The Implementation of Character Education on the Tarbiyah and Teachers Training Faculty at the State Islamic University Indonesia (Morality Reinforcement Approach)

Syabuddina, Miftahul Jannahb, Sulaimanc, a,bLecturer of Faculty Tarbiyah & Teacher Training UIN Ar-Raniry Banda Aceh, Indonesia, cLecturer of STAI-PTIQ Aceh, and Lecturer UIN Ar-Raniry Banda Aceh, Indonesia, Email: asyabuddin@ar-raniry.ac.id,  bmiftahuljannah@ar-raniry.ac.id,  csulaiman@ar-raniry.ac.id

Character education is among various crucial national issues currently accentuated due to youth moral deteriorations occurred, especially among college students in Indonesia. This research aimed to investigate (1) the implementation of character education in a Tarbiyah and Teachers Training Faculty, State Islamic University (henceforth, FTK UIN), (2) moral reinforcement of the students in the faculty, and (3) the implementation of character values in the teaching and learning process in FTK UIN, Indonesia. This is qualitative research, with three deans and 25 lecturers in three FTK UIN opted as the research subjects using a purposive sampling method. Data was analyzed using a descriptive approach. The research result revealed six strategies employed in the implementation of character education in FTK UIN in Indonesia: integrating it in the modules, implementing uswatun hasanah approach, using a student-centred approach, implementing cooperative learning model, varying the lecture methods, and conducting personal development programs. Moral reinforcement of students in FTK UIN was accomplished by fostering an integrated academic culture and discipline, as well as implementing certain academic ethics as the students' standard conduct. The implementation of character values in the teaching and learning process in FTK UIN in Indonesia was integrated into lectures. Pages 1 to 24




Using Community Satisfaction Index to Assess the Community Health Center, Jombang District

Mulyonoa, Endang Dwiyantib, Thinni Nurul Rochmahc, Indriati Paskarinid, Meirina Ernawatie, Putri Ayuni Alayyannurf*, a,b,d,e,fDepartment of Occupational Safety and Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Campus C, Mulyorejo, 60115, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia, cDepartment of Administration and Health Policy, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Campus C, Mulyorejo, 60115, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia, Email: f*putri.a.a.@fkm.unair.ac.id

The government of Jombang District needs to continue to improve the quality of services to the community as recipients of public services. One of the efforts to improve the quality of public services is by arranging the Community Satisfaction Index as a benchmark to assess the level of service quality and based on the Law Number 25 the Year 2009 concerning about Public Services. Community Health Center is owned by the government and has workers to serve the community. Methods: This research is observational research that used quantitative method. The quantitative approach was made by distributing community satisfaction index questionnaire. The data collection was done in July 2017. The numbers of the sample were 196 respondents from eight Community Health Centers chosen through accidental sampling method. Results: The result of this study was the assessment of CSI per element indicating that the element of officer responsibility has the lowest value in the Community Satisfaction Index (CSI) which was as much as 69,898%. In comparison, the highest percentage value of CSI was suitable for the requirement with a percentage value of 75.638%. The calculation of CSI on all elements showed that Community Health Services have good performance. Conclusions: The conclusions are all elements of CSI need to be improved to be categorised as very good. Pages 25 to 36




The Role of Electronic Training in Rehabilitating Tourism Human Resources: a Case Study in the Iraqi Tourism Board

Ruaa Tariq Kamala, Elham Khudair Shubbarb, a,bMinistry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Baghdad Mustansiriya University College of Tourism Sciences.

Undoubtedly, the contemporary world has witnessed rapid development in the fields of information technology and all fields and sectors as well as human societies, including the Arab societies. At the head the list, the techniques and methods of education and training have emerged which forces heads of centres of human resources development and training to be accompanied with these developments, especially electronic training within their plans. In the age characterised by the rapidity and constant change, the importance of training of tourism human resources becomes essential; without it, the workers cannot go on working efficiently and constantly. The continuous training develops the competence of individuals by transferring knowledge and new information to reality. In this study, we presented a proposal about the benefits and determinants of electronic training. We also explained the importance of adopting electronic training techniques in human resources development and training centres, and then explained how to emerge electronic training within the system of these centres. Eventually, according to our study and experience, we presented a framework represented map road to transforming the traditional training into electronic one in the Iraqi Tourism Board, and we reach to a set of conclusions and necessary recommendations. Pages 37 to 60




Employing a Logo in TV Advertising Campaigns: an Analytical Study of the Slogans of the Winning Blocs in the Parliamentary Elections of 2018

Jaafar Shaheed Hashima, aBaghdad University, College of Media.

Slogans are one of the important methods used by parties, blocs and political figures to promote their electoral programs and to communicate the contents of those programs to the public. They are used as they received great attention by these parties and blocs during election periods and various political events and events. The importance of the research comes from the view of the cognitive approach. It is one of the research areas that did not receive sufficient attention in academic research in Iraq, as reflected in the importance of the research to focus on the contents of slogans used during the advertising campaigns for political parties and political blocs. The researcher aims through this research to reveal the contents of the political slogans of the winning parties in the parliamentary elections through television. The researcher reached a number of results, most notably the following: 1. The interest of alliances and political parties varied in the topics they focused on in their slogans used in the election campaign in 2018. 2. Alliances and blocs agreed upon to pay less attention to religious issues than the rest. Pages 61 to 72




Production of Wheat and Barley Crops in Maysan Governorate for the Period 2014-2018

Rana Sabeeh Abbooda, aUniversity of Misan, Basic Education College, Math Department.

The agricultural sector is of great importance in the progress and development of the country’s economy, especially developing countries. It is the first pillar of social and economic development, so it has increased interest in them and the advancement of their reality in most countries. There have been weak contributions both in raw materials and foodstuffs in recent years compared to before 2003, when the Iraqi agricultural sector suffered a significant shortage of local production, especially the production of crops (wheat and barley), which led to the failure of covering the local consumption of individuals and resort to importing, which weakens the budget of the state. The current research dealt with the analysis of the agricultural reality in the province of Maysan to produce wheat and barley crops because the province is one of the governorates that are famous in the cultivation of these crops and know the factors that affect their agriculture. Pages 73 to 82




Determinants of Social Media Use by the Handicraft Industry of Indonesia and its Impact on Export and Marketing Performance: An Empirical Study

Adi Santosoa, Erdawatib, Ririn Tri Ratnasaric, Dyah Palupiningtyasd, Muh. Yani Balakae, aUniversitas Muhammadiyah Ponorogo, bSTIE Pasaman, cPostgraduate School And Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, dSTIEPARI Semarang, eUniversitas Halu Oleo, Email: aadisantoso@umpo.ac.id,  berdawatise70@gmail.com,  cririnsari@feb.unair.ac.id  dupik.palupi3@gmail.com,  eyanibalaka01@gmail.com

The present study attempts to examine the determinants of social media use by the handicraft industry of Indonesia and its impact on export and marketing performance. The primary data were collected from a sample of 301 respondents. To examine the impact of incorporated variables on the marketing and export performance, confirmatory factors analysis and structural equation modelling approach are incorporated in the study. Several tests were applied including descriptive analysis, KMO and Bartlett’s test, rotated component matrix, convergent and discriminant validity. The results showed significant differences in direct and indirect effects. The direct effects indicated that perceived ease of use and subjective norm are the insignificant predictors of marketing performance, whereas relative advantage significantly predicts marketing performance. Likewise, for export performance, perceived ease of use and relative advantage are found as significant predictors. Meanwhile, the indirect effects showed that social media use significantly mediates the relationship of perceived ease of use, relative advantage, subjective norm and marketing performance. On the contrary, no mediation of subjective norm is observed in the relationship between subjective norm and export performance. Social media use acts as a significant mediator in the relationship between perceived ease of use, relative advantage and export performance. In addition, the study embraces several theoretical, practical and policy-making implications for the marketing management practitioners and strategy developers to attain high levels of marketing and export performance with the utilisation of social media. Lastly, various limitations are discussed for in-depth findings by future researchers. Pages 83 to 103




Corporate Social Responsibility: Should it be Legislated or Value-Driven?

Yasir S. Tabooka, Sagaran Gopalb, Sulochana Nairc, a,b,cBinary University of Management and Entrepreneurship Malaysia,

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a popular global term that many governments worldwide seek to use as motivation amongst business communities for society’s  well-being. The scope of this conceptual paper is to evaluate the ins and outs of voluntary versus mandated approaches for practising CSR through discussing the relevant literature. The authors aim to utilise the evaluation to propose effective strategies that employ key advantages of both approaches to lead to mutually targeted CSR objectives.  The conceptual discussion resulted in  three main propositions  which are expected to sustain the   effectiveness of  CSR policies. The first proposition reveals  the government’s role in providing  proper guidance and support needed by companies to conveniently practise CSR even before activating any mandated regulations . The second proposition includes adopting a mix of voluntary policy measures and complementary regulations to enhance companies’ abilities to better address social problems and create social impact. Finally, the main proposition consists of maintaining strategic collaborations between governments, companies, and other partners or stakeholders in the CSR arena to jointly develop effective measures for sustainable improvements. Pages 104 to 116




The Use of Colloquial Singaporean English in ‘Speaking Singlish’ Comic Strips: A Syntactic Analysis

Delianaa*, Felicia Oscarb, a,bEnglish department, Faculty of Cultural Studies, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Email: a*deliana413@gmail.com

This study explores the sentence structure of Colloquial Singaporean English (CSE) and how it differs from Standard English (SE). A descriptive qualitative method is employed as the research design. The data source  is  the dialogue of five comic strips which are purposively chosen from Speaking Singlish comic strips.  Data is in the form of sentences totalling  34 declaratives, 20 wh- interrogatives, 14 yes-no interrogatives, 3 imperatives and 1 exclamative. The results present the sentence structure of CSE found in the data generally constructed by one subject, one predicate, and occasionally one discourse element. The subject is a noun phrase while the predicate varies amongst  noun, adjective, adverb, and verb phrases– particularly in copula deletion. On the other hand, there are several differences between the sentence structure of CSE and SE in the data including the use of copula, topic sentence, discourse elements, adverbs, unmarked plural noun and past tense. Pages 117 to 134




The Power of Talk in King and Rose’s Short Stories

Dunya Muhammed Miqdad Ijama, aUniversity of Babylon, Iraq, Department of English Language, College of Education for Human Sciences, University of Babylon, 51002 Babel Governorate, Iraq, Email:  adunya.ijam@uobabylon.edu.iq, dunya.ijam@gmail.com

The power of talk depends on one’s  dominance, control and confidence . In various situations, we might say that men are more powerful than women in communicating. We may also say that these  days everything has changed, and  women are more powerful speakers than men while  others believe that men and women are equal in their commination style. This study examines two modern short stories: The American by  Stephen King and The British by Christopher Rose. Both show that there is power of talk between men and women in conversations, however each  expresses it in a specific way. The aims of this study include examining the powerful features of talking for both genders,  recognising whether men or women are powerful communicators or whether both genders are equal in their  communication style and to investigate whether all  strategies used by both genders are employed by the two authors. In order to achieve these aims, a new model is developed based on several studies available in the literature. The main conclusion  is that currently, women are not as submissive as they were in  previous centuries. Men are not the only  powerful communicators equipped with dominance and control in various  situations. In contrast, men use a powerless style whereas women use a powerful style in special situations, even within cross-gendered communication. Pages 135 to 149




The Arab Kingdoms before Islam in the Narrations of “Al-Durrah Al-Yatima Fi Akhbar Al-Umem Al-Qadima” by Al-Dawadari (737 AH / 1336AD) - A Critical Reading

Osama Kadhim Omrana, aDept. of History, College of Education for Human Sciences ,University of Babylon –Iraq, Email: aosamakazem1980@gmail.com

This study  seeks to discover  historical evidence amongst  recipient by relying on  news accounts which were adopted by Al-Dawadari in  “Al-Durrah Al-Yatima  Fi Akhbar Al-Umem Al-Qadima” (Al-Durrah Al-Yatima in the News of the Old Nations) as a source model  which  relied on the historiography of the  Arabian Peninsula before Islam with the political level of the kingdoms of “Al-Hira,” Ghassasinah, Kinda and the Kingdom of Humair in ancient Yemen, which led to historical events that support the text’s apparent and covert  criticism for the purpose of deconstruction and reconstruction , to become aware of the range of  logical dimension  by extracting the in-depth narrative value of Al-Dowadari’s writings  which  unfold   during ancient times. As the author’s  history begins with a reference to the era of Adam  (peace be upon him), through “Noah’s sight (peace be upon him),” along to the “Arab and Persian kingdoms in preparation for” the history of the master of messengers, Muhammad, may God bless him and grant him peace.  Al-Dawadari’s narration is distinguished by its exemplary nature, which is prone to  shortening the text in a way that adapts to the historical approach which is based on the principle of brevity, however he believes that this will accelerate the readers’ understanding of his material by the shortest way possible . He differs “in his material up and down,” that was clear “in his definition of the kingdom of Al-Hira, which was dominated by expansion that was compared to the kingdoms of Ghassasinah, Kinda and Homiar. The research has produced results that contribute to deciphering the events that were presented by Al-Dawadari, some of which were manifested by the appearance of legend and choice, others  dominated by a lack of control and objectivity due to the “time and place of Al-Dawadari of the events that he narrates.” Pages 150 to 167




The Role of Louis XI in France's Foreign Policy (1461-1483)

Wael Jabbar Joudaa, Anass Hamza Mahdib, aCollege of Education for Human Sciences,Dept.of History / Al-Muthanna University. The Republic of Iraq, bAnass Hamza Mahdib, College of Basic Education,Dept.of History / University of Babylon . The Republic of Iraq, Email: a*yiuol@mu.edu.iq

