Determinants of Social Media Use by Handicraft Industry of Indonesia and Its Impact on Export and Marketing Performance: An Empirical Study

Adi Santosoa, Erdawatib, Ririn Tri Ratnasaric, Dyah Palupiningtyasd, Muh. Yani Balakae, aUniversitas Muhammadiyah Ponorogo, bSTIE Pasaman, cPostgraduate School And Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, dSTIEPARI Semarang, eUniversitas Halu Oleo, Email: aadisantoso@umpo.ac.id,  berdawatise70@gmail.com,  cririnsari@feb.unair.ac.id  dupik.palupi3@gmail.com,  eyanibalaka01@gmail.com

The present study attempts to examine the determinants of social media use by handicraft industry of Indonesia and its impact on export and marketing performance. The primary data has been collected from the sample of 301 respondents. To examine the impact of incorporated variables on the marketing and export performance,  the Confirmatory factors analysis and Structural equation modeling approaches are incorporated in the study, as well as several tests that were applied including descriptive analysis, KMO and Bartlett’s test, rotated component matrix, convergent and discriminant validity. The results show significant differences in direct and indirect effects. The direct effects indicated that perceived ease of use and subjective norm are the insignificant predictors of marketing performance, whereas, relative advantage significantly predicts marketing performance. Likewise, for export performance, perceived ease of use and relative advantage are found as significant predictors. While the indirect effects show that social media use significantly mediated the relationship of perceived ease of use, relative advantage, subjective norm and marketing performance. On the contrary, no mediation of subjective norm is observed in the relationship between subjective norm and export performance, while, social media use acts as a significant mediator in the relationship of perceived ease of use, relative advantage and export performance. Also, the study embraces several theoretical, practical and policy-making implications for the marketing management practitioners and strategy developers to attain high levels of marketing and export performance with the utilisation of social media. Lastly, various limitations have been discussed for in-depth findings by future researchers. Pages 1 to 21




Toni Morrison's Desdemona in the light of Dante's Suffering Spirits: Confessions in The Divine Comedy

Ansam Ali Flefil Al-Hussainawya, aDepartment of English/ College of Education for Humanities /University of  Thi-Qar/ Iraq, Email: aansamfelfil@gmail.com

The focus of this study is on the metaphorical portrayal of the insistent need of the spirits to confess flaws and actions they once engaged in when they were in earthly bodies, now they are living in a world in the afterlife. This theme is clearly reflected in Dante's The Divine Comedy (1308-1321), a long epic poem. Accordingly, this study deals with Toni Morrison's Desdemona (2011) in light of the confessions of Dante's suffering spirits' who are portrayed as characters in his Divine Comedy, shedding light in particular on the subject of individuals who have died and so are prevented in communicating to the living. Therefore, metaphorically converting the setting literarily to the afterlife  gives an opportunity to specific individuals to reveal what they want to tell, and this is the best way for authors to communicate and give their viewpoints. Depending on this thread, the character of Desdemona is the victim in Shakespeare’s Othello (1603). This heroine is unjustly accused of infidelity after too few days of marriage  to Othello and killed without her truth being told. Morrison attempts to give a voice to this victim to tell what she wants to reveal but from the afterlife, a metaphorical world.  The study is divided into several accounts, beginning with an introduction and a background illustrating and preparing the main important relevant points. Dante's The Divine Comedy is explained in a separate section according to the chosen theme. Then, Morrison's  Desdemona  is analysed in light of the intended purpose. Conclusions are presented to clarify the results. Pages 22 to 38




The Applicability of Value-Added Tax in Iraq

Hamid Abbas Al-Marzouka, Ali Miri Hassanb, a,bAl-Mustqbal  University College / Accounting Department, Email: adrhameedabbas@yahoo.com,  balimirih@gmail.com

The research aims to show the possibility of applying this type of tax as an alternative to the indirect tax system in Iraq, by using a suggested model suitable for application in the Iraqi environment. The research reviews the procedures through which it is imposed and the implementation of value added tax. The research presents the justifications that called for the introduction of the value added tax as one of the most important sources of tax revenue in Iraq. In addition to favouring it as an alternative to customs taxes in light of international and regional blocs,  the value-added tax can consequently play an effective role in financial contribution in addition to other financial means and be appointed to the role of supporting the national economy. To achieve these goals, the following hypothesis has been tested: "The implementation of value added tax in most countries of the world makes their application in Iraq possible and effective as a substitute for the indirect tax system". The research concluded that  until the advent of the implementation of the value-added tax in Iraq which provides tax revenues, the decrease in oil and customs revenue would be compensated for, and, as a result, this provides the entry for Iraq into the World Trade Organization, abolishing the customs tariff,  and bringing low oil prices. Pages 39 to 50




The Effect of Employing the Electronic Cost Accounting System in Dealing with Government Spending: Applied Research in the General Company for the Cement Industry

Emad Moafaq Abeda, Amina Ibrahim Khalfb, aDepartment of Accounting Baguba Technical Institute, bMiddle Technical University Baghdad Iraq, Email: aDr.emadmouafaq@techbaq.mtu.edu.iq,  bDr.amena321@gmail.com

The research aims to shed light on the impact  of employing the electronic cost accounting system in dealing with government expenditures in the General Company for the Cement Industry, The electronic cost accounting system has a significant impact on controlling government spending and the extent to which the service is used corresponding to the cost borne by the state by providing financial credits to accomplish activities that represent the basic building block of community service in all specialisations that benefit from it, which is represented by the inputs to reach a good production represented by the outputs. This requires spending money to achieve this goal by controlling government spending using an integrated accounting method that provides appropriate and timely data, and this method is to distribute the spending to the spending centres (the cost) according to the quantity and type of it, and to determine the responsibility about its spending, whether it is operating or capital expenditures. To achieve this, the research relied on the analysis of its variables on the questionnaire as a main tool for collecting data and information. The application results have shown that there is a positive and moral effect of employing the electronic cost accounting system in dealing with government spending, and this is a good indicator of the impact of the electronic cost accounting system in dealing with government spending for the research sample company. Pages 51 to 71




Reverse Processing Series System Integration with Cleaner Production Processes in Iraqi Industrial Companies

Raqeyah Jawad Najya, aAssist.prof: AL-Furat AL-Awast Technical University-Iraq/Technical Institute of Babylon-Mechanic Department-Production Branch, Email: aRaq_j@yahoo.com, Inb.raq@atu.edu.iq

This study aims to test the integral relationship between Cleaner Production (CP) processes and chain processes. The study adopted the issue of cleaner production processes as an explanatory variable, as well as the process of the reverse processing chain as a responsive variable. The study is in the field of production management and operations in four veins and proposes to answer the following question: Are the cleaner production and back-up processes integrated in the company under consideration? A key hypothesis has been formulated to be tested in the company in order to diagnose the complementary relationship between CP and reverse processing chain processes. To achieve a deeper understanding of that relationship the researcher has adopted a questionnaire methodology. The study reached a number of conclusions including the existence of a significant complementary correlation between cleaner production processes and reverse processing chain processes.  As well  this research provides an important proposal, namely that the company under consideration should adopt cleaner production and back-chain operations. This is better because one is complementary to the other and preserves the natural environment. Pages 72 to 84




