Impact of Trump Tariffs Policies on the Export of Indonesian Steel to the United States

Anton Minardia, Taufikb, Naufal Ridhac, a,b,cProgram Studi Ilmu Hubungan Internasional FISIP Universitas Pasundan Jalan Lengkong Besar No. 68, Bandung, Email: aabdurrahmananton1975@gmail.combtaufik@unpas.ac.idcnflrdha7@gmail.com

At the inauguration of the new President of the United States, Donald Trump, there were many factors that focussed the world's attention on him. Such as policies that were quite controversial; one of them was Trump Tariffs, as a form of protectionism. This policy has the potential to trigger a global trade war and make the country's steel exports to America problematic. The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of the Trump Tariffs policy on Indonesia's steel exports to the United States (US). In conducting research, the author uses several sources of literature to make it easier for writers to understand the policies made by US President Donald Trump, particularly Trump Tariffs. One of them is a book written by Robert Gilpin entitled The Political Economy of International Relations. To generate understanding about international trade, the author uses the ‘International Trade Theory Paper’ written by Jukriadi. The Trump Tariffs policy is a form of United States protectionism that triggers tension between the countries affected by this policy. Many observers of the global economy say that this is the first step of a global trade war. Many countries have prepared countermeasures for the policy; Indonesia’s response to the policy included the Indonesian Minister of Trade, Enggartiasto Lukita, conducting diplomacy to enable Indonesia to avoid the Trump Tariffs policy, which was effective. This research uses an analytical descriptive method to define existing phenomena and discuss the reality that is currently developing, despite those who agree on the search for alternatives to discuss the problems and anticipations faced. This method can be compared with predictions of reality in the future. Pages 1 to 16




A Southern Border Provinces Administrative Center (SBPAC) Organisational Structure Model for Solving Insurgency Problems in the Southern Provinces of Thailand

Itthichai Seedama, Somboon Sirisunhirunb, a,bFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities Mahidol University, 999 Phuttamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Email: abiopoliticsboe@gmail.combsomboon.sir@mahidol.ac.th

This study aimed to discover the development of the organisational structure of the Southern Border Provinces Administrative Center (SBPAC), including the present organisational structure after the Southern Border Provinces Administrative Act of 2010; study the problems and impediments on the mission derived from the present organisational structure of the SBPAC; and recommend the approaches used in improving the organisational structure of the SBPAC for a more efficient operation. It was revealed that the development of the SBPAC was divided into two phases. The first phase is the without Southern Border Provinces Administrative Act of 2010. The second phase is the with Southern Border Provinces Administrative Act of 2010. The problems identified in the operations of the present organisational structure were the inadequacy of the staff and too many internal offices. It is recommended that the approaches used to solve insurgency problems include the reengineering of the organisational structure of the SBPAC in terms of downsizing, the set-up of the matrix organisational structure, and making more use of the network structure. Pages 17 to 30




 The Effectiveness of Kadazandusun Language Teaching and Learning Methods among Primary School Language Teachers in the Ranau Sabah District

Julita Norjietta Binti Taisina*, Minah Sintianb, Chemaline Anak Osupc, a,b,cFaculty of Languages and Communication Universiti Pendidikan Sultan idris 35900 Tanjong malim Perak, Malaysia, Email: a*norjietta@fbk.upsi.edu.my

The aim of this study is to identify the effectiveness of the Kadazandusun language teaching and learning methods among the primary school teachers who specialise in this language. This study focuses on a systematic teaching approach by applying various teaching techniques and strategies during the teaching and learning process. It places emphasis on teaching and learning techniques such as dialogues, acting, drilling, singing, demonstration and games. 75 Kadazandusun language teachers from various primary schools in the district of Ranau Sabah, who had taught the language, were involved in this study. The descriptive review method was used as the research design, whereby a questionnaire with 30 items and inferences using the SPSS 23.0 application was prepared. The statistical tools used to analyse the data are mean and standard deviation. As a whole, the result of the study shows that the degree of acceptance regarding the teaching methods used is positive with an overall mean of 3.05. Although the overall result is positive, teachers need to attempt to integrate the Learning Model while using resources or materials. This includes classroom management; especially in the improvement of teaching and learning, as well as reducing the burdens of teachers. Several suggestions were brought forward in order for the improvements to occur. Pages 43 to 51




