between JC and PP. Findings guide the managers to practice SL in order to create a KS climate in their organisations. Moreover, encouragement for JC would also have important implications. Pages 726 to 744
 
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Risk in Accounting Research: Findings from Trend Analysis

Dr. Asma Khatoon, Department of Accounting, College of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

This article aims to present the use and applications of ‘risk’ in accounting research during last five years (2015-19). This study has extracted 598 journal articles from 66 dedicated ‘accounting’ journals having ‘risk’ mentioned as a keyword having cumulative citations of 2407. These articles were extracted from Scopus indexing services. Analyses were made using Microsoft Excel and SPSS.  Many trends can be witnessed from the data; (1) The trend of articles published on ‘risk’ in dedicated accounting journals is increasing over the last five years; (2) Three publishers Elsevier, Emerald and the American Accounting Association emerged as the highest number of publication and citations on this issue; (3) The USA emerged as a major source country for publications and citations on this subject area. The paper provides a research guideline for early stage researchers to choose the topic, select the keywords, and select the co-authors.  It also cites the work of individual researchers and universities for collaboration purposes. Pages 745 to 759
 
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Climate Change and Rice Productivity: Evidence from Pakistan

Abdur Raufa, Hidayat Ullah Khanb, Ghulam Yahya Khanc, a,bAssistant Professor, Department of Economic, Abbottabad UST, cAssistant Professor, KIE, UAJ&K, Muzaffarabad, AJK, Pakistan, Email: aab.rauf.khattak@gmail.com, bmasmaleo@yahoo.com, cyqureshi79@gmail.com

The impacts of climate change on various domains of economy have been the focus of recent literature. Amongst them, agriculture is the most important one which is greatly affected by a slight change in climate. The current study analysed the climate change and agricultural productivity taking rice as a sample of agriculture output in case of Pakistan. Quantitative analysis for the period of 1981 to 2018 was conducted and the data was taken from World Development Indicators (WDI). An Autoregressive Distributive Lag model was employed to extract the long run estimates of the model. Climate change was measured through CO2 emission. Results of the study revealed that CO2 emission reduces rice productivity in long run. Amongst the other control variables like fertilizers offtake, water availability and area under cultivation, all have a positive contribution in the rice production. Diagnostic tests confirm that the model is best fitted, and stability of the coefficient is verified by CUSUM and CUSUMQ. On the basis of the findings of this study there is an urge for making strong decisions to curb the effects of climate change by switching the economy to efficient energy usage and recycling of wastes to reduce CO2 emissions. Pages 760 to 770
 
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The Jordanian Dialects through the Jordanian Folk Proverbs' Book in Light of the Ancient Dialects of the Arabs - A Linguistic Descriptive Study           

Nayif Alnjadat, Associate Professor, Language studies, Al-Balqa Applied University

This phonological linguistic research is an overview of the Jordanian dialects as they appeared in the book of popular proverbs by Dr. Hani Al-Amad, in light of the ancient Arabic dialects; it has been shown that the Jordanian dialects have preserved a number of old dialects, including: replacing the dental sounds with sounds easier than them, and expanding the substitution converging place of articulation of sounds. Some new dialect phenomena appeared, including the tendency to calm the first silent and start with Alif Al-Wasl, as well as a tendency to Alnahet, the phenomenon of changing the sound's place, and other phenomena shown in the research. Pages 771 to 786
 
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Textile Material Trends in Fashion Magazines from 2017 to 2019

Tyar Ratuannisa¹, Imam Santosa², Kahfiati Kahdar3, Achmad Syarief4, Annisaa Nurfitriyana5, ¹Doctoral Study Program of Visual Arts and Design, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung, Indonesia, 2,3,4Faculty of Visual Arts and Design, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung, Indonesia, 5Master of Design Study Program, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung, Indonesia, Email: ¹tyar@fsrd.itb.ac.id, 2imamz.santosa@gmail.com, 3kahfiati@gmail.com, 4asyarief.phd@gmail.com,     5annisaa.nurfitriyana@gmail.com