Effect of Endorsers on the Evaluation of Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) Advertising and Lux Soap Brand Loyalty in Communities in the Regional Area of Jember

Nanik Hariyanaa*, HR. Andi Sularsob, Diana Sulanti K Tobingc, Imam Surosod, aDoctoral Program in Management Science Universitas Jember, Indonesia, b,c,dDepartment of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Jember, Indonesia, Email: a*hariyanawahyu@gmail.com

This study was conducted to determine the effect of endorsers on evaluating fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) advertisements and brand loyalty on lux soaps in the Jember region. The research method uses Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and testing using AMOS. There was a research sample of 182 people chosen through a multi-stage random sampling method. The study found that endorser variables, message content, message structure, and message source have a positive and significant effect on the evaluation of fast moving consumer goods ads. However the message format has a positive but not significant effect on the evaluation of fast moving consumer goods advertisements in the Jember region. A second test was conducted to determine whether the relationship of endorsers, message content, message structure, message format, and message source significantly influence brand loyalty in the Jember Korwil community while evaluating if fast moving consumer goods advertisements significantly influence Lux soap brand loyalty. Pages 85 to 97




Internal Control Systems and Good Village Governance to Achieve Quality Village Financial Reports

Edy Sujanaa, Komang Adi Kurniawan Saputrab, Daniel T. H Manurungc, aFaculty of Economics, University of Ganesha Education, b,cFaculty of Economics, Warmadewa University, Email: a*edi.s@undiksha.ac.id

This study examines the effect of internal control system implementation and good village governance on the quality of village government financial reports in Buleleng Regency, Bali, Indonesia. The research method used is quantitative with a database of research respondents. Research data was collected through filling out questionnaires and multiple linear regression tests were conducted to obtain the results of the study. The number of samples used was 30 village heads who received the village funds from the central government in the Buleleng Regency. Sample determination is assisted by using the Slovin formula. The results obtained show that there are significant simultaneous effects between internal control systems and good village governance on quality village government financial reports. The partial test results show that the internal control system and good village governance variables have a significant positive effect on the quality of village government financial reports in Buleleng, Bali-Indonesia. Pages 98 to 108




Effect of Product Attributes on Consumer Satisfaction of Organic Vegetables at Dian Pertiwi Supermarket, Ambon City

Natelda R. Timiselaa, Raja M. Sarib, Marfin Lawalatac, Stevianus Titaleyd, a,b,cFaculty of Agriculture, Pattimura University, Jln. Ir. M. Putuhena, Kampus Poka, Ambon 97233, dFaculty of Engineering, Pattimura University, Jln. Ir. M. Putuhena, Kampus Poka, Ambon 97233, Email: anateldatimisela@yahoo.com, natelda.timisela@unpatti.ac.idbrajamilyanizasari@gmail.com,  cmarfinlawalata@gmail.com,  dstevi_74@yahoo.com

This research aims to analyse the effect of product attributes on consumer satisfaction of organic vegetables. The study was conducted at Dian Pertiwi Ambon City Supermarket. The research sample of 50 respondents was organic vegetable buyers taken by a random sampling method. The measured variables were customer satisfaction and product attributes consisting of the price (X1), packaging (X2), continuous and available on time (X3), clean and fresh (X4), quality (X5) and labelling (X6). Analysis of the research data was by using multiple regression. Based on the explanation above, the relationship between output and input is linear. The results of the analysis showed that simultaneously variables of prices (X1), packaging (X2), continuous and timely availability (X3), clean and fresh (X4), quality (X5) and labelling (X6) affect the satisfaction of organic vegetable consumers. This was shown with an F-count of 34.895 > F-table (2.29). The coefficient of determination was 0.83. This coefficient means that 83& of customer satisfaction can be explain by price, packaging, continuous and available on time, clean and fresh, quality and labelling. While other variables outside the model explain the other 17%. Partially the value of t-count for the price variable (X1: 5.93), packaging (X2: 4.37), clean and fresh (X4: 5.39), and quality (X5: 3.12) had a significant effect on customer satisfaction because of the value of t-count > t-table (2.01). Pages 109 to 122




Promoting Knowledge Management Approach and Active Learning Model in Blended Learning Activities of Higher Education

Henny Suharyatia*, Lungguh Halira Vontib, Eka Suhardic, Oding Sunardida,c,dDepartment of Education Management, Postgraduate, Universitas Pakuan, Bogor, Indonesia, dFKIP, Universitas Pakuan, Bogor, Indonesia,  Email: a*henny.suharyati@unpak.ac.id

This research studies the implementation of blended learning and to promote the implementation of knowledge management techniques and active learning model in the learning process. The data was taken by examining the theory, documents and surveys. Also data was collected by observation of activities in blended learning courses involving 100 students experienced in blended learning courses from the faculty of teacher training and educational science, majoring in four study programs. The research method applied was qualitative descriptive. This was done by describing the proses of teaching in blended learning courses and the implementation of knowledge management and active learning in blended teaching and learning activities. The key findings showed that the blended learning process consists of three steps: planning, developing and implementation. There was a significant correlation between variable X1 (knowledge management) and variable X2 (active learning) with variable Y (blended learning). Pages 123 to 142




Detecting Levels of Environmental Disturbance from Fish Farming Using Multivariate Analysis

Sapto Purnomo Putroa*, Riche Hariyatib, Erma Prihastantic, Endah Dwi  Hastutid, Rony Konerie, Anton Satria Prabuwonof, aCentre of Marine Ecology and Biomonitoring for Sustainable Aquaculture (Ce-MEBSA), Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, b,c,dDepartment of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, eDepartment of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, University of Sam Ratulangi, Manado, Indonesia, fFaculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia, Email: a*saptoputro@gmail.com, saptoputro@live.undip.ac.id

Environmental disturbance of water ecosystem, both natural and anthropogenic, may affect sediment structure, which macrobenthic animals inhabit. This study aims to determine environmental disturbances caused by aquaculture, through linking abiotic parameters and macrobenthos community structures. A coastal area of Menjangan Besar Island, Central Java was researched, between August and November 2018. A systematic, random sampling method was used by collecting three stations from both: Location I (monoculture sites) and Location II (reference sites). Sampling occurred twice, with a sampling interval of two months. Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (NMDS) of Bray-Curtis similarities and k-dominance curves represented visually the differences between sites over time. To assess the environmental disturbance at each station, EWS-3SWJ software was introduced. Results were acquired using NMDS by location and sampling time. They indicate a tendency of grouping, and hence a degree of difference in macrobenthos community structure response, spatially and temporally. The results of the k-dominance curve at the R3T1 (Reference site; second sampling time) and station M3T1 (Monoculture site; first sampling time) are at the top. This  indicates the dominance of a species from Anodontia sp. Both locations are classified as moderately disturbed areas, owing to the strong current and organic nitrogen level.Pages 143 to 156




