Methods of Learning the Concept of Basic Electric Circuits: A Comparative Study between Lecture, Discussion and Collaboration

Hantje Pontoa, aDepartment of Electrical Engineering Education, Universitas Negeri Manado, Minahasa, PO Box. 95618 North Sulawesi, Indonesia, Email: ahantjeponto@unima.ac.id

Electricity contributes to technological development so that there is an industrial revolution 4.0 in the 21st century. Basic electric circuits (BEC) is a subject matter that must be mastered by students who pursue Electrical engineering technical competence in the Vocational Technical School (VTS). Teaching method plays an important role in the learning activities of BEC in the classroom. The use of appropriate teaching methods can help students understand the concepts of BEC subject matter. In Indonesia, there are still many teachers using the lecture method in learning activities, so students often have difficulty learning the BEC concept. This study aims to compare lecture, discussion and collaboration methods in BEC learning activities. Participants in this study consisted of 79 students and 3 teachers. The research method is an experiment to compare the effectiveness of lecture, discussion, and collaboration methods. Data analysis uses Covariance Analysis (Ancova) to compare teaching methods and N-Gain Score testing to study the effectiveness of teaching methods in learning BEC concept. Pages 1 to 16




The Problems Facing Students Learning English in the Era of the Industrial Revolution 4.0

Ratna Sari Dewia, aPoltek LP3I Cikarang, Email: adewi_melu@yahoo.com

Mastery of English is very important for a student, but unfortunately there are still many students who do not realize this. Various responses can be found in class related to these problems, especially in the attitude of students during the learning process, student learning outcomes, and participation in carrying out group activities. This study aims to describe the problems faced by students in learning English and its causes. This study uses descriptive research with a questionnaire, observation, and documentation. The results showed that the research subjects had various learning difficulties in English. This happens due to the different levels of English mastery. Pages 17 to 29




An Exploratory Study on History Education and the Construction of Patriotism among the Youth in Malaysia

Amelia Yuliana Abd Wahaba*, Hazri Jamilb, Abdul Rahman Abdul Razakc, Munir Shuibd, a,cFaculty of Defence Studies and Management, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, b,dNational Higher Education Research Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Email: a*amelia4433@yahoo.com

This study explores the importance of history education towards the construction of patriotism in a multiethnic society in Malaysia. The discussion is based on the experiences and views from the youth in the state of Johor Bahru, Peninsula Malaysia. A qualitative methodology using a phenomenology approach is used to gain insight from the thirty informants. There are four themes discussed, which includes the informants’ experience in learning history in school, the expression of ‘love’ as Malaysians, the understanding of the Independence and ‘making of Malaysia’ and lastly, the informants’ views on the common Malaysian identity in a multiethnic society. The findings emphasize the critical role of schools and higher education institutions in instilling the patriotic spirit through history education. Pages 30 to 46




Reinforcing Civic Dispositions through a Value Analysis Approach on Civics Education Subjects in Schools

Dewi Wulandaria, Muchtarom, Mb, Triyantoc, Winarnod, a,b,c,dCivics Education Department, Sebelas Maret University of Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia

This research aims at producing Civic Dispositions reinforcement strategies through a value analysis approach on Civics Education subjects in schools. The approach of value analysis emphasizes the development of students' analysing abilities concerning social values. If we are to compare this approach with the cognitive approach, the value analysis approach emphasizes discussing social problems which reflect particular moral values. The social problems highlighted in this study include issues on environment, education, poverty, traffic jams, moral degradation, drug abuse, crime, and human rights violations. The student’s moral values include: religion, honesty, tolerance, hard-work, creativity, independence, democracy, curiosity, care for the environment and social life, friendliness, responsibility, love of country, peace of mind, and national spirit. This research was conducted at Junior High Schools in Surakarta City, and was designed with qualitative research methods using purposive sample technique. The subjects used in this research were 7th grade Civics teachers and students. The data collection was carried out through document study, interview, attitude assessment, and observation. The data analysis techniques applied data reduction, data presentation, drawing conclusions and verification. The study found that the value analysis approach reinforces students' Civics dispositions. This approach helps students learn decision making through systematic steps. The steps of value analysis approach involves: 1) identifying and explaining the related values; 2) collecting facts of the related issues; 3) testing the truth of facts concerning the issues 4) explaining the relationships between the related facts; 5) formulating temporary moral decisions; and 6) testing the moral principles applied in decision making. Pages 47 to 63




An Experimental Study on the Development of Learner Autonomy among English as a Foreign Language Learners at Tertiary Level

Ayesha Butta*, Uzma Quraishib, Asma Kazic, Afifa Khanamd, a,b,c,dInstitute of Education, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan

The development of autonomy in foreign language has been a much discussed area over the last three decades, even though it is not under the practice yet. The aim behind the present research was to design a program for the training of autonomy, and to implement it through an intervention in a foreign language classroom. The basic theme behind the program was the use of foreign language learning strategies. The participants of the research were tertiary level students, studying English as a foreign language and the data was collected from a government university of Pakistan. The training was conducted on the experimental group while the traditional teaching methods were used for the control group. The results showed that the training proved to be fruitful to enhance autonomy. The research further suggests that autonomous learning practices can be incorporated into regular foreign language programs and can be beneficial for the learners. Pages 64 to 81




The Development of Guided Discovery Based Learning Materials to Improve Learning Outcomes in High School Biology

Sapiudina, Basuki Wibawab, aPost Graduated Universitas Negeri Jakarta, bProfesor at Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Email: asapiudin_tp14s3@mahasiswa.unj.ac.idbbwibawa@unj.ac.id

The challenge of education development is to improve the quality and equal distribution of education by reducing the disparity in the quality of education between regions, between sexes, and between the rich and poor. Based on the report of the United Nation Development Program (UNDP), the quality of Indonesia's human resources is low as seen from the Human Development Index (HDI). In 2015, Indonesia was ranked 113 out of 188 countries. One of the subjects of the national high school exam results in Indonesia that are still low are biology subjects. This study aims to develop high school biology learning materials based on guided discovery to improve learning outcomes in biology. The method used in this research is Research and Development (R & D) by Gall, Gall, and Borg. The learning materials developed are Teacher's Guide, Student's Guide and Student Worksheet (LKS). The results showed that Guided Discovery learning materials were developed and evaluated by experts and students. Four experts were involved to evaluate this learning material. According to guided discovery, the learning materials are valid and ready to use. Pre-test and post-test were conducted to see the effectiveness of learning materials and the result was an increase in high school biology learning outcomes. This means that the model is feasible for use in high school biology learning. Pages 82 to 92