Textile material, as research objects, can be observed by examining visual and tactile aspects as the main research information. The visual appearance is also an important aspect in recognising past objects in printed images with certain messages, such as in fashion magazines. However, for textile objects, particularly fabric on clothes, this means that there is no tactile element and little information can be found about the original surface. The information about fabrics in images can be recognised using the visual perception technique. Basically, the technique on clothes is to identify the type of clothes, maintenance, and the condition of the fabric (new, worn, faded, torn or wrinkled). The source of the documentation is a fashion magazine, which consists of pictures containing information on how clothes are worn by consumers, in selected editions between 2017 to 2019. This study identifies groups of fabric, made from both natural and synthetic fibres. The first visual indicator is the surface or texture of the fabric, as well as the thickness, shine, and wrinkles. The second indicator is the logic of using a fabric for the type of clothes. For example, a kaftan usually uses a soft, flowing fabric, such as chiffon. The results showed that the latest fashion trends and the majority of consumer preferences affected the identification of textiles in visual perception techniques. The fabric classification represented in fashion magazines from 2017 to 2019 showed the tendency of consumer preferences towards sustainability trends, which are manifested in natural textile choices, as well as classic and timeless clothes choices, but are also balanced with the use of synthetic materials along with the development of digital print trends for clothes. This research provides a new insight into an alternative focus of research related to textiles and fashion in observing the application of fabric to clothes based not only on consumer’s personal taste and preference, but also the fabric trend. Pages 787 to 803
 
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The Determinants of CustomersIntention to Use Smart Lockers for Last-Mile Deliveries: A Case of Pakistan

Amjad Alia, Dr. Muhammad Asim Rafiqb, aResearch Scholar at Hamdard University, Karachi Faculty of Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University Lyari, Karachi, bFaculty in Management Sciences at Hamdard University, Karachi, Email: aAmjadbbsulk@gmail.com, bAsim_r83@hotmail.com

The purpose of this study to analyse the determinants of consumers’ intention to use smart lockers in las mile delivery in Pakistan. Synthesized theories of perceived value, transaction cost economics and resource match theory. Survey of the questionnaire gathered from 375 respondent of the densely populated city of Pakistan, Karachi using SEM analysis. The findings show that the five dimensions (Convenience, Reliability, Corporate Image, Service Quality, Privacy Security) and mediating variables (Transaction cost and Perceived Value) effects on consumer intention. This study enhances the area of study in logistics and e-commerce transaction deliveries to the end consumers with the use of technology. Pages 804 to 832
 
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Preserving Nature - Messages from Contemporary Vietnamese Poetry

Hue Hoang Thi,  University of Education, Hue University, Vietnam, Email: hoangthihue@hueuni.edu.vn, hoangthihue@dhsphue.edu.vn

This research affirms the importance of protecting nature and the environment, through messages calling for, forecasting, warning about natural disasters, epidemics, and destruction of the natural environment in contemporary Vietnamese poetry by the method of survey and text analysis. The protection of nature is an urgent issue for all countries in the world. The research results confirm the effectiveness of education and propaganda measures to protect nature through Vietnamese poetry. At the same time, it shows that the interdisciplinary coordination in educating the sense of protecting nature is extremely important, especially when the Covid 19 pandemic is raging around the world today. Pages 833 to 843
 
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Malin Nan Kundang: An Aesthetic Response Of The Opera Creation In Minagkabau West Sumatera

R.M. Pramutomoa, Iswandib, Lili Suparlic, Edi Suisnod, a,b,c,dIndonesia Institute of the Arts Surakarta

Malin Kundang is a form of Minangkabau speech literature. The Malin with his arrogance said in a rebuke tone and so forth.  This article talks about the Minangkabau Opera Malin Nan Kundang. The word "nan" as a form of interpretation is at odds with oral traditions. This article is the result of research exploring an aesthetic response from the creation of a new form of musical drama which is a genre of Minangkabau opera. A study of aesthetic responses uses artistic approaches used in the creation of works of art. Malin Nan Kondang's position as a vehicle in the context of new works is realised through the method of creating works of art. In the realm of artistic research it contains creation by research art creation methods consisting of: (1) observation and study of literature; (2) interpretation and experimentation; (3) formation; and (4) performance style of performance. Pages 844 to 857
 
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McDonaldization of Education in Pakistan: A Step towards Dehumanization