The early stages of the life of Louis XI until 1446 have been discussed, he grew up in tumultuous  conditions in France, which  was not under the control of the central government only the middle and south , but he had a poor  relationship with his father King Charles VII,  which prompted him to join the movement of Prague in 1440 and after the movement failed, his father forgave him. He tried to prove his military efficiency to his father through a series of successful battles, his political activity between 1446-1461 has been examined , his relationship with his father  worsened due to  his father’s mistress, Agnes Sorel, who plotted to remove him from the French court. His father then entrusted him with the rule of the province of Dauphine, where he initiated  a series of reforms, but fled to the province of Burgundy  due to a  quarrel with his father and remained there until his father's death. He returned to the French  throne in 1461.  This research examined   Louis XI’s policy towards the Spanish Kingdoms, when he took advantage of the crisis that occurred in  the kingdom of Aragon. He succeeded  winning some territory for France due to   his involvement in the crisis. The research reviews his policy towards England, especially after Edward IV’s succession  to the throne of England who had ambitions to occupy France, but Louis XI succeeded in curbing those ambitions by signing the Treaty of Picquigny in 1475, his policy towards the Holy Roman Empire was discussed, the relationship between the two parties  worsened due to  the inheritance of the Duchy of Burgundy. The research ensures the follow-up of Louis XI's policy towards the Italian kingdoms, especially his positive  relationship with the Duchy of Milan, as well as  shedding light on his policy towards the Papal States, which wanted to strengthen the relationship  promoted by France with the papacy and succeeded in doing so. Pages 168 to 179




Teachers’ Formative Assessment: Accessing Students’ High Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

I Wayan Eka Mahendraa*, Ni Nyoman Parmithib, Edy Hermawanc, Dewa Putu Juwanad, I Wayan Gunarthae, a,b,c,d,eIKIP PGRI Bali,  Faculty of Mathematics Education and Natural Science, Jalan Seroja Denpasar Utara, Bali, Indonesia, Email: a*eka_undiksha@yahoo.com

Through the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Indonesian Government has made improvements towards education standards. One of these is the assessment standard, which  refers to international assessment standards primarily related to  critical and analytical thinking. In micro the scale,  assessment conducted by  teachers is expected to be able to improve students' high order thinking skills (HOTS). As a result,  the focus of this study is to determine the percentage of HOTS questions contained in formative assessments made by teachers. This research is classified as a descriptive study involving 27 Mathematics teachers in the province of Bali, Indonesia. Each collected item is  analysed using the cognitive level of the revised Bloom. The result shows that 9.47% of  teachers’ questions are  categorised as questions  which evaluate  HOTS  dominated by  cognitive  analysis (C4). This percentage does not meet the criteria of the minimum limit of HOTS questions in national exams of 10-15% or even much lower when compared to HOTS questions in the PISA assessment, which is a minimum of 20%. Furthermore, the interview results indicate that the average teacher does  not quite understand the process of compiling HOTS questions. Therefore, HOTS training  needs to be improved. Pages 180 to 202




Financing Access and SME Performance: A Case Study from Batik SME in Indonesia

Maria Rio Ritaa, Andrian Dolfriandra Hurutab, a,bFaculty of Economics and Business, Satya Wacana Christian University Jl. Diponegoro 52-60 Salatiga 50711, Central Java. Indonesia, Email:  amaria.rita@uksw.edu,  bandrian.huruta@uksw.edu

This research examines the influence between access to financing and performance through the mediation of  entrepreneurial-oriented finance in batik SMEs. The structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis results of 265 SMEs reveal that entrepreneurial-oriented finance has an influence between financing access and SME performance. A positive direct effect is found in the relationship between financing access and entrepreneurial-oriented finance as well as entrepreneurial-oriented finance and SME performance. Entrepreneurial-oriented finance has a full mediation role in financing access towards SME performance. No positive influence is found between financing access and SME performance. Based on the research results, in order to improve  business performance, it is not enough to only rely on financing access. Entrepreneurs should also  improve their ability to obtain and utilise funds to develop their businesses. Therefore, the financial aspect can optimise  business performance through entrepreneurial oriented financial activities completed by entrepreneurs. Pages 203 to 224




The Secret to Enhancing Innovativeness in the Digital Industry

Ardia, Sundring Pantja Djatib, Innocentius Bernartoc, Niko Sudibjod, Aneu Yulianeue, Hezkiel A.Nandaf, Kezia A.Nandag, a,b,c,dGraduate Business School, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Tangerang, Indonesia, eDoctoral Program, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Indonesia, fDoctoral Program, Institute for Health Informatics, University of Minnesota, USA, gDepartment of Communication, Binus University, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: aardi.kho@lecturer.uph.edu,  bpantja.djati@uph.edu,  cinnocentius.bernarto@uph.edu,  dniko.sudibjo@uph.edu,  eanjusu09@gmail.com,  fnanda072@umn.edu,  gkeziananda@gmail.com

The effects of leadership styles on organisational innovativeness are still arguable due to inconsistencies. Many researchers have analysed the direct and indirect relationships with antecedent variables of organisational innovativeness. The influence of transformational leadership styles has been widely approved to have an effect to organisational innovativeness. However, organisations sometimes fail to achieve their organisational innovativeness due to their limited understanding of the relationships between leadership, and knowledge-based empowering interaction that will enhance organisational innovativeness. This study is constructed to fill a research gap between Digital Transformational Leadership Styles and Organisational Innovativeness with Knowledge-Based Empowering Interaction as  mediator. It deploys 32 digital firms’ owners and executives in Indonesia as samples. Data was gathered through online questionnaire of Likert’s Scales, and analysed with Smart Partial Least Squares. The result shows that organisations should consider the Knowledge-Based Empowering Interaction to increase Organisational Innovativeness. Pages 225 to 243




The Effect of Service Quality and Servicescape on Behavioural Intention Intervening with Customer Satisfaction

Agung Kresnamurti Rivai Pa, Mohamad Rizanb, Agus Wibowoc, Muhammad Azam Ibrohimd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia

This study aims to determine the effect of service quality on customer satisfaction, the effect of servicescape on customer satisfaction and  behavioural intention, behaviour, the effect of customer satisfaction on behavioural intention, the effect of service quality on behavioural intention through customer satisfaction as an intervening variable, finally the effect of servicescape on behavioural intention through customer satisfaction as an intervening variable on Amaris Hotel Senen products. The data collection method uses a survey process with an instrument in the form of a questionnaire. The study objects  consist of 200 respondents who  stayed at Amaris Hotel Senen, Jakarta. Technical analysis of data was conducted  using Lisrel and SPSS version 24. The results show that: (1) Service quality affects customer satisfaction (2) service quality influences behavioural intention (3) servicescape influences customer satisfaction (4) servicescape influences behavioural intention; (5) Customer satisfaction influences behavioural intention; (6) service quality influences behavioural intention through customer satisfaction as an intervening variable, and (7) Servicescape influences behavioural intention through customer satisfaction as an intervening variable. Pages 244 to 261




Increasing Life Satisfaction in the Workplace

*Roy Setiawana, Anis Eliyanab, Tatik Suryanic, Yufan Nathand, *aUniversitas Airlangga / Universitas Kristen Petra, Surabaya, Indonesia, bUniversitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, cSekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Perbanas, Surabaya, Indonesia, dUniversitas Kristen Petra, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: aroy.setiawan-2017@feb.unair.ac.id  / roy@petra.ac.id  (corresponding author)banis.eliyana@feb.unair.ac.id, ctatik@perbanas.ac.id, dm31413234@john.petra.ac.id

Human resources are one of the factors which have an important role in all organisational activities. This study aims to resolve the research gap regarding servant leadership on life satisfaction by using positive workplace positive effect as a mediator. This research was conducted at a beverage company in the tourist town of Batu, East Java. The population consisted of 70 employees, with a saturated sample meaning all members of the population were used as a sample. The results of hypothesis testing through path analysis show that servant leadership has a positive and significant effect on positive workplace  effect and life satisfaction. Positive workplace  effect does not have a positive effect on life satisfaction, and positive workplace positive effect does not act as a mediator between servant leadership and life satisfaction.Pages 262 to 274




Innovation Capability and Barriers to Entry-Based Competitive Advantage in Indonesian Manufacturing Companies

Andi Wijayantoa*, Suhadakb, Moch. Dzulkiromc, Nila Firdausi Nuzulad, aDepartment of Business Administration, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, b,c,dDepartment of Business Administration, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*andibilt@gmail.com

This study aims to explain the effect of innovation capability on competitive advantage through the creation of barriers to entry which includes economies of scale, product differentiation, innovation, and capital requirements. The study was conducted on manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange with an observation period of 2010 to 2018. Data were analysed using linear regression analysis. The results of the analysis conclude that the innovation capability has a positive and significant effect on creating barriers for competitors in terms of economies of scale and capital requirements, but product differentiation and innovation are not significantly influenced by the innovation capability. Future studies can develop research models by involving components of competitive advantage based on market/industry indicators. Pages 275 to 290




Comparative Study on the Efficiency of Logarithmic and Linear Models in Determining the Variables Affecting the Demand for Housing

Sameer Abdul Jabbar Abdul Majeeda, aUniversity of Iraqia, College of Media, Department of Journalism, Email: aIraq1963hony@gmail.com

The quantitative analysis of the functions of demand in the housing market with standard methods is a very important topics; those models are an explanatory tool that helps predict and set up housing policies and strategies aimed at eliminating the problem of housing shortage or contribute to mitigation. The data and information in the quantitative studies fundamental mathematical structure preparation precedes form, give us that information and indicators thus giving a clear picture of the nature of the variables affecting the housing sector and the extent of interdependence and our expectations. Backed by the views known in advance about the shape and nature of those variables thus requires that these totalitarian models have been possible to ensure the success of the objectives of the housing policy and succeed in forecasting the future size of the phenomenon and its implications for the future. Pages 291 to 302




National Identity and Ethics for a Sample of Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University Students

Moneerah Mohammad AlMeraba, Ahmed Mohamed Abdel Karim Hamzab, a,bPrincess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University / Associate Professor of Psychology

This research paper aims to identify the relationship between the national identity dimensions and ethics among a sample of students from the University of Princess Nourah in the light of a number of variables (age - average household income-Cumulative rate- Marital status). The descriptive method was used and consisted of a research sample of (229)  students.  This was used in order to  measure a trend towards ethics, the preparation, the researchers, the cultural identity of young Saudi university scale, and the preparation of praise.,  The Alpha-kronbach stability coefficient was utilised along with factorial analysis of the dimensions of assertive national identity and ethics. The study found there are significant statistical differences according to the national dimensions of the identity of the income level and age, except for the axis of tolerance, the absence of significant statistical differences between the sample responses according to marital status and cumulative rate. There is also a significant statistical difference on the dimensions of ethics scale according to income level and age, the absence of significant statistical differences between the responses of members of the sample follow certain social situations, the absence of significant statistical differences between the responses of the sample are according to the rate of accumulative axis towards others. Pages 303 to 324




Investigating the Effectiveness of Google Translate among Iraqi Students

Luwaytha S. Habeeba, aUniversity Of Anbar College Of Education For Humanities, Email: aLuizahabeeb@yahoo.com

Technology has been proved to be effective in helping the students to improve their English language through the use of various applications. The purpose of the study `is to investigate the effectiveness of Google Translate. The study also investigates the students’ attitudes towards the use of Google Translate. Lastly, the study explored the advantages and disadvantages of Google Translate. The participants of the study are 50 Iraqi undergraduate students of the Academic year 2018/2019. A quantitative research design approach will be adapted to analyse the data gathered from the subjects. The study used a survey questionnaire to collect data from participants. The findings of the study showed that Iraqi Undergraduate students hold a high levels of attitude towards the use of Machine Translation (Google Translate). The results have also revealed that Google Translate has some advantages (low cost, easy to access, quick translation) and drawbacks (grammatical mistakes, no proofreading tool, etc). Pages 325 to 337




The Significance of Colours in Al-Snobbery poetry (D 334 AH)

Muhammad Khalid Nazima, aSuni Endowment Office Investment Authority, Email: am-2006-78@yahoo.com

When the poet talks about life troubles in all its forms and within the framework of the discussion of his suffering from it, we find it tends to potray a yellow colour and its hierarchies, as an expression of a group of psychological cures and of psychological tension stages. When describing nature and its enchantment from charming appearances, our poet tends to focus on a white colour in his poetic imagery. He to illustrate the colours of the solar spectrum (green, red, black, and blue), as each colour has its own individual suggestive significance within its poetic text. When our poet relies on mixing the colour significance within his poetic text, we find that he benefits from the significance energies of contrasting colours (black and white) and its effect on shaping his poetic imagery, as well as making use of the significance energies of colours to highlight the aesthetic feature in the composition of his poetic texts. The research noted the mixing of colours and their entry into various aesthetic relations, including the relationship of harmony between opposites and similarities, and each colour played a role in serving the poetic imagery. Pages 338 to 347




Does the Democratization Process Bring Better House of Representatives? A Lesson from Indonesia Post 1998 Reform Movement

Mohammad Echsannullaha, Nandang Alamsah Deliarnoorb, Muradic, R. Widya Setiabudi Sumadinatad, a,b,c,dDepartment of Political Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: aechsan.amin@gmail.com,  bnandang.alamsah@unpad.ac.id,  cmuradi@unpad.ac.id,  dw.setiabudi@unpad.ac.id