Assessing the Measurement Model of Negotiation Styles and Marital Satisfaction among Couples in Nigeria

Fasasi Lukmana, Aqeel Khanb*, Adibah Abdul Latifc, Ado Abdu Bichid, a,b,cSchool of Education, Universiti Tecknologi, Malaysia (UTM), Johor, Malaysia, dFaculty of Education, Yusuf Maitama Sule University, Kano-Nigeria, Email: b*draqeelkhan@gmail.com

This study investigates the measurement model of negotiation styles and marital satisfaction among married couple in Nigeria. To achieve the purpose a cross-sectional survey design was adopted with a sample of 385 married couples in Kwara state Nigeria. The instruments used are tagged ‘Negotiation Styles and Marital Satisfaction Scales’ which contained 40 items spread among the 8 sub-constructs, a 4 level Likert type was adopted throughout the scale. The data collected was entered into Microsoft Excel 2016 and SPSS 20 for data cleaning and filtered to the SmartPLS 3. The data was checked for normality using two indicators: Skewness and Kurtosis. The data analysis was conducted using Partial least square structural equation modelling approaches with SmartPLS 3 software. The measurement models were evaluated by items loading, composite reliability (CR) and average variance extracted (AVE). The results revealed that the measurement model assessed in this study showed acceptability with validity and reliability tests results presented in the preceding sections. The convergent validity was examined through the factor loadings, composite reliability (CR), and average variance extracted (AVE). Thus with the satisfaction of all the measurement requirements, it can be concluded that the developed Negotiation Styles and Marital Satisfaction Scales validated in this study can be used to assess the Negotiation Styles and Marital Satisfaction Scales among married couples in Nigeria. Pages 93 to 103




A Legal Intervention in Combatting Terrorism and Violent Extremism in Malaysia

W. R Wan Roslia, S, Kamaruddinb, Z Haminc, a,cFaculty of of Law, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor  bDepartment of Business Management and Entrepreneurship, Faculty of Management and Economics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia, Email:arosalili@uitm.edu.my, rosalili@gmail.com, bsaslina88@gmail.comczaihamin1@gmail.com

In the era of globalization and information and communication technology, the modus operandi of ‘terrorists and violent extremists’ have transcended from the real world to cyberspace. The cyber environment provides a safe haven for them to spread propaganda, promote radicalization, and as a source for recruitments. Despite having legislative sanctions to combat the problem, soft modalities are also imperative in preventing and countering terrorism and violent extremism (PVE/CVE). The objective of this paper is to examine the use of the Internet in violent extremism and the PVE/CVE efforts in the existing legal and non-legal modalities in governing such criminality. This paper adopts a library-based research methodology through content analysis and doctrinal legal analysis in which the secondary data consists of primary sources, which are the terrorism-related laws and the Penal Code. The secondary sources include books, law reports, journals, and online databases. The authors contend that the internet provides a safe refuge to spread VE without detection via anonymity and trans-border connectivity. As VE has shifted from the real world to cyberspace, it posed a greater risk worldwide. The governance of such crime through hard and soft approaches is imperative given the seriousness and impact of such crime. Pages 104 to 114




The Effectiveness of Tax Incentives Program: The Case of Indonesia

Memen Kustiawana, Ida Farida Adi Prawirab*, Hida Sukmawatic, Abiyyu Asdy Pambudid, a,b,c,dDepartment of Accounting, Economy and Business Education Faculty, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Email: b*ida.farida@upi.edu

Tax incentives provide direct benefits to taxpayers and investors to take specific actions. It is a government action that supports companies to invest and build infrastructure. This study proposes a practical way to estimate the effectiveness of tax incentives. By adopting The Luger & Bae Model, we simulate how much taxpayer's costs are reduced by tax incentives and how those reductions are likely to increase employment. That enables us to address the critical but elusive counterfactual question about the induced, rather than gross effects of tax incentives. The importance of this study is not in the elegance of its approach but its application. We demonstrate how a straightforward model can be used to inform critical decisions that thus far have had little useful input from analysts. Pages 115 to 124




Storyboard Video Guideline Development in Processing Practicum: The Case of Taiwanese Bread

Annis Kandriasaria*, Robinson Situmorangb,  Suyitno Muslimc, Jhoni Lagun Siangd, a,b,cDepartement of Education Technology Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Rawamangun Muka Jakarta Timur 13220 Indonesia, dDepartment of education Mathemathic Universitas Bumi hijrah Maluku utara, Jl. Lintas Halmahera Sofifi, Maluku Utara, indonesia, Email: a*annis@unj.ac.id

This study aims to produce storyboard video guidelines in the Taiwanese Bread processing practicum and determine the feasibility of storyboard video guidelines in the Taiwanese Bread processing practicum. The study method used Research and Development (RnD) by Dick and Carey’s model development. The study sites included the processing laboratory, and the pastry and bakery laboratory. Data collection techniques involved interviews, documentation, and questionnaires. Data analysis techniques used documentation, qualitative, and quantitative data analysis. The procedures of designing storyboard video guidelines in Taiwanese Bread processing practicum were conducted by preparing material, making a script, and preparing a storyboard. To assess the feasibility of storyboard video guidelines, content validation was assessed by a material expert, media expert, and learning expert. The study result revealed that the storyboard video guidelines were feasible to be developed in the Taiwanese Bread processing practicum. The average level of feasibility obtained was 79.57% for the feasible category of material experts’ judgment, 77.54% for the feasible category of media experts’ judgment, and 86.12% for the very feasible category of learning experts’ judgment. It concluded that the storyboard video has a valid, practical, and potential effect in the Taiwanese Bread processing practicum. Pages 125 to 138




Management of Higher Containment and its Effect in Promoting Organisational Commitment

Makkiyah Kraidi Bunyan Alkabia, aManagement Department, College of Management and Economics Mustansiriyah University, Email: adr.makkiyah71@Uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

This research aims to show the impact of the Management of Higher Containment dimensions (functional integration, training, motivation, technological support for work) on the organisational commitment dimensions (continuous commitment, emotional commitment, normative commitment) within the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. The problem was formulated with a set of questions centered on the impacts between the dimensions of high containment management and organisational commitment. The main research hypothesis was formulated and tested using a number of statistical methods to analyse the data collected from the research sample. The research followed a descriptive analytical approach. The sample consisted of (83)  Ministry employees surveyed by questionnaire which was considered valid for analysis.  Overall the study identified organisational commitment was most influenced by the variables of research (high containment management, organizational commitment), and functional integration. These results were consistent with the hypothesis from which the research was launched. Pages 139 to 151




The Effectiveness of a Safe Education Program on the Development of Careful Behaviour in Kindergarten

Murooj Adel Khalafa, Marwa Mahdi Kazemb, a,bUniversity of Almustansiria, College of Basic Education, Department of Kindergarten.

