Indoor Navigation Systems Using Annotated Maps in Mobile Augmented Reality

Rehman Ullah Khana*, Yin Bee Oonb, Amalia Madihiec, Chia Shu End, a,b,c,dFaculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), Email: a*rehmanphdar@gmail.com

A Mobile Augmented Reality indoor navigation framework composed of several modules to reduce human cognitive workload and save time by blending the digital and physical worlds seamlessly through aligning the appropriate 3D path with features in the real world through ground detection. The framework helps in better understanding the surrounding especially unfamiliar buildings such as offices, shopping malls and libraries etc. It determines the users starting location via scanning the reference image which is placed at the entrance. The system was tested at the Centre for Academic Information Services (CAIS), Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS). The results proved that the system provides a good platform to show the location information without requiring hardware installation and a strong wireless connection. Pages 1 to 14




What Drives the Internationalisation of Malaysian Halal SMES? the Influence of Personal Network, Psychic Distance and International Knowledge.

Sathiswaran Uthamaputhrana, Mohd Ikhwan Azizb, Nurul Hasliana binti Hamsanic, Azlinda Shazneem binti Md Shuaibd, a,b,c,dUniversity Malaysia Kelantan, Email: asathiswaran@umk.edu.mybIkhwan.a@umk.edu.mycHasliana.h@umk.edu.mydShazneem.ms@umk.edu.my

This paper scrutinizes the halal SME internationalization from the context of developing country Malaysia. Under the resources-based view (RBV) theoretical lens, this paper makes a conceptual focus on halal SMEs resources to support the process of internationalisation. In order to understand the influence of resources such as personal network, psychic distance and international knowledge, a qualitative research and case study were used to uncover the internationalisation process of halal SMEs. A case study is presented to see the impact of resources in various stage of internationalisation. This paper has provided a significant contribution to the body of knowledge on SME internationalisation from a developing country. This paper also presents a critical evaluation with conclusions and implications for further research in this area. Pages 15 to 37




 How to Improve the Ability of Social Science Teachers’ Improvement of the Middle School Student Learning Discipline

Misnaha, Andi Dewi Riang Tatib, Bahric, Humaedid, Rizale, Mahfud M. Gamarf, aFKIP Tadulako University, bElementary School Education Study Program, Faculty of Education, Makassar State University, cHistory Education Study Program. Faculty of Social Sciences, Makassar State University, dPhysical Education Health and Recreation FKIP Tadulako University, ePGSD FKIP Tadulako University, fTadulako University, Email: amisnah@untad.ac.idbd3wi1979@gmail.comcbahri@unm.ac.iddhumaed@untad.ac.iderizal_pgsd@untad.ac.idfgamarunggul@yahoo.com

The objectives of this study are: 1) To determine the ability of social studies teachers to carry out social studies learning to be able to improve student learning discipline in SMP Negeri 8 Palu. 2) to find out the obstacles found by social studies teachers in improving student learning disciplines in Palu 8 Public Middle School. The method used in this research is the qualitative method. Qualitative research is a factual problem-solving method that is equipped with both primary and secondary data that is accurate about the state of the object of research as well as systematic elaboration, description is interpreted as research is carried out on independent variables, i.e. without making comparisons with other variables. The results of the study show that: 1) Social Studies teachers at Palu 8 Middle School already have good abilities and can discipline students in learning, because social studies teachers already have professional competence; 2) The most basic obstacle is still the lack of student motivation towards social studies subjects, so that social studies subjects are less desirable and students are less motivated to study social studies. Pages 38 to 56




Antecedents of Knowledge Sharing Behaviour

Hindah Mustikaa, Anis Eliyanab, Tri Siwi Agustinac, a,b,cManagement Department, Faculty of Economics and Business Airlangga University, Airlangga 4-6 St, Gubeng, Surabaya, East Java 60115, Indonesia, Email: aindah.mustika08@gmail.com/hindah.mustika-2016@feb.unair.ac.idbAnis.eliyana@feb.unair.ac.idcTri-s-a@feb.unair.ac.id

