Identity and Wisdom of Decorative Patterns on the Religious Buildings in Keng Tung, Republic of the Union of Myanmar

Burin Plengdeesakula, Amporn Sangchaiyab, aFaculty of Fine and Applied Arts, Khon Kaen University, Muang district, Khon Kaen, Thailand 40002, bFaculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, Muang district, Maha Sarakham, 44000, Email: aburinpleng@gmail.com, bkru.amporn111@gmail.com

The study on the Identity and Wisdom of Decorative Patterns on the Religious Buildings in Keng Tung, Republic of the Union of Myanmar is a study and analysis of the forms and patterns of the decorations on religious buildings in Keng Tung, Republic of the Union of Myanmar. Qualitative research methods were used in collecting the documents and field research data in Keng Tung. The populations of the study were experts, practitioners and related people in Keng Tung. The research tools used were surveys, observations and interviews. The data was analysed using ideology on identity and wisdom, structural-functional theory and cultural-diffusion theory. The result was presented using descriptive analysis. From this study it was found that most production of the decorative patterns on religious buildings is based on the wisdom of local sculptors that had been passed down. Burmese sculptors played an important role in the creation of the religious buildings decorations in recent eras, especially those from Mandalay. The identity of the patterns of religious buildings in Keng Tung can be categorised into two major categories of local Keng Tung patterns. This group of patterns originates from the traditional art form of Keng Tung, influenced by the Lanna arts. During the 21st – 24th Buddhist centuries, traditional patterns from the Tai Khoen people mixed in with the Lanna influence and led to the kind of art that consists of the relationship between history, society and culture. Pages 1 to 12




Borrowed Economic Terms in Vietnamese Linguistics

Vinh Le Thi Thuy, Faculty of Philology, Hanoi Pedagogical University 2, VietNam. Email:lethithuyvinh@hpu2.edu.vn

The phenomenon of borrowing words from contact between languages ​​to build a business language layer in Vietnamese is a basic and dynamic trend. Borrowed words are an important complement to Vietnamese vocabulary in terms of both quantity and quality. By statistical and descriptive methods, this paper focuses on research of borrowing sources and trends in creating borrowed economic terms in Vietnamese. Since then, the article has questioned the word’s consistency and standardisation for economic sectors, avoiding the form of coercion and rigidity in using words or "floating" and letting the word be "self-active”. In this way, The Vietnamese economic vocabulary system in general, and the borrowed economic vocabulary sector in particular, can meet the requirements of a developed society. Pages 13 to 30




Modality in Palestinian Sign Language

Mahmoud A. M. Abdel-Fattaha*, Khalil M. I. Alawnahb, aBirzeit University, Palestine, bMinistry of Education, Palestine, Email: a*mfatah@birzeit.edu, bkhalil.alawni@yahoo.com

The linguistic features of sign languages are as intricate as those of spoken languages and in many cases, there are common universal features that they share. Modality is one important feature that sign and spoken languages exhibit, yet modality in sign languages differs from spoken languages in certain basic ways: grammatical, semantic, and pragmatic. This research is an attempt to investigate modality in Palestinian Sign Language, in particular, and Arabic Sign Language, in general, using a descriptive approach by looking at the most frequent “modal devices” used in an endeavour to explore how basic modal meanings are expressed in Palestinian Sign Language. Data sources include but are not limited to Palestinian and Arabic Sign Language Dictionaries and sign user informants with various backgrounds. In order to identify the signs that express the meanings and to trace their possible motivations and their relation to other similar signs, data will be compared to some of the current signs that may have developed in the Arab world. The study will also investigate the characteristics of modality to arrive at an understanding to its function and examine how signs express modality in general, in an attempt to provide insights into sign language grammar. Pages 31 to 58




The Role of Judicial Presumption in Criminal Evidence

Juma Abed Fayadh, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research /Dijlah University College/ Department of Law, Email: lawyer_mja@yahoo.com

This study aimed to clarify the extent of authentic judicial presumption of criminal proof, and the authority limits of taking the presumptions as the evidence and determine the extent of authoritative judicial presumption in criminal prosecution. The study followed a descriptive approach through the literature review of theoretical and previous studies that addressed both the context of presumptions and evidence penal code, and the analytical method through the discussion of the authoritative context presumptions’ proof penal legislation, and the comparative approach through the identification of the position of each seceral legislature proof presumptions. The results of the study showed that the judicial presumption is not sufficient alone as evidence that can be invoked in conviction or innocence but is indirect evidence that contributes to the strengthening of the sentence of conviction. The study recommended the importance of considering the crucial judicial case, which has a definite scientific basis such as genetic imprint, as crucial evidence in the judgment of conviction or innocence, in view of the fact that this presumption of scientific evidence is unquestionable in all cases. Pages 59 to 73




Investigating Firm Performance Outcomes Under Inter-organizational, Firm level, and Environmental Factors that Motivate Supply Chain Integration

Wael Hassan El-garaihya, Usama A. Badawib, Nisren F. Moawadc, Thana A.Azizid, aDepartment of Management, College of Applied Studies and Community Services, Imam Abdurrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, bDepartment of Management Information System, College of Applied Studies and Community Services, Imam Abdurrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, c,dDepartment of Marketing, College of Applied Studies and Community Services, Imam Abdurrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, Email: awhgaraihy@iau.edu.sa, b ubadawi@iau.edu.sa, cnfmowad@iau.edu.sa, dthazizi@iau.edu.sa

This research aims to investigate corporate performance results (financial performance, non-financial performance and operational performance) based on driving forces and contributing factors of supply chain integration (SCI), including three types of factors: corporate-level factors, internal factors-stimulus The organizational factors and environmental factors of SCI in Saudi industrial companies, the research objects include industrial companies operating in the eastern provinces of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (11 provinces). For the purposes of testing the hypotheses of the study and the validity of its model, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis was used based on the AMOS21 program. One of the most important contributions of the current study is that it gathered the drivers and enablers of SCI in its various aspects, as well as the dimensions of the SCI measurement and finally the outcomes of the firms' performance, while integrating all of these elements into one common topic. The study found that supply chain integration is always driven by drivers and enablers: firm-level factors, inter-organizational factors, and environmental factors that stimulate the SCI in firms, In addition, SCI and all its elements (9 sub-dimensions) affect the company's performance results (financial performance, non-financial performance and operational performance) in some way. In addition, the conclusion of this article is that integration plays an important role in improving performance through three different factors, but the maturity of integration may be directly related to performance. In addition, the study also found that people’s desire for improvement and environmental factors prompted Saudi organizations to integrate with partners to achieve desired results. The study recommended working on raising the level of trust, honesty, commitment, and concern for the interest of each party from the supply chain to maintain a good level of SCI. The paper presented some recommendations as proposals for further study, while identifying some areas for future studies. Pages 74 to 113




How Saudi Arabian Counselors Think about Online Counseling?

Ahmed Saber Elsharkasy1, Somaya Shokry Mahmoud2, Ahmed Amr Abdullah3, Mamdouh Saber Mansour4, Hatim Muhammad Mustafa5, 1,2,4Department of psychology, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, 3University Counseling Center, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, 5Department of Humanities Studies, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

The study aimed to reveal the counselors' perceptions towards Online Counseling OC in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, and both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. A questionnaire prepared by researchers was applied to (441) counselors, a semi-structured interview was used with (8) of them to monitor their perceptions and practices. The psychometric properties of the study tools were evaluated, the data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively, and the quantitative results showed that the OC has pros and cons according to the perceptions of the counselors, the qualitative analysis results are consistent with the results of the quantitative analysis, as the qualitative data by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) showed four themes about the counselors' perceptions of OC namely: the reality of the OC, the satisfaction of the counselors with the OC, the clients of the OC, and the future of the OC. The study recommended increasing interest in OC and investing in its pros, without neglecting its ethical challenges. Pages 114 to 134




The Impact of Participatory Leadership on The Quality of Life in Secondary Schools in The Dammam Education District

1Ahmed Ben Sulaiman Bani Murtada, 2Mohammed Sarhan Al-mekhlafi, 3Kamal Aldhmour, 4Sulaiman Almasarweh and 5Abdullah Ahmed Abdelaziz Alawamleh. 1,2Department of Educational Management, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. 3Department of General courses, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdurrahman Bin Faisal University, Al-Dammam, Saudi Arabia. 4University Counseling Centre, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. 5Department of foundation of Education, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

This study aimed to reveal the impact of participative leadership practice on the quality of life of teachers in secondary schools in the Dammam Education district. To achieve the objectives of the study, a tool was developed to collect the responses of the study sample that dealt with two sections: the first section (participative leadership) and the second section (quality of life). The study sample consisted of 350 individuals, of whom 313 responded and the study was conducted on secondary school teachers in the Dammam area Education Department in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results of the study reveal a high degree of appreciation by teachers for practicing participative leadership with the “strongly agree” degree, while the degree of appreciation for the level of quality of life prevailed with  the “Agree” degree. The study also reveals a statistically significant relationship between the degree of participative leadership practice and the level of quality of life prevailing in secondary schools for the dimension of human relations only. In light of the results, the study recommends: 1) increasing interest in the participation of teachers in the decision-making process, by expanding the circle of discussions related to studying those decisions and accepting constructive criticisms that are in line with the goals and aspirations of the school leadership,  and; 2) holding more training courses for school leaders to increase awareness of the concept of  participative leadership as a modern method that enables them to develop leadership practices more effectively. Pages 135 to 154




The Relationship Between Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Job Performance for Public Kindergarten Teachers in Dammam And Khobar

Adel Al-Dhuwaihia, Badriah Hadi ALqahtainib, Department of Educational Administration, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

This research aimed to identify the level of organizational citizenship behavior with its five dimensions: (Altruism, Civic Virtue, Sportsmanship, Courtesy, Consciousness), to identify the level of job performance, and to reveal the relationship between them among government kindergarten teachers in the cities of Dammam and Khobar. To achieve the goals of the research the relational descriptive approach was used, a questionnaire was designed consisting of two main dimensions: the behavior of organizational citizenship and the dimension of job performance. The research was applied to all members of the population of 70 leaders, and 54 completed questionnaires were retrieved (77.0% of the research population). The results of the research showed that the level of organizational citizenship behavior among government kindergarten teachers in the cities of Dammam and Khobar was with an arithmetic mean of 4.34 and with a very high degree, and that the level of job performance among government kindergarten teachers in the cities of Dammam and Khobar was with an arithmetic mean of 4.46  and a very high degree, and that there is a statistically significant positive correlation at level (α≤ 0.01) between the level of organizational citizenship behavior, its dimensions, and the job performance of kindergarten teachers in the cities of Dammam and Khobar, the research also included the viewpoints of kindergarten leaders about some behaviors that promotes the behavior of organizational citizenship in Kindergarten teachers. Pages 155 to 180




The Degree of Achievement of Learning Organisation Dimensions in the Schools of the Royal Commission in Jubail by Using Senge’s Model

Adel Al-Dhuwaihia, Yousef Alzahranib, a,bDepartment of Educational Administration, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

This research used Senge’s model to examine the extent to which the Royal Commission schools in Jubail achieved, according to school leaders, learning organisation dimensions. It explored the differences among the respondents based upon work experience, school stage, and current position. To achieve the aims of this research, the researchers adopted a descriptive approach. They constructed a survey as the main data gathering tool and applied it to all 83 respondents, which included 29 school principals, and 54 school deputies. The results indicated that school leaders believed the degree of achievement of learning organisation dimensions to be very high in the Royal Commission schools in Jubail. The average mean across all areas of the survey was 4.20, with the highest in systems thinking (4.24), and the lowest in shared vision (4.16). The results also showed a statistically significant difference in the mental models among the school leaders who had worked the most. However, no statistically significant differences emerged in terms of the school stage. Based on the findings, the researchers recommended the need to include school staff in formulating the school’s vision and objectives, as well as engaging in the ongoing review and evaluation of the vision, in order to help steer its course and achieve its goals. Pages 181 to 202




Revitalising Competition Through Transparency Tools: The Role of Rankings in Shaping the Business Education Market

Syed Haider Khalila, Asad Sarfarazb, Syed Majid Khalilc, Muhammad Adild, Syed Mohsin Ali Shahe, Fahad Sultanf, Mubashir Ahmadg, aAssistant Professor at Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan, bPhD Research Scholar at Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan, cPhD Research Scholar at Islamia College, Peshawar, Pakistan, dAssistant Professor at Bacha Khan University, Charsadda, Pakistan, eAssistant Professor at Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan, fAssistant Professor at Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan, gAssistant Professor Department of Management Sciences, Northern University, Nowshera, Pakistan, Email: aHaiderkhalil@awkum.edu.pk, bAs2002@awkum.edu.pk,  csmajidk@gmail.com, dadil@bkuc.edu.pk, esyedmohsinali@awkum.edu.pk,  ffahadsultan@awkum.edu.pk,  gMubashir@northern.edu.pk

Rankings play a key role as a transparency tool of market governance for higher education. Despite the increasing interest in these mechanisms, our academic understanding is limited on the role rankings play as a tool of governance and the construction of perceptions through these transparency tools. The current empirical study attempts to critically analyse the introduction of rankings in business education and the responses of business schools to this mechanism in a relatively newly introduced ranking system for the Pakistan higher education sector. The current study examines how higher education commission Pakistan rankings have shaped perceptions of the national business education market and competition among Pakistani business schools through two significant processes: shaping comparability by constructing a perception of ‘product’ and the ‘customer’ in Pakistani market, and by shaping mechanisms for competition among Pakistani business schools. This suggests that higher education commission rankings play an important role in constructing competition and forming a national market for business schools in Pakistan, thus contributing to what can be termed as the ‘marketisation’ of the business education sector. Pages 203 to 217




Meaningful Parental Contribution to Ensure Children’s Freedom of Expression at Early Ages: A Sustainable Development Approach

Sadruddin Bahadur Qutoshi, Department of Educational Development, Karakorum International University, Gilgit 15100, Pakistan. Email: Sadruddin.qutoshi@kiu.edu.pk