The current research aims to identify the effectiveness of an educational program based on safe education in developing cautious behaviour in kindergarten children. The study sample consisted of 60 children consisting of  girls aged 5-6 years. The sample was divided into two groups: an experimental group consisting of 30 girls, and a control group consisting of 30 girls. In order to verify the research objective, the researcher constructed the measure of cautious behaviour, and the experimental,semi-experimental experimental design was used for the post-tribal tests. The standard is from 30 paragraphs in the final form to the alternatives of answers (2 = never applies, 1= sometimes applies, 0 =always applies). To achieve the research objective, 30 lessons in addition to the introductory and final classes were given. Each lesson took 30 minutes. After the data was processed statistically, the research results identified  the experimental group had more cautious behaviour than  the control group.  Based on the results, A set of conclusions, recommendations and suggestions (based on the results) are presented. Keywords: Effectiveness, Safe Education or Child Health Security, Development, Behaviour, Caution, Preventive Awareness, Immunisation, Kindergarten Children. Pages 152 to 175




Life Management Strategies of University Students

Salma Obaid Mohammeda, aUniversity of Baghdad, College of Education for Pure Science (Ibn al-Haitham).

The present study aimed to identify the life management strategies of university students, as well as to identify the statistical differences in the life management strategies of these students due to gender (males, females) and specialisation (scientific, humanitistic). Comprising a sample of 400 students from the University of Baghdad and after collecting data and statistical processing, the research results identified some important findings, including that: University students have the ability and efficiency in the use of life management strategies to arrange their lives positively to  achieve goals. The results did not show statistically significant differences in the life management strategies of university students between males and females. In light of the research results, the project has made several recommendations, including: paying attention to the extension units in schools and universities and developing their extension programs to take over ongoing research. Proposals for future work  include: Conducting an associative study on the relationship between life management strategies and other variables such as (methods of thinking, self-understanding, self-realisation, etc.). Pages 176 to 195




The Impact of the Teacher’s Role on Students’ Achievement and Motivation in ESP Teaching

Baan Jafar Sadiqa, aAssistant Professor at College of Physical Education and Science Sport for Women, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq, Email: aban@copew.uobaghdad.edu.iq

The English teacher plays an important role in teaching and education, therefore there are many roles that the teachers can play according to the methods of teaching which are discussed. These roles effect the achievement and the motivation of the students. Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate experimentally the impact of teacher’s role on students’ achievement and motivation in English for Special Purposes (ESP) teaching. The research has studied four roles of teacher (authority, counsellor, and facilitator and multi-roles) to fulfil the aim of the research. The sample of the research is 110 students.  It is hypothesised that there are no significant differences among the fourth experimental groups in achievement and motivation. An experiment has been applied for four groups which were taught by the researcher, with different roles. The experiment has lasted 15 weeks; at the end a test and a motivation questionnaire were applied for all groups. After analysing the results statistically, it has been found that there are statistically significant differences among the groups favour for teacher’s multi-roles for achievement and teacher’s facilitator role for motivation. Pages 196 to 212




A Collected Educational System Built on Blended Education and its Effect in Developing Art Education Teacher-Students' Teaching Skills

Firas Ali Hassana, Mohamed Sobeih Mahmoudb, Attia Wazeh Abboudc, a,b,cMustansiriya University - Iraq - Baghdad / College of Basic Education / Department of Art Education

The current study recognises the effect of a collected educational system which concentrates on blended education for developing Iraqi teacher-students' skills at Al-Mustansiriyah University in the College of Basic Education. The data collected was from 30 male and female teacher-students from the Art Education department and particularly the morning classes. The researchers intentionally choose this specific number of students and they choose the descriptive method in identifying the skills and the experimental method in identifying the effect of the collected educational system. Additionally, the researchers use two searching tools which are: 1. the knowledge achievement test for measuring the student's information, second; 2. a note-list of the teaching skills that guarantee the reliability and the stability of the teaching process. After collecting the data, the previously selected tools prior/ post and statistical applications have been executed. The current study shows a prominent statistical difference in the teacher-students average in the prior and post application of the achievement test and the note list in favour of the post application test. In this respect, the researchers emphasise the necessity of using the current collected system of the blended education in training the teacher-students to gain the learning skills. Pages 213 to 228




The Interactive Domain of Multi-Intelligence and its Relation to Objective Test of EFL Achievement

Baan Jafar Sadiqa, aAssistant Professor at College of Physical Education and Science Sport for Women, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq, Email: aban@copew.uobaghdad.edu.iq

This research aims at identifying the interactive domain of multiple-intelligences and English objective test. The research questions if there is a correlation between the interactive domain of multiple-intelligence and the English objective tests. Thus, the research has adopted a close questionnaire for diagnosing interactive domain (linguistic, interpersonal, and kinesthetic), and an objective English test to achieve the aim of the research. Nine colleges at Baghdad University are randomly chosen to represent the sample of the research, which is 511 students. The results of the research have shown that there are statistically significant correlations between the interactive domain of multiple intelligence and the objective English test. Thus, the objective tests could be used in assessing students’ achievement, without neglecting other types of tests such as the continuous long-term assessment, un-timed, free-response format, individualised test, project work and creative answers based on multiple-intelligences. Pages 229 to 240




An Optimal Decision Making Process to Determine the Sequence of Products in Productive Sectors Using Genetic Algorithms