Muhammad Umer Azima*, Zaheer Hussainb, Azhar Munir Bhattic, Dr. Muhammad Iqbald, aPhD Linguistics (Student), University of Management & Technology, Lahore Pakistan, Assistant Professor (English), Government Township College, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, b,cPhD Linguistics (Student), The University of Lahore, Lahore Pakistan, cLecturer (English), Government Dyal Singh College, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, dEnglish Program Manager, US Consulate, Lahore, Email: abecketlove@hotmail.com, amumerazim@gmail.com, bzhussain@numl.edu.pk, dme_iqbal@hotmail.com

McDonaldization in society is the concept originated by George Ritzer in the last decade of 20th century (1992). This concept was applied on higher education by Dennis Hayes and Robin Wynward (2002, 2017). This analytical study is focusing the McDonaldization of education in Pakistan. The effects of McDonaldization on Pakistan’s Education system are analyzed in terms of four characteristics suggested by Ritzer i.e. efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. The analysis is based on observation, experiences and opinion of the educationists including researcher. It is observed that ‘efficiency’ is increased by mechanical teaching, ‘calculability’ is ensured through good profit making, ‘predictability’ is maintained through standardize testing and franchising and ‘control’ is exercised through online activities. Pages 858 to 869
 
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Application and development of products from Yellow Millettia Wood Leaf

Amornrat Anunvrapong, Program of Thai Wisdom Product Development, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Rajamangala University of Technology Krungthep

Corresponding author, e-mail: amornrat.a@mail.rmutk.ac.th

The purpose of this research is to study the paper production process, paper test, paper assessment satisfaction, and the development of a multi-purpose shelf prototype from yellow Millettia wood leaf paper. The results showed that after the pulp boiling process, which comprises 30 kilograms of full-grown leaves from the yellow Millettia wood, the pulp would acquire a weight of approximately 8–10 kgs. The physical property test assessed 100 per cent yellow Millettia wood leaf paper, yellow Millettia wood leaf paper mixed with banana plants at a ratio of 50:50 per cent, and yellow Millettia wood leaf paper mixed with a ratio of 50:50 per cent pineapple leaves. The burst strength was equal to 75.00, 76.60, and 70.60 k.Pa, respectively. The tear resistance values were equal to 471, 1,640, and 706 mN, respectively. The basis weight values are 36.40, 30.00, and 21.50 g/m2, respectively. When photographing with stereo microscopes at 10, 15, 20, and 30-times magnification, the texture of all three types of paper is rough. Comparing the satisfactions of 250 product design and development students with the paper, it was found that their satisfactions with the three types of yellow Millettia wood leaf paper were statistically significant and different (p<0.05). Pages 870 to 892
 
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Kinematics and Accuracy of The Upward Jumping Throw in Handball

Iyad A. Yousefa, Hashem A. Kilanib, Abdulsalam S. Al-Za’abic, Jamal Alnuaimid, Laila F. AlKilanie, Waleed M. Shaheenf, Sana M. Liftawig, and Tariq G. Rajah, a,f,g,hPhysical Education Department, Beir Zeit University, Ramallah, Palestine,bKinesiology and training  Department, School of Sport Sciences, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, c,dPhysical Education Department, College of Education, UAEU, Al-Ain, AbuDhabi, UAE, eDepartment of Physical & Sport Sciences. Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Email: bhashemkilani@gmail.com

Purpose: To investigate the effect of using a proposed training program on selected kinematic variables of accuracy of shooting by an upward jumping throw at different backcourts for a school’s team of beginners at Handball. Methods: Ten players were selected from a schools’ team of the Directorate of Education in the Bethlehem Governorate, and they were divided into two groups, 5 experimental and 5 controlled. Two Sony HDR-CX220E cameras (50 images/sec) were used to capture the upward jumping throw in two styles of shooting with a defense wall and without a defense wall.  A proposed training program was applied to the experimental group while the controlled group went in to traditional training routine. Pre- & post- analyses were administered using Kinovea software. Results: the proposed training program had a positive effect on the height of the jump and the vertical velocity of the shooter for the experimental group. Accuracy of shooting also improved in the experimental group. A decrease in the values of the kinematic variables of shooting by an upward jumping throw was also found when aiming from the left side in the case of the existence of a defense wall. Conclusion: It is suggested to use the kinematics’ approach when designing the training program. Pages 893 to 907
 
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Designing Presidentialism Cabinet Under a Multiparty System in Indonesia

Ibnu Sina Chandranegaraa, Syaiful Bakhriab, aUniversity of Muhammadiyah Jakarta, Email: aibnusinach@umj.ac.id, bsyaiful.bakhri@umj.ac.id