Purpose Knowledge Sharing Behaviour (KSB) is the most important part of knowledge management, which has an influence in an organisation. Knowledge is a critical organisational resource that will provide a sustainable competitive advantage in a dynamic and competitive economy so that knowledge sharing behaviour between individuals has become one of the most important elements of effective knowledge processes. The main focus in this study is to examine and analyse antecedents of knowledge sharing behaviour. Methods This study uses a cross-sectional design which is used to collect the data used which is then carried out by mediation analysis. Structural Equation Modelling is used to test the mediation effect based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Findings The results show a positive and significant relationship between attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and behavioural intentions. So, there is the impact of full mediation of behavioural intentions between attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and knowledge sharing behaviour. It can be concluded that this states that behavioural intentions can fully process planned behaviour predictions. Research limitations / implications The sample size is limited, in marine, shipping and other maritime industry companies in Java. This study limited supervisor behavioural preferences. This study is a one-time cross-section focusing on a one-off perception. Practical implications The supervisor at the Company in the field of sea transportation has a heavy duty responsibility in carrying the trust that has been given and synergises well between the employees below and the manager. Pages 57 to 71




Examining the Factors that Enhance Students’ Happiness in Higher Education Institutions: A Case Study in a Private Higher Education Institution in the UAE

Khairol Anuar Ishaka, Maysoon Alkaisib, aSchool of Business Management, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia, bPhD candidate, School of Business Management, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia,

Life satisfaction and happiness of an individual depends on his/her ability to deal with various situations of life. Individuals capacity to fully understand and then control their emotions results in a decrease in the stress of life. No doubt, the happiness of a consumer is associated with his/her satisfaction from services that are being provided. Moreover, a sense of achievement and learning enjoyment is another paramount source of gratification. According to the World Happiness Report published in 2013, students of higher education institutes in the UAE are less euphoric than students of well-developed countries. Engagement of students in morally uplifting experiences is indispensable for the development of the public. Factually, there is no rumination on student’s happiness that can be materialised from the synchronic policies in the UAE, demonstrating the dire need to understand the importance of cultivating the environment of happiness in HEIs of the UAE. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the happiness scale among students of higher education institutes and then correspond this scale with four criteria of PERMA, in order to explain the factors which are important for student’s contentment in HEIs of the UAE. Pages 72 to 89




The Impact of Agricultural credit and Extension Services on Crop Productivity in Indonesia: A Time Series Analysis

Yusro Hakimaha*, Sumarnib, Mala Ganatric, Ursula Damayantid, Haryonoe, aFaculty of Engineering, Universitas Tridinanti Palembang, Palembang, Indonesia, bFaculty of Economics, Universitas Borobudur, Jakarta, Indonesia, cFaculty of Economics, STIE International Golden Institute, Jakarta, Indonesia, dFaculty of Agribusiness, Universitas Tridinanti Palembang, Indonesia, eFaculty of Economics and Business, University of Bhayangkara, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: a*yusrohakimah@yahoo.co.id

The purpose of the current study was to analyse the impact of Agricultural credit and agricultural extension services (AES) on crop productivity. The current study was performed in Indonesia for which the past 30 years data was used to run a time series analysis. Since, the purpose of the current study was to analyse the relationship of AES and Agricultural credit with crop productivity through time series analysis, the sample observations were decided through purposive sampling. The thirty years of data for key variables was extracted from official databases of the country and the analysis was completed through EViews. The descriptive test, unit root test, heteroscedasticity test and OLS regression modelling was applied to the data of Indonesia. The results of the current study revealed that there is significant but negative impact of agricultural credit on crop productivity but there is no significant impact of AES on crop productivity. It means that the agricultural credit is a significant predictor of crop productivity. The current study and findings will have important theoretical and practical implications because they will set guidelines about how crop productivity in Indonesia can be enhanced through AES and agricultural credit. Pages 90 to 105




Green Companies and the Millennial Generation as the Spearhead of the Environment

Robetmi Jumpakita Pinema*, Dinalestari Purbawatib, Abditama Srifitrianic, Soegeng Wahyoedid, Sukarise, a,bDepartment of Business Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Diponegoro, cGeography Education Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Prof Dr Hazairin SH, dDepartment of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Krida Wacana Christian University, eDepartment of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Muhammadiyah Gresik, Email: a*robetmijumpakita@yahoo.com

The environment is one of the concerns of the world community, and continues to be the subject of conversation throughout the world. A company carries out a variety of things including maintaining good business processes and trying to protect the environment from business activities carried out. Respondents in this study were 206 millennials. Data was collected through questionnaires using questionnaire and interviews. Data was processed using SPSS version 25.0 software. The findings suggested that environmental concern and green company image have a partially significant influence on the purchase intention of green products and simultaneously have significant results. The determination coefficient or R-Square in this study is 44.3%, which means that the green company image and environmental concern together have an influence on the purchase intention of green products of 44.3% and the remaining of around 55.7% is influenced by factors outside of the variables studied such as prices, social influences, and other factors. Pages 106 to 115