The Effective Trading Strategy for High Dividend Stocks on the Jakarta Stock Exchange

Yudhia Mulyaa*, Sri Hartinib, Chaerudin Manafc, a,b,cDepartment of Management. Faculty of Economics. the University of Pakuan. West Java. Indonesia, Email: a*yudhiamulya@unpak.ac.id

**The Following Article is For Academic Purposes only and Should not be used as a Trading Guide**

Companies with the ability to consistently share dividends would be an attractive investment to most investors. The Jakarta Stock Exchange released a new, high dividend index in the middle year of 2018. This study examines the most appropriate trading strategy for high dividend yield stocks, by comparing equally weighted Dogs and Dows (DoD) and minimum variance optimal portfolio strategies. The result of ANOVA testing shows that the DoD strategy provides significantly higher returns and risks in all periods of investment. Semi-annual portfolio rebalancing provides significant differences in performance among investment periods, in terms of the Sharpe ratio. It implies that dividend information allows investors to receive higher returns, which does not support the semi-strong form of the efficient market hypothesis.Pages 157 to 169




MSME Innovation and Value Chain Performance through Competitive Advantage

Dini Lisnawatia*, Suryanab, Eeng Ahmanc, Chairul Furqond, aStudent of Doctoral Program of Management, Postgraduate School, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia, b,c,dStudy Program of Management, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: adinilisnawati@student.upi.edu,  bsuryana@upi.edu,  ceengahman@upi.edu,  dc_furqon@upi.edu

The fashion industry has recently become a lucrative industry in Indonesia. Its growth is constantly increasing, in contrast to the product fashion made by MicroSmall Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in Indonesia. They are experiencing a trend of decreasing demand. Also, the sheer number of competing products from developed countries whose prices are lower and more fashionable in terms of function and appearance makes consumers prefer mass-produced products. One proof is the fashion centre in the city of Bandung. It has been decreasing in demand for the last three years. Declining public purchasing power is one cause of the decrease in demand for MSME products; it has been felt by most MSME entrepreneurs, from 2016 until now. This is consistent with the results of Statistics Indonesia (Badan Pusat Statistik, BPS) research. In 2017, 40% of the population was under pressure or crisis. This ensured that low purchasing power, innovation strategies, and product value are needed, to be able to compete with cheap but high-quality products in the market, to remain competitive. The research question is whether increasing product value and innovation will improve the business performance of fashion designers in the city of Bandung. Data is processed using Partial Least Square, on 99 MSME samples taken from consumer fashion houses in the Bandung area. The results illustrate that 99 MSMEs can improve their business performance, by escalating innovation and value chain management.Pages 170 to 181




The Implementation of Industrial Training for Students with a  Disability: The Role of Adaptability in Enhancing their Workplace Well-Being

Zainoriza binti Zainuna*, Abdul Rahim Razallib, Arasinah Kamisc, Kway Eng Hockd, a,b,c,dUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak, Malaysia, Email: a*zzainoriza@yahoo.com

Industrial training for schools was introduced by the Malaysian Ministry of Education in 2017. The Upper Secondary Industry Apprenticeship program [PIMA] was implemented in vocational schools, as an extension to the industrial apprenticeship program since 2010. Industrial training is a career transition to prepare students for the workforce. Special education students are also required to seek relevant knowledge and training, to acquire a career. Industrial training should provide an equal opportunity of education for diverse students, as stipulated in the Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013 to 2025. Hence, industrial training plays an important role in enhancing students’ career well-being, and developing their potential, interests, and skills. This paper assesses the implementation of industrial training for students with disabilities. It is also examines the role of adaptability in enhancing students’ workplace well-being. The results and implications are discussed critically.Pages 182 to 193




A Study of Implementation of Village Government Competences in Aceh Province, Indonesia

Akhyara*, Agus Sholahuddinb, Tommy Hariyantoc, Mursyidind, Jumadil Saputrae*, aUniversitas Abulyatama, 24415 Kuta Baro, Aceh Besar, Indonesia, b,cUniversitas Merdeka Malang, 65146 Jawa Timur, Indonesia, dFaculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Malikussaleh, Bukit Indah, 24355 Aceh Utara, Indonesia, eFaculty of Business, Economics, and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: a*akhyar_ppkn@abulyatama.ac.id,  bagusholahuddin@gmail.com,  ctommyhariyanto03@yahoo.com,  dmursyidinza@unimal.ac.id,  e*    jumadil.saputra@umt.edu.my

This study identifies the competence implementation of Gampong government. Also, it analyses the obstacles and influences upon that implementation, in Gampong Lamteh Banda Aceh city, based on Law number 6, 2014 of the Indonesian Parliament. A descriptive qualitative design is used for this study. Data was collected by observation, interviews, and documentation. It was analysed using an interactive model that consists of data reduction, data display, and a conclusion. The results of this study found that certain factors became an obstacle, to the implementation of the regional competence of the Gampong Lamteh village government, which exercises the Gampong apparatus promoting socialisation under Law number 6 2014. There is representation in preparation to face various program policy implementation. Also, the Gampong apparatus has been able and prepared for full policy implementation, based on experience and government. In addition, the supporting factors of motivation, cooperation, awareness of responsibility, and a sense of belonging, provide an excellent Gampong government environment. In conclusion, the right communication, support, open disposition, attitude or commitment in event and bureaucratic structure becomes public policy implementation. The obstacle comes when the conversation does not run well. Pages 194 to 205




A Study of Money Lending Philosophy, at the Bantul Traditional Markets, Indonesia

Sulastriyonoa, Jumadil Saputrab*, aFaculty of Law, Universitas Gadjah Mada, 55281 Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia, bFaculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: asulastriyono@mail.ugm.ac.id,  b*jumadil.saputra@umt.edu.my

This study investigates the philosophy of the traditional market traders of Bantul Regency, in implementing loan activities. The obstacles encountered in implementing borrowed money, faced by traders in the traditional markets of Bantul Regency, is a principle of money lending. The design of this study is qualitative with descriptive analysis, which involved the traders themselves. It aims to illustrate and describe in detail the philosophical activity in money loans at the sites. Primary and secondary data are used. The informants were selected purposively. The results of the analysis show that the believed philosophy of the traders, in carrying out money loan activities from the providers, was an honest life philosophy. The obstacles faced by the traders were both internal and external. The principle of the money loan activities demanded by traders in the traditional markets in Bantul Regency, in future, is the principle of convenience combined with the law of prudence.Pages 206 to 221




A Comparison of Student Environmental Literacy: Public and Islamic Schools in Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Rusli Yusufa*, Maimunb, Sanusic, Iwan Fajrid, Jumadil Saputrae, a,b,c,dDepartment of Civic Education, Faculty Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Darussalam, Syiah Kuala, 23111 Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia, eFaculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: arusliyusuft@unsyiah.ac.id,  bmaimunaceh@unsyiah.ac.id,  csanusi_ppkn@unsyiah.ac.id,  diwan.fajri@mhs.unsyiah.ac.id,  ejumadil.saputra@umt.edu.my