Ahmed Karim Jassim Jassima, Ali Hussein Hasanb, aCollege of Administration and Economic, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq, bCollege of Computer science and IT, University of Sumer, Iraq, Email: aAhmed.kareem@utq.edu.iq, bali.husain@uos.edu.iq

The productive sectors at the present time are working in a competitive work environment, characterised by rapid development and change in the wants and needs of customers because of the opening of the country's markets to international and Arab companies, making the competition process of these companies very difficult in that the customers demand different goods and services to meet their needs. Also, these goods are high in quality and reliability, lowest in cost and also rapid in delivery and response. The production companies are working to develop their production lines so that they are more flexible to change and can produce multiple products on the same production line, with the possibility of development to cope with the changing needs of customers.  The changes of the production line from the production of a product to another needs a setup time and this time may be greater than the production time, thus leading to delay in the delivery of demands, which affects the reputation of the company and leads to customer dissatisfaction. Therefore, setup time is considered to be an influential factor in the production process. The determining of product sequence that reduces setup time using traditional approaches needs a long time to take all the possibilities for the relay process, and then to choose the alternative that reduces setup time. This leads companies to use modern scientific and quantitative approaches of rational decision making, and not enough of the experience of the decision maker or the use of traditional approaches in the process of decision making. In this paper, we used Genetic algorithms (GA) in decision making, which is one of the modern quantitative approaches to find the global optimum solution. It has been used to determine the sequence of products and the least setup time for a given set of demands. The proposed approach was applied in the Ur Company/ wire winding factory. The results showed the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in decision making to determine the production sequence in this factory, where GA take into account the product which ended the previous demand, and which one will begin in the later demand. Therefore, will be making a strategic and comprehensive decision and not a local decision. Pages 241 to 261




Measuring Information Awareness of an Industrial Project for Sustainable Development using Fuzzy Logic

Alla Talal Yassina, aUniversity of Information Technology and Communications, Email: aDr.allatalal@uoitc.edu.iq

The concept of sustainable development has attracted the attention of those concerned. The preservation of non-renewable resources and the work to increase information literacy and insight into the strengths is an important stage in order to overcome obstacles to the implementation of sustainable development. The aim of this research is to measure the extent of information awareness of the project manager, his insight and knowledge of the concept of sustainable development and its role in achieving it and measuring its desire to participate in achieving it, using fuzzy logic. Awareness and the amount of information development required to achieve sustainable development were measured. Follow-up of the standards in a periodic manner was conducted to determine the extent of access to the state of information awareness to ensure the continuity of sustainable development, assuming the decline of resources for sustainable development and the gradual loss of resources for future generations due to lack of information consciousness. The research indicated the need to develop a model using fuzzy logic to measure the level of uncertainty levels of information consciousness: such as a person's ability to discover information when needed, locate it, determine an assessment of the effective use of information when needed, knowledge of the use of IT equipment, and other conclusions. Pages 262 to 272




The Quality of Financial Reporting According to International Standards of Non-Profit Organisations Operating in Iraq

Ilham m.wathika, Nada s. Al azzawib, Muna k.Hamadc, aUniversity of Iraq - Faculty of Management and Economics - Accounting Department, bUniversity of Baghdad, College of  Agricultural Engineering  Sciences- Agricultural Engineering  Economic Department, cUniversity of Nahrain - College of Business Economics – Accounting & Financial Control Department, Email: anada.salman@coagri.uobaghdad.edu.iq,   bmuna@eco.nahrarinuniv.edu.iqcmunakamel_63@yahoo.com

The number of non-profit organisations operating in Iraq has rapidly increased since the events of 2003. Those organisations are characterised by multiple activities, notably humanitarian assistance, culture, and human rights. Because Iraq is somewhat new to this type of organisation, this paper investigates the financial reporting of non-profit organisations, and the extent to which they meet the standard of FAS 117 requirements. It has been noticed that those organisations did not present sufficient financial statements, which negatively impacted the quality of financial reporting, and they did not meet the needs of the stakeholders to the financial information. The study uncovered that the adoption of the standard FAS 117 by those organisations would improve the quality of financial reporting, and increase the users’ confidence of their financial information. Pages 273 to 291




Effectiveness of the Method of Mutual Learning in the Outcome in Physics Subjects and the Development of Decision Making among Secondary School Students

Hardan Ahmed Hardana, aCollege of Basic Education / Sumer University, Email: aHardan2020@gmail.com

The current research aims at identifying the effectiveness of the method of mutual learning in the outcome in physics subjects and the development of decision making among secondary school students. The research sample consisted of (60) students from Alrabe'e secondary school for boys in the Qalaat Sukkar district. The experimental group consisted of (30) students and the second group represented the control group of (30) students. The researcher balanced between the two groups taking into consideration some variables such as age counted in months, grades of the first semester in the physics subject, intelligence test, and educational level of parents. The researcher prepared a test of (40) items and the scale of decision making to solve the physical problems consists of (13) items. The researcher verified the validity and stability of each of them, and after the end of the experiment the achievement test and the decision making scale were applied to the original research sample, and the results were statistically analysed. The results showed superiority of the experimental group that was studied through the application of the method of mutual learning over the control group that was studied through applying the normal method. The calculated T values were (3.76) and (3.26) for the achievement test and the decision scale, which is greater than the table values (2.21) and (2.00) for both results respectively, and for the benefit of the experimental group when using T-test. In the light of the results of the research, the researcher made a number of recommendations, including: to include the method of mutual learning in the teachers’ preparation programs. Pages 292 to 312




The Impact of the Schemes of Knowledge Discrepancy in Geography Education and the Development of Metacognitive Skills among Fifth Grade Literary Students

Mohammed Jawad Kazem Al-Azzawia, aMustansiriya University / College of Education

This research aims to identify the impact of the schemes of knowledge discrepancy in the collection of geography and the development of metacognitive skills among fifth grade literary students. The research uses two groups that will study the same material in the usual way:   Division A comprises the control group, a randomly selected young female Khadija sample and Division B the experimental group; both were studied according to the schemes of knowledge conflict. The research sample involved 60 students, 30 students in Division B, 30 in Division B representing the six directorates of Baghdadi education. To measure the achievement of students of the two research groups, the researcher prepared a test consisting of 40 paragraphs that test multiple and metric skills beyond knowledge. The research conducted the appropriate T-test statistical methods to determine correlation coefficients.  Statistical analysis found that the experimental students showed superiority over the control group students in achievement and metacognition skills. Pages 313 to 334




The Strategic Importance of the Strait of Hormuz and Its Impact on the Iranian – American Conflict

Ahmed Abid Esmaela, Faisal Shallal Abbasb, Majeed Kamil Hamzahc, aFaculty of political Science / Mustansiriyah University, bFaculty of Education for pure Sciences Ibn Al – Haytham / University of Baghdad, cFaculty of Fine Arts / University of Baghdad.