The Environmental Dynamism, Dynamic Capabilities and Marketing Innovation of Fertiliser Firms in Vietnam

Dieu Quang Trunga, Andy Ng Yoke Bengb, Amiya Bhaumikc,a,b,cLincoln University College, Malaysia,

The focus of strategic management literature has shifted from factors that influence firm performance, to factors that underlie superior or innovation-based performance. Views of dynamic capabilities better explain this. This research fills an important paucity in dynamic capabilities and innovation research, by empirically relating dynamic capabilities; namely marketing knowledge management capability, innovation process management capability, and organisational learning capability, and marketing innovation of fertiliser firms in Vietnam, with environmental dynamism as a moderator. Drawing support from Dynamic Capability View (DCV), six hypotheses were postulated and tested using quantitative approach and cross-sectional design. In total 411 questionnaires were personally administered to owners/managers of fertiliser firms in Vietnam. A valid response of 54.9% was achieved. Data was analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 24. A relationship between marketing knowledge management capability and marketing innovation were found. However, the relationship between innovation process management capability and marketing innovation, and organisational learning capability and marketing innovation, was not supported statistically. Interestingly, the moderating effect of environmental dynamism on the relationship between the three dynamic capabilities and marketing innovation were supported. The research has contributed to the literature, and practical and theoretical implications as well as suggestions for future research were provided. Pages 116 to 128




An Exploratory Analysis of the Development of Philippine Regions

Starr Clyde L. Sebiala, aJHCerilles State College Mati, San Miguel, Zamboanga del Sur, 7029, Email: aclyde21g@gmail.com

The Philippines is one of the fast-growing economies in the South-East Asian and the Pacific region. This study considered eight factors: HEI PRC rate, crime rate, education, employment, health, poverty, income, and basic family amenities of the 17 regions of the country, all taken from the year 2012 databases of the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), the Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) and Open Data Philippines. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) generated the indices of the six factors and Cluster Analysis (CA) to group regional similarities. Clustering revealed that ARMM and MIMAROPA Regions have clustered independently, in two individual clusters, while the rest of the 15 regions have clustered in two groups of five and 10. The study revealed that crime, poverty and health mortality rates have generally inverse relationships with HEI PRC percentage performance, employment, education, income and basic housing amenities. Pages 129 to 145




 Development and Validation of the Mathematics Attitude Scale (MAS) for High School Students in the Southern Philippines

Elmark B. Facultada, Starr Clyde L. Sebialb, aAlicia National High School Poblacion, Alicia, Zamboanga Sibugay, bJH Cerilles State College Mati, San Miguel, Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines, Email: afacultadelmark93@gmail.com,bclyde21g@gmail.com

This study developed an instrument that measures the attitude of Filipino high school students towards mathematics, with reliable predictors and factors. Using the responses of 300 high school students from Zamboanga Sibugay, the validity and reliability of the Mathematics Attitude Scale (MAS) was tested using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and reliability analyses. The EFA showed that four-factor structures of the instrument, regarding the mathematics attitude for high school students, explained 27.48% of the variance in the pattern of relationships among the items. The Average Variance Extracted (AVE), Composite Reliability, and Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients were reported. They proved that the extracted constructs have obtained and satisfied convergent validity. Thirty-three items remained in the final questionnaire after deleting the twenty-seven items with factor loadings of less than 0.4 (Students’ Perceived Motivation and Support in Learning Mathematics: twelve items; Students’ Perceived Anxiety in Learning Mathematics: ten items; Students’ Perceived Self-Efficacy in Learning Mathematics: six items; and Teachers and Parents’ Influences to Students in Learning Mathematics: five items). This study has confirmed the four-factor structure of the MAS. Educators and researchers can use the MAS to better understand the attitudes of Filipino high school students towards mathematics. Pages 146 to 168




The Influence of Hybrid Learning Models on the Conceptual Science Education of Elementary School Teachers

Widdy H.F Rorimpandeya, I Nyoman S. Degengb, Punaji Setyosaryc, SaidaUlfad,a,b,c,d State University of Malang, Indonesia, Email: awiddyppsum@gmail.com,bnyoman.sudana.d.fip@um.ac.id,cpunaji-um@tep.ac.id,dsaida.ulfa.fip@um.ac.id