The purpose of this study is to examine the differences in students’ environmental literacy levels, between public and Islamic high schools in Banda Aceh. This study was conducted in four high schools in Banda Aceh, involving 327 students. The data was obtained through a questionnaire of environmental literacy, administered to the students and analysed using descriptive statistics and SPSS version 22. The results of this study showed that high school students' literacy was good. Further, the student environmental literacy level at an Islamic school was higher than at a public school, with average scores of 3.821 and 3.684 respectively. The findings showed that female students’ environmental literacy level was higher than male students; 3.637 and 3.528 respectively. In conclusion, the application of environmental literacy at all levels of schooling must be integrated with students’ daily life.Pages 222 to 239




Identifying Social and Economic Interaction through its Periphery in Lhokseumawe, Indonesia

Weslia*, Rusydib, Aiyubc, M. Nazaruddind, Jumadil Saputrae*, aDepartment of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Malikussaleh, Muara Batu 24355, North Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia, bFaculty of Economic and Business, Universitas Malikussaleh, Muara Batu 24355, North Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia, c,dFaculty of Political and Social Science, Universitas Malikussaleh, Muara Batu 24355, North Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia,  eFaculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: awesli@unimal.ac.id,  brusydi@unimal.ac.id,  cdrs.aiyub@unimal.ac.id,  dmuh.nazaruddin@unimal.ac.id,  ejumadil.saputra@umt.edu.my

As a municipal area Lhokseumawe, Indonesia, is placed strategically, in the middle of Banda Aceh and Medan Cities. It is flanked by several districts namely Central Aceh, Bener Meriah, Bireuen, and North Aceh. Lhokseumawe City has numerous potential aspects, such as agriculture and infrastructure but it does not optimise their use. This necessitates study of interactions with its surrounding trade and industry (periphery), because Lhokseumawe City is core in that activity. The purpose of this study is to identify its social and economic interaction with its periphery. This qualitative research was conducted using a literature review, books, journals, documents and other data sources including limited surveys. The analysis categorises Lhokseumawe as a medium city, due to its strategic location and availability of economic infrastructure, and also because of its being the core of its peripheral trade and industry.Pages 240 to 254




Halal and Non-Halal Product Recognition Systems

Dadah Muliansyaha, Rima Rahmayantib, Rika Nurhidayahc, aSTIE ISM  Indonesia School of Management, bWidyatama University, Bandung, Indonesia, cSTMIK Ttriguna Utama, Email: adachmuliansyah@gmail.com,  brima.rahmayanti@widyatama.ac.id,  crika221272@gmail.com

In modern times, our lifestyle is becoming based on consumption. That makes the fulfilment of needs inevitable in daily life, in offices, households and schools. Stores that sell goods and food are almost ubiquitous, shops are mushrooming, and franchises are followed by competition among shop owners. The many discounts and various goods and food sold show us, as consumers, that we sometimes see shops close to other stores. Based on the product and the issues above, a portable and mobile application that follows the movements of consumers' “busyness” is necessary. Devices can be made that use smart phones. For example, consumers who come to buy meals will check menus, based on camera images. The mobile device proposed in this paper will then provide halal or non-halal information. It will help identify the product purchased. It has an accuracy of up to 90%. It does not use barcode data that is sometimes damaged and lost. Instead it recognises the pattern of goods which makes it faster. It can recognise a product, even though it is still packaged or sold in units. The product unit detection function avoids the use of barcodes and RFID which cannot identify the product if disassembled or sold per unit.Pages 255 to 270




Regional Government Management Strategy in Achieving Unqualified Opinion (UQO) in East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

La Ode Hasiaraa, Sudarlanb, Ahyar Muhammad Diahc, a,bAccounting Department, Politeknik Negeri Samarinda, Kaltim, Indonesia, cBusiness Adminstration Department Politeknik Negeri Samarinda Kaltim, Indonesia, Email: ahasiara@polnes.ac.id,  bsudarlan@polnes.ac.id,  cahyarmdiah@polnes.ac.id

This research aimed to determine and analyse: (1) the Commitment of Regional Organisations (KOPD/X1) to the Unqualified Opinion (UQO), (2) the Competence of Regional Apparatuses (KAOPD/X2) as to the UQO, (3) the Attitude of Regional Apparatuses (SAOPD/X3) to the UQO, (4) the Behaviour of Regional Apparatuses (PAOPD/X4) as to the UQO, (5) the Standard Operational Procedure of Regional Organisations (SOP-OPD/X5) and the UQO, (6) the Internal Control System of Regional Organisations (SPIOPD/X6) and the UQO, (7) the Regional / State Budget Strengthening of Regional Organisations (APBD/NOPD/X7) and the UQO, (8) the IT Support of Regional Organisations (DTIOPD/X8) and the UQO, and (9) the Monitoring and Evaluation of Regional Organisations (MEOPD/X9) and the UQO. This research used a Quantitative Method. The data were collected using questionnaires. The results suggest that the Variables X1 to X9 partially had a significant effect on the Unqualified Opinion (Y) while the Variables X3 and X4 did not significantly affect the Unqualified Opinion (Y). Simultaneously, all the independent variables had a significant effect on the Unqualified Opinion (Y). The R-square value obtained 0.535 or 54%. This indicates that the simultaneous effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable obtained 54%, while the remainding 46% was influenced by other variables outside this research model. In conclusion, both simultaneously and partially, the independent variables have a significant effect on the dependent variable (the Unqualified Opinion).Pages 271 to 282




The Right of Senate Members to Question the Government: An Appraisal of the Jordanian Constitutional System

Khaled Khalaf Al Droua, Ali Jabbar Salihb, Farouq Ahmad Alazzamc, a,cFaculty of Law - Jadara University- Jordan, bDean of the Faculty of Law - Jadara  University  Jordan, Email: aaldrou1970@yahoo.com,  bdr_alijabbar@yahoo.com,  cfarouqazzam@hotmail.com

Questioning is one of the most dangerous means by which the legislature can control executive work in the parliamentary system. It can move the government or a minister toward political responsibility.  The Jordanian Constitution gives each member of parliament, both in the Senate and the House of Representatives, the right to question government members. However, the government bears direct political responsibility only for questions in the Representatives, because the Representatives is elected by the people and can therefore depose the government. Questions in front of the Senate, on the other hand, inform the Prime Minister and the Speaker in result by writing. This raises the issue of the importance of Senate questions. This research proves their importance.Pages 283 to 295




The Concept of International Terrorism in Accordance with UN Security Council Resolutions

Emran Mahafzaha, Hazem Suleiman Toubatb, a,bAssociate Professor at Jadara University, Jordan, Irbid, Email: aomahafzah@yahoo.com,  btoubathazem@yahoo.com