The dramatical democratisation process in Indonesia in 1998 brought exhaustive changes to the authority and role of the House of Representatives (HoR); with extensive authority and it effected all aspects of state life. Budgeting is the most widely used loopholes by HoR members in committing corruption. The use of influence, existing legal basis and weak accountability are factors that are considered in playing a role in  corruption by HoR members. This paper reveals how the authority possessed by the HoR is misused and has an impact on increasing the disclosure of corruption cases; it will outright explain why fraud committed by HoR members can be recurring. Pages 348 to 365




Political Participation of Communities in the Border Areas - Efforts to Realise National Security through Elections (Case Study in Natuna Regency)

Rahman Mulyawana, Dede Sri Kartinib, Pipin Hanapiahc, a,b,cDepartment of Government Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: arahmanmulyawan@yahoo.com,  bdede.sri.kartini@unpad.ac.id,  cpipin-hanapiah@yahoo.com

This research discusses Natuna’s Political Participation in the Election and National Security. This study was conducted because of the current perspective of the national security sector is associated with the development of the security and defence sector as a program or responsibility of the central government. The research method used in this study is a case study method that is part of qualitative research. Data collection techniques are carried out by retrieving data from primary and secondary sources. Primary data in the form of words, speeches and actions or behaviour of informants, and secondary data obtained from various documents, journals, scientific papers, etc. The results of this research showed that the political participation that has been carried out by the people of Natuna Regency in the Presidential Election is also related to their efforts to find a leader who is able to encourage the birth of policies which is oriented to manifest in the welfare and development in the border areas of the country. However, efforts that have been made by the community have not yet fully produced results, because the policies taken by the government have not been entirely able to improve the condition of the people in the border areas. This condition could eventually change the public perception of the election, which they consider have not been able to give a change to people's lives on the border, and on the other hand, also increase the potential threat to national security. Pages 366 to 377




Post-Social Conflict: The Role of Indonesian Armed Forces on Ambon Island

Saripudina*, Muradib, Arry Bainusc, R. Widya Setiabudi Sumadinatad, a,bDepartment of Political Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia, c,dDepartment of International Relations, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: a*saripudin92@yahoo.com,  bmuradi@unpad.ac.id,  carrybainus@unpad.ac.id,  dw.setiabudi@unpad.ac.id

Social conflict on Ambon Island is one of the worst social conflicts in Indonesian post-independence history. Triggered by individual conflicts, the escalation of the conflict then expands to become communities and inter-faith conflict; furthermore, the conflict then unfortunately involved non-Ambonese people and even armed security forces. This paper aim is to find out the role of the Indonesia Armed Forces – Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD) - post-social conflict on Ambon Island, as an effort to construct communication during the conflict and to prevent the recurrence of the conflict. Pages 378 to 390




The Role of Indonesian Constitutional Court in the President Impeachment Process Based on the Indonesian 1945 Constitution

Sugiantoa, aIstitut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Syekh Nurjati, Cirebon, Indonesia,  Email: asugiantophi@gmail.com

The term of the discharging President / Vice President position is not as easy as the public expected. The mechanism must be based on existing laws or regulations. If the regulation of President or Vice President impeachment are based on the Amendment of the 1945 Indonesian Constitution, especially as cited in the Article of 7B, the Constitution is not related with either law and constitution enforcement. This research conducted using a normative method (legal research) that is intended to examine the principles and legal requirements. In addition, this research using a comparative approach in order to make comparisons with the other countries in terms of dealing with impeachment institutions for the impeachment of both the President / Vice President position. The purpose of this research is to find out the problems that appeared after the Amendment of 1945 Indonesian Constitution that is related to the law enforcement, specifically to the impeachment of the President of the Republic of Indonesia in the state system. The impeachment mechanism must go through the Indonesian Legislative Assembly opinion and then must be conveyed to the Constitutional Court to conduct a process of examining and adjudicating. After that, the results from the Constitutional Court will be proposed to the People Consultative Council to be taken to a plenary forum about the impeachment of both President and Vice President according to the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. Pages 391 to 404




Implementation of Sharia-Based Bank Grameen Program through Empowerment of Women Batik Communities

Sri Handayania, Mariatul Qibtiyah H.ARb, Amaliyahc, a,bEconomics and Islamic Business Department, IAIN Institute Madura, Pamekasan, Indonesia, cEconomics and Business Department, University of Trilogi, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: aandayani154@gmail.com,  bqibtiamaria286@gmail.com,  camaliyah@trilogi.ac.id

Implementation of Grameen Bank patterns resulted in a decrease in the level of significant poverty by providing funds to small businesses, especially by making provisions to unsecured women workers. Grameen Bank adoption in this study is based on sharia by forming a working group and adopting a joint responsibility system in overcoming the problem of loan repayment. However, if the working group does not know its potential, then it is unlikely that the Grameen Bank can run. This study includes qualitative results through the ABCD Model driven by the community itself. The results showed that the process of changing the mindset of Madura batik women community through the Focus Group Discussion was very effective when using the ABCD model. The Sharia-based bank grameen program in the community assistance process provides convenience and is not burdensome. The process of building potential by inviting discussion about self-potential is continued through workgroups that support one another. Pages 405 to 418




A Proposed Program for Professional Development of Science Teachers in Light of Recent Global Trends: A Study According to the Delphi Approach

Ali Khaled Bawaneha, aDeanship of Academic Development Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University P.O. Box 10674, Dammam 31443, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, Email: aakbawaneh@iau.edu.sa

This study aimed to identify the elements and components of the proposed induction program for science teachers. The researcher adopted a descriptive-analytical method using Delphi approach and a survey was then validated by eighteen experts in science education on two rounds. The study results indicated that the proposed program includes eighty elements were distributed to eleven components: program assumptions consisted of 4 elements; the starting points of the program consisted of 8 elements; artistic content consisted of 13 elements; the administrative content consisted of 16 elements; training levels and those responsible for it consisted of 3 elements; training techniques consisted of 8 elements; the supervising authorities consisted of 6 elements; the means of communication consisted of 5 elements; promotion consisted of 7 elements; monitoring and evaluation consisted of 7 elements; and training times consisted of 3 elements. Pages 419 to 443




Curriculum Management and Learning with Creative Economics to Shape Life Skills

Yes Matheos Lasarus Malaikosaa, Nurul Ulfatinb, Nyoman Sudana Degengc, Maisyarohd, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Education, State University Of Malang, Email: ayesmalaikosa@gmail.com,   bulfatien@yahoo.com,  cnyoman.sudana.d.fip@um.ac.id, dmaisyaroh.fip@um.ac.id

The impact of the ASEAN Economic Community (MEA) and the development of the 4.0 industry is increasingly massive and the education system requires a novelty movement to respond to the ASEAN Economic Community (MEA) and the development of the 4.0 industry. The Indonesian government continues to make changes and development in the field of education to prepare learners to become capable, creative, independent, and responsible. Vocational education is part of the secondary education system aimed at preparing graduates to work on, by initiating to develop an education that leads to the creation of a student's creative character. The main objective of the study is to know the creative economic charge in the school curriculum to the vocational schools to shape the life skills of learners.The results showed that: 1) The school has integrated creative economic content in the curriculum to create creative and innovative learners, with precise learning strategies always emphasising learners' creativity, and is supported by a creative teacher and high work ethic to produce SMK graduates who have competence as a skilled workforce. Schools must always adjust creative economy content with their own expertise programs, with the intention that students can discover creative things that bless the skills of each program; 2) Life skills for students, schools have always programmed creative economic activity in the learning process that leads to contextual problems with the aim to strengthen the students' life skills. Teachers also develop creative learning methods with CTL learning approaches (Contextual Teaching and Learning) and PBL (Problem Based Learning) to form student life skills in each of the expertise, especially creative product subjects and entrepreneurship. Based on the results of the study, the conclusion that: 1) The creative economic charge is the result of one creative approach that needs to be integrated into the curriculum and learning, in order to produce creative people who are ready to work to high standards; 2) The establishment of life skills as a provision of skills to confront and solve the problem of life and to live life, actively and creatively seeking to find solutions to overcome these problems. Pages 444 to 456




Does Intellectual Capital Influence a Firm’s Financial Health?

Zuriawati Zakariaa, Noorfaiz Purhanudinb, Ahmad Nazri Wahidudinc, Kuah Yoke Chind, a,b,c,dFaculty of Business and Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Malaysia, Email: azuriawatiz@utar.edu.my,  bnoorfaiz@utar.edu.my,  cnazriw@utar.edu.my,  dkuahyc@utar.edu.my

In the current economic era where knowledge-based intellect is a crucial skill, this study examines the impact of intellectual capital (IC) on the firm financial health of 503 construction and material firms across eight countries in developing markets (Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam) over the period of 2010 – 2017. Based on system GMM, two measures of IC were applied, namely VAIC and MVAIC. The result suggests a significant positive relationship between IC and firm financial health. Firm capital employed efficiency (CEE) and human capital efficiency (HCE) are the main components that contributed to financial health. It also reported that the previous year HCE has negatively influenced the financial health of construction and material companies. The result of this study is helpful for firm management and policymakers to further emphasise the importance of IC to ensure the company remains competitive in the market. Pages 457 to 474




Economic Education Model for Tourism Sustainability: Evidence from Gorontalo in Indonesia

Meyko Panigoroa, Ery Tri Djatmikab, Sri Umi Mintarti Widjajac, Hari Wahyonod, Sugeng Hadi Utomoe, aDoctoral Program in Economic Education, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia Faculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo, Indonesia, b,c,d,eFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Malang, Email: ameyko.panigoro@ung.ac.id,  bery.tri.fe@um.ac.id,  csri.umi.fe@um.ac.id,  dhari.wahyono.fe@um.ac.id,  esugeng.hadi.fe@um.ac.id

This study aimed to examine the relationship between the education and tourism sectors. In addition, this paper also provides the economic education model in enhancing community welfare and increasing gross domestic regional product (GDRP) in the tourism sector. This study applied both quantitative and qualitative methods. First, the quantitative method is applied to examine the relationship between education and GDRP. The education variable is proxied by the educational index while GDRP refers to GDRP in the tourism sector. The data were gathered from Indonesia Statistics (BPS) then it was analysed using a regression model. Furthermore, the qualitative method is involved to provide an economic model for coastal area in Gorontalo in Indonesia. The findings showed that economic education has a significant role in the tourism sector. Based on this result, the model of economic education proposed both formal and non-formal education. For formal education, it is provided in the form of a learning instrument consisting of creative economics education while in non-formal education, it disseminates through conference and entrepreneurial assistance.  Pages 475 to 483




Student Performance Enhancement through the STAD Learning Model: A Case Study of Elementary School in Aceh, Indonesia

Lili Kasminia*, Dyoty Auliya Vilda Ghasyahb, Regina Rahmic, Umi Hasanahd, a,b,c,dSTKIP Bina Bangsa Getsempena, Banda Aceh, Indonesia, Email: a*lili@stkipgetsempena.ac.id

This study aimed to determine the impact of student enhancement trough STAD learning model to improve problem solving in science subjects among elementary school students in Aceh, Indonesia. The experimental study was carried out with 150 students (age 9 years old). This study randomly chose five classes. The class was treated with instructional method and Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) method. The momentary time sampling system technique applied to observe the result between two learning method in the class, rigorous thinking, positive body language, consistent focus, verbal participation, individual attention, and confidence was scoring using observation checklist. Results revealed evidence for the STAD method was proven to be an active learning way in achieving the positive academic outcome. Pages 484 to 493




Iraq's Public Budget and the Challenges it faces

Ahmed Abdulrazaq AbdulRudhaa*, Mohammed Rasool Makkib, Falah Thamer Alwanc, a,bMiddle Technical University Kut Technical Institute, cMiddle Technical University Suwaira Technical Institute, Email: a*ahmed.albakri@mtu.edu.iq

The general budget in Iraq is the budget of items, which is a budget since 1921 and this type focuses on the basis of public expenditure and not the purpose of alimony. There is also no commitment to the timing of the preparation and approval of the general budget in accordance with the Financial Management Law and Public Debt No. 95 of 2004. The Financial Management Act of 2004 requires that the federal budget be prepared in accordance with the principles of transparency. However, it is noted that the budget is prepared and discussed without announcing the attached tables and without showing the government's debts for the two years preceding the preparation of the budget, as stated in section / 7/2 / c,of the Financial Management Law. Moreover, the scientific studies that could benefit the financial plan are not from the annual required. Pages 494 to 503




A Pragmatic Analysis of the Speech Act of Request among Iraqi EFL Students

Nareeman Jabbar Rasheda, aDepartment of English , college of education for women, University of Baghdad, Email: afedhilaqeel2014@gmail.com

This study investigated the EFL students’ types of request performed in EFL classrooms. Moreover, the study aimed to explore the pragmatic functions of requests performed by the participants of the study. The study took place in Baghdad University in Iraq and Five EFL classes were invited to participate in the study. The study used classroom observation as a data collection method using an audio and videotape recording. The results showed that the students used all request types namely directly and indirectly. As for the direct type of requests, students used the locution derivable and imperative while they used query preparatory for the indirect type. For the pragmatic function of requests, the students made more requests for want/need and clarification types. This study is significant as it offers a comprehensive understanding of language uses in performing requests, as well as their pragmatic functions in requests in the EFL classroom. Implication and suggestions were drawn.Pages 504 to 514




The Effect of Teaching Genre-Based Activities on Iraqi EFL Learners’ Speaking Performance