The Protection of Women from Violence Crimes under Iraqi Punishment Law

Mohammed Abdulmohsin Saadon Al-Machtomia, aAl-Najaf Technical Institute/ Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University/Iraq, Email: aInj.dr.moh@atu.edu.iq

The issue of protecting women from violent crimes is one of the most important topics covered by criminal law. The author found that women in the Iraqi Penal Code need special criminal protection that distinguishes them from the protection enjoyed by men as they are more prone to violent crimes in Iraqi society, especially the crimes of violence within the family. The author studied the criminal protection of violent crimes and focused on protection including the development of proposals that promote such protection, including the acceleration of the legislation on the protection of domestic violence in Iraq. Pages 52 to 68




The Aesthetic Speech in Ammar’s Neamah Jaber Theatrical Texts

Saif Sabah Mzaida, Ali Rida Husseinb, a,b College of Fine Art, University of Babylon, Email: asaifsabah414@gmail.com

The beauty makers derive accomplishment from accidents and events to crystalise them in aesthetic formulas that bear the character of creativity. From one artist to another, even if the subject is the same, it results in a difference in artistic content of the psychological and social effects on the creator of the art. Therefore, the subjective side effects the nature of the artistic creation in addition to the surrounding effects of the environment and climate; each artistic effect is specific to its owner and is not repeated. The nature of the Iraqi society and its composition came in accordance with the ethnic and sectarian religious affiliations, where Ibn Khaldun spoke on the introduction of accurate social analysis about the nature of the Arab society when he talked about the Bedouin and urbanisation. On the other hand, the west also studied scientifically and empirically on the ills of society and the relationship of these ills to the results of a scientific nature represented in the process of getting rid of common and prior thoughts, scientific commitment, integrity and neutrality in the study of social phenomena and the distinction between the individual phenomena and social phenomena. Pages 69 to 83




The Regional and International Attitude Towards the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait in 1990

Mohammed Dakhil Kareema, aUniversity of Al- Hamdaniya/Iraq, Email: adr.mdksh@gmail.com

Kuwait was associated with Iraq by special relations ranging from dependence and association. During the Ottoman era, Kuwait was a district of the Basra Province. However, this Ottoman sovereignty was nominal because of British influence in the Gulf, which dates back to 1899 when the sheikhs of Kuwait and several other Gulf emirates signed protection treaties with Britain. They became the sheikhs following the British policy under its protection, which brought Kuwait to independence in 1961. Independence came immediately after Iraq's claim to annex Kuwait to its territory under the government of Abdul Kareem Qasim. Iraqi-Kuwaiti relations remained and at times fluctuated with tension, especially after the end of the Iran-Iraq war. The relationship is strained because of Iraq's claim to the Gulf States of war compensation, which led to the invasion of Iraqi forces in Kuwait on 2 August 1990. Furthermore, this resulted in an Arab and international crisis that was the result of an international coalition resolution of the UN Security Council to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait by force, which was done by the end of January 1991. This crisis has received great international attention and from most countries of the world. The international media has conveyed the details of the crisis and its developments on a daily basis. Western countries have taken care of this event because of its great influence on the international interests in the Gulf region, particularly because of the oil importance of this region. The crisis has shown that there is an Arab, regional and international rejection of the Iraqi invasion and that it was a serious mistake. Various newspapers, channels and political analysts noted the active contribution of a number of Arab countries, even on the military side, including Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Morocco and Syria, with reservations from a number of other Arab countries for military action such as Jordan and Yemen, and that the crisis must be resolved politically. Pages 84 to 98