All the Gulf states will be affected by the closure of the Strait of Hormuz, including Iran, as well as major countries, especially China – the first and largest trading partner with Iran in the world – Japan, South Korea, the United States of America, and all European countries. Talk of a military strike on Iran is unlikely to result in action, because oil will be a decisive factor in America's lack of a military option. Closing it would, as many experts see it, push oil prices to more than $200 a barrel, thereby leading to enormous pressures on the world's economies. This alone could prevent a military strike on IranPages 335 to 345




Comparing Students’ Achievement and Gender in Learning EFL

Baan Jafar Sadiqa, aCollege of Physical Education and Science Sports for Women/Baghdad University, Email: aban@copew.uobaghdad.edu.iq

The problem of the research is that all students have been treated as interchangeable parts with the same textbook for all regardless of students’ style of learning and sociolinguistics factors such as gender and the students’ specialisations. The aims of the research are identifying the students’ achievement in learning English Foreign language and comparing the achievement among the colleges and genders. The research hypothesis is that there are no differences among the students’ achievement in learning EFL; and there is no difference between the female and male in learning EFL. The sample for the study is 511 students at Baghdad University, from 9 different colleges during the academic year 2018-2019. The results show that there are significant differences among the students’ achievement at Baghdad colleges, but the results also reveal that there is no difference between male and female in learning EFL of students at Baghdad University. Pages 346 to 358




Comparing the Fuzzy Hazard Rate Function of Three Parameters of Weibull Distribution

Layla M.Nassira, aAssistant Professor Dr., Mechanical Engineering Dept. College of Eng., Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq, Email: alayla_matter@yahoo.com

This paper researches the fuzzy hazard rate function of three parameters of Weibull distribution, by  Moments Estimators (MOE), Maximum Likelihood Estimators (MLE), and the Regression Method. The comparison was done by simulation, using different sample sizes (n = 40, 60, 80) and initial values of (b, c, δ) with  b = scale, c =shape, δ = location parameters. The parameters were estimated by these three different methods (MLE, MOM, PEC(Regression) and the values of ti is generated from C.D.F, using inverse transformation. Then we took a set of five values of  ti for application and estimation, to choose the best estimators that gave the smallest mean square error, as  explained in the Tables. Pages 359 to 374




Situational Contexts of Quantity Adverbial Markers in Quran Translation Texts

Markhamaha*, Abdul Ngalimb*, Atiqa Sabardilac, Yulia Endah Sarid, Rizka Rahma Pradanae, a,b,c,d,eIndonesian Language and Literature Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta 57102, Indonesia, Email:  a*Mar274@ums.ac.id

This study aims to examine situational contexts of quantity adverbial markers used in Quran translation texts (Indonesian). The research data foci are the situational contexts of the adverbial markers in Quran translation texts, especially in verses containing language ethics. Data collection uses the observation method and the uninvolved conversation observation technique. Data analysis uses the referential identity method and the distributional method (Sudaryanto, 2015). The results of the study found that the contexts of situation include speech participants, verbal actions, impacts of verbal actions, and other situational features. First, speakers who use quantity adverbial markers are: Allah, Muhammad, the infidels, and angels. Speech partners involved with the quantity adverbial markers are: Muhammad, followers of Muhammad, wives of Muhammad, Allah and His Messengers, and humans who replace the word of Allah. Second, verbal actions of the speech participants include: informing, forbidding, commanding, warning, acknowledging, and defying. Third, the impacts of actions include: knowing various things that were told, avoiding what is forbidden, carrying out commands, and not addressing Messengers the same way as other humans. Fourth, other situational features include: the books of Allah besides the Quran, people who replace the words of Allah, the distribution of inheritance, the wives of the Prophet Muhammad required to set a good example, infidels wanting to distinguish obedience to Allah and Messengers, relatives, poor people, infidels who come at the time of the distribution of inheritance, and people who spread false news. Pages 375 to 400




The Role of Transformation in the Curriculum for Sustainability of Schools

Abdullah Alya, Moh. Nurhakimb, aDepartement of Islamic Religius Education in Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Indonesia, bFaculty of Islamic Studies in Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia, Email: aaa130@ums.ac.id",  bnurhakimenator@gmail.com

This study aims to describe the transformation model of curriculum Al-Islam and Kemuhammadiyahan (AIK) in Muhammadiyah schools, especially Muhammadiyah Junior High School, located in Surakarta and Klaten. Moreover, the study purposely was done to describe the AIK curriculum transformation's role in the previously mentioned schools. The focus was directed at two aspects, namely: Graduates Competency Standards (GCS) and Content Standards (CS). Data collected through interviews, observations, and document studies were analysed using interactive qualitative analysis and carried out continuously and thoroughly. This study produced two significant findings. Firstly, the transformation of the AIK curriculum at SMPM 01 in Surakarta and SMPM Plus in Klaten were done by developing two standards, namely: GCS and CS. The development was carried out by introducing and adding GCS and CS components set by the Indonesian government, both by the Ministry of Religion and the Ministry of Education and Culture. Secondly, the transformation of the AIK curriculum played an essential role in improving the quality of Muhammadiyah schools to ensure the sustainability of Muhammadiyah schools in the future. Pages 401 to 418




Hybridity, Mimicry and Ambivalence of Female Characters in Indonesia: A study from Postcolonial Novels

Nugraheni Eko Wardania*,  Christiana Evy T. Widyaheningb, aUniversitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia, bUniversitas Slamet Riyadi Surakarta, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia, Email:  a* nugraheniekowardani_99@staff.uns.ac.id