Terrorism has become a dangerous global phenomenon that threatens not only States’ internal security and stability, but international peace and security. However, it has no specific definition, internationally. The UN Security Council has issued numerous resolutions describing some acts as “terrorist”, yet these resolutions have not clearly and explicitly defined this concept. This study describes and analyses the contents of UN Security Council resolutions (UNSCR). It seeks to define the concept of terrorism, and find a conceptual ground acceptable to all countries for the phenomenon of international terrorism in its legal dimension. The study concludes that the terrorist act can be defined as an act of violence, which is criminalised under international law. Further, it may be committed by States, individuals or violent extremist groups to achieve illegal ends. This act is based on violent extremist discourse. However, it is not associated with any particular religion or belief. Moreover, it targets people in their lives or property, or States in their security, political, economic and social stability, and thus threatens international peace and security.Pages 296 to 306




The Level of Healthy Behaviour among Athletes and Non-Athlete Students at Yarmouk University: A comparison

Ayat Mustafa Al Sharo’aa, aAssistant Professor, Department of Self-Development, Deanship of Preparatory Year, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, Email: aaaalsharoa@iau.edu.sa

This research aims to identify the level of healthy behaviour among athletes and non-athlete students at Yarmouk University, Jordan. The sample consisted of (196) students who were chosen purposefully. The descriptive approach was used, and a questionnaire was the main instrument  for data collection. The results showed that the level of healthy behaviour among student athletes was (high) while the level of healthy behaviour among non-athlete students was (moderate). The study also showed statistically significant differences in the level of healthy behaviour among athletes and non-athlete students, in favour of student athletes. In the light of the results, the researcher recommends increasing the number of courses that address health and health behaviour issues, and emphasising the positive role of sports activities in developing and improving healthy behaviour.Pages 307 to 322




Legal Problems and Challenges Facing Electronic Commerce Contracts and Ways to overcome them in the Jordanian and Comparative Legislatures

Farouq Ahmad Alazzama, Khaled Khalaf Aldroub, Ali Jabbar Salihc, a,bFaculty of Law- Jadara University, Jordan, cDean of the Faculty of the Law – Jadara University, Jordan, Email: afarouq.azzam@hotmail.com,  baldrou1970@yahoo.com,  cdr_alijabbar@yahoo.com

E-commerce is one of the most important pillars in the modern era because of the  rapid advancement of the information technology sector, and perhaps e-commerce is one of the most significant technologies for utilising the means of communication to obtain goods and services for the least effort, the lowest cost and the shortest time. Therefore, this research aims to determine the nature of electronic commerce and clarifying the requirement of proof as one of the legal problems faced by electronic contracts, whether electronic writing or electronic signature. On the other hand, this research will focus on the challenges faced by electronic commerce contracts at all levels and solutions proposed in this regard. The research problem indicates that the practical reality of the application of electronic commerce in Jordan is minor in comparison with the developed countries. This research also aims to consolidate the practical concept and overcome the obstacles that hinder the progress of electronic commerce in Jordan by finding appropriate solutions and finding legal means to ensure the safety of transactions and take advantage of the tremendous developments provided by modern technologies of e-commerce operations. Pages 323 to 338




The Role of Conceptual and Contextual Components in the Processes of Formulation and Encoding in FDG

Maha Tahir Eesaa, Anwar Turki Atiyahb, aAl_Qadissiyh university College of Arts, bAl_Qadissiyh University/ College of Computer Science and Information Technology, Email: amaha.eesa@qu.edu.iq,  bAnwar.alsaadi@qu.edu.iq

Being a part of a wider theory of verbal interaction that focusses on the generation of utterances, Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) has increasingly important implications and applications in different linguistic studies. As a blended approach, it recognises that the forms taken by utterances are variable, but the variation is limited by the communicative needs of users. It aims at describing and explaining the formal (syntactic, morphological, and phonological) properties of a Discourse Act from a functionalist perspective. These formal properties show that any language user has a dual purpose of interacting successfully and imparting propositional information, which Hengeveld and Mackenzie (2008) modelled respectively at the interpersonal level of grammar and the Representational level that (as formulating level) form together the input to the encoding levels (the Morphosyntactic level and the Phonological level) that yield corresponding structures. Pages 339 to 358




Waste Auditing in Beer Manufacturing Companies – Evidence from Vietnam

Thi Tam Lea*, Thi Mai Anh Nguyenb, aThuyloi University. No. 175, Tay Son District, Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam, bHanoi University of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam, Email: a*lethitam@tlu.edu.vn

The objective of the study is to assess the application of waste auditing in the 33 largest Vietnamese beer manufacturing companies. Quantitative method through surveys and qualitative method by deep interviews were conducted in 2019 for the 33 leaders to collect and process data. The research results showed that 100% of enterprises recognise the importance of building an environmental management system (EMS) on environmental protection and sustainable development. Although waste auditing is crucial for production and business activities, enterprises have not been ready to conduct it. Carrying out activities related to the environment is mainly to meet the legal requirements or other mandatory requirements from environmental management agencies. The main reasons are that waste audit guidelines, standards, and criteria are inadequate, and auditing force is still limited in terms of professional skills and experience. Therefore, the study proposed some recommendations to promote applying waste auditing in an effort to achieve sustainable development goals. Pages 359 to 374




Determinants of Hospital Utilisation among Urban Poor Societies in Indonesia

Agung Dwi Laksonoa, Ratna Dwi Wulandarib*, Ferry Efendic, aNational Instite of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia, bFaculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia. Campus C Mulyorejo Surabaya, Indonesia, cFaculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia. Campus C Mulyorejo Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: b*ratna-d-w@fkm.unair.ac.id

The purpose of this research to analyse the determinants of hospital utilisation in urban poor societies in Indonesia. The data was part of the 2013 Basic Health Research (Riskesdas). The analysis involved 57,296 urban poor societies in Indonesia. Estimates used the binary logistic regression test. The result shows that age and marital status have an effect on hospital utilisation – those who worked having 1.512 times the likelihood of having utilised the hospital than those who did not work: while those who have insurance were 0.513 times more likely than those who were uninsured. Those who have a travel time of ≤15 minutes have 0.686 times the likelihood than those who have a travel time of >15 minutes. While those who require transportation costs IDR 10,000 to the hospital have a likelihood of 0.692 times more than those with transportation costs >IDR 10,000 in utilising the hospital. There were 6 determinants of Hospital Utilisation at Urban Poor Societies in Indonesia. Pages 375 to 387




The Urgency of Maqasid Al-Shariah Reconsideration in Islamic Law Establishment for Muslim Minorities in Western Countries

Ahmad Imam Mawardia, aPostgraduate Program, Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: aai_mawardi@uinsby.ac.id

Muslim minorities in western countries encounter different Islamic law problems than those in countries with Muslims as the majority of the population. Their conditions as minorities and non-accommodative and diverse country regulations for their needs as Muslim minorities are one of the things to be considered, while socio-cultural attributes are other contributing factors in creating new issues. Thus, it brings up Islamic fiqh (precise understanding of Shariah Law), specifically for those who are known as minority fiqh (fiqh al-aqalliyyat). This study describes the flexibility and the width of Islamic law in conversing with many aspects of life’s problems, specifically Islamic law on the Muslim minority society in western countries. The solution to the problems is investigated based on textual and contextual approaches, idealistically and realistically. Thus, the Islamic law problems on Muslim minority society in western countries, which have been one of the biggest problems, are no longer solved merely based on the classic fiqh containing social, cultural, political contexts that are different from the Islamic law contexts on Muslim majority society. Interestingly, even though the legal solution to the problems done through maqasid al-shariah approach is different from the result of the classical fiqh approach, it does not mean that the principles and the arguments used as fundamentals of law from both approaches are different. In sum, maqasid al-shariah fiqh reconsideration becomes one of the solutions in solving the Islamic law problems for Muslim minority society in western countries. Pages 388 to 404