Democracy and Beyond in Iraq: A Critical Analysis of Jonathan Holmes’ Fallujah              

Ala Dhafer Amera, aIraq, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, University of  Misan, College of Education, The Department of English, Email: aalaa.dhafer@uomisan.edu.iq                    

This study is an attempt to investigate the role of theatre in shaping the attitudes of people towards political issues. Fallujah, which was written and directed by Jonathan Holmes in 2007, was employed as a sample to investigate Iraqis̕ attitudes towards American theory involving democratic models. This work uses a survey as a tool to measure theatres’ influence on the ability to convince people. The outcomes showed that the Iraqis want a strongly democratic political model and vice versa, varied from previous autocratic common regimes in the Middle East but away from American aims. Pages 99 to 115




 Enhancing the Performance Marketing of a Women-Owned Fashion Business in West Java, Indonesia

Heny Hendrayatia*, Dismanb, Mochamad Achyarsyahc, a,b,cUniversitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: ahenyhendrayati@upi.edubdisman@upi.educachyarsyah@upi.edu

The role of women cannot be ignored in economic activities, because it has proven to contribute as a new engine for economic growth. This study aims to measure and analyse the influence of entrepreneurial orientation, marketing orientation, and value creation on the marketing performance of a fashion business managed by womenpreneurs in West Java, Indonesia. This study uses quantitative methods with a survey approach. A total of 200 womenpreneurs participated in completing the questionnaire. The analysis technique uses the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method with LISREL as a tool for data processing. The results reveal that marketing performance is formed by value creation, entrepreneurial orientation, and marketing orientation. Entrepreneurial orientation and marketing orientation do not directly influence marketing performance. However, value creation is proven to be able to mediate the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation towards marketing performance. The implications of this finding were further explored in this study. Pages 116 to 141




Managing Evidence of Public Accountability: An Information Governance Perspective

Azman Mat Isaa, Sabri Mohd Sharifb, Rabiah Mohd Alic, Nordiana Mohd Nordind, aAssociate Professor, Faculty of Information Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor Branch, Malaysia, bSenior Lecturer, Faculty of Technology Management & Technopreneurship, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Melaka, cLibrarian, National Library of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, dSenior Lecturer, Email: aazmanmi@uitm.edu.mybsabri@utem.edu.mycrabiah@pnm.gov.mydndiana@uitm.edu.my

 The change of political landscape in Malaysia has resulted in a higher expectation for a more accountable and transparent government.  Public auditing ensures that government administration and national development are consistent with rules and regulations. Mismanagement, corruption and fraud can be curbed through information governance as it provides a set of processes, roles, policies, standards and measures, which together ensure the efficient use of information and thus, the achievement of an organisation’s goals. This research adopts a qualitative method involving public auditors. Its findings proved that a shortage and incomplete records impede effective public auditing as auditors spend considerable time looking for relevant records.  The needs for information governance is imperative if public auditing is to be more effective, trusted and respected by members of the public. Pages 142 to 153




 A Proposed User Adoption Model of e-Participation in Indonesia

Darmawan Napitupulua,b,

aFaculty of Information Technology, Universitas Budi Luhur, Jakarta, Indonesia

aIndonesian Institute of Sciences, Serpong, Tangsel, Indonesia

Email: darwan.na70@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is to develop and test proposed user adoption model of e-Participation in Indonesia. The method used in this study is survey based on quantitative approach. To analyze the validity and reliability of items, this study used Kappa statistics. Total 10 experts participated in this survey to evaluate set of items. Since Kappa coefficient obtained in this study interpreted as good agreement (0.6405 > 0.6), thus the total 60 items said valid and reliable. This study contributed to fill lacking literature of user adoption model of e-Participation in Indonesia. Pages 154 to 169




Analysis of Government Responsibility in the Sustainable Tourism Process Study at Manado Bay