The purpose of this research is to describe the hybridity, mimicry and ambivalence of priyayi and wong cilik female characters in the novels: Student Hidjo by Mas Marco Martodikromo; Nyai Dasima by G. Francis; Bumi Manusia by Pramudya Ananta Toer; and Para Priyayi by Umar Kayam. Descriptive qualitative research is approached by critical gender studies. Critical gender studies examined the reality of women who are hegemonic in socio-cultural construction. Data was collected through analysis of four post-colonial novels. Theory triangulation was used for data validity . Data analysis included an interactive model consisting of data collection, data reduction, data presentation and drawing conclusions. The results showed that priyayi and wong cilik women had different hybridity. Priyayi women were Dutch educated and they adjusted their values ​​to the ideal values ​​brought by the Dutch, such as ways of thinking, social etiquette, language, reading habits, etc. Wong cilik women suffered a sad fate because they became afraid of the Dutch authorities. In the aspect of mimicry, priyayi women and wong cilik women were the same. They imitated the Dutch lifestyle. Priyayi women experienced mimicry to the point of imitating, but not to the stage of breaking down the establishment. In the aspect of ambivalence, although the female leaders had absorbed the Dutch lifestyle and education, they were still considered to be natives who are not equal to the Dutch. Pages 419 to 431




Moral and Religious Values in the Geguritan Dharma Prawerti Song in Bali

Ida Ayu Arniatia, Gede Marhaendra Wija Atmajab, Gede Yoga Kharisma Pradanac*, aIndonesian Hindu University, Bali-Indonesia, bUdayana University, Bali-Indonesia, cInternational Bali Institute of Tourism, Bali-Indonesia, Email: c*yoga@stpbi.ac.id

The purpose of this study was to find out and understand the  moral and religious values in Geguritan Dharma Prawerti. This study uses a qualitative method. The data sources of this research are Geguritan Darma Kerti, the related parties and the results of previous research. Data was obtained through an observation technique, interviews and a literature review. Data was analysed using structural-functional theory, practical theory and knowledge power relations theory. The results of the study show that: (1) Geguritan Dharma Prawerti is teaching about morality and religion which is presented in the form of classical Balinese literary songs that have a geguritan or sekar alit literary convention; (2) The Balinese people maintain Geguritan Dharma Prawerti because of the internal and external factors. The internal factors cover their expressions of art, identity and self-actualization. While the external factors include the medium to convey the value of local cultural education; (3) The Balinese people still maintain Geguritan Dharma Prawerti because the song contains the values of moral and religious education. Pages 432 to 446




The Relevance of Political Skills for Leaders and Managers in the Industrial Revolution 4.0: A Case Study of the Indonesian Private Television Industry

Zahara Tussoleha Ronya, Fatimah Malini Lubisb, Budi Santosoc, Aulia Rizkytad, aUniversitas Bhayangkara Jakarta Raya, Indonesia, bLP3I Jakarta, Indonesia, cAkademi Angkatan Udara, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, dContinuous Improvement Academy, Indonesia, Email: azahara.tussoleha@dsn.ubharajaya.ac.id, blubisfm@gmail.com, cbudi.bodjong@gmail.com

The inability of management in the Industrial Revolution Era 4.0 to recognise the needs of generation y employees in terms of job satisfaction is a scourge of companies in keeping them working. An incident occurred at a private television company X in Indonesia. The results of previous studies concluded that one of the causes of the phenomenon of voluntary employee turnover in one private television company in Indonesia was caused by office politics. The voluntary turnover because of office politics continued until 2017, even though the company needed reliable employees to create innovation to improve sustainable performance. This study aims to explain the conditions and events related to office politics in company X. A qualitative method of case study is used to reveal this incident by collecting data through interviews and field observations. Purposive and quota sampling was the choice as a sampling technique. The results of this study indicate that the understanding of office political skills by leaders and  human resources managers  was inadequate. Their political skills were not optimally prepared for employees, especially generation y. Office political skills are not something that is considered important so activities related to training and development for these skills are still limited. In the Industrial Revolution Era 4.0 employees need to understand that involvement in office politics is not a disgrace or a destructive behaviour. Based on these findings, human resource managers and leaders need to design effective organisational savvy training systems. Pages 447 to 465




Code-Mixing in Korean Reomitvlog

Laili Etika Rahmawatia, Risma Nur’ainib*, aIndonesian Language and Literature Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta 57102, Indonesia, bIndonesian Language and Literature Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta 57102, Indonesia, Email: b* risma.ums16@gmail.com

Code-mixing in the vlog occurs if the speaker utilises the language by inserting elements from other languages into the main language. The formulation of the problem that will be discussed in this research is what types and forms of code-mixing are contained in the Korean Reomitvlog. This research has the purpose of determining and explaining the types and forms of code-mixing contained in the Korean Reomitvlog. The method used in this research was a descriptive qualitative method. The results and discussion of this research were code-mixing revealed in the Korean Reomitvlog. It can be classified into three types: inner code-mixing, outer code-mixing, and hybrid code-mixing. Meanwhile, the forms of code-mixing contained in the Korean Reomitvlog included: insertion code-mixing in the form of word, insertion code-mixing in the form of the phrase, insertion code-mixing in the form of clause insertion, code-mixing in the form of  reduplication or the repetition of words. Pages 466 to 479




The Comparison of Sword Art Online Anime by Reki Kawahara with the Novel Eye of Minds by James Dashner: Intrinsic Study, Sociology of Literature, and Register

Laili Etika Rahmawatia*, Akhirul Insan Nur Rokhmahb, Hari Kusmantoc, Adyana Sunandad, a,b,c,dFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta 57102, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia, Email: a*Laili.Rahmawati@ums.ac.id, ba310160169@student.ums.ac.id, ca310150036@student.ums.ac.id, dAs283@ums.ac.id

This study aims to compare: (1) the intrinsic elements of Sword Art Online anime by Reki Kawahar with the novel The Eye of Minds by James Dashner; (2) the two works based on the sociological aspects of literary works and (3) the language registers of them in terms of  livelihood learning and understanding the programming language register (coding). The approach used is descriptive-qualitative. The data used in this study were the similarities and differences of these two works in term of intrinsic elements, sociological aspects, and registers. Data sources in this study were the anime Sword Art Online and the novel The Eye of Minds. The data used in this study was collected through note-taking and the study of the literature. The data was analysed using intertextuality method strengthened by the hermeneutic method. The results showed the writers’sociological aspect and literary works, intrinsic elements of the anime and the novel in the form of themes, characterisations, settings, plot, and the message, as well as programming registers and their intentions. Pages 480 to 493