Saadiya Wudaa Alquraishya, Ali Abdulhussein Sagbanb, Hisham Adnan AlMumarc, aUniversity of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq, bAl-Furat Al-Awst Technical University, Iraq, cUniversity of Kufa,Iraq, Email: asaadiya.wydaa@qu.edu.iq,  bdw.ali3@atu.edu.iq,  cHushama.jasim@uokufa.edu.iq

 The current research investigated the impact of teaching genre- based activities on Iraqi EFL learners performance in speaking and examined to what extent these activities might help them to perform better on speaking tasks. To fulfil this aim, some generic based activities were taught to be used as the treatment procedures. For this reason an experiment was conducted and pre-post speaking tests were applied to 40 Iraqi EFL students at the university level. The results indicated that the genre-based activities significantly affected Iraqi EFL learners' performance in speaking. Such results can provide designers with guidelines to make use of the visions resulting from the genre-based teaching perspective. Pages 515 to 531




“Wallah, I’d Love to Attend but I Swear I Cannot”: The Case of Invitation Refusal in Iraqi Arabic Dialect

Arkan Abdulhasan Nassara, Norma Saadb, Nur Rasyidah Mohd Nordinc, aPhD. Student, College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, b,cDoctor of Applied Linguistics, College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara,  Email: a*jasim19822@gmail.com

The study investigates the realisation of invitation refusals by Iraqi native speakers of Arabic and Iraqi Kurds who speak Arabic as a second language in Iraqi Arabic dialect. Data was obtained from a modified version of an open-ended Written Discourse Completion Task comprising of three situations in which the participants as lower status interlocutors were to refuse invitations from higher status interlocutors with close, familiar and distant social distance and were analysed descriptively according to a modified classification of semantic formulas developed by Beebe, Takahashi, and Uliss-Weltz (1990). Indirect refusal and adjuncts were the most frequent strategies used by both groups. However, Iraqi Kurds tended to use direct refusals more than Iraqi Arabs. Excuse was the most frequent semantic formula used by Iraqi Arabs in all levels of social distance. On the other hand, excuse was the most frequent semantic formulas by Iraqi Kurds only when the interlocutors have familiar social relation while negative willingness/ability was the most frequent strategy used when they have close and distant social relation with the interlocutor. Compliment, recompensing, address term, and sense of loss were only used by Iraqi Arabs while performative and let the interlocutor off the hook were only used by Iraqi Kurds. Teachers may use the findings to raise awareness among the two groups in regard to the differences and similarities in realisations of the speech act of invitation refusal. The findings will also help in reducing misunderstanding in any possible interaction between Iraqi Arabs and Iraqi Kurds, and thus enhancing solidarity. Previous studies focused on the social status while social distance has not been given its due importance. The present study focuses on social status and social distance. Pages 532 to 550




Solving the Travelling Problem of Thai Tourism by Using Improved Ant Colony Optimisation

Punyapas Chawaratthanarungsria, Sutep Tongngamb, a,bThe School of Applied Statistics(Computer Science and Information Systems), National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), Bangkok Thailand, Email: apunyapas.ch@gmail.com,  bsutep@as.nida.ac.th

Most industries focus on how to get profit from processing, and transmitting even in tourism industry. Technology has been used to meet the need of travellers in order to access information on flights, routes, hotels, transportation and others by themselves. There are some techniques of computer science to solve the travelling problem such as Artificial Intelligence and Animal stimulation. Thus, this research proposes how to apply Ant Colony Optimisation to the travelling problem. As the result, brute force was taken in to consideration to compare with the capabilities of The Ant Colony System. The obtained results from Ant Colony System have some routes that match the Brutes Force‘s shortest distance, but some do not. When looking at the performance of the algorithm, the processing time to generate all possible paths of the Brute Force takes more time than Ant Colony System. The efficiency of the Brute Force algorithm is Big O2 while Any Colony System only Big O.  Ant Colony System by adding other conditions such as changing vehicles at each tourist attraction, adding break point such as gas stations or restaurants which is able to complete the planning. It can be further expanded into a system of advice tourism for tourist attractions recommended plan. Pages 551 to 565




Relationship Quality and Time Performance of Construction Projects: The Mediating Role of Joint Working Practice

Shuaib M. Ra*, Hanafi M. Hb, Shaian Kiumarsic, a,b,cSchool of Housing Building and Planning, University of Sains Malaysia. Pulau of Penang. Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Email: a*rshuaib73@gmail.com

We hypothesised that joint working practice, defined as a set of practices among project partners that involved combined efforts of the parties in managing the project task mediate the relationships between the four attributes of relationship quality (trust, teamwork, commitment and performance satisfaction) in improving time performance of construction projects. Using purposive non-probability sampling technique, 245 quantitative sample data was collected and analysed. The study focused on key informants such as directors and managers within the several organisations involved in capital projects development in Nigeria. The data was analysed and hypothesises were tested using partial least squares structural equation modelling. The results suggest a direct influence of trust, teamwork and performance satisfaction on joint working practice as well as significant influence of joint working practice on time performance. The study further confirms the indirect influence of trust among project parties; teamwork capability and performance satisfaction on time performance and additionally summits that without joint working practice, project teams often face difficulty in achieving time certainty. On the other hand, a party’s commitment to project objectives did not influence joint working practice among project partners neither indirectly (through joint working practice) significant to time performance. The study finally showed that three (3) of the attributes of RQ (trust, teamwork and PS) explained 21% variation in the project time performance while the remaining 79% is explained by the variables or other aspects outside the model. This indicates the importance of these variables on construction performance in Nigeria. Pages 566 to 586




The Effectiveness of Electoral System: A Case Study on Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s Presidential System

Gunawan Suswantoroa, aBadan Pengawas Pemilihan Umum Republik Indonesia (Bawaslu RI), Email: agunawan@bawaslu.go.id

Even though four elections have been held since the reformation took place in Indonesia, the effective presidential-multiparty system has not been achieved yet. The ineffectiveness in question is when the process for obtaining approval is carried out over a long period of time which then shifts the main issue, and ultimately prejudice the people. Overall, this study discusses the party system, representative system, and presidential system, as well as the implications of the electoral system on the effectiveness of governance. The approach used in this study is a qualitative approach, with analytical descriptive methods. The results of the author's analysis show that the disproportionality of 2004 and 2009 electoral systems influenced the ineffectiveness of the SBY government. In addition, this ineffectiveness is also strengthened by the results of the Rice Index calculation in several policy-making processes that show that political parties coalition supporting the government is not disciplined. Based on these findings, the author recommends the changes in the electoral system from open proportional systems to parallel systems. The electoral system engineering is intended to create incentives that produce effective coalition models in government. In addition, the recommended electoral system is expected to reduce the potential for institutional conflict between the President and the DPR. Pages 587 to 601




Argumentative Structure of Al Marjaya's Speeches during Iraqi Protestations in 2019

Hani K. Al-Ebadia, Ghaidaa Fahmie Yousifb, cHayder Kubashic, a,b,cThi-Qar University/ College of Education for Humanities Department  of English, Email: ahanialebadi700@gmail.com,  bgaidaah1979@gmail.com,  ch197410@yahoo.com

This paper investigates the argumentative structure of Al Marjaya's, The Shia Muslim Supreme Religious Authority, speeches during the events of Iraqi protestations in 2019. It aims to find out three essential elements of argumentation: type of argumentation, type of difference of opinion and defence support. The study hypothesizes that complex argumentation, multiple non-mixed differences and multiple defence support are used due to the complicated nature of issues and events in the country. The study adopts Eemeren et al., (2002) as a model to analyse the data under scrutiny. The paper has reached some conclusions that validate its hypotheses. Pages 602 to 612




Question/Answer Sequencing in Arabic TV Shows with Political Topics

Haider Hussein Kateaa, Mutar Sabeeh Naserb, Ahmed Kadhum Fahadc, a,cDepartment of English, College of Education, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq, bContinuing Education Center, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq,

This research sheds light on the study of the language in interactions, namely conversations and how conversations work in political interviews especially in questions and answers. It will focus on the interactional practice of asking questions in Arabic political interviews. The study seeks to find out the kind of actions associated with the practice of questioning and answering in this setting, and what it tells us about the institutional responsibilities of its participants. Such transcripts which are widely available online can be utilised as an authentic language material for political discourse studies. Results showed that there are unique functions and forms to the question and answering turns in this institutional setting of talk, political interview. These functions are affected by the institutional mandate of the interviewer and the interviewees.  Such differences may be the result of the specific institutional responsibilities that are framing the conversation and how it contributes in clarifying the public opinion with confrontational questions, considering the interviewee position as the top government figure in the country, the Prime Minister.  Question/answer sequencing has been identified as a matter of concern in political interviews. According to the researchers’ knowledge and the literature reviewed, no systematic study has been undertaken in the context of an Arabic (Iraqi in particular) TV show discourse, with political concerns. Approaches on talk-in-interaction, institutional talk and its effect on conversation will be applied. A literature review for these approaches is described with a focus on the question/answer turns. The data to be investigated consists of a single episode of Al Arabiyah “Frankly” show transcripts. Pages 613 to 626




Performance Evaluation of Academic Services in the University Using the Balanced Scorecard: A Study at an Indonesian Open University

Rhini Fatma Saria, Muchlis R. Luddinb, Abdul Rahmatc, aProgram Studi Pendidikan Ekonomi FKIP Universitas Terbuka, bPasca Sarjana Universitas Negeri Jakarta, cUniversitas Negeri Gorontalo Indonesia, Email: arins@ecampus.ut.ac.id,  bmrantni_luddin@yahoo.com,  cabdulrahmat@ung.ac.id

The aim of this research is to evaluate the performance of academic services at Open University (UT) by using the modified balanced scorecard. Through evaluation, the research found out the level of achievement of UT’s strategic plans to achieve the vision and mission of UT. The perspectives of the BSC evaluated at UT’s academic services are as follows: (1) customer perspective, (2) financial perspective, (3) internal business perspective and (4) innovation and learning perspective. The evaluation was  carried out by interviewing, questionnaires to 358 respondents and document analysis of the Annual Reports in 2013 and 2014. The quantitative data processing was conducted using Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI) and Importance Performance Analysis (IPA). The evaluation result showed that the performance of Academic Services of UT is in a very good condition (healthy condition), which has an “A” category with a 74, 11 score of the whole performance. The evaluation result showed that the performance of the academic services of UT from a customer perspective is at a level of 67.54% of the index, while 75.44% of the index was on financial perspective, 78.32% of the index was on internal business process perspective and 76.61% of the index was on learning and growth perspective. Pages 627 to 660




Financial Performance and Macroeconomics toward Capital Adequacy: Empirical Evidence from Indonesian Banking

Kusiyaha*, Sulaeman Rahman Nidarb, Aldrin Herwanyc, Rachmat Sudarsonod, aKusuma Negara Business School, b,c,dPadjadjaran University, Email: a*usy7879@yahoo.com,  bsulaeman.rahman@unpad.ac.id,  caldrin.herwany@fe.unpad.ac.id,  drachmat.sudarsono@fe.unpad.ac.id

The banking industry is a business unit that needs to be managed properly so that it can benefit and be sustainable, and still refer to the rules of the regulator, one of which is  Capital Adequacy. This research was conducted at Indonesian banks. The dependent variable in this study is the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) while the independent variables are financial performance and macroeconomics. Financial performance consists of Profitability, Credit Risk, and Liquidity. Whereas macroeconomics consists of Exchange Rate Risk and Interest Rate Risk. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of financial performance and macroeconomics on capital adequacy in Indonesian banking. The results of this study found that capital adequacy is influenced by financial performance (profitability, credit risk, and liquidity) and macroeconomics (exchange rate risk and interest rate risk)  shows various levels of significance. Pages 661 to 674




The Effects of Green Products, Environmental Attitudes and Social Media Marketing on Willingness to Buy (Empirical Study on Stainless Steel Straws in Balikpapan)

Da Shinta Ashari Putria, Zainal Abidinb, Asnawatic, Kukuh Lukiyantod*, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, dEntrepreneurship Department, Bina Nusantara University, Malang Campus, Indonesia, Email: aadashintaa@gmail.combbzainal.abidin@feb.unmul.ac.idccasnawati@feb.unmul.ac.idd*kukuh.lukiyanto@binus.ac.id

One of the causes of pollution is plastic waste, because it takes a long time to decompose naturally. One of the solutions to solve this problem is to reduce the use of disposable plastic-based items and use green products- stainless straw is one example of green products. Social media could be the right choice to educate  society, to create a high environmental awareness that will affect consumption patterns and  attitudes towards the environment, it can be a variable that reinforces or weakens the relationship between each variable on buying interest as a dependent variable. This study aims to analyse the effect of green products and environmental attitudes and social media marketing as a moderating variable on willingness to buy. All results showed positive and significant, except for the moderating effect of social media marketing, which showed that the results were not  proven to be adequate between the environmental attitude and willingness to buy. Pages 675 to 695




The Internalisation of Law Awareness in Developing Students’ Characters

Aprillio Poppy Belladonnaa*, Affandi Idrusb, Sapriyac, Rahmatd, aPh.D. Candidate at School of Postgraduate Studies, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia and Lecturer at STKIP Pasundan, Indonesia, b,c,dUniversitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia, Email: a*aprillio_poppy@yahoo.co.id

This study aims to shape the character of students through the internalisation of law awareness. This arises from the problem of the degradation of citizens’ characters, including students who violate many rules (of law) both in the school environment and society in general. The process of forming the students’ characters can be carried out through learning in the classroom, environment and supporting programs that provide law education so that the internalisation of law awareness in students will also strengthen  their characters as  good citizens. The research approach used is a case study with a qualitative research method. The results of this show that the internalisation of law awareness to strengthen students’ characters can be carried out in three ways, namely: (1) the internalisation of law awareness through effective civic education learning which is meaningful and participatory learning, (2) the habituation of the implementation of rules (of law) at schools, and (3) a supporting program, namely through special forums that provide law education in the form of the Forum Pelajar Sadar Hukum (FPSH) or the Law Awareness Student Forum which instills law awareness so as to create an obedient attitude to the norms, regulations that apply at schools and community environment. Pages 696 to 706