Business Sustainability Antecedents in Creative Industry: A Qualitative Research Study

Soegiarto Dwia, Rahmawatib, Djuminahc, Falikhatund, aEconomic and Business Faculty, Universitas Muria Kudus, Indonesia, b,c,dEconomic and Business Faculty, Universitas Sebelas Maret  Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: adwi.soegiarto71@gmail.com,  brahmaw2005@yahoo.com,  cuns.djuminah@yahoo.com,  dfalie.feuns17@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is to examine the sustainability of businesses that are influenced by local Islamic-based cultural values in Muslim communities in Kudus City. Islamic-based local cultural values direct people's behaviour in doing business. The ethical value in Kudus society is called Gusjigang, which means 'GUS' which means good, 'JI' which means to recite, and 'GANG' which means to trade. Data sources were collected from in-depth interviews with informants, direct observation and FGD. Data validity testing uses triangulation and cross-check methods, intended to achieve the validity and reliability of the data collected. The methods used are qualitative with interpretative paradigms and phenomenological approaches. Sustainability features for the Gusjigang community are: firstly, donations, secondly nguwongke uwong (respect), thirdly obedience to the government, fourthly religious leadership, fifth thriving and simplicity, sixth religious, seventh family economy, eighth avoiding haram, ninth, religious tolerance and the tenth, independence. Pages 405 to 421




Banyumas Folklore as Literature Material: From Social Mores to Educational Purposes

Nas Haryati Setyaningsiha, Meina Febrianib, Eko Sugiartoc, a,bLecturer of Indonesian Language and Literature Major Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, cLecturer of Arts Education Major Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, Email: anasharyati@mail.unnes.ac.id,  bmeinafebri@mail.unnes.ac.id,  cekosugiarto@mail.unnes.ac.id

The notion of good literary works has always been linked to the term dulce et utile, meaning that literature must be beautiful and beneficial. However, in the context of education, folklore as a literary product commonly used as children's literature is more oriented to utile et dulce. Banyumasan folklore has strategic potential as a source of literary learning in schools. Furthermore, how do we identify Banyumasan folklore that contains character education so that it can be used as a source of learning? The data of this study is one of Banyumasan folklore, Tragedi Sabtu Pahing. The research methodology used was Research and Development (R and D). Practically, the results of this study are beneficial for students and teachers in the form of learning sources for the appreciation of Javanese culture-based tales, especially the sub-culture area of "Banyumasan". Pages 422 to 435




Examining the Impact of HRIS on Attaining Competitive Advantage in the Higher Education Market:  A Literature Review

Malek Eleyana, aInstitute of Public Administration, Business Administration sector, Riyadh, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Email: aElayanm@ipa.edu.sa

This paper aims to present and to discuss a collection of empirical studies related to examining the impact of the Human Resources Information System (HRIS) on attaining competitive advantage in the Higher Education Market (HEM), by means of a content analysis of the findings of previous studies related to HRIS. A review of the relevant literature has shown that a limited number of previous studies have attempted to identify the impact of HRIS on attaining competitive advantage in higher education markets. Thus, the obtained data from the secondary source will be analysed and explained here. Findings of this study examine the impact of HRIS on attaining competitive advantage in HEM thus; the paper is concluded by providing the results of the study and some recommendation for future researches. Pages 436 to 455




The Influence of Dynamic Capability and Performance on the Competitiveness of Private Higher Education

Isbandriyati Mutmainaha, Budi Suharjob, Kirbrandokoc, Rita Nurmalinad, aDoctoral student of School of Business, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia, bMathematics Departement, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia, cMagister Management Program, Graduate School, Ibnu Khaldun University, Bogor, Indonesia, dAgribusiness Departement, Faculty of Economics and Management, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia, Email: aisbandriyati@unb.ac.id,  bbsuharjo@apps.ipb.ac.id,  cdenmas.kiko@gmail.com,  dritanurmalina@apps.ipb.ac.id

The study of the relationship between dynamic capabilities and competitiveness in the context of private Higher Education (HE) is interesting. Due to the dynamic environment and level of intensive competition, private HE needs to build sustainable competitiveness by increasing its capabilities in order to quickly adjust to environmental changes. This study aims to examine the effect of dynamic capabilities on private HE performance and competitiveness in Indonesia. The sample size consisted of 58 private HEs in the LLDIKTI Region III DKI Jakarta, with 178 respondents consisting of private HE leaders. The collected data was analysed by using the SEM. The results showed that dynamic capabilities affect private HE competitiveness both directly and through mediating organisational performance. In term of implementation, private HE needs to continuously identify changes in the external environment, understand internal capabilities, and reconfigure internal capabilities to improve performance and competitiveness. Pages 456 to 470




Forms of Address and Organisational Culture in Japan’s Creative Industry

Elisa Carolina Marioa*, Cece Sobarnab, Johannes A.A. Rumeserc, Risa Lupi Ardiatid, a,b,dFaculty of Cultural Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung-West Java, Indonesia 45363, cFaculty of Humanities, Bina Nusantara University,Jakarta, Indonesia 11480, Email: a*elisa16001@mail.unpad.ac.id,  bemarion83.em@gmail.com,  cbcece@unpad.ac.id,  dcjorumeser@binus.edu

The purpose of this research is to identify the forms of address used to superiors in companies, particularly the creative industry in Japan. This research is a preliminary study for research that aims to prove the relationship between the use of language and organisational culture in a company. The method used was qualitative research by an in-depth interview with participating employees who work in Japan’s creative industry. The object of this research focusses on the use of term of address by staff to superiors. The results show that the 2 (two) companies which are creative industries used "family name+san" to address superiors, and used "family name+professional ranking" to address the highest superior in the company. This research found that using "family name+san" to the superiors brought the relationship between the superiors and subordinates closer. This condition causes the communication to be smoother and the atmosphere to become more relaxed. Pages 471 to 482



Body Language in August Strindberg’s  The Stronger

Hayat Hassan Kadhima*, Hussain Hameed Mayuufb, Ahmed Fadhilc, a,b,cUniversity of Babylon / College of Education for Human Science, Email: a*Husm56@gmail.com

This paper deals with body language and its significance in communication. Communication denotes all the ways used by human beings to convey information and integrate their feelings and emotions. In other words, it encompasses not merely verbal codes but also varieties of nonverbal forms which send an enormous number of messages in an interaction. This paper is an analytical study of the use of body language in August Strindberg‘s play The Stronger. Thus, this study examines the way body language is used in communication and role it plays in The Stronger, demonstrating that meaning can be achieved not only with words but via body language within the Play. Besides, it clarifies how body language functions in The Stronger using verbal and non-verbal expressions. Pages 483 to 492