Reconstruction of Law Guarantee in Akad Mudharabah: A Study of Takwil Interpretation

Wardah Yuspina*, Arinta Dewi Putrib, a,bSchool of Law, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*wy204@ums.ac.id, barintadp6@gmail.com

Mudharabah transactions are cooperation-based transactions. If this is applied in Islamic banking transactions, the transaction requires a guarantee, which is the basis for whether or not the mudharabah financing proposal is granted. Under these conditions, there are some discrepancies between existing practice and theory, wherein the theory states that mudharabah is a transaction based on cooperation and trust. Therefore, there should be no guarantee required. This article aims to find a solution for how the most appropriate guarantee and execution law should be applied in sharia-based financial transactions. This article was compiled using three methods; first was the search for normative data where the data was derived from literature data. The second step was empirical research, which carried out empirical tracing by conducting interviews with policymakers, namely Islamic Financial Institutions and lawyers handling confiscation cases on Islamic finance. The third step was the Takwil approach, which interprets the Qur'anic verses based on the reasoning used to reveal the meaning contained in a text in order to choose the right one. The finding in this article shows that it is necessary to improve the Sharia-based guarantee system in the case where guarantees are no longer based on material guarantees but based on the ability of customers to pay. The ability to pay does not always have to be proven by material security but can also be realised with insurance and management assistance from the bank as shahibul mal to mudharib. Pages 494 to 510



Islamic Corporate Governance Index and Islamic Social Reporting Disclosure Index for Enhancing Firm Value: An Empirical Study of Islamic Banking in Indonesia

Sri Wahyunia, Pujihartob, Dwi Rahmawati Rahayuc, a,b,cUniversitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Indonesia, Email: ayuni_7067@yahoo.co.id,  bpharto@yahoo.co.idcdwirahmawatirahayu@gmail.com,

The purpose of this study was to examine which Islamic Corporate Governance Index can enhance the firm’s value for Islamic banking in Indonesia. The Index  is measured by using a composite value of the results of the self-assessment Islamic Commercial Bank GCG score and the Islamic Social Reporting Disclosure Index. This type of research is a quantitative study. The study population is a Sharia Commercial Bank registered with the Financial Services Authority in 2013 to 2017. Sample selection was obtained by the purposive sampling method and produced 45 samples. The data analysis technique used was multiple linear regressions. The results of this study indicated that the Islamic Corporate Governance Index can enhance the value of the Sharia Commercial Banks, while the Islamic Social Reporting Disclosure does not. Pages 511 to 520

The Effectiveness of a Proposed Teaching Strategy Based on Cognitive Load Theory for Student Achievement in Analytical Engineering and Engineering Thinking

Hassan Kamil Risen Al-Kinania, Basim Mahammad Jasim Al- Dulaimyb, Ilham  Jabbar  Farisc, a,b,cUniversity of  Baghdad  - College of  Education  for pure Science  \ Ibn AlHaitham,

This research aims to ascertain the efficacy of a proposed teaching strategy based on cognitive load theory in the achievement of analytical engineering and engineering thinking among third-grade students. The experiment was applied to the students of the third intermediate grade in Al-Maali High School for Girls for the academic year 2017-2018. The research sample consisted of 81 students who were randomly divided into two groups. Having studied following a proposed teaching strategy based on the theory of cognitive load, the control group consisted of 41 students who studied according to the usual method. The two groups were rewarded in the variables (chronological age calculated in months and tested on previous mathematical knowledge and achievement). The experiment was applied in the second semester of the 2018-2019 academic year. Using the statistical treatment (t-test) and the Levin test, the research resulted in a statistically significant difference at the significance level (0.05) between the mean scores of the experimental group and the control group in the achievement test. For students as well as the experimental group there is a difference is statistically significant at the level of significance (0.05) between the mean scores of the experimental group and the control group in the test thinking skills for the benefit of grades students in the experimental group, researchers have made several recommendations and proposals. Pages 521 to 545

The Influence of Verbal Stimulation along with Digital Images on Learning Basic Skills: Analysis of Art Educational School Students in Baghdad

Firas Ali Hassana, Mohamed Sobeih Mahmoudb, Mustafa Abdel Latif Abdel Hamidc, a,bMustansiriya University - Iraq - Baghdad / College of Basic Education / Department of Art Education, c Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research - Directorate of Education first Karkh / Iraq - Baghdad,

The aim related to the present study is to examine the role of verbal stimulation along with the validity and reliability of digital images on the learning of basic skills in art educational school students in Baghdad. The secondary purpose of the ongoing study includes the examination of the moderating role of institutional culture among the links of verbal stimulation, validity and reliability of digital images and learning of basic skills. The sample consisted of 450 students from the first grade that one of the researchers taught. The data has been gathered from them by using questionnaires. For the analysis of the data, several functional performance tests have been executed, which the researchers prepared through their experience of past literature by using the smart-PLS. The results indicated that verbal stimulation, validity and reliability of digital images have a positive association with the learning of basic skills. The findings also exposed that institutional culture has positive moderation among the links of the validity of digital images and learning of basic skills. These findings are suitable for the policymakers along with the upcoming researchers to formulate the policies along with the investigation of this area in the future. This study guided to the regulators that they should formulate and implement suitable policies that enhance the learning of the students. Pages 546 to 560

The Relationship between the Quality of Tourism Transport Service and the Increasing Market Share of the Organisation (Analytical study in Iraqi Airways)

Nabil Jassim Mohammeda, Dunya Tariq Ahmedb, aUnder the Supervision of Assistant Professor, bMustansiriyah University /College of Tourism Sciences