The cultural practices of Gilgit-Baltistan appeared to be discouraging children un/consciously in expressing their feelings, emotions, and views freely in front of their parents including other elders that create hindrance for the children to face people and situations even at their later years.  Children in such situations may face with developmental delays and speech issues that could lead towards a kind of autism. The purpose of this study was to explore parents’ practices and perceptions about their meaningful contribution towards children’ freedom of expression and its effects on sustainable development of their societies. The researcher used focus group discussions and in/formal observations as data collection tools within qualitative paradigm to capture experiences and perceptions of 18 parents cum ECD teachers and the practices of nine research participants from three districts. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis approach and emerging themes were recorded. The findings confirmed that the parents who focused on how to enhance their children’ freedom of expression in early ages, they could better develop children’ complex dimensions of holistic development such as physical, emotional, cognitive, social, and spiritual etc. Children from such family backgrounds could better contribute towards sustainable development of societies at later stages where they live and work. Whereas parents who could not allow children to express their ideas and feelings they became less confident, poorly performed in their practical lives with poor interactions with others. The study recommends that parents should ensure their meaningful involvement in developing their children’s freedom of expression at early ages by creating a friendly yet enabling environment at home and beyond. Pages 218 to 241




Transformational Leadership and Innovative Behaviour: Role of Work Meaningfulness and Personal Identification with Leader

Muhammad Anwar ul Haqa, Shaista Khalidb, Mirza Ashfaq Ahmedc, Mirza Naveed Shahzadd, aDepartment of Management Sciences, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan, bDepartment of Education, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan, cDepartment of Management Sciences, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan, dDepartment of Statistics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan, Email: aanwar.haq@uog.edu.pk

The goal of this study is to find out the effect of transformational leadership on innovative behaviour through work meaningfulness. We also modelled the moderating effect of personal identification on the association between transformational leadership and innovative behaviour. We based our hypotheses on the theory of positive emotions, and the interpersonal social cognitive paradigm. The participants of the study were managerial level workers (supervisor-subordinate dyads) in the manufacturing sector of Gujrat-Sialkot-Gujranwala (aka, the Golden Triangle) industrial cluster of Pakistan. We implemented the two-step structural equations modelling technique on our sample of 273 respondents. Results reveal that transformational leaders do not only have a direct influence on innovative behaviour but also affect employee innovative behaviour through work meaningfulness. The employees who identified more with their transformational leaders were more innovative. The study adds to our understanding about how transformational leadership enhances innovative behaviour by introducing new mechanisms into this linkage. The results also establish the external validity, in a South Asian context, of the theory of positive emotions and an interpersonal social cognitive paradigm. Pages 242 to 261




The Governance of Tourism Development on North Rupat Island as a Destination: A Branding Exercise in Bengkalis Regency, Riau Province, Indonesia

Noor Efnia, Yohannes Firzalb, Eriyatic, a,b,cDepartment of Communication Science, Faculty of Social and Political Science-Riau University,  HR Soebrantas Km.12,5 street,  Pekanbaru, Indonesia, Email: anoor.efni.salam@lecturer.unri.ac.id, byfirzal@eng.unri.ac.id, ceriyati@lecturer.unri.ac.id

Rupat Island in the Bengkalis Regency of Riau Province is being developed as a destination of ​​natural and cultural tourism and has become a part of the National Tourism Strategic Area (KSPN) through Indonesia’s Presidential Regulation in 2011. The development is followed by the local government through the Regional Medium-Range Development Plan (RPJMD). This research aims to investigate the awareness of the local community on the potential of traditional arts as the main attraction, and the effectiveness of communication and promotion to support the management of the Northern Rupat Island as a tourist destination. This research uses qualitative methods and uses primary and secondary data as the main source. The results of the study found that high levels of community tourism awareness are not matched by infrastructure. Another result has shown cultural tourism programs are not prepared as comprehensively as natural tourism programs. Moreover, evidence of a significant promotional program was not found in either print or digital media formats. Pages 262 to 279




Analysis of People’s Business Credit Distribution for MSMEs Based on Non-Performing Loans, the Number of Debtors, and MSME’s Revenue Growth

Fitri Ismiyanti1, Putu Anom Mahadwartha2, 1Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga; 2Faculty of Business and Economics, Universitas Surabaya, Email: 1fitri.ismiyanti@feb.unair.ac.id; 2anom@staff.ubaya.ac.id (corresponding author)

This research discusses the distribution of People's Business Credit or MSME credit, which is influenced by NPLs, the number of debtors, and MSME's revenue growth. The main research issue focuses on KUR's use for MSME expansion, which will pay attention to the amount of NPLs as part of credit risk, the number of debtors who use KUR, and the amount of MSME revenue to finance KUR payments. This research becomes a benchmark for making bankable software to be designed. The study uses data of MSME credit from 1989 to 2019, with adjustment of data from 1989 to 2008 due to change of regulation. The findings show that revenue growth has a negative effect on KUR distribution; this is due to the fact that successful MSMEs will borrow using the investment credit scheme instead of continuing to use KUR. Meanwhile, NPLs and the number of debtors does not affect the distribution of KUR. The results of this study are used as the basis for determining the logarithm of bankable software calculations. The beta version of this software is complete but requires further revision. Pages 280 to 294



An Early Glance into Smartphone Dependence in a Rural LMIC and Relationships with Mindfulness and Depressive Symptoms

Nicholas Tze Ping Panga, Mathias Wen Leh Tseub, Gloria Pei Ying Leec, Helda Artika Honeyd, Jane Ivana Josse, Mohd Amiruddin Mohd Kassimf*, Min Kwong, a,b,c,d,e,fFaculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia, gDepartment of Nursing, University of Suwon, Republic of Korea, Email: f*amiruddink@ums.edu.my

A rising issue in the child and adolescent global mental health pandemic is smartphone addiction. However, most evidence has come from urbanised countries in the developed world or university undergraduate students in LAMICs. This study aims to ascertain core psychometric properties of a previously unvalidated brief smartphone addiction scale for adolescents, determine gender-based prevalence of smartphone addiction in adolescents in rural areas, and assess relationships with concurrent measures of a state of mindfulness and depression. Secondary data from a health screening in a Dusun-speaking village in rural Borneo was analysed, with respondents filling in sociodemographic questionnaires and three Malay-language scales: MAAS, PHQ-9, and SAS-SV, which measure the state of mindfulness, depression, and smartphone addiction respectively. The SAS-SV-M exhibited satisfactory internal consistency and was consistent with a unifactorial model in the original paper. There were significant gender differences for smartphone addiction, but no significant difference between all 3 measured variables for age. Significant inverse correlations existed between mindfulness and depression, but not with neither and smartphone addiction, with these correlations persistent upon multiple regression. This study pioneeringly establishes prevalence by gender for smartphone addiction in a rural LAMIC setting, and concurs with extant findings that mindfulness and depression are inversely correlated. Pages 295 to 313

Social Media Attitude as a Predictor of Social Media Advertisement Engagement

Sarah Madi Alhajria, Dr. Kamran Ahmed Siddiqib, a,bCollege of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Email: smmalhajri@iau.edu.sa, KASiddiqui@iau.edu.sa

Individuals conveniently engage with social media advertisements, such as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, or Snapchat when reposting, sharing and commenting on the advertisement they see. This research seeks to examine the factors affecting social media advertising engagement, such as attitude, immersion, usage, and the effectiveness of social media advertisement messages using the context of online social media platforms, like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat. This research aims to examine these factors using a quantitative research approach where a survey was utilized to measure and analyze the factors affecting social media advertisement engagement, with a sample size of 210 respondents [N = 210]. The results of analyzing the respondent’s feedback were that social media attitude have a positive impact on social media advertisement engagement, while social media immersion and social media usage hypothesis was rejected because, they were statistically insignificant. Other interesting findings were that older people (over 24) have better social media advertisement engagement than younger people (under 24) and that most youngsters do not care for social media advertisements. The research findings showed that for marketers who are targeting Saudi Arabians it is better if they use advertising through Snapchat, Twitter, and Instagram, as for Facebook most of the respondents do not use this platform. Pages 314 to 353

The Hidden Messages within Laesan Traditional Performance in Lasem, Central Java

Tessa Eka Darmayanti a,b, Azizi Bahauddina, aSchool of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, bFaculty of Art & Design, Maranatha Christian University, Indonesia, Email: a,btessaeka82@gmail.com, aazizi@usm.my

This paper discusses laesan, an Indonesian traditional performance, which originates from Lasem in Central Java, Indonesia. It aims to uncover the hidden messages of the laesan through the interaction between laes, as the dancer who falls into a trance, and the scenes in laesan, namely ngenuwun, kurungan, dolanan, pengobatan, pamitan, and penutupan. This qualitative study uses a phenomenology approach, as a research design. The data was collected through observations and interviews, completing the analysis. The findings present that the laesan is not merely a traditional performance, but a symbol of balance and simplicity that reveals through the messages which relate it to the human life cycle. It is expected that this study could add to the richness of Lasem cultural heritage. Moreover, the traditional performance of laesan ensures the continuation, preservation and maintenance of Lasem cultural component through times. Pages 354 to 370

Influencer Marketing, Consumer Behaviour, and the Formation of Trends

Dr. Bassant Eyadaa, Dr. Walaa Abdel Rahman Foudab, aAssociate Professor, City University College of Ajman, bAssistant Professor, American University in the Emirates

Social media has, as discussed in prior research, significantly influenced modern lifestyle, communication forms, and consumer behaviour. Its business potential has transformed it into a new advertising platform, and social media is gradually becoming an alternative to conventional advertising, strongly impacting the relationship between brands and consumers. Directly targeting social media users through influencer marketing, a new form of advertising which identifies and utilises individuals with an influence over potential customers, brands orient their marketing and advertising activities around these influencers using social media. These brand advocates drive the brand message to the consumer market, impacting consumer behaviour. As traditional marketing strategies are becoming less effective,  influencer marketing is proving more effective. This study aims to measure the impact of influencer marketing on consumer behaviour and the reasons behind this impact, using the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to conceptualise how consumers are persuaded by promotional messages which lead to attitude and behaviour change. Pages 371 to 389

The Five-Fingers Communication Model in the Leadership of "Uwatta" in the Tolotang Benteng Community in Amparita, Sidenreng Rappang Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Andi M Rusdi Maidin,  Lecturer of Sociology, Universitas BOSOWA Makassar, Indonesia,

Email: maidinrusdi@gmail.com

This study examines The Uwatta Five-Finger Communication Model Leadership based on the ancestral belief of the Tolotang Benteng Community. Tolotang Benteng means people who are strong in maintaining the ancestral beliefs. This research is a qualitative descriptive study of the social structure of both the vertical and horizontal dimensions in the Tolotang Benteng Community. The researcher selected 21 informants by means of snowball sampling in which the researcher was the key instrument. The informants were selected from various groups, namely: traditional leaders, community leaders (Toma), religious leaders (Toga), youth leaders (Topem), as well as formal figures from the community. Miles and Huberman model data analysis techniques were used and involved data collection, data processing, data reduction and data analysis. The developmental stages were then described in the research report. Observation, in-depth interviews and documentation revealed patterns of social relations within the Tolotang Bentang Community. Initial conclusions were proven credible based on valid and consistent data in the field. In conclusion, The Five-Finger Communication Model in the Leadership of Uwatta is based on ancestral beliefs implementing the meaning of the five fingers.  The thumb symbolises Uwatta (The Leader). The thumb is the strongest digit, gives balance to leadership, and points upward to opportunity. Leaders are to provide opportunity. The index finger points to command symbolising formal or government leaders.  The middle finger stands tall and symbolises a man’s virility. It also represents those who are respected and strong in the middle of the community such as: community leaders, religious leaders, youth leaders and Wija Arung (Royal Descendants). The role model finger is the ring finger representing patience and steadfastness. Awards and gifts of rings worth billions are given to patient and steadfast leaders. The wealthy, the honourable, the distinguished, the entrepreneur are represented by this finger. The little finger is considered the weak and obedient finger. The general public or ordinary people and also the people of Tolotang Benteng are symbolised by the little finger. Pages 405 to 419

Big Data Analytics in the perspective of Digital Businesses: A Case Study Approach

Maqsood Mahmud, Department of Management Information Systems (MIS), College of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O.Box 1982, Dammam, Saudi Arabia mMahmud@iau.edu.sa

The evolution of digital mining tools has resulted in the ease of access to massive quantities of information that can be used by digital businesses. Data analysis methodologies are utilised to scan enormous quantities of data for critical business guidance. The process of digging and drilling through data is used to obtain market insights, as well as to access obscure information in a wide range of data sources or even the existing real-time increasing web data ocean. Data analytics tools certainly extract concealed associations, forecast potential events, and further interpret and distribute business supplies. Such hidden knowledge seeks to achieve competitive advantages, strengthen client interactions, and even prevent fraudulent activities. In this study, quantitative analysis was performed with Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) techniques by using three different case studies. These cases were analysed using secondary datasets for digital businesses by utilising data mining tools and secondary datasets from Kaggle. Our results showed that data mining tools like Rapidminer and/or Tableau can efficiently handle diverse kinds of data from various digital organisations, and hence, big data from diverse organisations with high volume, high velocity, and high veracity. The three case studies resulted in the conclusion that the extracted data can be tactfully transformed into valuable information using the market available data mining tools. Pages 420 to 431

Empowering the Leadership and Creativity of Vietnam Telecommunication Enterprises’ Employees

Van Hau Nguyen, PhDa, Thi Phuong Linh Nguyen, PhDb, a,bNational Economics University, Hanoi, Vietnam, Email: anvhau@neu.edu.vn, blinhnp@neu.edu.vn

Empowering leadership has been shown to have a positive relationship with employee creativity in many studies. However, this relationship has never been mentioned in respect to telecommunication enterprises in Vietnam. This study was conducted to explore the indirect relationship between empowering leadership and the creativity of Vietnamese telecommunication enterprises’ employees through the mediating variables, which are psychological empowerment, creative process engagement, and intrinsic motivation. Combining both qualitative and quantitative methods with a sample size of 420 employees, the study shows that empowering leadership has a positive effect on psychological empowerment; psychological empowerment has a positive effect upon creative process engagement and intrinsic motivation; and at the same time, creative process engagement and intrinsic motivation have a positive relationship with employee creativity. On that basis, the authors discussed and provided several implications for Vietnam telecommunication enterprises’ leaders to enhance employee creativity based upon focusing on empowering leadership. Pages 432 to 445

