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The Impact of Transactional Leadership on Employee Commitment

Shatha A. Mahfouza, aResearch Scholar, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, Email: as.a_mahfouz@yahoo.com

This descriptive research study aims to propose a conceptual framework showing the causal relationship of transactional leadership on employee commitment. The target population is workers associated with construction companies in Jordan. The 240-sample size was determined using Slovin's equation, and data was gathered through a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were chosen by a simple random sampling technique to eliminate predisposition in determination and to guarantee broad populace representation. Data was analysed with the Structural Equation Modelling strategy which utilises IBM-SPSS-Amos 24.0. The investigation discovered that transactional leadership contributed a substantial and positive effect on Employee Commitment. The appraisal of a conceptual model would increase comprehension and awareness of the contribution of transactional leadership on employee commitment. Meanwhile, this investigation proposes another model to the current research, namely the Employee-Directed Transactional Leadership Model. Pages 1 to 13

 

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The Effect of Foreign Ownership and Capital on Digital Transformation and Innovation in Automotive Business Performance

Chanongkorn Kuntonbutra, Natnarong Jaturatb, Antonio Nichsc, a,bRajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Thailand, cWestfalische Hochschule Gelsenkirchen Bocholt Recklinghausen University of Applied Sciences, Germany, Email: achanongkorn_k@rmutt.ac.thbnatnarong@rmutt.ac.thcantonio.nisch@w-hs.de

Digital transformation is now being applied to many aspects of organisations’ operations, ranging from multi-national companies to small and medium enterprises. The differences in firms’ characteristics will have a direct and important impact on the nature of digital transformation and innovation. This empirical study aims to discover the effects of small and medium automotive enterprises’ characteristics, referring to their Thailand-based operations. Their adoption of digital transformation innovation will also be examined, along with how such factors influence their business performance. These firms supply materials to many automobile manufacturing firms in Thailand, and both digital transformation and firms’ innovation play key mediating roles. The Structural Equation Modelling statistical approach was implemented to generate empirical data from multivariable factors. Findings indicate that the amount of capital owned by small and medium enterprises directly affects their digital transformation and innovation. This is turn wields an important impact on non-financial performance of firms. Pages 14 to 29

 

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 A Causal Model of Organic Food Buying Behaviours of Consumers in Thailand

Supawadee Pattweekongkaa*, Kulkanya Napompechb, Wornchanok Chaiyasoonthornc, a,b,cKing Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: a*supawadee.pa@kmitl.ac.th

This quantitative study aims to understand the causal factors of food buying behaviour in the current Thai market for organic food as differentiated by brand marketing. A comprehensive model of consumer decision-making was developed with four latent factors, including trust in brand, buying intention, brand loyalty and buying behaviour. This model demonstrated high reliably measurements as a basic requirement of structural equation modelling (SEM) statistics. Questionnaires were collected from a sample of organic food consumers in Thailand between April and June 2018; 386 data records were obtained and analysed using SEM. A significant correlation was found between the observed data and the conceptual model. The model demonstrated that the effect of brand trust on brand loyalty influenced buying intention, which played a key role in driving buying behaviour. Findings show that “loyalty” was the most important factor to affect “intention,” which directly impacted on buying behaviour. Further, the model achieved predictive power at 94%. Results indicate that Thai consumers perceive organic food marketing as distinct, which is reflected in their purchasing behaviours. These findings should benefit organic food entrepreneurs, farmers and sellers who must devise strategies for organic food-related branding. Pages 30 to 50

 

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Policy Implementation of a New Public Governance Approach: Creating a Network of Local Government in Thailand

Kathanyoo Kaewhanama, Phimlikid Kaewhanamb, Naruechit Saenpakdeec, Noppon Akahatd, a,b,dPublic Administration Division, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Kalasin University, Thailand, cLaw Division, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Kalasin University, Thailand, Email: adr.kathanyoo@ksu.ac.th/dr.kathanyoo@yahoo.combpalmy511@gmail.com/phimlikid.ka@ksu.ac.thcnaruechit_law@hotmail.comdn-akahat@hotmail.com

This article explores the implementation of a new public governance approach to create a network of local government in Thailand. This network is based on an effective structural policy which promotes collaboration for Thai local government. A qualitative approach is taken in this study including in-depth interviews with 10 practitioners as key methods of data gathering. The study then employs content analysis of this data to explore the experience of constructing collaborative government. Results indicate that three elements of collaborative co-management exist: 1) the collaborative government process, 2) the collaborative implementation process and 3) the collaborative worker process. Findings suggest that within the process of collaborative co-management policy implementation, these three outcomes generate particular interest. The collaborative government process occurs between public and public governance, for example co-management information, administration, enacted regulations and supportive actions. The collaborative implementation process refers to co-management across sectional public staff, and the strategies and actions involved in conflict management. Finally, the collaborative worker process describes the partnership between stakeholder and beneficiary and involves guideline implementation, communication and mutual understanding and process engagement. Implications of constructing a collaborative government policy are also discussed in this study. Pages 51 to 62