According to the 1945 Constitution, the composition of the Cabinet is the prerogative power of the President. Still, it does not mean that the President can use it conveniently without considering the political parties' coalition. This configuration is created because the position of political parties depends on the presidents' candidacy. It means that Indonesia's political party controls the upstream and downstream facets of executive power. After the election, the President who is elected will face an inherent problem of determining his Cabinet's composition. This article aims to find a formula that can minimise political transactions when forming the Cabinet to strengthen the Presidential preference for selecting cabinet members from pre-election engagement with political parties. Pages 908 to 922
 
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Effect of Technological Innovations on Logistics and Supply Chain Management (LSCM) in the context of Belt and Roads Initiative (BRI): A moderating effect of Adoption and Diffusion

Tahir Iqbala, aDepartment of Management, College of Business Administration,   Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O.Box 1982, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, E-mail: a* timuniruddin@iau.edu.sa

Purpose/Aim: The primary aim of this study was to determine how technology innovation can support logistics and supply chain management in the context of Belt and Road Initiatives (BRI). Method: In this study, the researcher has the following primary data collection methods and quantitative research design. The data has been gathered through a survey questionnaire, whereas the sample size of the study was 430. Data analysis has been conducted through Structural equation modelling (SEM), in which the researcher has conducted different tests, including confirmatory factor analysis, discriminant validity, model assessment, and path assessment. Findings: The findings of this study confirm the significant impact of all the independent variables on logistics and supply chain management (LSCM) in BRI. The independent variables of this study include artificial intelligence, big data, enterprise resource planning, social media, and blockchain. Apart from that, this study's results also reveal the significant moderating effect of adoption and diffusion (AD) on the association between technology innovation and LSCM in BRI. Limitations: The absence of qualitative data and the narrow scope of the study have been some of the significant limitations of this study. In the future, it is suggested that a mixed research design will be used to make a valuable contribution to the existing literature. Pages 923 to 947
 
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The Impact of Smartphone Addictive Use by Students with Learning Disabilities on Social, Psychological and Academic Domains

Mayada Al-Natour1, Khaled Al-Ajlouni2, Hatem AlKhamra3, 1,3School of Educational Sciences, The University of Jordan, Jordan, 2College of Education, Arab Open University - Jordan, Email: 1mnatour@ju.edu.jo, 2k_ajlouni@aou.edu.jo, 3h.alkhamra@ju.edu.jo

The current study aimed at identifying the impact of the addictive use of smartphones by students with learning disabilities on the social, psychological and academic domains. The sample of the study consisted of 210 male and female students enrolled in classes of resource rooms of grades five to nine in public and private schools at the Ministry of Education in Amman governorate. The researcher developed two measures to achieve the goals of the study; the first is “a scale to measure the addiction of smartphones use”, which contains 32 items, and another scale to measure the “impact of smartphones excessive use on social, emotional and academic domains”, which contains (30) items. This process was preceded by a review of previous similar pedagogic studies. Validity and reliability significance were extracted. Results revealed that the estimation of the addictive use of smartphones by students of learning disabilities aged 11-15 was rated as average. Results also revealed that impact of smartphone use dominated the social and emotional aspects over the academic. Results call for the need to develop and practise some precocious interventions and early detection of the excessive use of smartphones in general, but above all by students with learning disabilities. Pages 948 to 965
 
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Did Expected Credit Loss Fair for Indonesian Banks in COVID-19?

Septian Bayu Kristanto, Center of Tax and Accounting Studies, Universitas Kristen Krida Wacana, Jakarta, Email: septian.bayu@ukrida.ac.id

In this paper, we explore the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the accounting practices associated with the Expected Credit Loss (ECL) approach by Peryataan Standar Akuntasi Keuangan (PSAK) 71. Given the complexity of the pandemic, the neutral application of existing accounting standards is of more importance than ever as it ensures objective decision-useful information that serves comparability, maintenance of a level playing field and transparency. Worldwide interventions by banking regulators, however, have considerable potential to interfere with these fundamental contributions of financial statements. The result is that for banks under PSAK 71 it is not even entirely clear what assessments banks can and will use in their calculations estimating the effects of COVID-19. Pages 966 to 971
 