The focus on quality management systems is one of the mechanisms that have proven their efficiency in meeting the requirements of modern times and achieving success for organisations, including the adoption of the quality of tourism transport service to increase the market share of business organisations, especially Iraqi Airways because it is the official national carrier in Iraq. The study aims to determine the nature of the impact of the quality of tourism transport service dimensions (response, reliability, tangibility, safety and empathy) to increase the market share of Iraqi Airways. The focal point of the study was formulated in several questions centred on the nature of the correlation between its variables, especially the basic question: to what extent does the quality of tourism transport service contribute to increasing the market share of the company? The study intends to provide a theoretical framework linking two important variables (the quality of tourism transport service and market share) and measure the relationship between them to achieve results that enable the company to increase its market share, as well as directing the attention of Iraqi Airways to the advantages achieved by the adoption of the quality of tourism transport. The researcher adopted the descriptive analytical approach in the completion of the study, which included a sample of (150) individuals distributed to some department managers and their assistants and public officials (75), and questionnaires distributed to some passengers (75) selected randomly from Iraqi air boarding lines for statistical analysis. The questionnaire was adopted as the main tool in data collection and included (42) questions: note that invalid questionnaires were collected and redistributed, in addition to conducting personal interviews as a tool in data collection, using the study program (Spss V.25, Amos V 25). With the appropriate statistical methods for the study, including frequency distribution, arithmetic mean, determination coefficient (R2), path analysis, empirical factor analysis, etc. to test the hypotheses, the most prominent conclusions of the study were: the level of safety achieved the highest score among the five dimensions; most travellers agreed on the importance of safety in the investigation; the quality of the tourist transport service is high. Pages 561 to 582

The Use of Learning Based Resources in Early Childhood Education

Evy Fitriaa, Suyitno Muslimb, Etin Solihatinc, a,b,cEducational Technology Doctoral Program, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: aevifitria7@gmail.combyitno@unj.ac.idcetin_solihatin@unj.ac.id

Learning in early childhood must be fun and able to stimulate the five senses of the child to do a lot of exploration through play activities. However, the fact is that there are still many teachers who provide learning that is far from the values of play. Teachers who only rely on books in children's activities makes children's learning seem boring and does not effectively use the various existing learning resources available to them. This paper aims to find out how various learning resources are used in early childhood education institutions that have various learning resources available to them. Additionally, this paper also aims to see how early childhood development has been facilitated by various learning resources in learning. The method in this research is qualitative. The results showed that various learning resources were used in two activities by the teacher. First, the teacher uses various learning resources while discussing the theme of the day learned by the child. Second, the teacher has prepared a play environment where children explore in the play area / play centre. Children who use many learning resources were observed to have improved language development, as children ask questions and talk about their play experiences. In the fine motor aspect, children are increasingly coordinated in terms of eye and hand movements. In relation to cognitive understanding, the ability to think more critically and in the spirit of the activity is very high. This research is expected to contribute to the world of early childhood education, especially teachers in designing learning activities that use various learning resources for children. Pages 583 to 590

Increasing Basic Mathematics Ability Using Manipulative Media

Eneng Sri Susilawatia, Zulfiati Syahrialb, Moch Soekardjoc, aSTKIP Setia Budhi Rangkasbitung, Indonesia, b,cUniversitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: aenengsrisusilawati74@gmail.combzulfiati@unj.ac.idcmsoekardjo@unj.ac.id

This research was aimed at increasing basic mathematics ability in numerical operations aspects of B level students at Prosperous I Kindergarten in Panggarangan using manipulative media. It was carried out in April to May 2019. The action research of Kemmis and Taggart was used as the method of the research. It applied two cycles with 12 meetings. The cycles consist of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The subject of the research were 13 kindergarten level B students of Prosperous I Panggarangan. The data obtained were the assessment results of pre-cycle, cycle I and cycle II, field notes, interviews, and documentation. Emills standard was used to analyse the data percentage. The average increase of basic mathematics ability in numeral operation aspects reached 71%. The result of the research shows that there was an increase in basic mathematics ability using manipulative media. It was proven by the increase of students' average assessment results. In cycle I the students' average score was 27.7, in cycle II it was 32.2. This means that there was an increase of 4.5 in the average score, from 76.9% in cycle I to 89.5% in cycle II. The implication of this study is that the use of manipulative media to teach basic mathematics in numerical operations brought about good results. In the learning process, the students become more active and creative. They found it easier to learn some mathematics concepts. In teaching mathematics concepts, manipulative media helped ease the teacher in explaining the concepts. Pages 591 to 598

Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Financial Performance Applied Research in Iraqi Commercial Banks

Muna Kamel Hamada, Kareema Abbas Jealob, Wisam Hasan Ahmed zainic, a,cAccounting and Financial Control department, College of Business Economics  AL Nahrain University, bAccounting department, College of Administration and Economics AL Mustansiriyah University, Email: amuna@eco.nahrainuniv.edu.iqbma@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq,  cWzaini59@yahoo.com  

The study aims to examine the impact of social responsibility practices on financial performance and to demonstrate the interaction between social performance through the costs of social activities practiced by banks in three areas of classification (the field of employees, community, customer) and financial performance through return on investment (ROI), and return on assets based on a sample of 10 commercial banks listed on the Iraq Stock Exchange. A linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationships between social responsibility and financial performance. Results show that social responsibility with total costs negatively affects ROI, while individual responsibility areas (employees, community, customer) have a positive relationship with ROI. ROA is negatively affected by total social responsibility costs as well as their respective areas. The relationship between performance can be rationalized through the adoption of other financial indicators to illustrate the impact on different stakeholders. Pages 599 to 619

The Effect of Using the SWOM Model  on the Achievement  and  Life  Skills  Development  for  First  Grade  Students  of Biology

Eman Majeed Aziza, aGeneral Directorate of Education in Diyala Diyala Female Institute of Fine Arts

This study aims to  identify  the  effect of  the (SWOM)  model on the achievement  and life skills development  of first  grade students. Two  groups were randomly selected  from the first grade. The  first  group  represented the  experimental group which is  taught  according  to the  (SWOM) model; the second  is  the control   group  which is  taught according  to the traditional  method. The number of  students  in each  group  is 38, so  the sample of  the study  is 76. The  study  groups  are  equalised according to the following variables (age in month, life skills test, degree of biology). To achieve the aim of the study, a life skills test has been constructed of multiple-choice items, which consists of 35 items, whereby validity and reliability are achieved. The data was treated statistically using a t-Test of two independent samples, a Person correlation coefficient, a Cronbach–Alpha equation, a Spearman-Brown equation  and a Chi-square. The findings of the  study show  that there  are   statistically  significant  differences  between  the  mean  scores  of  the two study groups on the life skills post-test, in favour of the  experimental group. In the light of the findings, the researcher recommends using the (SWOM) model in teaching biology. The researcher also suggests cretin studies that are relevant to the present work. Pages 620 to 637
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