Felly Ferol Warouwa*, Shirly Lumenob, Piet Hein Pusungc, a,bFakultas Teknik, Universitas Negeri Manado, cFakultas Manajemen Pemerintahan, Institut Pemerintahan Dalam Negeri, Email: a*ferolwarouw@unima.ac.id

In line with the development of tourism, information technology in the coastal city of Manado is growing. This development has an effect on the change in function of the Bay of Manado coastline to become a favourite area for tourists. The entry of one million tourists from China to North Sulawesi helped drive changes in the coastal environment. This study aims to discover the implementation of government responsibilities in the management of tourism in the coastal areas of the Bay of Manado and to determine the inhibiting factors of the implementation of government responsibilities in managing the coastal environment. This research was carried out on the coast of the Bay of Manado. In this study, the type of data collected consists of primary data and secondary data. This type of research is quantitative using the analytical descriptive method. The process undertaken is to examine the data that has been obtained to ensure whether the data can be justified in accordance with reality. After the data is processed and deemed sufficient, it is then presented in narrative form and possibly also in tabular form. The results showed that the implementation of government responsibilities in the environmental management on the coast of the Bay of Manado was running less than optimally in terms of participation at the degree of consultation, and not yet at the degree of community control. It is clear that there are three factors which hinder the implementation of the responsibility of the Manado City Regional Government in the management of tourism in the coastal area; namely environmental, institutional, and community participation. Pages 170 to 179




 Evaluation of the PeGI Framework based on the Kappa Approach

Darmawan Napitupulua,

aFaculty of Information Technology, Universitas Budi Luhur, Jakarta, Indonesia

aIndonesian Institute of Sciences, Serpong, Tangsel, Indonesia

Email: darwan.na70@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is to conduct a validity and reliability assessment in order to evaluate the PeGI framework. The method used to collect data is survey, based on the Guttman scale instrument. The Kappa approach was conducted to analyse the inter-rater agreement between experts. The results showed that only 23 items were considered adequate in presenting the content domain of the PeGI framework. The Kappa coefficient obtained in this study was 0.6390, which possesses a good consistency. This study contributed to the current literature of empirical research on the PeGI framework evaluation, which was very limited. As a practical implication, this study provides an opportunity for IS/IT researchers to consider quantitative analysis for testing the validity and reliability of items. Pages 180 to 188




Improving Student Learning Outcomes through the Application of Civics Inquiry Learning: An Experiment in the Second Grade Social Class at SMA Negeri 7 Manado

Julien Biringana*, Theodorus Pangalilab, Jan A. Rattuc, Rylien Felicia Limerantod, a,b,c,dPancasila and Civic Education Department, Email: a*julienbiringan@unima.ac.id

This study aims to determine the differences in student learning outcomes taught by inquiry learning models and conventional learning models. This research is a quasi-experimental study using the Pre-Test - Post-Test Control Group Design. The subjects in this study were the classes XI IPS 3 as an experimental class consisting of 32 students, and XI IPS 5 as a control class consisting of 32 students in the Manado 7 High School in the academic year of 2018–2019. The data obtained showed differences­­ between the pre-test and post-test results in the control class and the experimental class, with an average of 57 experimental class learning outcomes and an average control class learning outcome of 46.625. The normality test data is fulfilled with normally distributed data. The results of the data analysis showed a real level of 0.05 was obtained and then rejected. Based on the results of these studies, it can be concluded that the learning outcomes of students taught with inquiry learning models are better than the learning outcomes of students taught with conventional learning models. Pages 189 to 207




The Role of Literary Work in Karo Community, Indonesia 

Sylvie Meilianaa, aDepartment of English Literature, Faculty of Language and Literature Universitas Nasional, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: asylvie.meiliana@civitas.unas.ac.id