Workplace Respect and Organizational Identification: A Sequential Mediation

Maryam Rehmata, Ghulam Abidb, Fouzia Ashfaqc, Bindu Aryad, Saira Farooqie, aAssistant Professor, Kinnaird College for Women, bAssistant Professor, Kinnaird College for Women, cAssistant Professor, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, dAssociate Professor, College of Business Administration University of Missouri-St. Louis, eAssistant Professor, Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore, Pakistan, Email: amaryamrehmat@gmail.com, bdr.ghulamabid@gmail.com, cfouziams@hotmail.com, dbindu_arya@hotmail.com, ess_farooqi@yahoo.com

This study investigates the impact of workplace respect and managerial support on organizational identification by investigating the sequential mediating effect of trust and job satisfaction. Data for this study was collected utilizing a three-wave time lagged study design. The results of our study using a sample of 293 faculty members working in public and private educational institutions support the direct and indirect effect of workplace respect and managerial support on organizational identification. Additionally, the effect of workplace respect and managerial support on organizational identification is sequentially mediated by the level of interpersonal trust between colleagues and job satisfaction. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications are discussed in the light of our findings. Pages 446 to 471

The Right of Access to Information in the Fight Against Corruption in Vietnam

PhD. Thai Thi Tuyet Dunga, LLM. Truong Tu Phuocba,bHo Chi Minh City University of Law, Vietnam, Email: atttdung@hcmulaw.edu.vn, bttphuoc@hcmulaw.edu.vn

The Law on Access to Information 2016 and the Law on Anti-Corruption 2018 give regulations on exercising the right of access to information in the fight against corruption. However, corruption in Vietnam is very worrying. One of the main causes of this situation is the fact that people lack information on the activities of the subjects exercising state power. This article focuses on analysing the role of the right to access information in the fight against corruption, specific measures to exercise the right to access information in the fight against corruption, the technical barriers that we encounter and some recommendations. Pages 472 to 485

Performance Analysis of a Public Hospital in the COVID-19 Pandemic Using the Balanced Scorecard

Andi Basru Wawoa, Tuti Dharmawatib, Intihanahc, La Ode Antod, Ummy Kalsume, a,b,c,dAffiliation, Accounting Department, Faculty of Economics and Business, Halu Oleo University, eAffiliation, Accounting Department, STIE 66 Kendari, Email: aandi.basruwawo@yahoo.co.id, btuti_balaka@yahoo.co.id, cinti.yahya@gmail.com, dlaodeanto@gmail.com, eumykalsumbppdn2014@gmail.com

This study aims to evaluate and describe the performance of a public hospital in the COVID-19 Pandemic using the Balanced Scorecard approach based on four perspectives: customers, financial, internal business process, and growth and learning. The analytical method used is descriptive analysis. The data used is qualitative and quantitative that is sourced from primary data and secondary data. The balanced scorecard concept can be an innovative performance system for a hospital to help the hospital be superior and creative in increasing public service performances. This study leads to several findings. First, the customer perspective measuring customer satisfaction attained a mastery level of 75.21. Second, based on the financial perspective, the hospital's financial management is already proper despite being less efficient in expenditure and only quite effective in the income realisation. Third, from the internal business process perspective, the hospital already made innovations during 2020. Moreover, most of the indicators of service have followed the standards set by the Indonesian Health Ministry except for BTO and ALOS. Lastly, the growth and learning perspective measuring employee satisfaction attained a mastery level of 76.87%. Pages 486 to 507

The Impact of Cost of Capital, Operating Profits, and Invested Capital on The Economic Value Added in the Materials’ Sector in the Egyptian Market

Yasser Saber Hussein1, Alaa Mohammad Salim Abdeljawad2, Asma Lutfi Hamad3, Hayah Mohamed Abouelnaga4 and Hany Shoshan51,2 Financial Management Department, Faculty of Applied Studies & Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, P.O. Box 1982, Saudi Arabia. 3,4,5Department of General courses, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdurrahman Bin Faisal University Dammam 31441, P.O. Box 1982, Saudi Arabia.

This paper examines the long-term effect of the main direct variables on the growth rate of economic value added in the materials’ sector in the Egyptian market for the period from 2011 to 2019. The study uses Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag ARDL analysis to demonstrate that the long-run main direct variables (cost of capital, growth of capital, and net operating profit after tax) are significant in the growth rate of economic value-added GEVA. The results showed that these variables are positively related to the GEVA, with a different size of impact, except the cost of equity which reveal a negative correlation with GEVA, and this indicates the existence of neglect of this cost when calculating the cost of capital by financial managers. Thus, the study recommends paying attention to the cost of equity when calculating the GEVA and relying on the study model to predict the long run of GEVA. Pages 508 to 516

A Proposed Framework for Integrating Sustainability Into Corporate Business Practices

Hayah Mohamed Abouelnaga1, Mona Fathi Rizk2, Firas Haddad3, Raed Ali Alkhasawneh4, Mostafa Ahmed Radwan5 and Fatma Yousef Elshinawy6, 1,2,3,4,5,6 Department of General courses, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdurrahman Bin Faisal University, Al-Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

This study introduces a virtual framework that facilitates the integration of sustainability into the organizations’ practices in Saudi businesses. This framework has developed guidelines that reflect how to apply sustainability into daily practices within organizations. The study simplifies the complex relationships and challenges between the need to raise profit on one hand, and the responsibility towards the environment and society on the other. Data is collected through questionnaires which focus on the actual practices of sustainability within business organizations in Saudi Arabia. The analysis highlights the importance of the social factors and the environmental conditions in achieving economic growth of those organizations and stresses the absence of integrating sustainability into their business practices. Findings would present guidelines in order to make clear and conspicuous disclosure to the business sector in order to equip them with the necessary knowledge to enclose the concept of sustainability into their business practices. Pages 517 to 544

The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Intellectual Security Among University Students

Mohammad Ahmed Hammada*, Hend Faye AL-shahranib, aFaculty of Education, Najran University, Saudi Arabia, bSocial Planning department, Faculty of Social Services, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia; Email: a*Hammadeg73@yahoo.com, a*mahammad@nu.edu.sa, bhfalshahrani@pnu.edu.sa.

Although extremism is an important problem concern many societies, research on intellectual security aimed at preventing extremism and violence has not yet focused on the potential benefits of Emotional Intelligence as a potential predictive factor. The current study aimed at investigating the relationship between EI and intellectual security for university students in Saudi Arabia. Emotional Intelligence and intellectual security measures were applied in a cross-sectional study to 368 university students (41.11% males), and (59.87 female), aged between 19-23 years (mean ± SD: 22.6±6.4 years). Results: revealed that there is a positive, statistically significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and intellectual security. Statistically significant differences are due to the impact of sex and academic specialization on Emotional Intelligence. Females have more Emotional Intelligence than males. In scientific disciplines, they have more Emotional Intelligence than Humanitarian specializations. Moreover, there are statistically significant differences due to the impact of sex and academic specialization on intellectual security. Males have more intellectual security than females. In scientific disciplines, they have more intellectual security than human specializations. Besides, the results showed that intellectual security could be predicted through Emotional Intelligence. Conclusions: The study recommended the universities to reinforce emotional skills, intellectual security, spiritual and moral values, enhance citizenship and belonging, hold courses and training programs to strengthen Emotional Intelligence skills in their students, and hold seminars and lectures to introduce the risks of intellectual deviation and extremism and how to reduce it. Pages 545 to 566

User Centred Design Conceptualisation of Upper Body Clothing for Female Hemiplegia Patients

Asna Mubashraa, Dr. Nabeel Aminb, Dr. Abher RasheedcaAssistant Professor and Head of Textile Design Department, College of Art & Design, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, PhD scholar at School of Textile and Design, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, bProfessor at School of Textile and Design, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan. cAssociate Professor and Chairperson of Garment Manufacturing Department, National Textile University, Faisalabad, Pakistan, Email: aasnamubashra786@gmail.com, bccd1na@gmail.com, citsabhergm@gmail.com

Clothing is one of the essential human needs and is a subject of universal interest and has a multidimensional approach. Ever increasing dimensions of clothing designing has recently developed its focus on fulfilling special needs of consumers who are physically challenged. The understanding of adaptations required in the upper body clothing designs for the special group of physically disabled female consumers is the focus of this research paper. This qualitative study incorporated user centred designing approach for exploring appropriate solutions. This multistage clothing design campaign propagated as a case study research and involved in depth assessment of specific needs from three selected female study participants suffering from physical challenges due to hemiplegia. Fundamental activities of this user centred clothing design campaign incorporated creation of three adaptive clothing designs for the upper body as line sketches, prototyping and construction of one as dress trial intervention by same study participants to assess effectiveness of the proposed adaptive clothing. Conclusively it was found that a specially designed adaptive clothing solution for the upper body which prioritised user centred needs helped selected physically challenged female consumers to obtain quality of life, maintain dignity, and make the tasks of dressing and undressing easy. Pages 567 to 581

Impact of Employee’s Environmental Concern on Ecological Green Behaviour: Mediation Mechanism of Employee Customer Oriented OCB and Organisational Commitment

Muhammad Arshada*, Ghulam Abidb, Mumtaz Muhammad Khanc, aPh.D. Scholar, National College of Business Administration & Economics, Lahore, bAssistant Professor, School of Business Administration, National College of Business Administration & Economics, Lahore, Pakistan, cProfessor, School of Business Administration, Imperial College of Business Studies, Lahore, Pakistan, Email: aarshad.tevta@gmail.com, bdr.ghulamabid@gmail.com, cmumtazmkpk1@gmail.com

This study based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, and investigated the indirect impact of employee environmental concern on ecological behaviour and employee satisfaction with the mediating effect of customer oriented discretionary behaviour and organisational commitment. Data was collected by employing a self-administrative questionnaire in two different time periods. By applying the PROCESS Macros on sample of 508 employees, the results explored that employee environmental concern is positively associated with ecological behaviour and employee satisfaction, and this relationship is also partially mediated by employee/customer oriented extra-role behaviour and organisational commitment. The findings of study guide the practitioners to appreciate the employees’ extra-role behaviour and commitment with the organisations to provoke their ecological green behaviour in the wake of greening the hospitality sector. Pages 614 to 633

Female Leadership: A Bibliometric Networks Visualising of Academic Publication over the Past 42 Years

Pompong Budi Setiadi1, Wulandari Harjanti2, Maya Ida Kesumawatie3, Amiartuti Kusmaningtyas4, Ratna Ursula Setiadi5, 1,2,3,5 STIE Mahardhika Surabaya, , 4 University 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya, Indonesia

Female leadership has become a trend in the last few decades. It has been researched but there is as yet no publication in the field of female leadership that shows the big picture, using data from all countries. This study aims to map the status of international female leadership publications indexed by Scopus, using bibliometric visualisation. The bibliometric method and analysed research data were implemented using the analytical search results service from the VOSviewer and Scopus applications. The research data of 392 documents, published from 1977 to 2019, were obtained from the Scopus database. The results of this study indicate the status of maps published internationally and research trends in the field of female leadership, which are increasing every year. America is the most productive country in publications in female leadership publication. The most productive research institutes and individual researchers in female leadership publication are the the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Barnett, B, respectively. The largest subject and field of publication sources in the female leadership publication are social sciences and gender in management. The most quoted is byEagly, Johannesen-Schmidt, and Van Engen, entitled "Transformational, Transactional and Laissez-Faire Leadership Styles: A Meta- Analysis Comparing Women and Men". There isone collaborative pattern of researchers in publications in the female leadership publication. With regard to the implications for knowledge, this study proposes a convergence axis classification, consisting of publications in the field of female leadership to characterise the pool of knowledge generated from five decades of literature: female, human, organisation, leadership, abbreviated as FHOL Themes. Pages 634 to 644

Dividend Policy and Financial Performance of Listed Conglomerate Companies on the Nigerian Stock Exchange

Dada Samuel Oa, Onuoha, Nwankanmab, Olaoye Samuel. Ac, a,b,cAccounting Department, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo Ogun State, Nigeria, Email: adadas@babcock.edu.ng, bonuohan@babcock.edu.ng, colaoyes@babcock.edu.ng

The dividend policy of any company usually brings conflict between shareholders and management because the shareholders may be interested in receiving more dividends while the managers prefer retention of the profit for expansion. This study looked into the relationship between dividend policy and the ROCE by quoted conglomerate on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. An ex-post facto research design was adopted using the annual reports of all the six listed conglomerates as at 31st December 2017. Multiple regression was employed for data analysis. The probability of the t- statistic for dividend payout, retention ratio, firm size, and leverage were (0.806 > 0.05), (0.124 > 0.05), (0.814 > 0.05) and (0.000 < 0.05) respectively. Hence, leverage had a statistically significant relationship with ROCE and dividend payout, retention ratio and firm size had statistically insignificant relationships with ROCE. In conclusion, companies should improve on their retention ratio and dividend payout policies as the study showed a negative relationship between these and their financial performance. Pages 645 to 662

C2C E-Commerce Impact on Consumers’ Buying and Selling in Pakistan

Kiran Arshada, Asim Tanvirb, Shamaila Gullc, aMBIT Post Graduate IBIT University of the Punjab, bAssistant Professor IBIT University of the Punjab, cAssistant Professor IBIT University of the Punjab, Email: akiranarshad4@gmail.com, basim@ibitpu.edu.pk, cshamaila.gull@ibitpu.edu.pk

C2C e-commerce platforms are amplifying the shopping beats rapidly and raising the interests of both parties (buyers and sellers) into this area with delectable offerings. However, these offerings come with a couple of concerns that affect consumers’ online buying and selling behaviour. Therefore, this study is focusing on some of those influential factors like consumer trust, time, convenience and perceived usefulness and determines their relationship with perceived quality of GUI of C2C e-commerce platform. A total of 300 questionnaires were circulated amongst people of different backgrounds in Lahore, Pakistan e.g. students, professionals and housewives using convenience sampling technique. The study has used SPSS version 21.0 to analyse the collected data. The empirical results revealed that there is a significant and positive relationship among all chosen factors. Moreover, another notable finding is that Pakistani consumers are excited to enjoy this revolutionary trend, but privacy and security concerns create chaos. Pages 663 to 679