The rapid development of digital technology in the twenty-first century has impacted learning and teaching. It allows learning anywhere, anytime and with anyone. Hybrid learning can accommodate such systems. This study examines how the Hybrid Learning Model affects prospective elementary school teacher candidates’ understanding of science education concepts. The research subjects were studying to become elementary school teachers. They were divided into two groups, with 35 students in the experimental group and 35 students in the control group. Analysis of Variance One Way was used. The hybrid learning model was shown to significantly improve student learning outcomes, in elementary school teachers’ understanding of science education concepts. Pages 169 to 180




 Effects of Inverted Classroom and Self-Regulated Learning on Conceptual Learning

Hendrikus Miduna*, I Nyoman S. Degengb, Dedi Kuswandic, Saida Ulfad, aState University of Malang, Indonesia and  Saint Paul  Indonesian Catholic University of Ruteng, Indonesia, b,c,dState University of Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*hendrik.m2002@gmail.com,bnyoman.sudana.d.fip@um.ac.id,cdedi.kuswandi.fip@um.ac.id,dsaida.ulfa.fip@um.ac.id

Research on inverted or flipped classrooms concludes that the inverted classroom learning model is more effective than traditional learning. However, many researchers have not revealed that the inverted classroom is influenced by student conditions, such as self-regulation and self-efficacy. This study examines the effect of inverted classrooms on conceptual cognitive learning outcomes, by attending to self-regulated learning (SRL). This study is quasi-experimental research with pre-test / post-test control group design. There were 78 Indonesian Catholic University students participating in the research. The experimental class (39 students) used scaffolding, while the control class (39 students) was without scaffolding. We collected research data using questionnaires and tests. The data was analysed by two-ways ANOVA. The results concluded that inverted classroom and SRL affected conceptual cognitive learning outcomes positively, although neither had an interaction effect on learning achievement. Pages 181 to 201




The Integration between Financial Sustainability and Accountability in Higher Education Institutions: An Exploratory Case Study

Akeel Almagtomea*, Ameer Shakerb, Qayssar Al-Fatlawic, and Heider Bekheetd, a,b,cDepartment of Accounting, Faculty of Administration and Economics, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq, dDepartment of Economics, Faculty of Administration and Economics, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq, Email: a*akeelh.alhasnawi@uokufa.edu.iq

This study aims to explore the relationship between the financial sustainability and accountability function under the university autonomy and empirically evaluate the extent of the financial sustainability of public higher education institutions in Iraq. To this end, the paper adopts an exploratory approach using semi-structured interviews and content analysis procedures. We introduce a theoretical model to explain the relationship between financial sustainability and accountability function, and use a solvency ratio to evaluate the financial sustainability using the financial data of the university of Kufa for three years 2015-2017. The results indicate that financial sustainability and accountability are interdependent, and in order to ensure adequate funding, management must provide the necessary financial information for accountability function and legitimate its activities. We found that the sample university has a poor financial sustainability forecasts and accordingly it cannot continue as a financially independent unit without the governmental financial support. The further analysis reveals that the financial deficit in the financial position during the time of the study is an inevitable consequence of lack of financial and administrative authorities. The results also provide information and data to other governmental higher education institutions needed to evaluate their own institutions ' financial sustainability. Pages 202 to 221




A Qualitative Study on the Role of Family and Social Circles among Women Entrepreneurs in Indonesia

Agussania*, Syaiful Bahrib, aFaculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Utara, Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia, bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Utara, Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: a*dr.agussani.map@gmail.com

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are determinants of economic growth, and female industrialists are predominantly their owners in Indonesia. Therefore, it is fundamental to comprehend the antecedents that shape the existence and survivability of SMEs. In the present investigation, the goal was to identify the typical features of women entrepreneurs and the role of family and social connections in their motivations to establish business enterprises. The study embraced a qualitative research framework, involving the utilisation of semi-structured interviews of eight conveniently sampled women entrepreneurs. The interview transcripts were coded and analysed as the thematic analytics protocol. Three themes emerged, including family as a source of funding and social support, family as a detriment, and family as an obligation. Notably, most businesswomen in Medan consider determination, courage, leadership skills, patience, being venturesome, and being industrious as the qualities of successful women entrepreneurs. Pages 222 to 239




Statives’ve Gone Imperatives

Taiseer Flaiyih Hesana, aCollege of Education for Humanities, University of Thi-qar, Iraq, Email: aTaiseer-f@utq.edu.iq