The study focuses on the role of literary work, namely ‘ndungndungen’ in the Karo community, Sumatera. Ndungndungen Karo is a poem regenerated orally (oral tradition). Generally, Ndungndungen Karo consists of four lines in one verse; the first two lines are a preface and the last two lines are the contents. The essence of Ndungndungen Karo mostly reflects social, cultural as well as educational value. This study applied qualitative research and sociological analysis, namely data collection, data reduction, data display, drawing and verification of conclusions. Based on the research, it can be concluded that the main purpose of ndungdungen is giving advice, knowing how to conduct a proper manner in society and maintaining kinship. Pages 208 to 221




Towards Planet 50:50: Gender Equality by 2030 in Indonesia

Syamsiah Badruddina, Paisal Halimb, Nieke Monika Kulsumc, Suci Ayu Kurniah Putrid, Fadhilah Trya Wulandarie, aDepartment of Sociology Faculty of Social and Political Sciences Universitas Nasional Jakarta, bPostgraduate Universitas Nasional Jakarta, cDepartment of Communication Science Faculty of Social and Political Science Universitas Nasional, dDepartment of Ners Faculty Universitas Indonesia Timur Makassar, eGraduate School, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, Email: asyamsiah_badruddin@civitas.unas.ac.idbpaisalhalim@civitas.unas.ac.idcnieke_monika@civitas.unas.ac.iddsuciayu_0904078701@uit.ac.idedilahtrya@pasca.unhas.ac.id

This study analyzes the readiness of the Indonesian people to reach the United Nations ‘Planet 50:50 Gender Equality in 2030’ target, using government support. A qualitative approach was used to assess the problem, with secondary data as the primary source. The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is a forum to get clarification and input from experts and observers of gender equality in Indonesia. Secondary data and recapitulations of FGD results were analyzed, using narrative descriptive analysis. Research results show that: (1) Discrimination against Indonesian women will continue, especially in the public and government spheres. Opportunities for women to fill strategic positions are still marked by close competition with men. (2) Violence against women continues to increase from year to year. Even if there is a decrease in the number or percentage, it does not mean that cases of violence against women have begun to decrease. However, there are still many unreported cases. Reported cases are just the tip of the iceberg. (3) Women's participation has not fulfilled the 30% quota in parliament, despite the government’s affirmative action policy which requires each political party to include 30% of candidates for legislative positions. In reality, only 20% was reached in the 2019 elections. The ideals of the Indonesian people towards Planet 50:50 Gender Equality in 2030 still have to pass through a long and winding road, due to various factors. There continues to be much confusion in the community in even understanding gender issues, and so Gender Mainstreaming Programs (PUG) still experience many obstacles. Likewise, various government policies relating to gender equality, which eliminate discrimination, minimize violence against women and children, as well as affirmative action policies encouraging a 30% quota for women in parliament, still face obstacles. Thus, their achievement has not been maximized. Pages 222 to 235




Monitoring Models of Expectant Mothers’ and Babies’ Health - A Web-Based and SMS Gateway

Made Kamisutaraa, Syamsiah Badruddinb, Paisal Halimc, Agus Sukocod, I Putu Artayae, R. Agus Baktionof, aDepartment of Computer Science, University Narotama, Surabaya, Indonesia, b,cDepartment of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Nasional Jakarta, Indonesia, d,e,fDepartment of Management, University Narotama, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: amade.kamisutara@narotama.ac.idbsyamsiah_badruddin@civitas.unas.ac.id, cpaisalhalim@civitas.unas.ac.iddagus.sukoco@narotama.ac.id, eputu.artaya@narotama.ac.idfagus.baktiono@narotama.ac.id