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Decolonising Fiscal Management Practices for African Growth, Development and Change

Olawale R. Olaopa PhD, Department of Economics, College of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ORCID ID: 0000-0002-7937-9177, Email: orolaopa@iau.edu.sa

Despite that the management of public fund is highly legislated and the discipline populated with vastly skilled personalities in Africa, the rate of leakages of fiscal resources and the magnitude of waste recorded through the public treasuries is absurd. Consequently, this paper intends to answer: What are the critical issues mostly responsible for these leakages and the magnitude of waste across African continent and how can Africa be innovatively rescued from this quagmire? The paper relies on literature review, policy documents, reports, archival sources and library research covering the subject matter and uses 'Ajo' or 'Esusu', a tool for local fiscal resource mobilisation and allocation, as the theoretical framework. The paper discovered that the disconnect between indigenous practice, typified by the use of African Indigenous Knowledge, and western practices in fiscal management is extremely responsible for lack of pro-poor macro fiscal management and inclusive growth as exemplified by poor governance, slow economic development, lack of social equity and change in Africa. Decolonising fiscal management practices through the use of African Indigenous Knowledge in fiscal management will be an effective innovative antidote for achieving pro-poor macro fiscal management, inclusive growth and change in Africa. Pages 972 to 991
 
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The Impact of Internet Banking Adoption in The Kingdom of Bahrain - Overcoming Barriers to Adoption Through the Use of Biometrics

Dr Yusuf Janahi1,2, 1PhD from University of Bradford, Uk, 2Ahlia University, Kingdom of Bahrain, Email: yjanahi@ahlia.edu.bh

The emergence of the Internet in business as a marketing tool and as a communication medium is one of the existing challenges for the banking industry. The Internet has influenced the evolution and the innovation of the banking industry and for the provision of information about products and services. Based on the ideas mentioned, this study aimed to examine the factors which may affect the intention to use and adopt Internet banking in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The cultural context has rarely been commented on in previous research, but as a result of taking this factor into account in addition to the more technical issues, a number of practical implications became evident for banking in Bahrain that may have applicability elsewhere in the Arab world. These strategies also have potential to attract new market segments. Pages 992 to 997
 
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The Element of Research Skills for the Implementation of Research by Postgraduate Students in Malaysia

Sri Sumarwati1*, Mohd Hasril Amiruddin2, Ahmad Rizal Madar3, 1,2,3University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja 86400, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia, Email: 1*sri_fatoni78@yahoo.com

Postgraduate research is more demanding of the ability of students to be independent, where throughout the process conducting research it is a challenging journey. This study was conducted to know the expert opinion about the research skills for postgraduate students in Malaysia. This study uses the Fuzzy Delphi Method to identify expert agreement about the elements of research skills. The total sample is 13 experts in the social sciences and humanities were selected using purposive sampling. Data were analysed based on the calculation of the Fuzzy set. This study found that the element of research skills are inference skills, research design skills, moral and ethical research skills, and integrity skills. The implementation of research skills for conducting research is expected to provide opportunities for students to increase the potential and personal qualities during their studies at the postgraduate level. Pages 998 to 1006
 
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SITRANS: A Design of Laboratory Management System

Emmy Wahyuningtyasa, Shofiya Syidadab, Firman Pratamac, a,b,cInformatic Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Wijaya Kusuma Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia. Email: aemmy@uwks.ac.id, bshofiya@uwks.ac.id, cfirmanpratama@uwks.ac.id

The Covid19 pandemic has changed the culture of human civilisation, including in the field of higher education. The learning process has switched to online and requires educational institutions to provide facilities that support the carrying out of online activities for regular and non-lecture courses such as practicum, research, thesis, practical work and real work lectures. At Wijaya Kusuma University, Surabaya, regular lectures have been facilitated by the existence of a moodle-based learning management system (LMS) called Elena, but the implementation and monitoring of non-lecture activities has not been facilitated by online media so there are many obstacles and it is less than optimal. This study aims to design a system to facilitate the management of these activities that is integrated with the institution's integrated e-campus system. The design uses a unified modelling language (UML) which consists of a package diagram, use case, class and sequence diagram. The system is named Transitoris Information System (SITRANS). Pages 1007 to 1025
 
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A Study of a Korean Speaking Class Using Online Platforms During COVID-19