 

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The Effects of Digital Marketing and Market Orientation on Innovation and Firms’ Performance

Sudaporn Kuntonbutra, Howard Combsb, Tsutomu Konosuc, aRajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Thailand, bSan Jose State University, United States, cChiba Institute of Technology, Japan, Email: asudaporn_k@rmutt.ac.thbhoward.combs@sjsu.eductklab@p.chibakoudai.jp

The role of digital marketing is crucial to the interactive consumer market, specifically to service-based businesses such as the hotel industry. Moreover, innovation has become crucial for service businesses in terms of creating value for customers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the digital marketing that may have an impact on market orientation, innovation and firms’ performance. Subjects are key persons of the small hotels operated in Thailand. The questionnaire was designed from a review of the studies on service businesses. In addition, it includes information from discussion with an expert for designing specifically to the subjects — who are key personnel of the small hotels in Thailand. The Structural Equation Model was applied to clarify the empirical result from the conceptual model. The results indicate the significant effect of digital marketing on innovation and market orientation. Consequently, it has a direct effect on the performance of the small hotels. Pages 63 to 81

 

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The Supply Chain Management, Enterprise Resource Planning Systems and the Organisational Performance of Thai Manufacturing Firms: Does the Application of Industry 4.0 Matter?

Kittisak Jermsittiparserta, Chanatat Boonratanakittiphumib*, aSocial Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, bKing Mongkul’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Prince of Chumphon Campus, Chumphon, Thailand, Email: akittisak.j@chula.ac.th,   b*b.dr.chanathat2013@gmail.com

This study aims to assess the indirect or direct contribution of enterprise resource planning in organisational performance. In particular, the study tries to capture the indirect effects posed by enterprise resource planning on organisation performance through supply chain management practices. Through such mediation effect, the existence of a positive association among organisational performance and enterprise resource planning explains that supply chain management plays a significant role to restore the organisational benefits that can be obtained through investing in information technology. The current study has employed the SEM-PLS as a data analysis technique. In social science studies, the issue of non-normal data may become an issue for the researcher. In this regard, the PLS-SEM is an ideal approach for data analysis. This paper presents that SCM stimulates the association among organisational performance and enterprise resource planning, such that SCM acts as a process of integrating ERP as an input and creating better organisational performance as an output. Another contribution of this study is that several experts and researchers mix the concepts of organisational performance and enterprise resource planning, thereby ignoring a considerable contributory role of supply chain management in the organisational performance enhancement. The results indicate that the   industry 4.0 of smart factories that are based upon collaborative cyber-physical systems, indicate the future industrial network. Through employing plug-and-produce systems and smart sensors, the assembly systems enable to change the setup sequence and processing of operations, in accordance with the capacity utilisation and actual order inflows. Pages 82 to 102

 

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The Role of Additive Manufacturing and Supply Chain Management in Improving the Supply Chain Performance: A Case of Industry 4.0 in DKSH Thailand

Kittisak Jermsittiparserta, Chanatat Boonratanakittiphumib*, aSocial Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, bKing Mongkul’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Prince of Chumphon Campus, Chumphon, Thailand, Email: akittisak.j@chula.ac.thb*b.dr.chanathat2013@gmail.com

The aim of this  study is to examine the role of additive manufacturing (industry 4.0) and supply chain management in improving supply chain performance. In this research, the supply flexibility has been investigated through the lens of RBV, and in this regard, contributions have been made to the existing literature on flexibility in supply chains. By recognising the role of resources in the flexibility of supply, the supply flexibility concept has been developed. The two distinct dimensions of supply flexibility were investigated: supply network flexibility and supplier flexibility. The complications in the network of the supplier can be explored with the instruments developed for supply flexibility. This can provide a great understanding of the contribution of supply flexibility in achieving competitive advantage. It is interesting to know whether the improvements in supply flexibility create an influence on product development and manufacturing flexibility. The SEM-PLS is used to analyse the data. The findings of the study have provided support to the hypothesised results. DKSH Thailand is taken as a final sample of the study. The results of the study have shown the relationship between supply flexibility, SC management and SC performance. It has been found that the current performance of the companies can be improved in the uncertain and dynamic business environment by linking the capabilities of supply network flexibility and practices of SC management. The industry 4.0 appeared as moderator. Pages 103 to 121

 

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Does the Industry 4.0 have any impact on the relationship between Agile Strategic Supply Chain and the Supply Chain Partners Performance