Antecedents and Consequences of Family Motivation: A Qualitative Exploration

Humaira Eruma*, Ghulam Abidb, Alia Ahmedc, a,b,cNational College of Business Administration & Economics, Pakistan, bKinnard College for Women University, Pakistan.  Email: ahumaira.erum@outlook.com

Purpose-- Motivated employees are the source of sustainable competitive advantage and family is a major work motivation for employees. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the phenomenon of family motivation and work outcomes associated with it. Research Methodology-- Qualitative data was collected from a diverse sample using structured interviews. The thematic analysis was performed using NVIVO 10. Findings-- The results of the study show that family motivation is an identified phenomenon which enhances positive outcomes like work engagement and OCBs and decreases turnover intention and workplace deviance. Implications-- These results can be used to develop a model specifying antecedents and consequences of family motivation for empirical testing. Originality-- This study aims to investigate the phenomenon of family motivation in South Asian Culture using the inductive approach to collect qualitative data. This helps in developing the themes and patterns to specify constructs. Pages 680 to 697

The Usage of Logical Meaning in Delivering the Sunday Sermon in HKBP Church: Medan - Indonesia

Hiace Vega Fernando Siahaana*, Eddy Setiab, Amrin Saragihc, Ridwan Hanafiahb, aDoctoral Linguistics Program, Postgraduate Program Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia, bFaculty of Cultural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia, cEnglish Applied Linguistics, Postgraduate School, Universitas Negeri Medan, Indonesia, a*LPDP Awardee, LPDP as the Funder of this Article, Email address: a*hiacevegafernando@yahoo.com

This research deals with the usage of logical meaning in the Sunday sermon in HKBP Church in Medan, Indonesia. The Sunday sermon was the primary focus in this research as one of a religious endeavour that is used by Christians to invite the community to do good things and prevent them from doing bad deeds. The problems that were investigated deal with the types of logical meaning that existed in the Sunday sermon in the HKBP Church and the way those types were created in delivering the Sunday sermon for the HKBP congregation.  The methodology that was used in this research was the descriptive qualitative approach. The data were 2308 clause complexes from 17 recordings of the Sunday sermon. The technique of analyzing data was the interactive model (Miles, Hubberman & Saldana, 2014). After doing the analysis to the data, it was found that there were nine types of logical meanings that existed, namely: elaboration paratactic, extension paratactic, enhancement paratactic, locution paratactic, elaboration hypotactic, extension hypotactic, enhancement hypotactic, locution hypotactic and idea hypotactic. From the nine types of logical meaning, paratactic extension was dominantly used by the preachers in delivering the Sunday sermon. Pages 698 to 714

Recognition of Foreign Insolvency Proceedings: A Comparative Study between the Laws of Indonesia and South Korea

Bagas Amirul Haqa, Tata Wijayantab, aGadjah Mada University, Indonesia, bLecturer of Civil Law Department, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia, Email: am.bagas.amirul@mail.ugm.ac.id , bwijayanta.tata@yahoo.com

This study aims to identify and analyse the regulation regarding foreign insolvency proceedings’ recognition in Indonesia and South Korea, and the recognition of Indonesian insolvency proceedings from the perspective of South Korea’s model of cross-border insolvency proceedings. This research is normative legal research. This study uses qualitative and comparative methods to analyse the data from the literature study. The secondary data were analysed by content analysis with statute approach, while the analysis of the interview data was conducted through qualitative analysis. Based on the study, up to recent times, Indonesia has not utilised the universalism model of the cross-border insolvency approach, and under Indonesian civil procedural law, Indonesian courts’ decisions are only enforceable within the territory of Indonesia and vice versa. Meanwhile South Korea, under a new consolidated insolvency law, which became effective in the year 2006, has adopted a modified universalism model of cross-border insolvency; thus South Korea regulates provisions regarding the recognition of foreign insolvency proceedings. Under the Indonesian main insolvency act, Law No. 37 of 2004 on Bankruptcy and Suspension of Debt Payment Obligation, Indonesian debtor’s assets situated in a foreign country (including South Korea) may be reached, and according to the South Korean modified universalism approach under Debtor Rehabilitation and Bankruptcy Act, the effect of an insolvency proceeding which has commenced in an Indonesian commercial court would have an effect and may be recognised within the territory of South Korea. Pages 715 to 729

The Effectiveness of Smart Educational Programmes in Developing the Skills of Creative Thinking for People with Hearing Disabilities

Sajeda Qasim Aldiabat1, Sana Mohammad Al Smadi2, Kawther Abdelrahman Hassan3, 4Lubna Elmahdi, 5Mutasem K. Alsmadi and 6Almothana Azaizeh 1Special Education, College of Education Dammam, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. 2,3Library And Information Studies, College of Arts, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. 4Business Administration, Community College -Dammam, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. 5Department of MIS, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. 6Department of General courses, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdurrahman Bin Faisal University, Al-Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

This research aims to identify the effectiveness of smart educational programs in developing the skills of creative thinking for people with hearing disabilities due to demographic variables. The researcher used a descriptive and analytical approach for its ability to describe the research variables with the required accuracy. The research sample included 216 male, and female students. The questionnaire was distributed to the respondents for completion. Subsequently, the data was collected and entered into the SPSS program. The arithmetic means and standard deviations were calculated for all the statements on the questionnaire. The research concluded with several results, the most important of which were the existence of a statistically significant effect at the level of significance (α ≤0.05) for smart educational programs in developing the skills of creative thinking for people with hearing disabilities, and the presence of a statistically significant effect at the level of significance (α ≤0.05) for problem-solving programmes in developing the skills of creative thinking for people with hearing disabilities. The research also produced several recommendations, the most important of which was training teachers to use smart education programs for people with hearing disabilities, as well as holding training courses for them continuously based upon everything new within this field. Pages 730 to 749

Analysis of Determinants of Private Investment on Economic Growth in North Sumatra

Pinodang Nainggolana, Ramlib,  Murni Daulayc, Faculty of Economics, University of Simalunguna, Faculty of Economics, University of North Sumatrac,b Email: apinondangna150@gmail.com, bramli.febusu20@gmail.com, cdaulaymurni46@gmail.com

The Research discusses the determinants factors of analysis which influence private investment and its subsequent influence upon the rates of economic growth and employment in North Sumatera.  he method conducted in this research was the survey method by using an explanatory approach and time series data. This research also utilised a simultaneous method with a two-stage least squares analysis. The conclusions of this research are as follows. Firstly, economic growth, (Product domestict regional bruto) exchange rate, and investment credit provide a positive influence upon private investment, whereas government investment, investment interest rate, inflation, international interest rates, and economic crisis have a negative influence on private investment in North Sumatra. Secondly, private investment, government investment, the total of the labour, and the human capital provide a positive influence on the  economic growth in North Sumatra, whereas export and economic crisis influence towards a negative economic growth. Thirdly, the  economic growth, export, and economic crisis provide a positive influence on the employment in North Sumatera, whereas private investment provides a negative influence on the employment in the region. Fourth and lastly, economic growth, employment, and exchange rate provide a positive influence on exports in North Sumatera, whereas private investment and economic crisis provide a negative influence on exports. Pages 750 to 773

Decorative Aesthetics of the Shiva and Durga Wayang Performance of East Javanese Style Ki Wardono (Puppeteer) in Mojokerto

aDr. I Nyoman Murtana, S.Kar., M.Hum. bDr. Sunardi, S.Sn., M.Sn. cDr. Sugeng Nugroho, S.Sn., M.Sn. Lecturer of Puppetry Study Program, Faculty of Performing Arts, Institut Seni Indonesia Surakarta, Jl. Ki Hajar Dewantara no. 19 Kentingan, Jebres, Surakarta 57126, anyomanmurtana@gmail.com, bgunawijoyo@gmail.com, csgngnugroho@gmail.com

The wayang performance tradition of East Javanese populist style from Dalang Ki Wardono from Mojokerto has a different character from the wayang performances in Central Java and Yogyakarta. The play was held by Ki Wardono was "Bedahe Maespati" (Destruction of the Kingdom of Maespati) on the Independence Day of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia 72th on August 17, 2017. The focus of the research was on decorative wayang (hereinafter referred to as simpingan)(wayang pajangan) called simpingan for all wayang performances in Java. In the East Javanese wayang performance, there is always Durga and Shiva simpingan that does not exist anywhere else. That is the interest of this research. The two figures are arranged on the left and right in a line of sight facing one another, but far apart. Durga is seated to the left of the puppeteer in the middle of simpingan facing right/forward, while the other left wayang simpingan are arranged below Durga facing left/backward. On the other hand, Shiva is in the dalang's right position with his face facing left/forward, while the other right simpingan are arranged below Shiva facing right or backward, so Durga and Shiva face each other, but in the opposite direction. Between the right and left simpingan, there is an empty space where the play is played. This research used a qualitative method with the researcher as a collection of data. The artificial sign theory was applied to the analysis of Shiva and Durga content. Kagunan theory (practical theory) is useful for the analysis of a one-night stand performance in the context of Javanese culture. The theory of kagunan indicates a beautiful sense of practical value in social life such as "tirakat" having friendship value for fellow puppet audiences, which is religiously meaningful towards manunggaling kawula lan Gusti, the merging of body and soul. Based on empirical facts, the figures of Shiva and Durga wayang were given a place of honor by the people of East Java, so that they are placed at a higher level than other wayang simpingan. Both Hindu deities are believed to be able to help the difficulties of human life in achieving moksa. The decorative positions of Shiva and Durga are displayed attractively, making it interesting to study. The artificial sign of the hyper reality theory makes the two figures have a vision of the latest imaging technology engineering without social reality. Pure puppets created by craftsmen in the past and present are used by the puppeteer for a human image. Pages 774 to 791

The Role of Consumption Values and Attitude to Determine Consumers' Intention to Purchase Green Cars: A Pilot Study in Northern Malaysia

Amr Mohammed Nasser Alganad1, Normalisa Md Isa2, Waida Irani Mohd Fauzi3, 1,2,3School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, 1ORCID id: 0000-0002-0816-5534, 2ORCID id: 0000-0002-1069-2077

In Malaysia, pollution issues have encouraged automotive industries and governments to develop and support the adoption of green cars to reduce environmental devastation. Consumers, however, still show resistance to adopting green cars. Sheth's consumption values theory is used to understand the factors that cause this phenomenon. Five new dimensions were obtained from the theory and field and introduced to consumption values’ factors. The results of this paper enable stakeholders to understand the vital elements that may affect consumer behaviour. The pilot study was conducted using a convenience sample with 57 cars’ showrooms’ administrators and visitors in northern Malaysia. The results of the internal consistency and the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) confirm the reliability of the constructs and the model overall. Finally, the managerial implications for further research are considered. Pages 792 to 808

Touristic and Cultural Perspectives on Traditional Food: Peuyeum Bandung

Ina Helena Agustina, Program Studi Perencanaan Wilayah dan Kota, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Islam Bandung, Jl. Tamansari No.1 Bandung 40116, Email: inahelena66@gmail.com; ina.helena@unisba.ac.id

Cimeunyan Village, Mandalamekar Village, and Mekarsaluyu Village in Cimenyan District, Bandung Regency are one of the famous peuyeum producing centres in the Bandung area. Studies show that there is a close relationship between tourism and food marketing in a location. This is the case with the Peuyeum Bandung. Based on these considerations, the study aims to describe the traditional food culture of Peuyeum Bandung from the perspective of tourism. This research was carried out by quantitative and qualitative methods, which determined indicators related to food preferences, namely: taste, shape, colour, appearance, and presentation. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire tool which was distributed to 100 respondents consisting of 50 general public people and 50 tourists. Apart from that, a survey was also conducted through unstructured interviews to producers and government agencies that are relevant to this business. The method of analysis involved descriptive statistics. Furthermore, a synthesis was carried out from the results of the analysis, especially in the perspective of tourism through traditional food culture. The findings of the study is that Peuyeum Bandung is still appealing, especially the taste factor. Pages 809 to 828

The Influence of Customer Satisfaction as a Mediator in Transmitting Integrated Marketing Communication and Service Quality on 5-Star Hotel Guests Repurchases in Phetchaburi Province, Thailand

Sumalee Ramanust, Master of Business Administration Program, Southeast Asia University, 19/1 Petchkasem Road, Nongkhangphlu, Nonghkaem, Bangkok, Thailand 10160, Email: sumaleer@sau.ac.th

This study was developed to (1) determine the level of integrated marketing communication, service quality, customer satisfaction and repurchases, (2) investigate the effects of customer satisfaction as a mediator in transmitting integrated marketing communication on repurchases and (3) examine the effects of customer satisfaction as a mediator in transmitting service quality on repurchases. This research involved quantitative research and employed survey research methodology. The sample consisted of 400 guests for 5-star hotels in Phetchaburi province, Thailand. The developed questionnaires were implemented as a research tool. The collected data was analysed based on descriptive statistics by using percentage, mean, and standard deviation, as well as inferential statistics by using structural equation modelling. The results showed that integrated marketing communication, service quality, customer satisfaction and repurchases as a whole were at high level with the average values of 3.789, 3.777, 3.755 and 3.703 respectively. Customer satisfaction was found to be a moderator between integrated marketing communications on repurchases. In addition, customer satisfaction was also founded to be a moderator between service qualities and repurchase. Pages 829 to 840

The Role of Constructive Simulation Towards Students’ Academic Performance in Secondary Schools

Khuda Bakhsh1, Muhammad Arshad2, Shafqat Rasool3, 1Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. 2SST Science, School Education Department, Government Fazilka Islamia Model High School Pakpattan, Punjab-Pakistan, 3Lecturer, Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. Email: 2marshadzakki@gmail.com. 2ORCID iD https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2030-6851.