Eunmi Yu, Ankara University, Department of Korean Language and Literature, Ankara, Turkey, Email: eyu@ankara.edu.tr

Online education consists of courses conducted through the internet. In these courses, students generally conduct e-learning management and can view their course content and academic progress as well as communicate with their classmates and teachers. Although online classes require a greater amount of motivation compared to a classroom-based course, it became a necessity out of precaution concerning the coronavirus disease. Turkey, like other countries, wanted to continue students’ education, but COVID-19 required an educational shift to online systems to prevent the spread of the disease. Although online education does not require a specific space for learning, it does require students to be self-paced and have a peaceful environment. It also requires the preparation of all lecture materials. Teachers and students both should be attentive to facilitate successful delivery and acquisition of knowledge. Online education is an effective way of teaching, but is less effective in comparison to traditional education. In this study, the author would like to share some findings and suggestions for effective online classes for students studying Korean as a foreign language in Turkey while participating in an online Speaking Korean class during the coronavirus period. Pages 1026 to 1035
 
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Several of the Most Important Crimes Committed by Public Employees in Jordan

Dr. Moayd Hosni Ahmad Al-Khawalda, Assistant professor –faculty of law, Philadelphia University, alkaoldahmoayd@yahoo.com

The significance of this study emerged against the backdrop of increasing corruption in Jordanian society, especially within the governmental institutions. Therefore, the mechanisms against corruption shall be demonstrated due to the corruption’s consequences upon the Jordanian economy. The problem of this research concerns demonstrating the concordance of Jordan Civil Service Regulation, the Jordanian Penal Code, and the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), which Jordan was a part of, in fighting against corruption. Moreover, it demonstrates the extent of the application of fighting against corruption in Jordan that occurred on the ground. Pages 1036 to 1053
 
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An Investigation on Grade VIII Students’ Mathematical Self-Efficacy and Math Anxiety

Victoria Josepha, Dr. Sherwin Rodriguesb, aPhD Scholar, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan. bDirector, Notre Dame Institute of Education, Karachi, Pakistan,

Email: avictoria.v.joseph63@gmail.comvictoria.joseph@njv.edu.pk, bsherwin.rodrigues2@gmail.com

This quantitative research study aimed to investigate the mathematical self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety among grade VIII students’ of Karachi across gender and school systems. The study explored the subscales of self-efficacy and math anxiety (i.e. general mathematical self-efficacy, test anxiety factor, future anxiety and classroom anxiety). Mathematical Self-Efficacy and Math Anxiety (MSEMA) questionnaire (May, 2009) for finding out various factors which influence mathematical self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety was used. Data from six private community and nine government schools in Karachi were collected and an independent samples t-test was used to compare differences across gender and school systems. On the whole, results revealed that male students showed greater mathematical self-efficacy than female students. The government school students displayed more self-efficacy and less anxiety towards mathematics in comparison to the private community school students. The study recommends a student centred approach which serves the purpose of providing effective classroom activities that encourages students’ motivation, interest and added performance. Furthermore, qualitative research studies are needed to identify the reasons for students’ mathematical anxiety and address these in order for schools and educators to teach mathematics in an enjoyable manner. Pages 1054 to 1078
 
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Better Late than Never: An Interplay of Hope and Child Schema Modes among Young Adults

Meh Para Siddique*, Rubina Hanif, National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan, Email: *mehpara1612@gmail.com

This article presents the interplay of Child Schema Modes and Hope among young adults. Schema modes are intense, active, emotional, cognitive, and behavioural states, which occur when underlying personality schemas are activated by emotional events. Thus, at first, the author translated and validated the Adult Hope Scale (AHS) on the sample of 313 Pakistani young adults. Afterwards, this Urdu translated version of AHS was used to assess the hope, and Schema Mode Inventory was utilised to estimate the child schema modes on the sample of 300 young adults. The results depicted that the adequate reliability and construct validity was attained for AHS. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) supported both unidimensional and bidimensional structure (agency and pathways) of the AHS. Considerable gender differences on vulnerable child, enraged child, and happy child modes were obtained. Meanwhile a significant negative relationship was present between hope and vulnerable child, and impulsive child modes; whereas hope was positively correlated with happy child mode. Afterwards, the moderating role of gender was significant for happy child mode where relationship was eventually stronger in males. In conclusion, it is evident that AHS is a valid instrument to measure hope, and there is an association between hope and child schema modes. Pages 1079 to 1090
 