This study is collaboration between syntax and semantics. It tries to investigate how, what the researcher calls the imperative mood-lexical aspect dichotomy, affects certain stative verbs, and makes them used imperatively. The study aims to answer some questions like, ‘Can all stative verbs be imperative? And if they are used imperatively, can such verbs be used for the default imperative purpose of commanding?’ It is hypothesised that not all statives can be used imperatively, and such verbs cannot be used to fulfill commands which are the basic purpose behind imperatives. The procedures followed here include surveying the literature available for the imperative mood, aspect, statives and dynamics. Then, the researcher tries to establish the relation between mood and aspect, with special focus on such a relation in the domain of stative verbs that can be changed into dynamic. The researcher collects examples from the available references of English grammar to show and explain how such group of verbs can be used imperatively. The study concludes that such stative verbs, which the researcher calls the grey area verbs, suffer from a change in their semantics and specifically their lexical aspect. It is this kind of change which allows them to be used imperatively. It is also concluded that only stative verbs that change their lexical aspect into activity or process, may be capable of occurring in the imperative mood. Pages 240 to 255




Homonyms in Ibn al-Abar’s book ‘Etab Al-Kottab’

Intazar Abdali Mohiea,a Department of Arabic Language, College of Education,  Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad. Email: ajnatj6316@gmail.com

The title of the book summarises its subject, as the research is allowed to show an important aspect of the poetry of a good number of writers about seventy-five writers, distributed to Andalusia, Morocco and Eastern Arabia. As for the rhetorical artistic characteristics, homonyms were the most important rhetorical feature I could observe. This research indicates the purpose to which it was intended. It is not enough that rhetoric be matched with appropriate eloquence, or to come up with two similar words that are yet different in their meaning, but elevated with beauty and rhetoric, including what they include, or complementing or encapsulating other arts, such as repetition, metaphor, analogy and metonymy. Pages 256 to 264




The Ibn Rushd Philosophy for Interpreting Religious Text

Ali Jamil Al Moussawia*, Ammar Abdulkadhim Roomib,a,bDepartment of Philosophy, College of Arts, Baghdad University, Iraq, Email: a*haithamjameel16@yahoo.com

Ibn Rushd was not an imitator of Aristotle with all his ideas. The text of the Aristotelian conclusion of ambiguity, obsession and the presentation of different visions expressed his independent status among Islamic philosophers. Ibn Rushd was not successful in reconciling the contents of Shari'a and philosophy, its source is human and human thought is incomplete, sacred, lacking, and needed, and human action is relative and limited and cannot be valid for all time and place while the divine law is light, proof, truth and sanctity, and absolute and valid for all time and place. Ibn Rushd imagines that the Shari'a, since it is a right and an advocate for the thought that leads to knowledge of the truth, is known to Muslims and that they know that evidence does not lead to the examination of what is stated in the Shari'a. It is a forensic conclusion that cannot be relied on in its logical conclusions from the first correct introduction. Ibn Rushd was different in his views, his ideas and his writings. This was born of suspicion among many scholars and reached the point of accusation (atheism). On the contrary, Ibn Rushd was closer to the people of Hadith in his methodology and interpretation of the religious text, and in taking the text on its face. Pages 265 to 273




The Art of Etiquette and its Impact - a Survey of Hotel Services in the Holy Province of Karbala

M.M. Taha Mahdi Mahmood Ahmada, M.M. Abdul Hussain Moussa Mohammed Moussab, M. Salam Jaafar Azeezc,a,bTechnical Institute of Karbala, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Iraq, cFaculty Of Tourism Science, Karbala University, Iraq, Email: aTH_mahdi@yahoo.com,bAbda8133@gmail.com,csga.alasade95@gmail.com

Hotel services are mainly based on the art of etiquette. Hotel services are one of the largest contributors to tourism activity. Purchasers of hotel services are not conscious of their quality before the purchase. Hotel services have classic properties such as non-tangentiality, congruence, heterogeneity and non-transfer of ownership. They have modern characteristics such as hosting and the difficulty of accurate monitoring of their quality. Their success depends on guests’ satisfaction and approval. The choice of hotel services is based on good reputation, advice and experience, and not material choice. Pages 274 to 282




Emotional Deprivation and its Relation to the Social Intelligence of Preparatory Students in Mosul City

Saad Ghanem Alia,aDepartment of Educational and Psychological Sciences, bCollege of Education for Humanities, University of Mosul, Iraq, Email: adr.saad2019@gmail.com