Effectiveness of Learner Control and Program Control Strategies in Developing Mathematical Thinking for Slow Learners in Mathematics

Mohamed Al-Mahdi Mohamed Abdul-Rahmana, aCurriculum and Instruction Department, College of Education Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia, Email: am.abdulrahman@psau.edu.sa

The current study aims at identifying the effectiveness of learner control and program control strategies in developing slow learners’ mathematical thinking in mathematics. The sample of the study consisted of a group of slow learners (120) in mathematics at Alkharj intermediate schools. The 120 students were equally divided into three groups: 40 students for the first experimental group (learner control), 40 students for the second experimental group (program control), and 40 students for the control group. The study revealed that there are statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the first experimental group (learner control) and the control one in the mathematical thinking test favouring the first experimental group. It also revealed that there are statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the second experimental group (program control) and the control one in the mathematical thinking test favouring the second experimental group. Furthermore, the study results showed that there are no statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the first experimental group (learner control) and the second experimental group (program control) in the mathematical thinking test. Due to the study results, it is recommended that using computers should be integrated in designing slow learners’ mathematics curriculums. The study also recommends that mathematic teachers should design and use computer programs in teaching slow learners. Finally, the study recommends preparing teachers to deal with slow learners using computer programs, taking into consideration the role of the teacher as the core of the learning process and not relying only on computers in the learning process. Pages 707 to 725




The Validity of Training Models Based on Knowledge Management Systems

Vitriania*, Gunawan Alib, Dodi Widia Nandac, Syahrild, Yenni Desnelitae, Robby Satriaf, Unung Verawadinag, aDepartment of Informatics Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Riau, Indonesia, b,cFaculty of Computer Science, Universitas Dharmas Indonesia, Indonesia, dFaculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia, eFaculty of Tarbiyah and Education, STIKOM Pelita, Indonesia, fFaculty of Social and Humanities, Universitas Putra Batam, Indonesia, gIKIP PGRI Pontianak, Jl. Ampera No.88, Sungai Jawi, Kec. Pontianak Kota, Kota Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat 78116, Indonesia, Email: a*vitriani@umri.ac.id

The development of training models relevant to  teachers’ needs is used to improve teachers’ competences and professionalism. This article discusses the validity of the training model based on the knowledge management system for  vocational high school teachers of computer network engineering skills, which aims to foster their professional competence. The research methodology is  research development with the ADDIE Development Procedure. The development of this training model uses a modified Pont training model. This training model produces syntax: a) introduction; b) demonstrations; c) discussion; d) implementation of B-KMS training; and e) training evaluation and products, comprising (1) training model book; (2) training manual; (3) training material books; (4) user manuals for administration and user usage; (5) knowledge management system application. The result of the validity analysis shows that the training model is valid (0.85), the training model book is valid (0.89), the training manual is valid (0.89), the training material book is valid (0.86), the application instruction manual for the administrator is valid (0.89), user manual application usage is valid (0.89) and knowledge management system application media is valid (0.89). Pages 726 to 741




The Effect of Task Complexity, Independence and Competence on the Quality of Audit Results with Auditor Integrity as a Moderating Variable

Yohanes Susantoa, Betti Nurainib, Sutantac, Gunadid, Achmad Basrie, Mulyadif, Endri Endrig, a,c,d,e,fLecture of Management, Universitas Bina Insan, Lubuk Linggau, Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia, bUniversitas Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka, Jakarta, Indonesia fMagister Manajemen, Universitas Mercu Buana, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: asusantoyohanes60@gmail.com,  bendri@mercubuana.ac.id

The goal of this study is to find out and provide empirical evidence of the influence of task complexity, independence, and competence on the quality of audit results with auditor integrity as a moderating variable. This study was conducted on the Auditors at the Inspectorate Office of North Sumatra's Musirawas Regency, with 180 personnel samples. The method of determining the sample used in this study was non probability sampling with a saturated sampling technique. The technique used to analyse data was Structure Equation Modeling (SEM ) with AMOS software application. Based on the analysis results, it can be shown that  the sub-structure of auditor integrity is influenced by the complexity of the task, independence and competence, but only competencies that have a positive and significant effect and in the main structural equation, the quality of audit results is affected by task complexity, independence, competence and integrity, but only the variables of independence and integrity have a positive effect. From the two equations, the integrity variable is able to moderate the auditor's competency variable on audit quality, so it is suggested that to realise a government that is clean of auditor competence is to be a benchmark for the success of auditing, in order to support the integrity of audit results. Pages 742 to 755




The Application of the IPSA Loquitur Principle in the Regulation of Medical Malpractice Resolution

Patria Bayu Murdia*, Supantob, Widodo Tresno Noviantoc, a,b,cFaculty of Law, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*bayumurdi72@gmail.com

This study aims to analyse the application of the doctrine of res ipsa loquitur (negligence) in solving medical malpractice cases. Based on the results of research and discussion about the problem being studied, it can be concluded that the benefits of implementing the ipsa loquitur doctrine are as follows: -support the victim in cases where it is difficult for the victim to access evidence containing material, -it is not convoluted and -prove beyond denial the truth that there has been an element of error (negligence) committed by the defendant. The recommendation is that, in view of the doctrine of res ipsa loquitur facilitating a system of proving the existence of errors, especially cases that are not easily accessible to victims of medical malpractice, the res ipsa loquitur doctrine should be used as a proof system in court trials. Pages 756 to 764




Development of Halal Tourism Destinations in the Era of Regional Autonomy in West Nusa Tenggara Province

Abdul Kadir Jaelania*, I Gusti Ayu Ketut Rachmi Handayanib, Lego Karjokoc, a,b,cFaculty of Law, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*abdulkadirjaelani@student.uns.ac.id

This study aims to analyse the background of the development of halal tourism destinations in the West Nusa Tenggara Province and the constraints experienced in carrying out the development of these destinations. The results showed that: First, the background of the birth of destination development for Halal Tourism in the West Nusa Tenggara Province is based on three things, the philosophical foundation which shows in the development of the economic field in order to support the realisation of the acceleration of people's welfare, equitable distribution of business opportunities, other economic benefits and the ability to face the challenges of life changes while still paying attention to the cultural value system prevailing in this society in accordance with the noble values of Pancasila (Foundational Philosophy Theory of Indonesia). Second, the sociological foundation of the development of halal tourism is the demographic and geographical aspects of the West Nusa Tenggara Province which strongly supports the implementation of Halal tourism. Third, the legal basis for the development of halal tourism is the attribution and delegation of Article 18 paragraph (6) of the 1945 Constitution, Article 9 of Law No. 10 of 2009 concerning Tourism, Article 12 paragraph (3) letter b and Article 236 of Law No, 23 of 2014 concerning Regional Government and Article 5 of Permenparkreat No. 2 of 2014 concerning Guidelines for Conducting Sharia Hotel Business. Pages 765 to 774




Issues and Challenges of Local Government in Industry Standardisation in Indonesia

AL Sentot Sudarwantoa, aFaculty of Law, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: aalsentotsudarwanto@yahoo.com

For a developing country like Indonesia, regulation on standardisation in national industry policies is of vital importance. In addition to improving competitiveness, the implementation of standards determines a country’s market access. The policy on the implementation of standards in Indonesia’s industrial sectors which has been around for 17 years has not yet significantly resulted in business competitiveness, either domestic or international. Indonesia’s Standardisation Law emphasizes that it is not only central government but also local government that play a role in and are responsible for improving the implementation of standards in the industry sector. However, the presence of constraints that are encountered by local government is a reason why the implementation of standards in Indonesia is still low. In relation to this fact, constructing policies on local industry standardisation presents as both strategic issue and as a challenge for local government. In addition to serving as an attempt to improve national industry competitiveness, such policies can be offensive strategies to set the platform for leading local products to have greater competitiveness. Moreover, the policies present as defensive strategies to protect consumers and local business actors from the invasion of other countries’ nonstandard products. In order to construct local industrial policies, three pillars are required: (1) the improvement of effectiveness of local government’s roles, (2) the improvement of business actors’ adherence, and (3) the improvement of cross-sector coordination. The three pillars will present as a foundation of strengthening standards implementation for leading local products. Pages 775 to 788




The Implementation of Good Corporate Governance in Corporation Management Relating to Harmonisation of Shareholder and Stakeholder Interests

Yudho Taruno Muryantoa, aFaculty of Law, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: ayudhotaruno@staff.uns.ac.id

The implementation of Good Corporate Governance is required for every business entity, corresponding to both the stakeholder and the shareholder. The reason for this is the fact that many companies depend on external capital. The corporation needs to ensure their debtors that the funds are used properly and efficiently, and for management to perform the best for the corporation. This is made certain by implementing by good corporate governance. A good Corporate Governance system gives effective protection to the invested interests. Good Corporate Governance in Indonesia in the framework of national law has not been fully implemented yet, because Good Corporate Governance is a non-imperative concept, and the it is not an obligation to implement. Harmonisation of shareholder and stakeholder interests in the implementation of Good Corporate Governance can be done by first accommodating and attending to the interests of shareholders. This is done by giving them access to corporation information relating to its fairness in performance as this is part of what the shareholders or investors consider before they invest their capital and to protect the position of the shareholder from manipulative corporations and/or companies that are disobeying the governing authority. Then the interests of stakeholders can be ensured by stable corporation performance and the harmonisation of the corporation management system resulting in effective and efficient management, and emphasis on the public accessibility to information about a corporation’s fairness in performance either from economic or non-economic aspects. Pages 789 to 797




Model for the Contempt of Court Criminal Policy in Realising Indonesian Judicial Independence

Bambang Ali Kusumoa, Abdul Kadir Jaelanib, a,bFaculty of Law, Universitas Slamet Riyadi, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*alikusumobambang@yahoo.co.id

This research is motivated by a number of weaknesses in the formulation of the policy regarding the Contempt of Court criminal act which causes the independence and transparency of judicial power to be doubted. Whereas the philosophy of the Independence of Judicial Power views this as a state power that is free from all forms of intervention both from within and from outside the judiciary, except on the basis of the ideology of Pancasila and of the 1945 Constitution. The results show that historically and to date, forms of intervention on the functioning of judicial authority in Indonesia, both before and after the enactment of the one-stop justice system under the Supreme Court still exist, even with all the dynamics and changes. Before the enactment of the one-stop justice system, the power to intervene on the institution of judicial power came more from the power of executive institutions, so that the flow of reforms leading to the one-stop justice system under the Supreme Court was stronger. After the enactment of the one-stop justice system, forms of intervention on the one-stop justice system are mostly carried out by public forces, in the form of interventions by mass mobilization, interventions of mass pressure, interventions oby other figures and interventions of other regions.Pages 798 to 808




Model of Additional Criminal Revocation of Voting and Voting Rights in Eradicating Corruption in Indonesia

Firman Wijayaa, aFaculty of Law, Universitas Krisnadwipayana, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: s3.hukum@gmail.com

This research is motivated by the imposition of additional crimes of the revocation of the right to elect and be elected in Djoko Susilo's public office, because arbitration does not limit the revocation of these rights within a certain time period as stipulated in article 38 of the Criminal Code. The results showed that the criminal revocation of the right to vote and be chosen was an couragement to make a new breakthrough in punishing corruptors because so far there had never been any corruptors convicted with these additional crimes. Additional Criminal Appeals Revocation of the right to vote and be elected in public office also serves as a model for increasing Indonesia's Foreign Direct Investment and Corruption Perception Index scores. Pages 809 to 820




A Bank’s Liability for Banking Criminal Acts that Have Been Performed by Workers

Zulfi Diane Zainia*, Lintje Anna Marpaungb, Zainab Ompu Jaenahc, Purnomo Sidiqd, Yana Listiyanie, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Law, Universitas Bandar Lampung, Indonesia, Email: a*zdiane.zaini@yahoo.com

Banking criminal acts constitute actions against the Act, which have to do with employees, institutions, instruments, procedures and banking products, and every criminal offender must take responsibility for their actions before the applicable Act. The problem posed in this research is: What are the factors that cause bank employees to perform banking crimes?, What is the form of accountability for employees who perform banking crimes? and What is the bank's responsibility for banking crimes committed by its employees?