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Investigating the Impact of Brand Image and Brand Loyalty on Brand Equity: the Mediating Role of Brand Awareness

Anas Zia1, Sohail Younus2, Farhan Mirza3, 1Corresponding Author and Lecturer GIFT Business School, GIFT University Gujranwala, 2Lecturer University of the Punjab, Jhelum Campus, 3Lecturer The Melliuem University and College, Queenberry Campus Gujranwala, Email: 1Anas.zia@gift.edu.pk

This research aims to examine the impact of brand loyalty and brand image upon brand equity given the involvement of  brand recognition as a mediator. The technique used for the collection of data was simple random sampling. The information was collected from the general public, colleges, and university students via the survey method strategy. The research design is quantitative, and the data was collected by implementing the non-probability and convenience sampling technique with a sample size of 390. The results show that brand image has a positive and significant relationship with brand awareness. Moreover, brand image and brand loyalty have a considerable brand equity relationship, and brand recognition mediates the brand image and brand equity relationship. This study will serve to help marketers to attain customer satisfaction and concentrate on the wants of customers to obtain a superior competitive advantage. Pages 1091 to 1106

 
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Factors Affecting Illustration Creation for Children’s Books in Laos

Panuphong Tanakhotea, Dr. Niyom Wongpongkhamb, Dr. Kham Chaturongakulc, a,b,cFaculty of Fine and Applied Arts, Khon Kaen University, Nai Muang Subdistrict, Muang District, Khon Kaen University 40002, Thailand, bAdvisor, cCo-Advisor, Email: aPanuphong.tanakhote@gmail.com, bWniyom@kku.ac.th, cCkham@kku.ac.th

The purposes of this research were to 1) study the development and the situation of illustrations of children book in Laos, and 2) study the factors affecting illustration creativity of the artist. This study is a qualitative study taking place in Vientiane, Laos. The participants of this study consisted of 1) 10 scholars from government sectors and private publishers, 10 artists from 3 publishers and 2 non-profit organisations, and 10 stakeholders—readers and purchasers. The target books were books for 7 to 9 years old children which were published in Laos People's Democratic Republic from 2008 to 2018. The data from a field trip: survey form, uninstructed interview and focus group was analysed based on the objectives and the conceptual framework of the qualitative study. The results revealed that: In term of the development and the situation, three main types of illustrations were found in this study: drawing, painting and computer graphic illustrations. Picture story books were the most popular children books for 7 to 9 years old in Laos. In 1986 to 2006, Lao local tales were the most popular content for children’s book whereas after 2007, most of the content of the books was written by Lao writers. In addition, three styles of illustration were found: realistic, analogical and surrealistic styles. A single page which was created focusing on the image of the main characters of the story was the most popular style for the cover. Finally, both single-page illustrations and double-page spreads were used as the arrangement for the illustrations. There were two types of factors affecting the creativity of the artists: internal and external factors. Internal factors were impression, education, aptitude and, expansion of other artists. External factors were experience to work with the experts, need of the customers, trends and training by their organisation. Pages 1107 to 1120
 
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Contemporary Interiors Inspired by Sustainable Solutions in Vernacular Design

Wael Rashdana, Vrushali Mhatreb, a,bAssociate Professor, College of Architecture & Design, Department of Interior Design, Al Ghurair University, Dubai, UAE, Email: awrushdan@hotmail.com, bvmhatre@agu.ac.ae

Vernacular design has historical and cultural value that represents a local identity. It emerges from the surrounding environment, is inspired by nature, utilises local materials and traditional construction methods, and considers the geographical and climate features of the region. Therefore, most vernacular designs offer sustainable solutions. Despite the abundance of research on sustainable design, few studies have addressed the relationship between vernacular and contemporary sustainable interior design solutions. Hence, the objective of this research is to examine whether sustainable vernacular design solutions can be revived and how they can inspire modern concepts of sustainability. The present article offers a review of literature on sustainable applications of heritage design, including a selection of architectural and interiors, examples showcasing the revival of vernacular design. A survey was conducted to determine the potential of extending and implementing traditional concepts into contemporary design. This research reveals that sustainable solutions are an integral part of vernacular design, which may bolster the effectiveness of contemporary sustainability. Pages 1121 to 1140
 
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