Model Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility Policy in Osing Culture

Ratna Wijayanti Daniar Paramitaa*, Noviansyah Rizalb, Muchamad Taufiqc, a,b,cSTIE Widya Gama Lumajang, Email: a*pradnyataj@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is to present a model of implementing corporate social responsibility (CSR) for Osing culture in Banyuwangi. The purpose of making a model of implementing CSR culture policy is to provide a basic picture of the problems and needs of the implementation of corporate social and environmental responsibility in the field of culture in the Banyuwangi Regency. Furthermore, this written form is expected to be a guide for the implementation of CSR models in the cultural field in Banyuwangi. This study uses qualitative methods. The paradigm in this study is interpretive with an ethnomethodology approach to produce a model of policy implementation done by normative juridical methods. This is done through literature reviews that examine secondary data in the form of legislation, agreements, contracts or other legal documents, as well as the research results, results of studies and other references. The normative juridical method in this study was also complemented by focus group discussions and hearings with cultural stakeholders in the Banyuwangi Regency. The results of this research and discussion of the implementation model of cultural CSR policy concluded that there are three main pillars in order to achieve the goal of preserving customary culture namely: local government as the main actor through a regulated policy; the company as an implementer; and cultural studios as policy targets. The implementation model of cultural CSR policy consists of intellectual capital input that is owned by the cultural studio, the implementation process involving the company, output in the form of products as a form of preservation of customs and the impact felt by the cultural studio. The outcome of the cultural CSR policy implementation model is the increasing role of the younger generation in preserving Osing's indigenous culture in Banyuwangi. Pages 493 to 503

The Environmental Construction of the Bojongmanik Formation in the Rangkasbitung Basin

Teti Syahrulyatia, Vijaya Isnaniawardhanib, Mega Fatimah Rosanac, Winantrisd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Geology, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang Km. 21, Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia 45363, Email: a*tetisyahrulyati@unpak.ac.id,  bvijaya.isnania@unpad.ac.id,  cmega.fatimah.rosana@unpad,ac.id,  dwinantris@unpad.ac.id

The Bojongmanik Formation is the typical formation in the Rangkasbitung Basin. This study aims to know the evolution of the depositional environment in the Rangkasbitung sub-basin, along the Middle Miocene. It continues previous research on the Bojongmanik Formation. The method is field observation and mapping an area of 7 x 8km in the Gajrug area. The development of the Rangkasbitung Basin environment begins at the age of Middle Miocene N9 - N11, at a depth of 10m to 180m, deposited in the form of claystone and sandstone intercalation. The elevation process which causes the basin to be elevated to a depth of 20m – 80m, is the coastline moving further north at the age of N13 - N14. This movement deposited sandstone unit rocks of claystone and limestone intercalation. The process of sedimentation that occurs is Regression. Pages 504 to 520

The Opportunities and Challenges in having Sustainable Employment for Accounting Students in Hanoi

Thi Quynh Lien Duonga, Son Tung Hab*, Manh Linh Tranc, Manh Dung Trand, Thi Tam Lee, Thi Quynh Anh Doanf, Duc Tai Dog, aVinh University, Vietnam, b,c,dNational Economics University, Vietnam, eThuyLoi University, Vietnam, f,gUniversity of Labor and Social Affairs, Vietnam, Email: b*hasontungneu@gmail.com

This study measured the opportunities and challenges as to sustainable employment, for accounting students in Hanoi, Vietnam. We employ descriptive analysis, Cronbach's Alpha, Independent T-test and ANOVA for evaluating and measuring the opportunities and challenges, to sustainable employment for students with accounting as a major. The results show that the opportunities for sustainable employment for accounting students rated an average of 4.005 on a 5-point Likert scale; the challenges as to sustainable employment of accounting students rated an average of 3.984. There is an insignificant gender difference, regarding the evaluation of opportunities and challenges as to sustainable employment of accounting students. But, the study finds differences in the evaluation of opportunities and challenges as to sustainable employment for accounting students, in terms of universities’ brand names. Based on findings, some recommendations are given for accounting students in Hanoi, to catch the opportunities and minimise the challenges to sustainable employment, including enhancing knowledge, skills, and professionalism. Pages 521 to 539

Mathematics Teacher Education Training for Quality School Teachers: An Assessment of Mathematics Teaching Needs of Preservice Teachers

Ibrahim Muhammad Alhajia, Wun Thiam Yewb, Nordin Abd Razakc, aDepartment of Science Education, Sule Lamido University Kafin Hausa,Jigawa  State, Nigeria, b,cSchool of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia,

This paper presents the results of assessment of a preservice mathematics teachers’ teaching needs study, conducted with university mathematics teacher education training final year preservice teachers who were preparing to become secondary school mathematics teachers and undergoing teaching practice exercises, teaching mathematics at various secondary schools. The semi-structure interview assessed preservice teachers’ perspectives on their teaching needs, based on the experience and difficulties encountered during teaching practice. The qualitative results revealed that teaching practice experience was an interesting and memorable event that provided preservice teachers with a lot of learning opportunities and gave them confidence to teach mathematics after graduation. The finding also revealed that there is disconnection between the training curriculum contents and school mathematics curriculum for which preservice teachers were being trained to teach. We present a conclusion and suggestion on how the training should be run, and content areas – which if included would improve the quality of preservice teachers – were discussed. Pages 540 to 554

The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation and Management, in Enhancing Higher Education Competitiveness through Technology Transfer

Nandanga*, Suryanab, Eeng Ahmanc, Hari Mulyadid

aStudent of Doctoral Programme, Sekolah Pascasarjana, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia b,c,d Economics and Business Education Faculty, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Emails: *nandang@upi.edua, suryana@upi.edub, eengahman@upi.educ, harimulyadi@upi.edud

Indonesia as a nation is blessed with plenteous characteristics. However, it is not sufficient to merely have human resources equipped for overseeing a potential asset, even one that can stimulate national welfare. Graduates and researchers who benefit from tertiary education are, in particular, expected to bear the possibility of investigating and processing the riches and variety of natural assets, for the welfare of Indonesian society. This requires familiarity with nearby glories, and advancing one's own capacity to ideally use common assets for the collective welfare. To increase community access, higher education is expected to utilise information and transfer communication technology, through the learning process. People in higher education, the business world, professional associations, government and other stakeholders can develop continuing education (continuing education) or lifelong education. It is higher education in Indonesia that mostly built the strength of its culture’s entrepreneurial orientation (EO), as a key to surviving in competition. These relationships will impact the degree of experienced entrepreneurship in Indonesia, and ultimately, the global competitiveness of nations through technology transfer. This experimental research aims to test impact entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurial management in higher education, to enhance competitiveness through technology transfers in Private Higher Education, as registered in LLDIKTI IV (West Java and Banten Province). In total 84 samples were taken. The data was processed with PLS-SEM. The result shows that technology transfer can moderate both entrepreneurial orientation and management, as the enhancement impact bearing upon the competitiveness of higher education in LLDIKTI IV. Pages 555 to 570