The main intention of the study was to determine the effect of teachers’ use of constructive simulation upon students’ performance. It has been argued that constructive-oriented strategies encourage teachers’ commitment and students’ active participation in the teaching-learning process. Moreover, it has been argued that students can learn effectively using constructive-oriented methods. On this basis, it becomes worthwhile to explore how teachers’ use of constructive simulation will affect students’ achievement. A sample of two hundred secondary school students participated. It was an experimental study using pre-test and post-test modes regarding the traditional lecture method simulation skills performed by the teachers. It was concluded that the simulation method is better than the lecture method, as seen in the experiment. The findings of this study have obvious educational implications for students, teachers, and other stakeholders in education. The use of constructive simulation in this study was proven to be effective in facilitating greater achievement in mathematics. This implies that the use of a constructive simulation instructional model would enhance students’ performance in mathematics. Several bold recommendations were also fore grounded to ensure students are more satisfied and motivated. Pages 841 to 854

Measuring the Quality of Services Provided by Takaful Insurance Companies in Palestine as Perceived by Clients

Mohammad W. Hanini, Birzeit University, Palestine

The purpose of the study is to measure the quality of services provided by Takaful insurance companies in Palestine; for this purpose the study predicted many standard variables that may explain the evaluation of Islamic companies through clients' satisfaction. The study expected that the compliance with Shari, the company image, the distribution of insurance surplus and the quality of financial services have and effect of clients satisfaction. Therefore, The study relied on the qualitative and quantitative approach at the same time, where the previous studies were reviewed and the network of variables was extracted, and a questionnaire was designed and distributed to (381) clients of the Takaful insurance companies, and by using statistical analysis methods such as frequencies, averages and correlation analysis, the study concluded that there is a positive relationship. Strong among all the variables of the study and the evaluation of companies through customer satisfaction, who obtained an overall evaluation (69.42%) with high approval, and the quality of services index got the highest rating (74.2%), and the company image index got the second evaluation (73.8%), and the compliance index came The Islamic insurance company is in the third rank (70.6%), while the index of distribution of insurance surpluses got the lowest value (58.3%), which is a medium closer to low. Therefore, the study recommended the departments of Islamic insurance companies in Palestine to work on distributing insurance surpluses at the end of each year by achieving the insurance surplus Through many mechanisms, such as reducing the insurance companies 'share of the policyholder fund, which they take in a lump sum, or working to diversify investment in the trustees' funds portfolio to ensure high returns. The study concluded with the importance of differentiating between the Islamic insurance systems and strengthening its Islamic identity that is derived from compliance with the provisions of Islamic Sharia without emulating the traditional insurance system. Meanwhile, these results have an important impact on the increase, in the market share of the Islamic insurance companies operating in Palestine. Pages 855 to 885

The Sensemaking of Organisational Identities in a Post-Merger Context: A Case of MIS Integration

Dr. Muhammad Noumana, Dr. Muhammad Alib, Dr. Shahid Alic, a,b,cAssociate Professor, Institute of Management Sciences, 1-A, E-5, Phase 7, Hayatabad Peshawar Pakistan, Email: amuhammad.nouman@imsciences.edu.pk

This paper investigates how the sensemaking of organisational identities influences MIS functionality resulting from a post-merger integration. Our findings suggest that the system functionality resulting from the sensemaking of merging organisations’ identities is different from the originally planned one. This functionality is the result of decisional adjustments between purpose-driven change and logic driven resistance or surrender to change of the individuals involved in the merger and system integration. Moreover, recognising the existence of organisational identities prior to MIS integration will improve team collaboration for managing and implementing integration. The results extend our understanding of the role sensemaking of organisational identities plays in influencing MIS functionality within a post-merger context. Consequently, a Twofold Interactive Model of MIS Integration (TIM-MI) has been proposed and presented in this paper for the first time. Through a better understanding of sensemaking and organisational identity issues, findings of this paper can support managers in the successful execution of post-merger MIS integrations. Pages 886 to 903

Exploring, Mind mapping, Collaborating, Simulating, and Evaluating (EMCOSE): A Learning Model Based on Lesson Study and Peer Teaching that Potentially Improves Student Teachers’ Creativity and Communication Skills

Herawati Susiloa*, Ahmad Kamal Sudrajatb, Fatchur Rohmanc

a,b,c Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia

*Corresponding author: herawati.susilo.fmipa@um.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to develop a learning model that can be used to develop the professionalism of prospective educator students, which is based upon peer teaching and lesson study. The research conducted is development research. The development model used is the Plomp model. The effectiveness of the learning model was tested by using a quasi-experiment design. The main finding of this study was that the learning models developed met the criteria of being valid, practical, and effective. The effectiveness of the learning model is evident from a significant increase in the creativity and communication skills of prospective teacher students. Creativity and communication skills are essential skills that must be possessed by educators. Suggestions for the future research include testing the learning model to improve the other skills of prospective teachers. There have been several studies which found that the use of a lesson study is useful for training prospective teachers. However, there is no fixed model for this training. This study develops a new learning model that can train prospective teacher students. Pages 904 to 922

Business Models and Competitiveness: Innovation Practices in Digitalising Small and Medium Enterprises in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Haris Maupaa, Muhammad Idrus Tabab, Jusnic, Andi Nur Baumasseped, Syarifuddin Sulaimane, a,b,c,dHasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia,  eMuhammadiyah University of Makassar, Indonesia, Email: ahmaupa@yahoo.co.id, bidrus_taba@yahoo.com, cjusni_mju@yahoo.co.id, dmassepe@gmail.com, edurianxxy@yahoo.co.id

The increasing dynamism of the business environment requires strategic cooperation and partnerships for both medium-sized companies, and small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of this paper is to analyse how business networks, and government policy support affect digitalisation innovation and competitive advantage in SMEs in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Quantitative methods are used to test the effect between the variables. The data was obtained from primary sources by using a questionnaire distributed to 136 SMEs’s owners. The data were analysed by using descriptive statistics with structural equation modelling techniques. The research findings explain that business networks and government policy support can increase digitalisation innovation, so that digitalisation innovation can increase competitive advantage. However, business networks and government policy support do not significantly affect competitive advantage. The practical implications of this research include useful information for SMEs to evaluate business networks and government policy support to encourage digitalisation innovation and competitive advantage, as well as suggesting future researchers to compare competitive advantages with other provinces. Pages 923 to 934

The Impact of Economic Policies and Sectoral Patterns of Growth upon the Income Distribution of the Egyptian Economy

Mostafa Ahmed Radwana, Fatma Yousef Elshinawyb, Hayah Abouelnagac, Makram Zaidid, Amr Nazieh Ezate, Mohamed Ismail Abdulrahmanf, a*Assistant Professor of Economics, Faculty of Applied Studies & Community Service, bAssistant Professor of Applied statistics, Faculty of Applied Studies & Community Service, cAssistant Professor of Commercial law, Faculty of Applied Studies & Community Service, dAssistant Professor of Quantitative method, Faculty of Applied Studies & Community Service, eAssistant Professor of Accounting, Faculty of Applied Studies & Community Service, fAssistant Professor of Accounting, a,b,c,d,e,fImam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Email: a*maradwan@iau.edu.sa, bfyelshinawy@iau.edu.sa, c hnaja @iau.edu.sa, dmmzaidi@iau.edu.sa, e anezat@iau.edu.sa, fmiismail@iau.edu.sa

This study aims to determine the impact of economic policies and sectoral patterns of growth upon the level of equity in income distribution of the Egyptian economy. The study utilised the autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL) to formulate the main elements of development policy in the Egyptian economy that work to reduce the degree of inequality in income. The study concluded the importance of developing education, health, and human capital in general, and the need to stimulate agricultural growth, in addition to focusing on a package of policies, which includes improving the level of infrastructure and achieving economic stability. Pages 935 to 953

Online Mediation Innovation in the Court of Justice, Thailand

Korakod Tongkachoka*, Jidapa Pornyingb, Teeraporn Tongkachokc, Thongphon Promsaka Na Sakolnakornd,

a bFaculty of Law, Thaksin University  Thailand, cDepartment of  Public Administration and Human Resource Management, Thaksin University  Thailand,  dFaculty of Management Science, Silpakorn University, Thailand, Corresponding author, E-mail:   a*tokorakod@tsu.ac.th

This research had studied online mediation innovation in the Court of Justice, Thailand. The right to access the Court of Justice is a fundamental human right in a civilised society. In recent years, the internet has become widespread and allows for the development of online mediation innovation in criminal and civil disputes. At present, legal practice allows distant parties or litigants to mediate disputes in court online. This is a method for dispute resolution by third parties acting as mediators to offer guidance and find a solution that the litigants would be able to accept and be satisfied with. If they agree to the offer, it will lead to an agreement. Even though this was the beginning of online mediation in the Court of Justice, Thailand, from the responses, online dispute resolution was a tool and process that can be fair and resolve a large number of cases. Pages 954 to 968

Important Factors and Policies That Contributed to Tourism in Malaysia Between 1991 and 2018

Thongphon Promsaka Na Sakolnakorn, Faculty of Management Science, Silpakorn University, Thailand

This paper presented the important factors contributing to Malaysian tourism development between 1991 and 2018. This study used qualitative methods such as a literature review, fieldwork investigations, in-depth interviews, and a focus group, as well as analysed data using content and descriptive analysis. The study found the Malaysian government has emphasised tourism development and promoted tourism around the world. The Malaysian government collaborated with the business sector to create many activities related to tourism to motivate long stays. Important factors contributing to tourism development in Malaysia include establishing the right policies, rule of law, environmental sustainability, health and safety, public transportation, information communication technology, transportation infrastructure, and tourism resource readiness such as skilled workers, green and clean cities, natural resources, and various cultural and social resources. Pages 969 to 980

The Entry of Time and the Decisions of the Political System and All People in Vietnam in the Prevention and Fight against COVID-19

To Hoang Linh, People’s Committee of Tuyen Quang City, Tuyen Quang province, Vietnam, Email: tohoanglinhtq@gmail.com

Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a dangerous epidemic with a rapid global spread and increasingly complicated and unpredictable developments.  However, the Party, State, and Government of Vietnam have led drastic, quickly, and creatively directed epidemic prevention and control measures from an early stage, applying a higher level of response than the recommendations of the World Health Organisation (WHO). All levels of branches, agencies, and units in the political system in the country have joined forces and unanimously promoted propaganda and the mobilisation of people to prevent and fight epidemics, and promote the tradition of ‘mutual friendship, mutual love’ in disease prevention and control. Consequentially, Vietnam has been controlling the epidemic situation. The initial positive results of a high proportion of people with COVID-19 being cured in the country have been recognised and appreciated by the WHO, and the international community. Pages 981 to 988

An Analysis of Intellectual Capital in the Disruptive Technology Era: Are Accountants’ Mindsets Ready for It?

Devie*, Fely Julia Christina Hartanto, Saarce Elsye Hatane, Accounting Department, Universitas Kristen Petra

Correspondent author: dave@petra.ac.id

This study aims to assess the effect of information technology on intellectual capital, with organisational learning as a mediating variable, meanwhile, also considering the influence of a mindset upon the public accounting firms in Indonesia. The data was obtained through questionnaires, which were distributed to public accounting firms in Indonesia. The data was subsequently processed using the structural equation model. The respondents were limited to those residing on Java Island. The results show that information technology and organisational learning are favourable in the formation of intellectual capital in public accounting firms. It is confirmed that organisational learning can be a mediating variable in the relationship between information technology and intellectual capital. Moreover, mindset, as a moderating variable, mitigates the influence of information technology upon intellectual capital. The results imply that without a growth mindset, technology is unable to create organizational learning and intellectual capital. Technology offers a change, and only people with a growth mindset can make changes. Pages 989 to 1006

Polimarin Alumni's English Proficiency in Maritime Industry Competitiveness in Indonesia

Mahsunah Etik Rahayuningsih, Politeknik Maritim Negeri Indonesia, Email: jojomahsunah@polimarin.ac.id

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/141257

The background of this research is the competition in looking for jobs, which is getting harder day by day, with the large number of alumni who have graduated from each educational institution in Indonesia; plus the narrowing of job opportunities makes everyone compete to fight for employment. Currently, English is a prerequisite for getting a job or doing further schooling. The research is entitled "Polimarin Alumni's English Proficiency in the Maritime Industry Competitiveness in Indonesia". The focus of this research is aimed at the alumni of POLIMARIN (Politeknik Maritim Negeri Indonesia) / (Indonesian State Maritim Polytechnic) who have worked or carried out an internship. The purpose of this research is that alumni can compete in the work age by mastering good English. The steps in conducting this research were by distributing questionnaires to alumni and also students who were still doing the internship. The result of this research is that the alumni of Polimarin has unsatisfactory proficiency in English. The conclusion from these findings can be used as a reference to improve ways or better learning methods for English language skills, especially speaking skills, because it is the most difficult material to master and a most important issue to alumni. Thus, the learning objectives based on the curriculum can increase English competency for cadets or students. Pages 1007 to 1030

Managerial Myopia, Capital Market Reaction and Compensation Policy (A CSR and Marketing Perspectives)

Hamid Ullah1*, Hamid Ali Shah2, Muhammad Siddique3, Maimoona Saleem4, Sajjad Ahmad Khan5, Azhar khan6, 1,4,6Department of Management Sciences Islamia College Peshawar, 2Quaid-E-Azam College of Commerce University of Peshawar, 3Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar, 5Institute of Management Studies University of Peshawar.