The research method was carried out with a normative juridical approach using secondary data. Based on the results of the study, the factors causing the perpetrators to commit banking crimes include integrity level, poor personal character, opportunities, poor corporate governance, weak supervision system and non-implementation of the principle of prudential principles which creates loopholes. Pages 821 to 834




Structural Function and Symbolic Relationship found in the Local Wisdom of the Katu Tribe, Lao PDR

Pratak Koonthonga, Preechawut Aphirathingb, Kittisan Sriruksac, a,b,cFaculty of Fine and Applied Arts, Khon Kaen University Nai-muang subdistrict, Muang District, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand, Email: akkk_rockers@hotmail.com,  bPreechawutap@kku.ac.th,  ckitisri@kku.ac.th

This article is part of a research work on ‘The Craft Of the Katu Tribe: Symbolic Shapes For The Design Of Contemporary Product’. The aim is to delve into patterns of the local wisdom used in crafts made by the Katu Tribe in Lao PDR. Qualitative research methodology was employed using several research instruments: field survey, observation, and interviews with stakeholders involved in craft making of Katu Tribe. After data collection, the data was analysed using Talcott Parsons (Talcott Parsons, 1949-1951) and Victor Turner (Victor Turner,1969) theories. Research results reveal that Katu tribe’s crafts are currently created mostly for daily use. They are made out of beliefs and faith. Production processes and certain patterns found in the crafts have been systematically and structurally passed down from one generation to following generations. Accumulated experiences evolve into specialised skills, which are later developed, improved, and changed until certain forms and production techniques are conceived—rendering products that are unified in their use, beauty, and beliefs. Nevertheless, characteristics of each product may differ based on certain roles the craft makers are holding in the time the crafts are invented. The roles of the craft makers during the production process are systematically placed within the social system which relates to the social structure within the tribe. The production process is an invented detailed procedure which is applied systematically during the time the product is produced. The production process is undertaken according to a clear intention of the craft makers and function of the craft itself. These detailed procedures are considered ‘function’ or ‘action’—which is the essence that begets a developed system that later evolved into a social structure within the tribe. This is gradually formed through tribal craftsmanship, which is a phenomenon that is consistent with Talcott Parson's theory on structure and function and Victor Turner’s theory on symbolic relationship. This phenomenon which takes place within the tribe can be explained by focusing one’s aim on the factors affecting decision making within the social context in the community. Another important variable also instils inspiration within the community as well as brings about procedure, which later forms into a social system and characteristics of symbolic relationship of the social process that has been changed over the course of time as a way to find its best fit. All of the above points relate to the existence of the patterns of the local wisdom in producing and creating handicrafts of the Katu Tribe located in Lao PDR. Pages 835 to 851




Cyber Security and the Higher Education Literature: A Bibliometric Analysis

Nazahah Rahima*, Zaleha Othmanb, Fathilatul Zakimi Hamidc, a,bOthman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia 06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia, cTunku Puteri Intan Safinaz School of Accountancy, Universiti Utara Malaysia 06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia, Email: a*nazahah@uum.edu.my

This article describes the trends of the literature on cyber security and higher education research from the year 2008 to 2018 using bibliometric analysis that has been indexed in Scopus database. Analysed parameters include access types and number of publications, document types, subject areas, authorship as well as geographical distribution of publications. It was found that in the last 10 years, only 418 documents were published and most of the documents published were conference papers where only six documents were open-access. The findings show that publications reached its peak during 2017 and English language is the dominant publication language. Most of the literature was found within the subject area of Computer Science and mostly from the United States of America. This article presents a groundwork for other researchers to probe into the area of cyber security and the higher education, as well as trigger further debates on the topic. Pages 852 to 870




The Value of Safe Water for Rural Households in Arsenic Affected Areas of Vietnam

Hong Chuong Phama, Thai Ha Leb, Ha Thanh Lec, Manh Dung Trand, Thu Trang Vue, a,c,dNational Economics University, Hanoi, Vietnam, bNational Institute of Occupational and Environmental Health, Hanoi, Vietnam, eVietnam Development Forum, Hanoi, Vietnam, Email: achuongph@neu.edu.vn,  blethaiha.nioeh@gmail.com,  cthanhlh@neu.edu.vn,  dmanhdung@ktpt.edu.vn,  evttrang@vdf.org.vn

Using contingent valuation survey data for about 330 households in arsenic affected areas of the Red River Delta, Vietnam, this research estimates the value of arsenic-free water to the rural households. A particular focus is on households’ willingness to pay (WTP) for piped water supply which can provide a sustainable solution to the arsenic problem in rural areas of Vietnam. The estimates suggest that households are willing to pay on average VND 160,430 per month for arsenic-free water i.e. tap water. It is about 3.5% of the average monthly household income. In line with economic theory and empirical results, willingness to pay is sensitive to household income, household size, gender, and age of respondents. This research highlights the importance of a consumer demand approach in water supply planning and is expected to help policy-makers and business firms to adopt more efficient strategies for ensuring safe water for the people in arsenic contaminated areas of emerging countries like Vietnam. Pages 871 to 890




Demystifying Intellectual Property Rights in the Creative Industry SMES

Dyah Permata Budi Asria, Sudiyanab, Edy Sriyonoc, a,bFaculty of Law Janabadra University, Indonesia, cFaculty of Engineering Janabadra University, Indonesia,

What is the importance of intellectual property rights (IPR) for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the creative industry? This paper analyses the relationship between understanding IPR for SMEs and the economic value generated from IPR strategy. Located in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, this research gathered data over the past five years to examine the way in which SMEs in creative industry register their intellectual property (IP). This study found that this IPR strategy is an impact of the existence of state-institutionalised programs in an effort to enhance the capacity of SMEs in Yogyakarta. These efforts include the introduction of IPR in the forms of assistance, courses and workshops, as well as incentives in IPR registration. This study indicates that there is strong relationship between IPR protection and the economic benefits that it creates afterwards. This study also emphasizes the role of the government in carrying out activities and programs that prove to be hugely influential. Pages 891 to 906




Critical Thinking and Learning Outcomes through Problem Based Learning Model Based on LBK Application

Rusli Yusufa*, Sanusib, Razalic, Maimund, Irwan Putrae, a,b,c,d,eDepartment of Citizenship Education, Faculty of Teacher Training Education, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh City, 24415, Indonesia, Email: a*rusliyusuf@fkip.unsyiah.ac.id

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the problem based learning model of LBK media assistance on critical thinking skills and learning outcomes of PPKn (Pancasila and Citizenship Education). Then a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent posstest-only control group design was conducted. The population is in the form of all grade XI students of SMA Negeri 1 Banda Aceh, consisting of 8 classes. The sample was determined by multistage random sampling technique, two sample classes were selected, namely class X 1 as the experimental group and class X 2 as a control. Quantitative data types are in the form of critical thinking skills scores, with questionnaires and learning outcomes data, using learning outcomes tests. Data was analysed by t-test and MANOVA aided by SPSS 15.0 for Windows. The following hypothesis test results were obtained: 1) there is a significant influence on the model of problem based learning with LBK media assistance on critical thinking skills and learning outcomes, and 2) there is a simultaneous influence on the problem based learning model with LBK media assisted critical thinking skills and learning outcomes. The conclusion of the research is the ability to think critically and the learning outcomes of PPKn can be triggered through the application of the problem based learning model with the assistance of LBK media. Pages 907 to 918




Policy Formulation on Social Conflict Management in the Teluk Bintuni Regency, West Papua Province, Indonesia

Muhammad Lukman Hakima, aFaculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Email: aem.lukman79@ub.ac.id

The conflict in the Teluk Bintuni Regency, West Papua Province is mainly caused by the conflict over the access to natural resources. This qualitative research with in-depth interviews found that the characteristics of conflict in Teluk Bintuni Regency were divided into 3 types, namely: (a) socioeconomic conflicts occurred in Districts of Bintuni and Marimeri; (b) political conflicts occur in Aroba district during the election period; and (c) boundary conflicts occur in Kamundan and Sumuri districts. In order to resolve the conflict, the author proposed several solutions, as follows: (a) strengthening the government's role through formulating regulations in many aspects, strengthening institutions, improving the quality of human resources, and strengthening the cooperation among stakeholders; and (b) strengthening the customary role based on the obligation stated in Article 18B of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. Pages 919 to 930




Analysis of Argumentation in Nam Cao’s Story “‘Chi Pheo’” Based on a Pragmatics Perspective

Nguyen Van Thaoa, Hermanb, Trinh Thi Hac, Nguyen Thi Thu Thuyd, Nguyen Thi Quynh Thoe, aPh.D; Faculty of Philology, Hanoi Pedagogical University 2, Vietnam, bEnglish Education Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education University of HKBP Nommensen, Indonesia, cPh.D; Vietnam Institute of Linguistics, dFaculty of Philology, Hanoi Pedagogical University 2,Vietnam, ePedagogy Department – Tay Nguyen University, Vietnam, Email: anguyenvanthao@hpu2.edu.vn,  bherman@uhn.ac.id,  changantrinhvtd@gmail.com,  dtoanmtc@yahoo.com,  eQuynhtho.1988@gmail.com

This study presents the illustration of how Nam Chao’s ‘‘Chi Pheo’’ story is interconnected with the study of argumentation. This study belongs to pragmatics, investigating Nam Chao’s ‘‘Chi Pheo’’ story as an argumentative writing. In the written or spoken word, argumentation directs the conversation process. With the presentation of argumentation in discourse being the basis of maintaining communication relation and expressing speaker’s aim. According to this basis, the paper applies argumentative theory to analyse the argumentation in ‘Chi Pheo’ of Nam Cao, and to point out the story’s semantics and pragmatics. From then, it can expose the thinking, palliation and the intention of figures in the texts that the author wants to transmit to the readers. This study uses some theories such as Chau (2007) and Ban (2009). The method used in this study were the description method, semantics analysis and discourse analysis method. The results have shown the intelligence and meaning of writer and of the actors in the story. These meanings, thinking can not be noticed if should not be mirror in the scope of linguistics. From shows the exiting, the intelligent of writer’s language using that exposed through short story “Chi Pheo”. Pages 931 to 948




The Effectiveness of a School-Based Disaster Risk Reduction Program in Indonesia: A Case Study in the Klaten Regency’s Junior High Schools

Nur Tjahjono Suhartoa, Slamet PHb, Amat Jaedunc, Hieronymus Purwantad*, a,b,cDoctorate Program, Department of Educational Research and Evaluation, State University of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, dDoctorate Program, Department of History Education, Sebelas Maret State University, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: afahrangga_cahya@yahoo.com,  bslametph@yahoo.com,  czaedun0808@gmail.com,  d*hpurwanta@staff.uns.ac.id

Three significant disasters, i.e., natural, non-natural, and social disaster, hit Indonesia every year causing material loss and victims. Therefore the government introduced a program, named safety school for disasters. This program is implemented in all provinces and regencies in Indonesia. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of the School-based Disaster Risk Reduction program. The training program includes seven subjects, (1) Disaster potentials in Indonesia (earthquake, tsunami, flood, eruption of volcano, landslide, and typhoon), (2) First aid, (3) Arranging evacuation routes for School, (4) Arranging evacuation signs, (5) Early warning systems, (6) Composing scenario of simulation, (7) Simulations/drills. In measuring the effectiveness of the program, this research used four levels of the Kirkpatrick evaluation model: reaction, learning, behaviour and results. The results show that students are interested in disaster mitigation activities. However, the training was not supported by school teachers and principals. Pages 949 to 962




Depiction of Connection between Library and Information Science in Articles Published by Universitas Airlangga’s Academics

Prasetyo Adi Nugrohoa, I Made Narsab, aLibrarian of Universitas Airlangga (60286), Indonesia, bDepartment of accounting, Head of Library of Universitas Airlangga (60286), Indonesia, Email: aprasetyo.adi@staf.unair.ac.id,  bi-made-n@feb.unair.ac.id

Background: Public university libraries are funded by the government. Those libraries are demanded to adjust with the digital era. Information science has to be implemented for the library to adjust to the development. Objective: To observe whether articles, indexed by Scopus which are published by academics in Universitas Airlangga, always correlate between library and information science or not.   Method: This study uses qualitative method using descriptive analysis to approach the issue inside the research results. The data is collected based on three criteria: citations, keywords, targeted journal, and topic that are used in the articles published by this university’s academics. The data is extracted from Scopus by extracting the information in CSV file format. The data analysis is conducted using Vosviewer software. Result: Based on the criteria of citation, articles written by Universitas Airlangga’s academics are dominated with information science used in the library. Only few articles are on pure library subjects. Based on the criteria of keywords used, information science is not really related with library. Based on the targeted journal criteria, general library topic is the most favoured journal topic by academics of this university. Based on the topic criteria, both library and information science are also related to each other. Conclusion: It can be concluded that information science is closely related with library, although those two have major differences.Pages 963 to 976




Corporate Social Responsibility & Company Value: Influences of Profit Management Mediation

Suwarno Suwarnoa*, Rahmawati Rahmawatib, Djuminahc, Muthmainahd, Rinawatie, aDoctoral Program in Economic Sciences, Universitas Sebelas Maret/STIE Purna Graha, Pekanbaru, Indonesia, b,c,dUniversitas Sebelas Maret, Department of Accounting, Surakarta, Indonesia, eSTIE Purna Graha, Pekanbaru, Indonesia, Email: a*suwarnoiai14@gmail.com

This research examines influences of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) to company value by accrual profit management mediation. This research population consists of Indonesian mining sectors. The research period was from 2009 until 2017. Based on purposive sampling method, it was obtained 414 observed samples (companies and years). The findings showed that CSR disclosure positively influenced Indonesian mining companies’ values. This research proves that CSR disclosure influenced positively to accrual profit management. Profit management could mediate influences of CSR disclosures to Indonesian mining companies’ values. Pages 977 to 1001




The Effectiveness of Learning Models and Achievement Motivation for Students’ English Reading Comprehension in a State University in Medan

Naeklan Simbolona, Eva Betty Simanjuntakb, Elvi Mailanic,  John Tampil Purbad, a,b,cFaculty of Education, Universitas Negeri Medan, Medan North Sumatera-Indonesia. dFaculty of Business and Economics, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Lippo Karawaci, Tangerang Banten Indonesia, Email: anaeklan@unimed.ac.id,  djohn.purba@uph.edu