The objective of the current research is to assess and relate emotional deprivation and social intelligence, among middle school students in Mosul. The researcher used the scale as a research tool and a class on a sample consisting of (100) students from the preparatory stage for the fourth and sixth grades. Analysis of data using appropriate statistical methods, Pearson correlation factors, T-test for one sample and two independent samples, and T-test for differences. Using the SPSS program, the main findings of the research is a correlation between emotional deprivation and social intelligence. The conclusions include a challenge to, in the case of middle school students in the city of Mosul, reduce deprivation and so increase creativity in all areas of life. This confirms the close correlation between emotional deprivation and social intelligence. Pages 283 to 300



The Environmental Regimes Fragmentation: Towered Legal Taxonomy

Ali Sadik Thajba, Haslinda Mohd Anuarb, Zainal Amin Ayubc, aStudent, College of Law, Government and International Studies, University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, b,cLecturer, College of Law, Government and International Studies, University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

It is widely known that there has been a large expansion in the international environmental law thus making it a unique branch of international law.   A few environmental regimes have arose in the sub-fields, each with their own purpose and operating individually such as hazardous waste, air pollutants, biodiversity and many others. Such expansions arose in response to the degradation of the environment, but in spite of international efforts the international environmental regimes have to deal with diverse rules, efforts and applications. Academicians refer to it as fragmentation and as such the focus of this article is on the special types of environmental fragmentation. This article also builds a legal taxonomy that offers a notion that environmental laws are workable in many areas for academicians and environmental law experts are able to identify them. Pages 301 to 312


Investor–state Disputes with Egypt: Dispute Settlement and the Role of the ICSID as Arbitration Tribunal

Ashraf M. A. Elfakharania, Rohana Abdul Rahmanb, Nor Anita Abdullahc, aPhD in law, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Sharia and Law, Taif University, Saudi Arabia, b,cSenior Lecturer, School of Law, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Email: aelfakharani.ashraf@gmail.com, bhana@uum.edu.my, cnoranita@uum.edu.my

Owing to several issues in the litigation system, such as jurisdictional issues of the home government, and to offer aggrieved foreign investors an opportunity to redress the wrongs committed by a host state, the International Centre on the Settlement of Investment Dispute (ICSID) was established. It took time for it to become a globally popular instrument of international investor–state dispute settlement, particularly because it had to settle issues related to the norms vested in bilateral investment treaties (BITs). This research study first examines the circumstances led to the setting up of the ICSID, before discussing the jurisdictional issues as well as those of fairness and transparency in the role of the ICSID as an international arbitration body. The study was carried out in the context of investor–Egypt disputes and this article cites a few case where the ICSID failed to offer redress due to jurisdictional norms instrumental in the investor–Egypt disputes, which even the domestic laws and local remedies could not tackle. The results of the study have implications for the impact of the ICSID on developing nations and will open up new avenues of discussion and critical debate about the role of the ICSID as an international dispute-settlement agency. Pages 312 to 330


The new Saudi Commercial Courts and Their Jurisdiction over Different Commercial Disputes: Do These new Courts have the Jurisdiction over all Traders’ Disputes?

Hamza E. Albahetha, aS.J.D. in law, Assistant Professor, Shari’ah and Law School, Taif University, Saudi Arabia.

Although that the new Judiciary Law which was issued in 2007 and its Implementation Mechanism have a clear provision toward establishing the new specialized Commercial Courts, these new Courts were finally established and started their officially mission in 2017. According to the new Law of Procedure, the new Commercial Courts have the jurisdictions to adjudicate various disputes that have commercial characteristics. Although these new Courts will play an important role in increasing the effectiveness of resolving trade disputes, they may be unable to adjudicate a number of issues including disputes that have a financial or economic nature. The reason behind this inability lies in the existence of other bodies competent to hear such disputes. This Article, after highlighting the timeline of the commercial dispute resolution in the Saudi system, will discuss the current status of the commercial judiciary after the creation of the new Commercial Courts as one of the new components of the Saudi Judiciary. Importantly, the discussion covers the jurisdiction of these new Courts, and trying to answer an important question which is, do the new Commercial Courts  have the jurisdiction over all traders’ disputes and disputes that have a financial or economic nature? Then, the paper tries to provide recommendations regarding these new Courts’ jurisdiction specialties, that may increase its effectiveness and the unified the Mechanism of resolve commercial disputes and disputes that have a financial or economic nature. Pages 331 to 347
Cron Job Starts