Email: azhar5896081@gmail.com

Taking advantage of the information asymmetry and agency conflicts between managers and shareholders in emerging markets. This study attempts to investigate the capital market response to managerial myopia and also examined the role of compensation policy in motivating the CEOs towards myopic behavior in the banking sector of Pakistan. The study considered a sample of Pakistani banks for the period 2009-2018 for the purpose of analysis. The study has employed panel regression models for the purpose of analysis and hypotheses testing. The results of estimated regression models showed that that decrease in corporate social responsibility  and cuts on advertising and publicity expenditures have negative effect on the current stock market returns. Moreover, the results also showed that if the market fails to respond to the managerial myopia in the current period due to information asymmetry then a negative adjustment is made in the future stock prices of the banks. We further find that decrease in CSR, advertising, and publicity expenditures have a positive and significant effect on monetary compensation of CEOs. These results support the view that banks compensation policy motivate managers to behave myopically and capital markets do punish managerial myopic behaviour by undervaluing bank current and future prices in emerging markets. The current study has implications for the compensation committee of banks to revisit the existing compensation practices that motivate CEOs towards shortsightedness. The study findings also warrants myopic managers that their behavior will be punished by the capital markets. These findings also give insight to the shareholders and investors of banks to take in to account myopic behaviour while investing their funds in capital markets. More importantly, portfolio managers with long-term investments plan may also consider the managerial myopia as the current higher reported earnings by a bank could be the result of their myopic behaviour which can suffer negative returns shock in futures. This study has used CSR and advertising & publicity expenditures as a measure of managerial myopia in financial sector that is rarely examined in case of emerging markets. Studies conducted on managerial myopia mainly focused on developed countries that are entirely different in regulatory framework, capital market efficiency, governance mechanisms and compensation practices in emerging markets provide ground for this investigation. CSR is an emerging phenomena rarely being studied in respect of managerial myopia in emerging markets. Pages 1031 to 1055      

A Self-Risk Assessment Tool for Stratifying Risk of COVID-19 through mHealth

Fatimah Ahmedy1, Richard Avoi2, Mohd Hanafi Ahmad Hijazi3, Azman Atil Azmi2, Farhana Harzila Mohd Bahar1, Ahmad Fauzi Yahya4, Mohammad Saffree Jeffree2, Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim2, Azizan Omar2, Nicholas Pang2, Yeap Boon Tat5, Muhammad Syafiq Abdullah6, Mohd Hanafiah Ahmad Hijazi6, 1Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. 2Department of Community and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, 3Faculty of Computing & Informatics, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, 4Centre of Data and Information Management, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, 5Medicine-based Department, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, 6Hospital Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

The COVID-19 pandemic has been spreading at an exponential pace. In Malaysia, the current pandemic infectivity rate is high with a reproduction number calculated at Rt 1.57, which is the highest in the ASEAN region. The rising incidence of the pandemic calls for an effective outbreak management system. Using a risk assessment questionnaire for COVID-19, we can identify those at high risk of infection early. Developing a questionnaire requires defining the dimensions of the construction, and execution should be carried out efficiently for ease of assessment. This paper presents a work carried out in Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) on the creation of a risk assessment questionnaire aimed at classifying individuals at risk of COVID-19, and the method of implementation using a mobile health (mHealth) technology. The methodology used comprises two steps: (i) the development of the risk-assessment questionnaire and (ii) the implementation using the mHealth technology in the form of a web-based application, UMS-Shields. UMS Shield’s self-risk assessment tools emphasise more on the epidemiologic conditions, and the risk-stratified management provides a list of actions that should be taken by the user. The tool hence allows better management of COVID-19 by the Crisis Preparedness and Response Centre of the university. Pages 1056 to 1076

The Influence of Nepotism Culture and Social Capital on Work Motivation and Organisational Trust

Aris Wibawantoa, Budiyantob, Suwithoc, a,b,cSekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Indonesia (STIESIA) Surabaya, Indonesia

The low organisational trust of employees will result in damage to work in a team because there is no longer a sense of trust in one another. High trust in the company is able to increase employee and company performance. Several factors that determine the level of employee trust in the company are nepotism culture, social capital, and work motivation. Therefore, the researchers conducted a study on the relationship between organisational trust with the effecting factors. This study used a quantitative approach with primary and secondary data sources. The data were collected by using communication methods through distributing questionnaires with closed answers. The population of this study was all staff and managers at PT Asia Plastik (Group) Surabaya East Java with 85 samples. This study used Partial Least Square (PLS). Based on the results, nepotism culture and social capital significantly influenced the organisational trust of PT Asia Plastik (Group) Surabaya East Java employees. Social capital significantly influenced work motivation of PT Asia Plastik (Group) Surabaya East Java employees. Nepotism culture insignificantly influenced the work motivation of PT Asia Plastik (Group) Surabaya East Java employees. Work motivation insignificantly influenced organisational trust of PT Asia Plastik (Group) Surabaya East Java employees. Pages 1077 to 1096

Performance Evaluation and Adaption of Biogas Plant Users among Rural Households of Pakistan

Usman Shakoor1, Syeda Arfa Ali2, Mudassar Rashid3, Muhammad Irfan4, Mudassar Hussain5, Muhammad Usman6, 1,3,4Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, COMSATS University, Islamabad, 2Researcher, Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University, Islamabad, 5Researcher, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad 6MS Scholar, Faculty of Economics, University of Warsaw, Poland.

Email: 1arfarizvi491@yahoo.com, *2usman.shakoor@comsats.edu.pk, 3mudassar.rashid@comsats.edu.pk 4mirfan@comsats.edu.pk, 5mudassar.hussain@aiou.edu.pk, 6m.usman@student.wne.edu.pl 

Biogas technology has become vital in addressing the concerns of energy scarcities. The study examines the performance of biogas plants in Rawalpindi Division, Pakistan and identifies the factors that supposedly affect the adoption decision of biogas users. The key stakeholders in this study are rural households who are using the biogas technology. Data was collected from all active biogas plant users from rural households through a detailed questionnaire. Performance evaluation was done through a DEA non-parametric technique. A Logit model was employed to identify the factors affecting adoption of biogas plants. Number of animals and number of meals cooked have significantly increased the adoption of biogas technology, however, the stinging odor from the dung used has minimized the adoption of biogas technology. Most feasible performance was found for biogas plant of size 10 m3 as it satisfies the maximum cooking and related needs of a normal family. However, we found that biogas technology is more suitable for small families as compared to large families. There is a dire need to establish national level programs for the development of biogas technology and to create awareness among rural people to adopt this technology. Pages 1097 to 1116


Improving Students’ Sense of School Connectedness and Mindfulness Skills through Participation in a School-Based Circus Arts Mindfulness Program

Nicholas Tze Ping Panga, Gloria Pei Ying Leeb, Mathias Wen Leh Tseuc, Helda Artika Honeyd, Jane Ivana Josse, Mohd Amiruddin Mohd Kassimf, Sandi Jamesg, Helen Lasimbangh, a,b,c,d,e,f,g,hFaculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, gLatrobe University, Melbourne, Email: gsandijames@ums.edu.my

Mindfulness based interventions have accrued an increasing efficacy in depression and anxiety, especially in young people and adolescents for whom pharmacotherapy is discouraged. Depression and anxiety in adolescents are strongly related to various psychosocial determinants, including a lack of connectedness and isolation, lower levels of mindfulness and Internet addiction, and psychological flexibility and openness to experience. We propose organising a circus-based mindfulness intervention, which would fulfil these three purposes. It would deliver a circus-based physical exercise-focussed intervention, promoting wellness, and strengthening the primary prevention of depressive and anxiety disorders. It would also allow mindfulness exercises, with high levels of evidence, to be taught in a fun way through gamification and flipped learning approaches. Lastly, it would improve community well-being and sense of belonging via the shared creation of an innovative and interesting circus-based mindfulness intervention, which would be sustainable at the community level post-research, utilise traditional craftsmanship resources, increase mental health literacy, and combat stigma. The objective of this project was to develop and pilot an innovative mindfulness-based circus skills programme within a rural secondary school through a participatory action research method, which is based on the theoretical considerations of this project. Four circus-based skills — juggling, stilt walking, unicycling, and tightrope walking — were integrated with core mindfulness skills. Throughout the pilot development, the qualitative feedback of teachers and students were incorporated in terms of measures of self-confidence, social skills, communication skills, and attention. The results of the pilot project were presented briefly. In conclusion, this novel circus-based mindfulness module is a key innovation in adolescent mental health. It can be used in lower and middle-income countries, as an effective public health intervention. Pages 1117 to 1131

The Effect of Blended Learning on Children’s Arabic Reading during Covid-19 Quarantine

AlJohara Fahad Al Saud, An Associate Professor-Early Childhood Education Section, College of Education, King Saud University, Email: aljoharafk@gmail.com

This study investigates the effect of blended learning approach [BLA] on second grade students' reading skills during Covid-19 quarantine in Saudi Arabia, to find out whether there is a statistically significant difference (at α=0.05) between students' mean scores on Arabic Reading skills test due to BLA. The experimental group consisted of a random sample of 40 students from Riyadh basic schools. The participants sat for pre- and post-tests on reading skills based on the public Arabic curriculum Lughaty (لغتي). Blended Learning was used to teach the experimental group through blending the digital material and digital meeting with printed material at home to achieve the goal of improved learning. As the study design was quasi–experimental, ANCOVA was used to analyse data. Results showed that BLA enhanced significantly second grade students’ reading skills. Based on the results, it is recommended that Arabic teachers adopt BLA principles and procedures in their classroom practices. Pages 1132 to 1152


A Blockchain Secured Electronic Transaction Document Interchange Architecture (DIA): A Public Sector Analysis from Thailand 

Chaiporn Thoppaea, Nivet Jirawichitchaib a,b Faculty of Information Technology Graduate School, Sripatum University, Bangkok, Thailand. E-mail: achaiporn.tho@gmail.com, bnivet.ch@spu.ac.th

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/141254

Thailand like many other nations and governments has been plagued with countless incidents of corruption and inefficiency. However, even though the primary causes of these problems remain uncertain, there are methods available today to reduce the ongoing systemic problems. One of the potential solutions lies in using secure document interchange architecture (DIA) with blockchain technology. Using a quantitative research design and cluster sampling across 20 Thai ministries and related agencies, 500 individuals eventually participated in the study. A five-level scale questionnaire was used as the research instrument. The structural equation model (SEM) was analysed to validate the consistency of the empirical data. The results of the research indicated that after adjusting the SEM by increasing the relationship between the errors, the consistency with the empirical data of the model was very good.  Of the eight hypotheses examined, all were found to be positive. However, social and cultural aspects (SCA) had the greatest positive influence on strategy/policies/legal approaches (SPL) (r = 0.72*). This was closely followed by SPL’s influence on secure electronic transaction DIA (SET) (r = 0.68*), and technology (TEC) on security semantics (SEC) (r = 0.62*). However, SEC was deemed to have the least influence on secure electronic transaction DIA (SET) (r = 0.31*). Overall, there was a high level of satisfaction with the prototype system, with the architectural efficiency showing networked integrity while verifying and authenticating with the accuracy of the electronic documents. Also from the use of electronic signatures, electronic documents could be verified and authenticated as well. Networked integrity was also proven as the DIA system could validate the accuracy and authenticity of electronic documents. Pages 1153 to 1172

A Study of English Loanwords in Mirpuri Pahari Language

Dr Sehrish Shafia, Dr. Sami Mohammed Alanazib, Nasir A. Syedc, aMUST Mirpur Azad Jammu & Kashmir Pakistan, bNorthern Border University, Arar, Saudi Arabia, cLUAWMS Uthal Pakistan, Email: bsami.alenezi@nbu.edu.sa

The present study examines the syllable phonotactics of English loanwords in Mirpur Pahari (MP henceforth) and offers a comprehensive analysis of the phonotactics within the OT framework. The data is based on productions derived from monolingual MP speakers. The study will explore whether the adaptation patterns conform to the native MP phonology or we need another grammar to account for these adaptation patterns.  The findings suggest the participants show strict adherence to the constraint hierarchy of the native MP phonology in loanword adaptation patterns. Pages 1173 to 1191

Moderating Effect of Educational Technology on Academic Learning Environment in Higher Education in KSA

Dr Sanjeevni Gangwania*, Dr Reem Aldegetherb, aProfessor and Researcher, Department of Graduate studies and Scientific Research, Deanship of Community services and continuity in Education, Princess Nourahbint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh. bAssistant Professor, College of Education, Curriculum and Instruction, Princess Nourahbint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh. Email: a*sanjeevnigangwani@gmail.com

The emergence of educational technology has created an impact on the academic environment in KSA. This paper identifies the awareness of female faculty members of higher education in KSA towards current educational technology, and analyses the association between the educational technology implemented by faculty members and the academic learning environment. The study was  conducted  in  selected women’s colleges of KSA.  A survey was carried out among 300 female faculty members selected randomly from different colleges in KSA. The data received from the respondents was analysed with the help of the statistical software program SPSS. Descriptive statistics like mean and standard deviation were used in the study. A Pearson Correlation analysis was conducted to examine whether the hypothesis was accepted or rejected. It was found that there exists a significant positive correlation between the educational technology implemented by faculty members in class room and the overall academic learning environment. Recommendations for creating better learning environment in universities are included at the end of the research. Pages 1192 to 1208

Determinants of Employee Workplace Happiness in Hospitality Sector in Riyadh

Dr Sanjeevni Gangwania*, Dr Rania Maher Alhalawanyb, Dr Shanoo Sheikhc, aProfessor and Researcher, Department of Graduate studies and Scientific Research, Deanship of Community services and continuity in Education, Princess Nourahbint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh. b,cAssistant Professor in clinical psychology, Health Sciences Department, Health and Rehabilitation Sciences College, Princess Nourahbint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh. Email: a*sanjeevnigangwani@gmail.com, bRmalhalawany@pnu.edu.sa, csskeikh@pnu.edu.sa

The sustainability of hospitality industry depends on their customer satisfaction. Customers can be satisfied if they are provided with adequate services and facilities offered by the firms in return of the cost paid by them. The operations of hospitality industry are managed by its employees. Employees can serve the customers to their best of the ability only when they are contended and happy at their workplace. However, keeping all employees happy and motivated at the workplace, especially in hospitality sector is a challenging task for the employer to sustain in the competitive business environment. The aim of this study is  to discuss the  determinants of   workplace happiness in hospitality industry in Riyadh and to suggest  a plan of action for facilitating a happy workplace. Data was collected through a self-designed closed ended questionnaire among 500 employees working in various hotels in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data was analyzed using factor analysis principal components with varimax rotation method. Eight significant determinants of workplace happiness in hospitality sector were identified based on factor analysis which included: Work Environment, Family Environment and living conditions, Genetic and Personality Factors, Social Interaction, Organizational Factors, Leader/Supervisor Behavior or attitude, Spirituality and emotional wellness, Interventions. The results of this study can guide the  employers, managers and human resource personnel to develop interventions to ensure a culture where happiness is promoted. Pages 1209 to 1228

A Stylistic Analysis of the Short Story "The Little Match Girl"

Yazan Shaker Almahameeda, Department of English Language and Translation, Amman Arab University, Jordan/, Email: aYazan.Shaker@yahoo.com

This study aims at conducting an extensive stylistic analysis of the short story "The Little Match Girl" written by the Danish author Hans Christian Andersen. The study attempts to analyse stylistically four language levels pertinent to the story; namely phonological level, syntactic level, graphological level and semantic level. The phonological style of the author comprises four sound features: alliteration, assonance, consonance and rhyme. The syntactic style of the author is chiefly characterised by frequent deviation from English word order. The graphological style of the author is featured by excessive use of punctuation marks such as comma, semicolon, en dash, hyphen and inverted commas. The semantic level in the story is primarily influenced by the utilising elegant synonymy. It is found that the author managed to create mapping between semantically unrelated words, making them synonyms in context. In addition, the study analyses three figures of speech found in the story namely: personification, simile and hyperbole. It could be concluded that the language of the author is characterised by variation and uniqueness, in which he employs several linguistic and poetic devices to exhibit his unparalleled style and fingerprint, making the story deep, touching and interesting to follow. Pages 1229 to 1240   


Performance Appraisal Satisfaction and Teacher Performance in Government Colleges of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa

¹Khuda Bakhsh, ²Bushra Yasin, ³Javed Iqbal, ⁴Tanveer Abbas, ¹Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. ²Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Jhang, Pakistan. ³Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan, ⁴BS student, Department of Public Administration, GC Universaity Faisalabad, Pakistan, Email: ¹khudabakhsh@gcuf.edu.pk

The main objective of the current study was to investigate upshots of the performance appraisal satisfaction and teacher performance. The said objectives were met through the quantitative approach under positivism paradigm of the research. The data were collected from one hundred principals through purposive sampling techniques. The principals of government colleges marked the instrument measuring the performance appraisal satisfaction and teacher performance. The overall result suggested that the performance appraisal satisfaction has significant impact on employee’s task performance, contextual performance and creative performance. Research based Recommendations has been included regarding the performance appraisal system set for the teaching staff. Pages 1241 to 1247

Qualitative Exploration of Perception and Knowledge of Trainee Teachers about Professional Ethics

Uzma Shahzadi1, Khuda Bakhsh2, Javed Iqbal3, Muhammad Arshad4, 1Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Sargodha, Pakistan. 2Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. 3Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan. 4SST Science, School Education Department, Government Fazilka Islamia Model High School Pakpattan, Punjab-Pakistan, Email: 4marshadzakki@gmail.com 4ORCID iD https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2030-6851.