A Balinese Exploration of How the Use of Archaic Lexicons is Differentiated by Youth and Geography

I Made Netraa, aUdayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia, Email: aimadenetra@unud.ac.id

Archaic lexicons have been studied by scholars, through parameters of archaism differentiated by evidence that language evolved slowly. This study describes how archaism in Bali is contextualised through sociolinguistics, by young speakers and different geographic areas. Two different instruments were used, questionnaires and in-depth interviews. The analysis shows that archaic lexicons (nouns) in Balinese cultural practices are made and set, in accordance with the understanding of young speakers and geographic areas with such features as: (1) old-fashioned, antique, rarely used and artifacts outdated (no variants); (2) old-fashioned, antique, outdated and no longer used today because it already has following, such as: (a) the name of the artifact is the same as the previous one but the material or ingredient is different, (b) the name of the artifact is different from the previous one but the material or ingredient is the same, and (c) the name of the artifact is different but has and shares the same function as the former. Pages 571 to 588

A Review on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s Perspective on Women’s Empowerment: Evidence from Vision 2030, Women’s Entrepreneurship and the Effect of Social Customs (Legal study)

Alroshod Abdulaziz Abdullaha, Albarak Hoda Ahmadb, aCo-professor, Department of Law, College of Business Administration, Counsellor and General Supervisor of the Office of the Rector of Majmaah Universitym, Saudi Arabia, bVice Dean for Female Students Departments, Department of Law College of Science and Humanities in Alghat, Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia, Email: aa.alroshod@mu.edu.sabal_ahmad@mu.edu.sa

As an outcome of the rising participation of women in all echelons of education and various areas of employment and facets of public life in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the last decade has observed growing participation of women in public and private sectors. Recent developments illustrate a clear strategic track of policymakers and development plans in Saudi Arabia towards an even greater role for females in society. The literature is a derivative from the essence of Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030, which has instigated many progressive schemes for women’s empowerment. The article also includes the lifting of a ban by the Saudi government on women’s right to vote and run for office, drive an automobile and women’s participation in sports and sporting events. The review paper addresses a wide scope of different magnitudes of female lives in the current Middle East focussing on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It also includes the intellectual-cultural, stereotyping, and regulatory issues which influence the unfurling of women's careers. This is a comprehensive review of Saudi Arabian women and their apparent challenges, including conceivable prejudicial policies and the absence of support. An outline of the Saudi context and the work environment experiences of Saudi Arabian women are explained. Pages 589 to 612

A Study of Cultural Dynamics among Gayo Coffee Farmers, in Indonesia

Nazaruddina*, Nirzalinb, Abdullah Akhyar Nasutionc, Awaluddin Arifind, Cut Sukmawatie, Jumadil Saputraf*, a,bDepartment of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Malikussaleh, Bukit Indah 24355 Aceh Utara, Indonesia, cDepartment of Anthropology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Malikussaleh, Bukit Indah 24355 Aceh Utara, Indonesia, dDepartment of Communication Science, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Malikussaleh, Bukit Indah 24355 Aceh Utara, Indonesia, eDepartment of Public Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Malikussaleh, Bukit Indah 24355 Aceh Utara, Indonesia, fFaculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: amuh.nazaruddin@unimal.ac.id, bnirzalin@unimal.ac.id, cabdullah.akhyar@unimal.ac.iddawaludin.arifin@unimal.ac.idecutsukmawati@unimal.ac.idfjumadil.saputra@umt.edu.my

All businesses connected with coffee have good prospects, both nationally and internationally. Presently, coffee farmers’ way of life is changing their cultural values, increasing cherry coffee production. This qualitative study investigates changing cultural dynamics, among Gayo coffee farmers in the Gayo Highland, Indonesia. It adopts the methods of ethnography, comprising participative observation and in-depth interviews. Ongoing analysis synergised with the usual data analysis stages. This study showed that culturally Gayo people have knowledge and a conception about coffee cherries for producing the best coffee cherries, based on the orientation of their cultural values. The change of cultural values is believed to result from the resistance of the younger generation, the majority of whom are descendants of coffee farmers, in response to Gayo coffee industrialisation. In conclusion, Gayo coffee farmers are aware of conservative and specialty coffee production patterns. In particular, coffee production drives people's coffee-based businesses as to raw materials for example. Pages 613 to 626

The Involvement of the United States in the South China Sea Dispute: The Perspective of International Law

Aprilia Stefany Leliak SHa, Febryanto Dony Rampengan SHb, Indra Karianga SHc, Lidya Josephine Yubagyo SHd, a,b,c,dAirlangga University of Surabaya,

The South China Sea contains four disputed islands and coral reefs, namely; Paracel, Spratly, Pratas and Macclesfield Islands. The Spratly Islands have attracted multilateral claims by several countries, including Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam and Taiwan. Meanwhile, the Paracel Islands are claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam. The Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas and the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East stated that since the 1960s potential minerals, especially oil and gas, have been discovered in the region. Conflict in the South China Sea region is the main concern of the United States, who is noted for its "Asia's Balancing" strategy. The involvement of the United States in the perspective of international law is a legal issue that is answered in this study. Pages 627 to 645

Analysing the Structural Relationship between Labor Productivity and Investments in Indonesia: An Application of Two-Stage Least Square

Raina Linda Saria*, Sirojuzilam Hasyimb, Syaad Afifudinc, Dede Rusland, a,b,c,dDoctoral Program in Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Kampus USU Medan (20155), Indonesia, Email: araina.basrah@gmail.com,  bsirohasyim@gmail.comcsyaad1955@gmail.com,    ddras_ruslan@yahoo.com

Investments play an important role in driving an economy to produce goods and services and also create jobs. For those, to attract the investors, we need to improve the quality of human resources measured through labour productivity especially in Indonesia. In line with the issue, Indonesia as a country that has many labour forces reported low productivity compared with Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia. Thus, this study aims to analyse the relationship between labour productivity with investment and regional economic growth in Indonesia. This quantitative study designed using the simultaneous equation model. The data analysed by utilising the Two-Stage Least Square Approach. A total of three simultaneous equation models were proposed and the data consist of 33 provinces and six-year starting 2013 to 2018 that collected from the central bureau of Statistic. The results of this study found that investment has significant in increasing labour productivity, and it is boosting investments. Next, an increase in human development index, provincial minimum wage and investments are significant in increasing labour productivity, while increasing the significant health complaints in decreasing workforce productivity. Also, an increase in labour productivity and human development index is significant in increasing investments while the increasing provincial minimum wage significantly in decreasing the investment. Lastly, labour productivity has been positive and significant against gross regional domestic product per capita.  Foreign direct investment and domestic capital investment does not significantly affect Gross Regional Domestic Product per capita. In conclusions, the investment, human development index, provincial minimum wage have positively significant affecting labour productivity and its effect on gross regional domestic product. In contrast, investments (foreign direct and domestic capital) do not have a relationship with gross regional domestic product. Pages 646 to 662