This research was carried out against the background of the still high mortality rates of mothers and babies after giving birth. This is a special problem for Indonesia and other countries with the same experience. To overcome the high mortality rates for pregnant women and infants, a web-based application and SMS gateway solution is needed. This application monitors the health of pregnant women and infants in remote villages, far from adequate health services. Pregnant women can be helped through mobile services accessed easily via the web and SMS. Through information technology, the limitations of time and space can be overcome. The application was trialled at a health service centre in Kepanjen Malang, East Java. It can be integrated more widely using the internet. An experiment over five months turned out to be quite encouraging as a tool for collecting data on pregnant women, both those who did not experience health problems and those with certain health problems in their pregnancy. A web-based application and SMS gateway are quite capable of helping medical personnel, as they collect accurate data on the distribution of unhealthy pregnant women in the Kepanjen region. Given these encouraging results locally, this application can be applied elsewhere to improve health services for pregnant women and infants. The next task of researchers is to disseminate information at each health service centre in the East Java region. Pages 236 to 252




Developing a Framework for­ Life Cycle Assessment of Construction Materials through Building Information Modelling (BIM)

Nurshuhada Zainona, Goh Wei Lunb, Noor Suzaini Mohamed Zaidc, Nik Elyna Myedad, Nur Mardhiyah Azize, a,b,eDepartment of Quantity Surveying, Faculty of Built Environment, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, c,dDepartment of Building Surveying, Faculty of Built Environment, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Email: azshuhada@um.edu.my, bsimongoh1997@gmail.com, csuzaini_zaid@um.edu.my, delyna@um.edu.my, enurmardhiyah@um.edu.my

Buildings are responsible for up to 50% of greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, and more than 30% of energy use. Studies show that 90% of building life span occurs during operation and maintenance. Hence, construction professionals should address life cycle environmental considerations. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is crucial in achieving sustainable building design, as it offers an objective and consistent measurement of environmental impacts from construction materials and assemblies. Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology could automate LCA into one single platform. This research proposes a BIM-enabled Life Cycle Assessment Framework, to trade-off embodied energy against predicted operational energy consumption in construction projects. The research identified assessment parameters for LCA. It then mapped out in the digital construction process using BIM as a platform. The conceptual framework was validated by BIM experts and Quantity Surveyors who are knowledgeable in this area. They were selected using snowball sampling methodology. Ultimately, recognizing the environmental impact encourages the use of materials with low environmental impact. It will also echo our government’s various efforts to assist industry players in embracing Industry 4.0, through the adoption of digital technologies. Pages 253 to 276




Improving the Comparative Advantage of Entrepreneurship with a Joint Market in the Middle of Global Competition

I Putu Artayaa, Paisal Halimb, Amiruddinc, Benyamin Rapidd, Agus Sukocoe, WahyudionofaDepartment of Management, University Narotama Surabaya, Indonesia, bDepartment of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Nasional Jakarta, Indonesia, cUniversitas Azzahra, Jakarta, Indonesia, dSTAI DDI Sidenreng Rappang, Indonesia, e,fDepartment of Management, University Narotama, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: aputu.artaya@narotama.ac.idbpaisalhalim@civitas.unas.ac.idcamiruddin.azzahra@gmail.comdbenyamin.rapid@gmail.comeagus.sukoco@narotama.ac.idfwahyudiono@narotama.ac.id

This study originates with the desire of small and medium enterprises in five cities in East Java, namely Mojokerto, Pasuruan, Malang, Gresik and Lumajang Indonesia, in market internationally. The solution is a more focused challenge that involves increasing competitive advantage for products, product ingredients and other commodities. For this study, in East Java, a personal approach is needed to determine the strengths of each small and medium business actor in five cities. Therefore our research team collected and shared data from 160 small and medium business actors. We used the Categorical Test, because it clarified which aspects must be improved, to make the product acceptable by the destination market. The results relate to numerous matters. They include decisions as to exhibiting solo abroad, opening cooperation with foreign entrepreneurs, communication and sales networks, buying raw material commodities from other countries, and choosing efficient and easy means of transportation for exchanging goods. Further, the results also pertain to trade agreements and commodity exchanges, looking for market loopholes for countries that need commodities, and providing facilities and offers from trading partner countries. The results also show that strategies in selling and offering must adopt the latest technology that supports opportunities to enter the market, making future communication easier. Pages 277-291