Teachers play an influential role in the lives of students from childhood. Teachers, while playing a central role in developing the student, also act as role models or figure heads in classrooms. The present study is focused on exploring the perceptions and knowledge of trainee teachers about professional ethics. To achieve the objective, a qualitative exploration was adapted from trainee teachers enrolled in teacher education programs of the University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan. Interview protocol was designed and validated using expert opinion and literature review. A total of 43 trainee teachers enrolled in undergraduate programs of teacher education took part in the study. The analysis procedure involved thematic analysis. It was found that, in the view of trainee teachers, the main purpose of the professional teacher education program is to develop professionally sound and ethical teachers. The data also reflected the awareness of trainee teachers regarding professional duties and roles. It was found that the majority of trainee teachers know professional ethics and they focus on certain ethical principles more than the others. The study recommends the design and delivery of a professional ethics course module for the teacher training programs. Pages 1248 to 1257

The Extent of the Development of Arabic Language Skills among Birzeit University Students after Passing the Arabic Language Skills Course / First Level

Sami E. Shatha, Ali H. Akhawajab, aFaculty of Arts/ Faculty of Education, Birzeit University, Palestine, bFaculty of Arts, Birzeit University, Palestine, Email: asshaath@birzeit.edu, bakhawaja@birzeit.edu

The research aimed to identify the extent of language development skills among Birzeit University students in the educational course (Arabic Language Skills / First Level). In order to attain this goal, a 40-paragraph achievement test has been designed covering three main areas: the linguistic skill, reading comprehension skills, and language coherence and clarity. After verifying the validity and reliability required, a pre and posttest was applied on a sample of the study consisting of 183, male and female students. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences in favour of the post-test. The results of the test displayed that the arithmetic means for the pre-test were 19.56, and the arithmetic means for the post-test were 22.23. These results indicate that the level of language skills development among all students was unsatisfactory. Accordingly, the two researchers suggested a number of recommendations. Pages 1258 to 1278

The Role of the Academic Leaders in Reinforcing Digital Citizenship Among Saudi Students

Eman  Ahmed1 and Kamel Al-hussary2, 1Assistant professor, Department of Educational Administration, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, , 2Professor, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, Email: eiahmed@iau.edu.sa1 kdalhussary@iau.edu.sa2

The present study examined the role of the academic leaders in reinforcing digital citizenship among students at Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University from the perspective of faculty members. To address the objectives of the study, the authors used  the quantitative approach, and developed a questionnaire consisting of 30 items applied to a sample of 108 faculty members. The results of the study showed a high degree of contribution by the academic leaders in the promotion of digital citizenship among the students. Moreover, the results showed that there were statistically significant differences in sample responses according to the gender, specialization and years of service in the university. No statistically significant differences were found according to the job title. The authors proposed a set of recommendations that can contribute to improving the role of academic leaders in reinforcing digital citizenship for students at Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, the most important of which is establishing a unit for developing digital citizenship for the students, and partnering with technology houses of expertise to advance the leadership’s role in spreading a culture of digital citizenship among students. Pages 1279 to 1299

Factors Affecting Professionalism of Head Teachers at Secondary Level in the Punjab

Misbah Malik1, Ghulam Fatima2, Sara Azhar3, Muhammad Jahanzaib4, Khuda Bakhsh5, 1Assistant Professor, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.2Associate Professor, Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Assistant Professor, Township Campus, University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan.4PhD Scholar, Department of Special Education, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 5Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. E-mail: khudabakhsh@gcuf.edu.pk.

This quantitative study was designed to find out the different factors that affect professionalism of teachers who are working as heads of a secondary school in the province of Punjab. Cluster sampling technique was used to select a sample of 100 headteachers working in different districts of the Punjab. For data collection an indigenously developed questionnaire was used. The questionnaire comprised statements related to different factors of professionalism. Different factors were given against each statement to get responses on the statements. The questionnaire was validated by conducting a pilot study, which showed a statistically significant reliability index (Cronbach Alpha) .81. Data were analysed by SPSS 21 trial version, by applying descriptive and inferential (t-test and ANOVA)statistics. Results of these tests showed the mean difference in head teachers’ responses for factors that affect their professionalism on the basis of “gender, age, district, years of experience and qualification.” Results also showed that factors that highly affect professionalism of head teachers included: family matters, extra duties and working environment, whereas, personal interest and health conditions were the least affecting factors. Recommendations were given on the basis of these results. Pages 1300 to 1312

Rigidity and Flexibility in Pashto

Ghani Rahmana, Arshad Ali Khanb, Abdul Hamidc, Nadeem Haider Bukharid, Akbar Alie, aAssistant Professor, English Department, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan, bAssociate Professor, Department of Linguistics and Communications, Institute of Liberal Arts, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, cAssistant Professor, University of Swat, Swat, Pakistan, dProfessor of English, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan, eAssistant Professor, Department of English, FATA University, KP, Pakistan, Email: aghani.rahman@hu.edu.pk, barshad.khan@umt.edu.pk, dsnhb67@gmail.com, eakbar@fu.edu.pk

The present study is concerned with the concept of rigidity and flexibility across languages. This concept arises out of the interplay between pragmatic function and its structural representation. One such grammatical function is focus structure in languages. Focus structure in a language is represented through different strategies. The present study specifically focuses on focus structures in Pashto language and their possible structural representations. It discusses rigidity and flexibility in Pashto language. The study tries to find out the rigidity in the language and identifies that there is syntactic rigidity in Pashto and as a consequence, other pragmatic functions like focus realisations are adapted to it. Focal structures in Pashto are realised by changing the locus of the intonational prominence making focus structure flexible in the language. In predicate focus, the topical element can be omitted in Pashto clause, but it cannot be omitted in sentence and narrow focus as we have no topic in sentence focus and argument functions as a focus in narrow focus. Pashto has rigid syntax and the apparently different structural positions of the focal element in sentence and narrow focus is because of the inversion of the 2P clitic (me) realising genitive case. Pashto, being a rigidly verb final language, has the unmarked focus position immediately before the verb. The actual focus position is the predicate and preverbal position in the clause. The referents that are more active are the more non-focal and the referents that are less active are in the focal position in the clause. On the other hand, languages with flexible syntax (French for example) have rigid focus and syntax is adapted to the focus structure in such languages. The study highlights how flexibility of focus gives way to rigidity of the syntax. When the syntax is rigid in Pashto, the focus structure is adapted to it and when the focus is rigid (like in French), the syntax is adapted to focal structure in the language. Pages 1313 to 1323

Analysis of Problem-Solving Skills in Secondary School English Textbooks

Dr. Bibi Asia Naza, Dr. Javed Iqbalb, Dr. Khuda Bakhshc Zamir Ahmed Zakid, a,b,cAssistant professor, a,bDepartment of Education, Hazara University Mansehra, cDepartment of education, GC University Faisalabad, Pakistan dElementry and Secondary Education, Email: aasianaz@hu.edu.pk, bjavediqbal73@hu.edu.pk,ckhudabakhsh@gcuf.edu.pk dZamirraja766@gmail.com

The aim of this research was to conduct a content analysis of High School English textbooks in the context of problem solving skills education. The study's goals were to examine the content of 9th and 10th grade English Textbooks (ETBs) in light of problem solving skills-related components, and to compare both textbooks.  For this purpose an English textbook was selected of Azad Jammu & Kashmir Text Book Board Muzaffarabad, Pakistan. The research was confined to ETB prose chapters from the 9th and 10th grades. A codebook related to problem solving skills was developed and validated to ensure intra-coder reliability. Frequency and themes were used to determine the degree to which problem solving skilled components were included in the textbooks. Problem solving skills as the most important component of life skilled base was covered but with low frequency in the textbooks. Therefore the study recommended that problem solving skills-based elements be included in textbooks to address the challenges of everyday life. Pages 1324 to 1333

Work Stress and Counterproductive Work Behaviour

Agus Surosoa, Timea Galb, Ade Irma Anggraenic, a,cUniversitas Jenderal Soedirman, Indonesia, bDebrecen University, Hungary, Email: cade.anggraeni.gardjito@gmail.com

Role theory is seen as a construct in the relationship of work-family conflict and work stress. In adult life, work and family are two things that must be done together. Family is the main reason to work for income, and work is a source of income to meet family needs. Stress is seen as an adaptive response to a situation that is being perceived as a challenge or a threat to one's health. Job stress is a feeling of pressure or pressure experienced by employees in facing their work. Under certain conditions, employees may feel less motivated to meet their expectations in socialising and meeting social norms, but are instead motivated to oppose these norms. Both work-family conflict and stress can affect the emergence of counterproductive work behaviour. The results showed that work-family conflict, especially work interfering with family, has an effect on stress. Conflicts in the work domain that interfere with family responsibilities can create stress for employees. The results also showed that stress has an effect on counterproductive work behaviour, thus supporting the research hypothesis. The stress felt by respondents is a strong reason for the occurrence of counterproductive work behaviour. Pages 1334 to 1346

Antecedents and Outcomes of Knowledge Sharing Behavior: Moderating Role of Hope

Dr. Afsheen Fatima1*, Dr. Sahrish Saba2, Samia Zaheer3, Dr. Khalid Mahmood4, Syed Muhammad Imran Haider Zaidi5, Dr. Fahad Khan Afridi6, 1,2UIMS, University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi, Pakistan. 3PhD Scholar, Department of Education, NUML, Islamabad, Pakistan. 4,5Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Psychology, Govt. College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. 6Assistant Professor, Department of Management Science, Qurtuba University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan. *Corresponding Author: afsheen@uaar.edu.pk

This study develops and tests a path model based on theory of planned behavior positioning that job engagement leads to commitment which is a predictor of knowledge sharing which leads to organizational innovation. A sample of 354 respondents was collected from information and communication technology (ICT) Industry of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, which are twin cities of Pakistan. Job engagement scale (Schaufeli et al., 2002), knowledge sharing behavior scale (Bock et al., 2005), organizational commitment scale (Mowday et al., 1982), innovation scale (Huang & Li, 2009) and State Hope Scale (Snyder et al. (1991) were used. Using structural equation modelling, the results suggest that job engagement influences organizational commitment which influences knowledge sharing behavior and this behavior ultimately positively leads to innovation. The results further reveal that hope moderates the relationship between commitment and knowledge-sharing behavior. Limitations and future research recommendations are also discussed. Pages 1347 to 1368

Personal Philosophy about the Nature of Science and its Impact on Teaching Pedagogy; A Case Study of an Elementary School Science Teacher

Naila Gula, Dr Amir Zamanb, Dr Abdul Ghafarc, Dr Sheraz Khand, a Ph D scholar Abdul Wali khan university mardan Pakistan, bAssociate Professor Abdul Wali khan university mardan Pakistan, cAssociate Professor, Abdul Wali khan university mardan Pakistan, d Elementary and Secondary Education Department KP, Pakistan,

The study aimed at making evident the process of change in the classroom practice of a science teacher resulting from personal philosophy about the nature of science. The process of change in teaching practice was addressed by finding the personal philosophy held in comparison to other teachers. The data was collected through a science teacher philosophy questionnaire, audio recordings of classroom practice and a teacher interview. Some encouraging evidence in favour of change in classroom practice about student involvements in science concepts was found. The teacher started valuing students’ learning and spent more time in listening to the students rather than instructing them. The sequence in which changes were observed has great potential for facilitating the Continuous Professional Development (CPD) of science teachers. Pages 1369 to 1379

Scale Development to Measure Employer Engagement

Samina Khana, Ulfat Abbasb, Rao Arif Mahmood Khanc*, Muhammad Irfan Sheikhd, , Hanzla Ahmede, Muhammad Masood Hussainf, Hafiz Muhammad Ammar Zafarg, Saqlain Sherh, aPhD Scholar, Institute of Management Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, b, c*, e, f, g, hPhD Scholar, Institute of Business Management & Administrative Sciences, The Islamia University Bahawalpur, dZonal Manager at AFAQ (Association For Academic Quality), Email: akhansamina44@yahoo.com, bulfat.abbas@iub.edu.pk, c*rao.arif@iub.edu.pk, dm.irfanshkh@gmail.com,   ech.hanzla@gmail.com, fmasood007143@yahoo.com, ghafizammarzafar@gmail.com, hsaqlainsher@hotmail.com