This study aims to determine: the effectiveness of learning models and achievement motivation for English reading comprehension. This research was conducted on PGSD FIP UNIMED students at the Jln. William Iskandar Pasar V Medan Estate. The instrument used in this study was a test and observation. Samples were taken from two classes totalling 78 students. The research method was using quasi experiment with 2x2 factorial design, data analysis technique was using Anava 2 paths. The results of the study are as follows: 1) English reading comprehension of students who are given a PQ4R learning model is higher than the SQ3R learning model; 2) There is a significant influence between reading comprehension of students who have low and high achievement motivation. 3) There is no interaction between PQ4R and SQ3R Models and Motivation having achievements in understanding students' English texts.Pages 1002 to 1016




Patterns of Social Justice based Conflict Resolution in Land Procurement: A Case Study in Yogyakarta International Airport Development

Siti Zuliyaha, Absorib, Harunc, Sudjitod, a,b,c,dUniversitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia,

The inhibition of the construction of the International Airport in the Special Region of Yogyakarta is caused by the rejection of the affected community because some of the land that is the construction site belongs to the community and the other part belongs to the PAG (Paku Alam Ground). It is because of the status of this land that causes the community to take the fight in addition to the compensation factor being unclear, lack of certainty of relocation and employment problems. If the conflict does not receive serious attention and does not look for a solution that can be accepted by all parties to the dispute, it is feared that it will accumulate in the form of violence. This study intends to formulate a pattern of conflict resolution based on social justice in land acquisition for the construction of an International Airport in the Special Region of Yogyakarta. This research is an empirical study, using a sociological juridical approach. The data analysis uses descriptive qualitative methods. The pattern of conflict resolution is based on social justice. A resolution of conflicts outside the court in the form of deliberation and mediation, with due regard to the same rights in politics, economics and social, among others is by the right to express an opinion, the right to get compensation and the right to get a job, and so produces a fair decision in the sense that no party feels disadvantaged and it can be accepted by the parties to the dispute, so that the principle of social justice can be created. Pages 1017 to 1026




Assessment of Digital Competence of Employees and Teaching Staff at the Technical College of Management – Kufa

Ghayth Ali Jarada, Mundher abbas shaalanb, aPh.D. student university of Miskolc, bAl-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University / Technical College of Management, Kufa, Iraq, Email: aWrite2ghayth@gmail.com,  bmundher97@atu.edu.iq

The main purpose of this research is to assess the digital competence of employees and teaching staff of the Technical College Of Management – Kufa. The study was conducted on a random sample of employee and teaching staff in the Technical College Of Management-Kufa which included 40 individuals in different administrative levels to measure the level of availability of digital competence. The research used the questionnaire as a tool to collect data and the use of the SPSS program in data analysis. The research concluded that there is a fair  level of digital competence that is reflected in the lack of creating a stimulating environment for employees to use digital competence, and this negatively affects work improvement and development. In addition to that some differences based on age group were also identified among respondents which indicated that the level of digital competence can be affected by age. Pages 1027 to 1043




Voluntary Partnership in Palm Oil Trade: A Sustainable Approach for Malaysia

Hanim Kamaruddina, aSenior Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi UKM, Malaysia, Email: ahanim@ukm.edu.my

The EU Renewable Energy Directive supplementing Directive 2018/2001 of Renewable Energy Directive II (EU RED II) was enforced by the European Parliament to restrict and ban palm oil biofuel by 2030.  Malaysia found the EU RED II as discriminatory towards palm oil as the directive classifies the commodity as ‘unsustainable’ by causing deforestation and climate change. The EU RED II is further perceived as harmful to the socio-economic well-being of palm oil planters and alleged to have disregarded implementation of sustainable palm oil agricultural sustainable practices and strategies in conformity with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030 in Malaysia. This paper found that environmentally sustainable practices in Malaysia’s palm oil sector are actively promoted which can only boost trade relations through a voluntary partnership scheme as an approach to resolve the EU’s position on palm oil biofuel. The approach taken in Indonesia’s timber production dispute with the EU is recommended. Pages 1044 to 1056




Using Literary Work as Authentic Material for the EFL Classroom in Indonesia

Deri Sis Nanda, Susanto Susanto, a,bUniversitas Bandar Lampung, Indonesia

aderisisnanda@ubl.ac.id, bsusanto@ubl.ac.id

Literary work can be used as authentic material in the EFL classroom to achieve the language development of the learners. This study aims to discuss the role of literary texts and the benefits of using the texts for the EFL classroom. The study was conducted at the English Education Study Program, Bandar Lampung University, Indonesia. The reasons in choosing specific literary texts in the EFL classroom are evaluated and the main criteria to select the literary texts are discussed such as the motivation and the language use of the learners. It is found that the texts can facilitate the enjoyment of the learners while they are learning. The study concludes that the literary texts not only enhance the language development but also enrich the cultural representations while studying English. Pages 1057 to 1064



Determination Quotient of Spiritual, Intellectual and Psychomotor Performance through Human Resources Competence

Chablullah Wibisonoa, Dahlan Gunawannb, Ana Faizahc, Muh. Hamzah S. Uluan Bd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Economics, University of Batam, Riau Islands, Indonesia, Email: achablullah.wibisono@univbatam.ac.idbdhank.dahlan@gmail.comcanafaizah@univbatam.ac.iddhamzah1984@gmail.com

Indonesian National Army (TNI) is required to play an active role in maintaining and defending the sovereignty of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia based on loyalty and obedience to the Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution. In order to carry out the duties and functions well, coaching the Navy personnel was directed to improve the quality of human resources in order to have the attitude and behaviour so that they can provide the best service and high performance for the glory of the nation and the state. God's Word: "If there are twenty patient ones of you they shall overcome two hundred enemies, and if a hundred (steadfast) among you, they shall overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because unbelievers that people who do not understand (QS. Al-Anfal: 65), population in this study is a Navy soldier who worked in Naval Indonesia IV Tanjungpinang. A community of 493 people, the sample is calculated by a formula obtained Slovin 221 respondents, and only 200 respondents returned the questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM). The software used for the structural analysis is AMOS version 23 of the Arbuckle and for descriptive study using SPSS. Spiritual intelligence is significant determiner of the Competence, Intellectual significant determiner of the Competence, Psychomotor significant determiner of the Competence, significant determiner Spiritual Intelligence to Performance, Intellectual significant determiner to Performance, Psychomotor significant determiner of the Performance, Competence significant determiner to Performance. The value of Square Multiple Correlation for Human Resource Competence = 0,644x100% = 64.4%, ehich means changes in Performance by Human Resource Competence is 64.4%. Performance for the value = 0582 x 100% = 58.2%. That means changes on Performance influenced by Spiritual Quotient, Intellectual, Psychomotor, Human Resource Competence by 58.2%. This study proves the truth of the verse of the Qur'an: "Truth comes from your Lord, so do not ever be among the doubters." (QS. Al-Baqarah: 147).  Pages 1065 to 1083

The Quantitative and Descriptive Approach in Calculating Expected Market Share

Ibrahim Rasool Hania*, Muied A.K. Al-fadhelb, aDept. of Business Management Al-mustaqbal Univ. College, bHead of Business Management Dept. Al-mustaqbal Univ. College, Email: a*dribrahim120@gmail.com

The current research aims to study the impact of leaders’ thinking styles in strategic momentum, in an oversample of 72 administrative leaders at the University of Karbala. The information related to the practical aspect was collected by a survey designed according to Grigorenko & Sternberg, 1997 matrix to measure thinking styles, while Peters et al, 2018 matrix was leveraged to measure Strategic Momentum. The information on the forms was subjected to several statistical methods and leveraged with SPSS, V23. One of the most important conclusions that the University of Karbala leaders adapt several thinking styles with different scores, as Hierarchic Style is the most influential in strategic momentum. Pages 1084 to 1101

Student Culture in the Department of Chemistry at a Faculty of Education for Pure Science (Ibn Al-Haytham) in Iraq

Zainab Aziz Alamirya, aFaculty of Education Pure Science University of Bagdad\College of Education for pure science (Ibn-Al-Haitham) Ministry of Higher Education and scientific research /Baghdad, Iraq, Email: aZainabalamiry@yahoo.com

In this research, a descriptive research methodology was adopted. The research community consisted of all students of the Chemistry Department - Phase IV in the College of Education for Pure Sciences/ Ibn Al-Haytham. In this society, the research tool was prepared, which is a measure of chemical culture, which consisted of three dimensions: cognitive, skill and emotional dimension. The emotional dimension includes 16 poverties, and each paragraph has three alternatives (I agree, I do not know, I disagree). Pages 1102 to 1114

Bank Credit Risk Management on Professional and Individual Portfolios

Faez Hlail Srayyiha, Ameerah Abd Mashaanb, Manaf Abdalmutalib Ahmedc, a,b,cUniversity of Anbar, College of Administration and Economics, Iraq.

The banking institutions have priority to anticipate the risks related to credits. This analysis helps to identify potential risks before they occur. As we have seen, there are many techniques to quantify and assess the risks of each portfolio. The bank is gaining both time and money in spreading risk among its customers. Indeed, as soon as a risk appears, it must be quickly managed, which mobilises human but also financial resources. When the customer's situation deteriorates, the bank is never completely sure of recovering the full amount of its investment. It is this constant uncertainty that scares banks. Anticipation by upstream risk analysis makes it possible to bridge part of this uncertain future and secure the credit activity. Pages 1115 to 1137

Development of Value Creation Model in the Innovation System Framework for Sustainable Agri-food

Wahyu Trisnasari1,*, Tomy Perdana2, Yosini Deliana3 and Marimin4, 1Ph.D Student at Postgraduate Study Program of Agricultural Science, Universitas Padjadjaran and Lecturer in Bogor Agricultural Development Polytechnic, Bogor, Indonesia, 2,3Lecturer in Department of Agro Socio-Economic, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia, 4Lecturer in Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, IPB University (Bogor Agricultural University), Bogor, Indonesia. E-mail: 1*saridhifa@gmail.com

To overcome fluctuations in strategic agri-food production and prices, it requires comprehensive, integrated and sustainable policies. The research aims to develop an upstream and downstream intervention model of agri-food within an innovation system framework, using the System Dynamics approach. The intervention produced several behavioural changes on level farmers; (1) Breeding bulb seeds participation and Good Agricultural Practices reduces plants’ growing risk to 43%; yield processing, increasing market access, renewing the MoU, reduce market risk to 83%; (2) The use of True Shallot Seed (TSS) reduces production costs by 19.4% while increasing productivity significantly; (3) Cropping patterns Minimize the production fluctuations. The behaviour of cash and profit in all three scenarios increased steadily. The behaviour of price formation on a structured market showed a stable pattern in the Government's reference price. Innovation systems integrating upstream and downstream sectors will create business efficiency while ensuring sustainability. Upstream innovation systems unmatched with downstream will not survive due to unreachable economic incentives. Pages 1138 to 1161

The Impact of Charismatic Leadership on Individual Work Performance and the Moderating Role of Cultural Diversity; An Analytical Study at the Kerbala Oil Refinery in Iraq

Hussein Hurajah Al Hasnawia, Ali Abdulhassan Abbasb, aUniversity of Kerbala / College of Administration and Economics / Business Administration Department. Iraq/Kerbala, bUniversity of Kerbala / College of Administration and Economics / Department of Accounting. Iraq/Kerbala, Email: ahussein.alhasnawi@uokerbala.edu.iq, bali.abd.alhassan@uokerbala.edu.iqali.abd.alhassan@uokerbala.edu.iq

The research aims to enhance employee understanding about the nature of the Moderating effect of cultural diversity in the relationship between charismatic leadership and individual work performance, and examine the direct relationship between both charismatic leadership and cultural diversity with individual work performance at the level of a sample of culturally diverse engineers and technicians who numbered (444) in a refinery Kerbala oil in Iraq. The results have proven support for the hypotheses that the individual work performance is positively affected by each of the charismatic qualities that the leader possesses and deals with as  daily behavior in his career, and the results have proven that the cultural diversity of employees has a positive impact on their individual performance, in addition to that, cultural diversity has a Moderating impact. The nature of the relationship between charismatic leadership and individual work performance  thus  contributes to enhancing the importance of the charismatic qualities that the leader holds and the possibility of relying on them to enhance the performance results in terms of organisational commitment, job satisfaction, and good citizenship behavior. In addition to this, is the importance of adapting the cultural diversity of the employees in terms of the values, habits, beliefs, and norms they believe in in order to achieve a better understanding and harmony in the work, and achieve the required performance results, and the research has concluded many important results that have a significant future effect and direction regarding the nature of the relationship between the variables. Pages 1162 to 1189

Measurement of the Operating Results in the Public Sector: A Systematic Revaluation and Academic Interpretation of the Performance Aspect

Co Nguyen Tronga, Huy Pham Quangb*, aAcademy of Finance No 58 Le Van Hien Road, Duc Thang Ward, Bac Tu Liem District, Hanoi, Vietnam, b School of Accounting, University of Economics Ho Chi Minh City – No. 59C, Nguyen Dinh Chieu Street, District 3, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Email: b*pqh.huy@gmail.com

With the recognition of the limitation of low numbers of related papers focused on literature review in public sector accounting in the world as well as in Vietnam in the academic works, this research sets an aim to identify and analyse the emerging literature on performance measurement (PM) in the public sector (PS) and shed a light for other research in the future. The systematic literature review (SLR) methodology proposed by Denyer and Tranfield (2009) was applied with a total of 80 papers published in 38 scientific journals that were systematically reviewed for evaluating and to establish the current trends. Apart from indicating an increasing demand on a better understanding of PM in PS in spite of regionally heterogeneous vision and mission for improving performance, the results also reveal gaps stemming from the choice of number as well as type of keywords and journals through 7 categories in those trends of research. Taking these results into account, the academics can keep on exploring this type of subject area on their own accord, while the practitioners and policy makers can employ the research in their empirical work. Pages 1190 to 1210