Enhancing Student’s Learning Experience in the Classroom Using Lighting Stimulation

Henry Candraa*, Endah Setyaningsihb, Jeanny Praganthac, Rifai Chaid, aElectrical Engineering Department, Universitas Trisakti, Jakarta, Indonesia b,cElectrical Engineering Study Program, Universitas Tarumanagara, Jakarta, Indonesia, dDepartment of Telecommunications, Electrical, Robotics and Biomedical Engineering, Swinburne, University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia, Email: a*henrycandra@trisakti.ac.id

Education is a lifelong learning process that includes formal study in a classroom. However, some students struggle to concentrate in the classroom. This study shows that the classroom focus of students can be improved using lighting stimulation. The effects of lighting stimulation were studied. An experimental classroom was prepared with a standard illumination, and equipped with three differently coloured lighting temperatures. Students were then asked to relate, on a questionnaire, their level of comfort and focus to the lighting stimulation. An electroencephalogram of some students’ brainwaves was also recorded. The analysis of the questionnaire results and the brainwave pattern confirmed that the lighting stimulation enhanced the learning experience in the classroom, by altering the brainwave pattern to a more focused state. Pages 292 to 304




 Political Culture in Management of Clean Water Facilities (SABBM) in Cibadak, Kecamatan Tanjungsari, Bogor District, Jawa Barat, Indonesia

Diana Fawziaa*, Truly Wangsalegawab, Nursatyoc, a,bDepartment of Political Science Faculty Social and Political Science, Universitas Nasional, cDepartment of Communication Science Faculty Social and Political Science, Universitas Nasional, Email: a*diana.fawzia@civitas.unas.ac.id

The Community-Based Clean Water Facility Program (SABBM), which began in 2018 in Cibadak Village, Tanjungsari District, Bogor Regency, West Java, in 2019, entered the process of strengthening institutions and implementing village regulations. Clean Water Management Agency (BPAB) is an institution established to carry out its duties as manager of clean water facilities by existing village regulations. The study was conducted with the Participatory Action Research method or PAP. The results showed that the local political culture in rural areas in Cibadak Village is a combination of parochial political culture and political culture of the subject. The combination of these two forms of political culture is still compounded by the strong kinship network, the lack of concern from the village government, and the apathetic attitude of the community. Pages 305 to 319




Labour, Democracy and Identity Politics, in Indonesian Industry During the Jokowi Era

AF Sigit Rochadia, Adilita Pramantib, Angga Sulaimanc, a,bProgram Studi Sosiologi Fakultas Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, Universitas Nasional, Jakarta, Indonesia, cProgram Studi Administrasi Publik Fakultas Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, Universitas Nasional, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: aaf.rochadi@civitas.unas.ac.idbadilita.pramanti@civitas.unas.ac.idcangga.sulaiman@civitas.unas.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to explain the rise of the exclusive labour movement in Indonesia. The study was conducted using qualitative method, data were collected through interviews and the validity of the data was examined by cross-checking among informants. Data analysis was accomplished using the illustrative and inductive methods. The finding is that Indonesia has been implementing identity politics for decades and was praised by many world leaders when it successfully achieved democracy through free, honest, and fair elections after years of authoritarian government. However, conservatism moved slowly towards the exclusive parties. After several provinces and districts had succeeded in establishing regional regulations which accommodated Islamic teachings (Shari'a), social movements, including labour, increasingly and actively championed it in industrial relations. In the most extensive industrial areas in Indonesia, Islamic unions are striving for the concept of industrial relations, through identity politics and collaboration with similar exclusive movements continues by utilizing a democratic system. Pages 320 to 331



Deletion and its Role in Rhetorical Guidance in the Book of the Interpretation of the Koran for Al-Turaihi