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/15925

Employer engagement, in existing literature, mostly refers to the engagement of the educational institutions in the corporate world; to benchmark their curricula and syllabi in-line with the employers' needs. This study has focused on the same construct with different relation; typically in the context of work-based learning providers and organizational practices. Although there has been theoretical discussions and calls to develop comprehensive measures for employer engagement, however, no contemporary measure for employer engagement exist to the context this study was carried out. The scope of this study covers the development of a new scale based on the guidelines to measure employer engagement specifically to the context of work based practices. The scale constitutes of 19 items that address, employer engagement based on 3 sub-dimensions. The scale was developed and validated through six phases beginning with the determination of valid dimensions / construct followed by generation of pool of items, assessing the content adequacy of the items and items refinement through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability and validity of the scale are also tested. Pages 1380 to 1406

The Theory of War and the Future of Peace in Afghanistan      

Dr. Muhammad Tariqa, Irshan Arif b, Umair Irshadc, Asif Ali Shahd, Altaf Hussaine Anwar Alif, Amjad Ali Khang, aLecturer Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, b, c, dM. Phil Scholars, Hazara University Mansehra, e Lecturer in Political Science, Government Degree College Buner, f Teaching Assistant at Deportment of Political Science Hazara University & Ph. D Scholar Pakistan Studies AUST, glecturer Department of Political Science Hazara University Mansehra  Email: amuhammadtariq@hu.edu.pk

This paper focusses on the theory of war and the possibility of peace in Afghanistan in the post-US withdrawal scenario. The paper takes into account five key parameters of war enshrining upon; the justification of the logic of the causes of war, the decision regarding war taken by the legitimate war, the need to use force with the aim of reformative aspect, the reasonable hope of success that may result in bringing peace and the use of force being proportionate and discriminate. Research objective of the study centers upon the investigation of the theory of war and the possibility of peace in Afghanistan. Research questions of the study focus on the different causes of war, the basic purpose of war whether reformative or the establishment of the hegemonic power in the region or a particular country, the change in the US policy regarding the changing of dates for the total withdrawal of the US forces, and the possibility of peace in Afghanistan in future. The paper investigates the very basic issue of the prolonged war in Afghanistan under different dimensions and the decision of the legitimate authority to justify the logic of war with the reformative purpose and then the possibility of peace in the post US withdrawal scenario. Research methodology centers around qualitative approach wherein the main focus remains on the secondary sources of data. The study is very significant on account of its focus on the very current issues of the US withdrawal and the possibility of peace since different efforts have been in vogue for the restoration of peace in Afghanistan as a result of the peace parley between the Afghan government and the Taliban. Pages 1407 to 1418

Mediating Effect of Burnout on the relationship between Work-Family Conflict and Organizational Commitment

Dr. Faisal Khan1, Dr. Muhammad Sufyan2, Dr. Najma Iqbal Malik (PhD)3, Prof. Dr. Arab Naz4, Nabeela Bibi5, 1,2Department of Management Sciences, University of Swabi, Anbar, Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 3Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan, 4Department of Sociology University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 5MS Scholar, Department of Management Sciences, University of Swabi, University of Swabi, Anbar, Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Email:  Abdullah.anishm@gmail.com

The purpose of the study has to examine the mediating effect of job burnout on the relationship between work-family conflict (WFC) and organizational commitment among the employees of the banking sector in District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. For the study, data were collected through a close-ended questionnaire from 232 employees of the banking sector. The design of this study was cross-sectional and quantitative, where the data has analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The findings of the analysis show a positive relationship between WFC and job burnout, while a negative relationship has been found between WFC and emotional exhaustion with organizational commitment. Furthermore, the results indicate that burnout partially mediates the relationship between work-family conflict and organizational commitment. This study also provides limitations and recommendations for future research studies. Pages 1419 to 1442

Adaptation or Translation: A Comparative Analysis of English Animation Dubbed into the Hindi Language

Saood Khan1, Maryam Sarwar2, Nadia Shaukat3, Adnan Khan4, Afaqullah Khan5, 1,4,5The University of Swat, Pakistan, 2The University of Lahore, Pakistan,3University of Management Science, Pakistan

Dubbings of Hollywood movies are done in a variety of languages, particularly in the subcontinent, to appeal to audiences who do not comprehend the original language of the film. However, pure translation is not possible due to linguistic and cross-cultural variations which prompt the audiovisual translator to adapt translation. In such an approach the translating priorities and privileges the target culture and its audience over the source culture. Animation dubbing appears to be a distinct subtype of screen translation. It can be claimed that dubbing animation, is creativity as well as transitivity in the target language. Divergence in the source language may be permitted to a certain extent. However, procedures should be used to ensure that the translated version sounds natural, informative, and enjoyable to the target language audience. It is self-evident that animation is aimed at young audiences, which is why the audiovisual translation takes liberties to reduce complicated talks and incorporate more entertaining dialogues so that the children can interpret and enjoy the animation. In recent years, particularly in light of the industry's fierce competition, the appearance of celebrities’ voices in animated movies is also increasingly recognized as a successful approach for broadening audience appeal. The current study seeks to investigate the translational strategy adopted for animation dubbing. Additionally, to determine the role celebrities play in voice dubbing, and identify the linguistic principles that are violated while dubbing animation from the source language to the target language. Pages 1443 to 1463

A Comparative Study of Metaphysical Concepts of Revealed Religions

Dr. Khalid Mahmood Arif1, Dr. Iftikhar Alam2, Nadeem Abbas3, Muhammad Hassan Raza4, Muhammad Usman Khalid5,Ghazala Bashir6, 1PhD Islamic Studies, University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan, 2Assistant Professor (V), Department of Islamic Studies, University of Okara, Punjab, Pakistan, 3Lecturer, Department of Islamic Studies, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan, 4M.Phil, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan, 5PhD Scholar, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, 6Visiting Lecturer, Govt. College Women University, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan,

Every person who comes into this world has some questions in his or her mind: Who I am?  How I get there? What will be I do in the future? These questions ultimately arise some more questions. If we examine the metaphysical or supernatural conceptions of the revealed religions, it becomes clear that there is a belief in these religions that there is one thing in common between some things, "existence". Many things are beyond human reason. Man can think of them but cannot see or feel them. But it is important to remember that this does not mean just studying God and immaterial things. So, in every era, man has needed guidance to manage the affairs of his life, that is the reason why God sent prophets in every era to guide mankind. These prophets conveyed the message of Allah Almighty through revelation and open new horizons to mankind. Torah, Psalms, the Gospel and the Holy Qur'an are heavenly books. And in these books there is guidance regarding every necessity of man and also in them there are clear orders about some unseen things such as the soul, angels, devils, heaven and hell. Man's nature from the very beginning prompts him to seek and gain information about unknown things. Much has been written and said about these supernatural things since the beginning. In this article we will analysis the metaphysical concepts of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Pages 1464 to 1477

Suicide Reporting: A Comparative Study of News Framing in Local and National Newspapers

Arshad Rehman1, Dr. Sajjad Ali2, Dr.Faiza Latif3, Dr. Abdul Shakoor4, 1Visiting Lecturer in Media & Communication Studies, University of Swat, 2Assistant Professor, Department of Journalism & Mass Communication, University of Malakand, 3Assistant Professor, Department of Mass Communication, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, 4PhD Scholar, Department of Media Studies, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab

Today's leading causes of death include suicide. Every suicide is a trauma that affects the people left behind for a very long time, having an influence on families, communities, and even countries. Using content analysis, the study was constructed. To learn how suicide news is framed in local and national publications, a study was done using the framing theory. Data was gathered between April 1 and September 30 2020 from news articles in two newspapers, Daily Chand and Daily Express. For data collection, a coding sheet was created. In total, 47 news news stories about the topic were discovered by the researcher to have been thematically structured over the course of six months. Coding sheet was developed to collect data. The researcher found total 47 news stories related to the issue during six months were framed in thematic framing.. The researcher finds out that in thematic framing 29 stories were framed from Daily Express while 18 from Daily Chand. The results demonstrate that the National newspaper gives mostly coverage to suicide on city or national/international page while local newspaper mostly prefers to give space to suicide on the back page of the newspaper. In most of the cases poison were used by the victim as a tool to end their life. The overall result shows that Suicide ratio is higher among the young generation and unmarried people. Pages 1478 to 1493

An Introduction to the Origins, Evolution and Types of the Prevalent Insurance and Rulings of Islamic Law

Dr. Saleem Khan1, Fawad Ali2, Dr. Zafar Hussain3, Dr. Muhammad Ayaz4, Dr. Mian Asadullah5, 1Lecturer, Department of Islamic Studies, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan, 2PhD. Research scholar, Faculty of Usool ud Deen/Department of Hadith, International Islamic University, Islam Abad, 3Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic Theology, Islamia College University, Peshawar, Pakistan, 4Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic Studies/ Pakistan Studies, University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan, 5Assistant Professor, Islamic Studies, Higher Education Department KPK, Pakistan Email: 1saleemkhanisl@uop.edu.pk, 2fawad085@gmail.com, 3zafar.hussain@icp.edu.pk, 4Muhammad.ayaz@aup.edu.pk, 5mianasadullah1234@gmail.com,

This article investigates prevalent insurance with its origin, development, types and detailed review of pertinent Shari’ah rulings. The purpose of the article is to highlight the validity of modern insurance in light of the Shari’ah rulings. Hence, it discusses the definition of insurance, such as, being a process of giving something into someone’s protection. This insurance has been described with historical development from early Muslim jurisprudents to modern scholars to present modern concept of Islamic insurance. Moreover, the article encompasses types of insurance with explanation. Besides, a detailed review of Shari’ah rulings has been presented serving to identify defects in modern insurance. Hence, it concludes that modern insurance has elements of Riba, Gambling and Gharrar. Therefore, such insurance is invalid in light of Shari’ah. In contrast, Muslim concept of insurance as conferred from the early centuries of Muslim societies, such as Daman Khatar al-Tariq and Daman Al-Dark etc are valid however, in modern insurance they have been redesigned with elements of Riba and Gambling which makes them invalid. Pages 1494 to 1510

The Role of Islamic learning in Urbanization

Dr. Tanveer Huma Ansari1, Dr. Khurram sheraz2, Dr. Makhdoom Muhammad Roshan Siddiqui3,1Department of Islamic Culture and Studies Sindh University of Jamshoro, 2Ph.D. Research Scholar, Department Islamic Studies Abdul Wali khan University of Mardan (AWKUM), 3Associate Professor GC University Hyderabad. Email: 1drhuma@brjisr.com, 2sherikhan26@gmail.com, 3drmmr1997@gmail.com

Islam provides a framework for Muslims to deal with all aspects of life. Some of these aspects regulate the relationship between residents and the built environment so as to achieve an acceptable level of sociocultural integration. There are two main resources for these principle in Islam: the Quran and the Sunnah. The holy Quran is the complete code of life which offers solution to every problem and provides spiritual peace. The Holy Prophet is a bright and clear guide for the believers. The Muslim system of Islam established on this basis, and the world of Muslims regret fully has established on their own. It means, that the Prophet not sent to the guidance of any particular nation or country. The message of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) has a comprehensive and international entity . The Holy quran indicates that "We have certainly sent you as a mercy for all the world.’The Prophet Muhammad was not the only Prophet but he did not only bring a religious revolution in his life but also came in a great society, there is huge number of teachers in the world. But the Prophet, who has revolutionized the social and reforms, is not the same as the world. In fact, Prophet determined right of equality on society for he allowed preached human being to be united for the cause of Allah Said and all wars including between was admonished.Each nation its own identity that represents the prevailing belief , social values, and cultural of inhabitants . Identity is constructed through a socio_ cultural and political process that occurs between the inhabitants and the built and natural environment, forms, structures and patterns have all been used to develop national and local identity. “In particular, Islamic Identity refers to a cluster of Ideas about an Islamic nation that includes socio cultural values which shape the profile of cities. It should be noted that every thing is changing with time, but religion of islam that has never changed and present in its original state. but with these principles of Islam, we can solve new ideas and new problems to combat. Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural areas to urban areas, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change. It is predominantly the process by which towns and cities are formed and become larger as more people begin living and working in central areas. Interest in the nature and growth of towns and cities in the Muslim World (in modern times) began when many Western Orientalists argued that the Middle Eastern cities in the Islamic period were essentially a product of the Islamic religious ideals. These Western Orientalists have viewed Islam as an essentially urban religion and argued that Islam fosters the development of cities. In addition, the role of cities has been increasingly considered as a part of the global economy. Cities are always the main centers of political and social problems, contacts and thoughts in every country. Pages 1511 to 1523

Transition of Khilafat-E-Usmania from an Empire to Republic under the Treaty of Lausanne and Its Geopolitical and Economic Impacts on Muslim World

Dr.Muhammad Bahar Khan1, Saad Jaffar2, Dr.Nasir Ali Khan3, Muhammad Waseem Mukhtar4, Kashif Mehmood5, Waqar Ahmad6, Iqra Maheen7, 1The Islamia University Bahawalpur, Punjab (Pakistan), 2Lecturer Islamic Studies, Department of Pakistan Studies, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology, Abbottabad, 3Assistant Professor, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, 4PhD Scholar, Department of Islamic Studies, The Islamia University Bahawalpur, 5M.phil Scholar ,Department of Islamic Studies and Arabic ,The University of Lahore, 6Mphil Scholar, Institute of Islamic Studies, Mirpur University of Science & Technology (MUST), Mirpur AJK,7Lecturer,Department of English, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology .

Food and soul are reciprocal for human survival. Man had been struggling to manage them for him. Food is available in the shape of greenery while soul is divine gift but it is necessary to manage the things those are necessary for life. First of all economic production then its trade for uncountable purposes is inevitable. With the passage of time trade enhanced and it spread all over the earth face. First of all it was possible through land courses but under the proverb “necessity is the mother of invention” man stepped forward and started to invent new technologies for his easiness. So, he invented technology and under new and modern technology he turned to marine voyage for both entertainment and trade regionally as well as globally. Now his thinking turned to serious policies for that he started to establish relations with other nations. So, this unity caused to get trade or economic monopoly in different ways. This research article is an attempt to highlight the Treaty Lausanne’s importance for global geopolitics and its economic impacts. Pages 1524 to 1535
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