Legal Protection of Trademarks Based on the Justice Value

Anis Mashdurohatuna, Ferry Susanto Limbongb, aFaculty of Law Sultan Agung Islamic University, Semarang Indonesia, bDoctoral Programs of Law, Sultan Agung Islamic University, Semarang Indonesia, Email: aanism@unissula.ac.idbferry.ls@gmail.com

The goal in this study is to assess and analyse the legal protection of a registered trademark by positive law, and legal protection of the registered mark is based on the values of justice. The method in this study is social legal research. This study uses primary and secondary data. The technique of collecting data is through observation, interview and literature study. Data was analysed using an interactive model proposed by Matthew B. Miles and A. Michael Huberman which includes three (3) activities, namely data reduction, data presentation and conclusion/verification. Research found that the implementation of the legal protection of the registered mark is based on the positive law in Indonesia and has not been based on values of justice because of legal protection under Act No. 20 of 2016 on Marks and Geographical Indications, in particular the provisions of Article 35 paragraph (2). These have not provided protection to the registered trademark after more than 20 years. Law Marks and Geographical Indications are more focused on means of dispute resolution through the instrument of the alternative registered trademark dispute resolution, temporary determination of the Court, trademark lawsuit, a lawsuit in the Commercial Court, and through the instrument of punishment. Legal protection of the registered mark is based on the values of justice the provisions of Article 35 Paragraph (2) of the Act No. 20 of 2016 on Marks and Geographical Indications. Pages 1211 to 1225

Ways of Developing Tourism Guidance and Its Implications for the Tourism Industry: An Exploratory Study of a Graduate’s Sample of The Tourism Technologies Department

Mustafa Abdusamada, Osamah Mohammedb, Hussein munaamc, a,cAl Furat al Awsat, Technical University, Tourism Techniques, bAl kafeel University , Religious Tourism, Email: amustafaalmsaad@gmail.com,  bOsamay636@gmail.com,  cHussein.M.altaee1973@gmail.com

The research problem of this paper  is related to  the tourist areas and their relationship with the tourism industry. The problem is characterized by certain factors related to the government negation of this very important branch of economy.  Iraqi government should manage a plan to deal with the problems that encounter the tourism industry in general, especially those which are relate to religious tourism. Such a plan should focus on the recognition of the factors that enhanced the quality of services of the tourism and finding out immediate solutions to the problem that prevent its progress. This paper will deal with such problem and show the main expected solutions for such obstacles. Pages 1226 to 1237

The Impact of Banking Fraud on Return: An Analytical Study of the Iraqi Middle East Investment Bank

Zeyad Najm Abeda, aAL-Imam AL-Kadhim (s.a) University college/ Department of Administration and Economics/Iraq,

 The subject of fraud banking topics is increasingly important at present.  A specialisation in the subject of fraud relating to banking involves criminal acts and international personalities, directly or indirectly involving knowledge  of banks and advanced fraud and crime mechanisms such as cybercrime, Internet, human trafficking, terrorism, electronic, bribery, embezzlement forging electronic securities and other crimes that have become a threat to the stability of the security of  advanced developing countries.  D Fighting fraud  according to the expansion and development of societies and the resulting shift in the interconnected relationships that result in a change directly or indirectly in the behaviours and actions of the people and their personalities as well as the development of economic and trade relations,  may  produce  international direct personal criminal acts or indirectly act on the advanced knowledge and skills in fraud and crime. The Iraqi Middle East Investment Bank will be used to exemplify the financial indicators discussed in this study. Pages 1238 to 1250

Obesity among College Students in the Northern Philippines: Input for a National Policy and University Anti-obesity Program

Belinda A. Ramosa, Ferdinand Bulusanb*, aDean of College of Medicine and Allied Medical Programs, University of La Salette, Inc., Santiago City, Isabela, Philippines, bAssistant Professor in Teacher Education Department, Batanes State College, Basco, Batanes, Philippines, Email: b*fgbulusan@gmail.com

The prevalence of obesity in the world has been continuously increasing over the past decades. One factor that contributes to the rise in the number of obese individuals is the school environment. This paper determined the prevalence of obesity among the college students of one Higher Education Institution in the Northern Philippines and evaluated the university's anti-obesity program to strategise interventions and prevention of obesity among its students. This study made use of the quantitative descriptive-evaluative design and documentary analysis of the medical records of the students. The World Health Organization Body Mass Index standard was used to categorize weight and obesity. As triangulation techniques, inspection and observation of the food outlets both inside and outside the campus were conducted. To find out about the university health program, an unstructured interview with the health services in charge was done. The prevalence of obesity among the students of the University is higher (33%) than the Philippine prevalence of 31.1%. The lack of specific anti-obesity interventions or activities of the university health program is found to be an urgent concern to be addressed by the university. This study concluded that the prevalence of obesity among the university students is high due to the following: lack of specific anti-obesity health programs, an abundance of food outlets serving high-calorie and high-fat foods, and lack of national law about food choices to be served to students in the tertiary level in the Philippines. Pages 1251 to 1264

Copyright Transfer of Inheritance Based on Justice Value

Anis Mashdurohatuna, Lily Mariam Nasutionb, aFaculty of Law Sultan Agung Islamic University, Semarang, Indonesia, bDoctoral Program of Law, Sultan Agung Islamic University, Semarang Indonesia, Email: aanism@unissula.ac.idblily.m@yahoo.com

This study aims to assess and scrutinise factors that affect the transfer of copyright through inheritance according to the positive law that has not been based on values of justice, and reconstructing the transition copyright law through the inheritance of a value-based justice. This study uses normative juridical approach. The data used is secondary data, which consists of primary, secondary and tertiary legal materials. The collection of data taken with the research literature and document research. The collected data will be analysed qualitatively. Research found that Transitional copyright through inheritance in accordance with the positive law in Indonesia has not been based on values of justice because there is confusion between moral rights and economic rights. Reconstruction Transitional Copyright Law through Inheritance Based on Justice Value reinforces and clarifies the provisions of Article 16 paragraph (2), Article 18 and Article 19 paragraph (2) UUHC. Pages 1265 to 1281

Impact of Commitment on Improving Efficiency and Effectiveness of Government Units

Abdulmahdi Abdulhusein Idan AlMansoria, Ahmed Mohsen Hassan Al-Shammrib*, Azdehar J. Mohammedc, a,b Babylon University,  c College of Administration and Economics, Banking and Finance Department, Babylon University-Iraq, Email: a*mahhusin@uobabylon,edu.iq

The objective of this research is to demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the accounting system when applying the basis of commitment in recording and presenting  financial statements of government units in light of the current national situation  and the need for these units to continue carrying out their projects in accordance with their annual plans of the Ministry of Planning, as well as its financial allocation being included in the previous periods, which arranged contractual obligations for these units with  implementing agencies. Due to the non-rotation of  allocations , most of these projects were stopped due to the austerity conditions experienced by the country, and not completed. The research sample was selected in a comprehensive survey method with a total of 30 people. To achieve the objectives of the research, the researchers prepared, developed and used a questionnaire. The questionnaire included 15 items distributed on three axes, distributed to a group of specialists. The questionnaire was validated by a number of arbitrators to express their opinions and observations. The researchers then calculated an alpha coefficient and the results were suitable for the purposes of the research. The research found  sets of results, including that the basis of  commitment is appropriate for accounting work in government units under the current circumstances. This is confirmed by the responses of the majority of the sample. The basis of the commitment facilitates government units to obtain reports and accounting information that helps decision makers from different categories to make decisions in an efficient and effective manner. Finally, the research concludes by presenting some general recommendations, including applying the basis of commitment as an alternative to the rest of the foundations at the present time to meet the requirements of government units and entities contracting with them.  Also,  the accounting system should include a set of financial reports and lists that  meets the need of financial and non-financial information for decision makers. Pages 1282 to 1302

Proliferation of Resolution of Bankruptcy and Delay of Debt Payment Obligations in Indonesia

Ahmad Dwi Nuryantoa, Adi Sulistiyonob*, Pujionoc, a,b,cFaculty of Law, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: b*advokatdwi@yahoo.co.id

Normatively, based on Constitutional Court Decision Number 93/PUU/X/2012, the resolution of Islamic economic disputes will be decided by the Religious Court, but in general, other Islamic economic disputes are still decided by the Commercial Court, mainly regarding  bankruptcy, postponement cases of debt obligations and payments based on sharia contracts. This paper focuses on three things, first; what caused the case is still under the authority of the Commercial Court, second; what are the legal consequences if the case is resolved through the Commercial Court, and how the legal argumentation about the competence of the Religious Court in bankruptcy and postponement of obligations and debt repayment cases applies when they are based on the sharia contract. The results of the study found that, if the case was still being handled by the Commercial Court because of the conflicting norms between the bankruptcy law and the Supreme Court Regulations on Compilation of Sharia Economic Laws which had not yet been finalized, there was a legal vacuum between bankruptcy based on sharia agreement and the existence of a Decree by the Supreme Court (Number 32/SK/ IV/2006 concerning Instructions for Implementation of Book II). The legal consequences if the case is handled by the Commercial Procurement will occur coercion of the substance of Islamic economic law into conventional economic law, asynchronous between dispute resolution within the contract and the concept of case settlement, will prioritise business principles and business continuity rather than deliver substantive justice. Pages 1303 to 1313

Does Income Difference Cause Different Household Expenditure Consumption?

Noorhaslinda Kulub Abd. Rashida*, Nur Afifah Rahizalb, Bayu Taufiq Possumahc, a,b,cSchool of Social and Economic Development (PPPSE), University Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), 21300 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: a*lindarashid@umt.edu.my

Research has shown that people are increasingly concerned with environmental, economic and social issues. They want a better livelihood, standard of living and more sustainable choices. Unfortunately, few of them translate this willingness into behaviour. Consumers have a crucial role to develop business models and products which make efficient use of resources. Central to all production is consumption because it drives much of the environmental stress, waste management and resource exhaustion directly and indirectly through the production of the goods and services demanded. Income inequality and sustainable consumption are two terms that are interconnected and significant in explaining the economic environment. It measures the extent to which individual households interact in the economic cycle of the use of goods and services. Different income can be shown through different consumption expenditure patterns whether they are basic goods, necessities or luxury items. This paper investigates how the total household consumption expenditures have developed and how they have allocated their consumption budgets based on different consumption categories. It also identifies how the low, middle and high-income groups allocate household consumption expenditure comprising nine basic components, namely food, clothing, shelter, transportation, communication, education, health and recreation. The data is collected from a questionnaire survey conducted with 635 different households in Terengganu, Malaysia. The findings indicate that food and transportation are expenditure priorities across all groups. The difference in the existing pattern of consumption will be the benchmark for the economic balance to achieve a prosperous quality of life and reduce the inequality gap between high and low-income groups. Several recommendations are offered in terms of education policy, financial aid and assistance from government and non-government organisations (NGO) to upgrade the standard and quality of living among the poor and lower-income groups. Researchers and policymakers can also benefit from this study to assess the extent of the quality of life and standard of living. Pages 1314 to 1340

Intellectual Dimensions of Narrative in the Sumerian Cylindrical Seals

Tiswahin Takleef Majeeda, Ala'a Ali Aboodb, Barakat Abbas Saeedc, a,b,cUniversity of Babylon, College of Fine Arts, Babylon, Iraq, Email: atklyft770@gmail.combSamir79kasimi@gmail.comcbara7515@gmail.com

This paper deals with the intellectual dimensions of narrative in the Sumerian Cylindrical Seals, that intellectual system of the individual, which contains values, principles, inherited traditions and collective and individual behaviours and their relations with social, economic, political and religious aspects. It also tackles the extent to which the narrative affected the lives of Sumerian individuals.  The first chapter of the paper includes the problem of the study, which can be summarised by the following questions: What is the nature of intellectual dimensions of the narrative? How does that affect subjects in the Sumerian Seals? This chapter also includes the significance of the study, objectives, terminology and limitations. The second chapter is divided into two topics; the first topic discusses the intellectual system of Sumerian civilisation, and the second topic explores the narrative in  Sumerian art. The third chapter is dedicated to analysing the Sumerian Cylindrical Seals. Finally, the fourth chapter includes the conclusions; the main conclusion is that the Sumerian has produced a renewed civilisation and cultural monuments to build the Sumerian civilisation. This cultural monument has been transformed into a formal relationship performed on a small area which is replete with poetic and literary achievements, from which the narrative has emerged. Pages 1341 to 1360

The Influence of Employee Understanding on Public Policy and Cohesiveness towards a Green City

Syafwandia, Ken Martina Kasikoenb, Muhammad Isradic, Saprudind, Ahmad Syukrone, aSTIA Menara Siswa, bEsa Unggul University, cMercubuana University, dSTIA Menara Siswa, e STIA Menara Siswa


The objective of this research is to discover the effect of employee understanding of public policy and cohesiveness on a Green City. An ex post facto method has been used by selecting 8 samples for each cell. Reliability of employee understanding of public policy was .839, and Green City was .893. Data is analysed by two-way ANOVA. The research results reveal that there are  significant differences between those employees who understand public policy  compared to those whose  understanding  is low. Moreover, there is significant interactive effect between employee understanding of public policy and cohesiveness regarding Green City. It could be concluded that the employment management employment which perceived the implementation of  employee understanding of public policy as high instead of low is not always more effective compared to employee understanding of low public policy in affecting jobs to be greener, depending  on mostly high or low cohesiveness. Pages 1361 to 1380
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