Saadoon Taha Sarhana, akuliyat al'imam alaiezim aljamiea/Iraq, Email: aCo_alemam_alaadm@yahoo.com

The linguistic meaning of deletion in various Arabic lexicons is around the meaning of the pieces of the limb. In particular, subtraction and projection as well as throwing and multiplication. Deletion is referred to in terms of projections of part of speech or all evidence. This projection, whether part of speech or all evidence, must be accompanied by mental evidence indicating deletion and usually indicates the designation of the deleted. The researcher believes that Jurjani has been interested in several aesthetics of deletion, as shown through the description of him: that the non-mentioned (deletion) may be in the state of disclosure and is reported from the pronunciation and male, and silence on the benefit is an increase of benefit, which is demonstrated by the disclosure. These provide a deep insight into the rhetoric. Concerning the distinction between deletion and deletion in the actor, we find that the language and rhetoric have been distinguished. That is, "the actor is atrophied and not omitted", wherever it can be estimated with a hidden conscience. Pages 332 to 342

Perceptions of Economic Corruption: Causes and Addressing Mechanisms

Ahmed Abdulla Salmana, Ahmed Sabeeh Attiyab, a,bDepartment of Economics, Faculty of Administration and Economics Wasit University, Iraq,

There is no doubt that the phenomenon of corruption in all its forms is immoral, and it transcends its extreme impact on society as a whole and casts a negative shadow on its moral and economic structure. Iraq has witnessed frequent and persistent waves of corruption in all its forms, most notably economic corruption, and since the 1980s. During the 1990s it was aggravated due to the difficult economic conditions during the period of economic sanctions imposed on Iraq. This phenomenon has become increasingly prevalent in the government sector because of the low staff pension and extortion, or the exploitation of resources available in government and public funds. This behaviour has been justified by the most vulnerable in the need for subsistence and exorbitant costs. This phenomenon has been clearly and openly increased after 2003, at the highest levels of the state due to insecurity, political and sectarian strife and weak capabilities of regulatory agencies. Despite its multiplicity and due to the weakness of the country and its association with partisan and factional interests, the regulatory and auditory bodies have not been able to carry out their duties towards economic corruption and to combat it. Pages 343 to 362

‘One Shot’ Knowledge Transfer: Is It Possible? (Empirical Study on the Indonesian Creative Industry)

Nikolas F. Wuryaningrata, Paulus Kindangenb, Greis Sendowc, Bode Lumanouwd, Lydia I. Kumajase aDoctoral Program Faculty Economics and Business Universitas Sam Ratulangi/Lecturer at Faculty Economics Universitas Negeri Manado, b,c,dFaculty Economics and Business Universitas Sam Ratulangi, e Faculty Economics Universitas Negeri Manado

Knowledge transfer activities in organisations were fundamental due to their potency to optimize knowledge resources. There are two contradictive opinions about knowledge transfer. Opinion A; knowledge transfer is mentioned as a ‘sticky’ process and it is constrained by differences in understanding of knowledge between the giver and the receiver and this could cause ambiguity. Opinion B; the process of productivity growth and technology diffusion through knowledge transfer is possible to be achieved through a 'one shot' process, which is instant and at low cost. Hence, knowledge transfer can occur directly within the organisation. Trust could act as the key, however, building trust is not a simple matter. Ideally, firms need employees who are fit for purpose and who understand and are complementary to other employees. Person job fit (PJ-Fit) and person organisation fit (PO-Fit) are theories that can explain the conditions under analysis. This research was conducted in the Indonesian SMEs creative industry sector in the Province of Special Region Yogyakarta; Province of Bali and North Sulawesi Province. Two hundred and one data sets were collected and analysed with PLS-SEM. The results showed that PJ-Fit had a positive effect on trust. In turn, trust would affect knowledge transfer. It can be concluded that, to allow employees to spontaneously share their knowledge, a firm needs employees to have knowledge, skill, ability and personality that can be internalized. Pages 363 to 385
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