Kittisak Jermsittiparserta, Suwat Kraimakb*, Chanatat Boonratanakittiphumic, aSocial Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, b,cKing Mongkul’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Prince of Chumphon Campus, Chumphon, Thailand, Email: akittisak.j@chula.ac.thb*suwatkrai@hotmail.comcb.dr.chanathat2013@gmail.com

The primary objective of this study is to examine the moderating role of industry 4.0 in the relationship between agile supply chain strategy and the supply chain partner performance. In addition, the study has examined the mediating role of supply chain performance in the relationship between agile supply chain strategy and the supply chain partners performance. Regarding technology adoption, it is important to examine the possible Industry 4.0 impacts on the overall supply chain (SC). It is suggested to involve practices, including processing customer response, managing customer complaints, and interacting with customers, thereby enabling firms to manufacture customised products and services, and address the flexibility attributes of the SC. It has also been argued that it allows firms to track and address customer preferences and variations in their demand, which refers to addressing the responsiveness attribute of the SC. A preliminary analysis is presented by this paper regarding the impact of Industry 4.0 on the SCM. In addition, the paper also attempts to consider supply chain 4.0. The research analysis is confined to only four SC functions, namely transport logistics, order fulfilment, procurement, and warehousing. These are included in the research analysis as the key performance indicators. The findings of this research are expected to offer innovative pathways for future studies and would present a bigger and better illustration and analyse such impacts. The textile industry of Thailand is chosen as a sample of the study. Pages 122 to 141

 

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Improving the Perceived Partnership Synergy and Sustainability Through the Social and Political Context in Indonesia: Business Law Compliance as a Mediator

Thanaporn Sriyakula, Kittisak Jermsittiparsertb,c*, Supatra Phanwichitd, Andi Luhur Priantoe, aFaculty of Business Administration, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand, bDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, cFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, dSchool of Law, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University, Nonthaburi, Thailand, eFaculty of Social and Political Science, Muhammadiyah University of Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia,

*Corresponding author: E-mail: kittisak.jermsittiparsert@tdtu.edu.vn, aajbamut@gmail.com, dThailawresearch@gmail.com, eluhur@unismuh.ac.id

The purpose of the current study is  to examine the role of societal and political context (SPC) in improving the perceived partnership synergy and perceived partnership sustainability, along with the role of business law compliance (BLC) in both these relationships. To achieve the purpose of the current study, the impact of SPC was analysed on the perceived partnership synergy and perceived partnership sustainability and the moderating impact of BLC was also analysed  in the context of Indonesia. The non-purposive sampling technique was used in the current study. The data was collected from the manufacturing sector of Indonesia and 297 structured questionnaires were distributed among respondents. The data was analysed using SPSS and AMOS and  “confirmatory factor analysis” and “structural equation modelling” were performed to analyse the data. The results revealed that SPC has a significant impact on perceived partnership synergy as well as perceived partnership sustainability. The findings further revealed that there is significant moderation of business law compliance between the relationships of SPC with perceived partnerships synergy and with perceived partnership sustainability. Hence, all hypotheses of the current study were accepted. These findings have significant implications in theoretical and practical fields. Pages 142 to 159

 

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 The Importance of Conscious Idleness & Intellectual Entrench in Gauging Brand Loyalty toward Smartphone Brands

Phatthanan Hiranrithikorna, Kittisak Jermsittiparsertb,c*, Watcharin Joemsittiprasertd, aFaculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, cFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, dDivision of Business Administration, ASA College, New York, USA,

*Corresponding author: E-mail: kittisak.jermsittiparsert@tdtu.edu.vn, aphatthanan.hi@ssru.ac.th, dwatjoemsittiprasert1@asa.edu

Many research papers, while investigating the connection between commitment and trust, have neglected the impact of brand loyalty. The focus of this research paper is to incorporate the customer’s conscious idleness and intellectual entrench with commitment and trust in the overall context. The Structural Equation Model has been used to empirically analyse the studied prototype and hypothetical connections. Findings reveal that idleness of the consumer evocatively improves brand loyalty and  meaningfully entrenches  customer conscious idleness and dedication. The results are very  helpful in improving the overall understanding with progressive impact of conscious idleness and intellectual entrench on customer brand loyalty. Pages 160 to 177

 

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The Impact of Brand Orientation on Deciphering Resources of Organisations

Phatthanan Hiranrithikorna, Jutamat Sutdueanb*, Chutipan Sutdueanc, aFaculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bCollege of Innovative Business and Accountancy, Dhurakij Pundit University, Bangkok, Thailand, cGraduate School, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: aphatthanan.hi@ssru.ac.thb*607191030012@dpu.ac.thcchutipan_law@outlook.com

Researchers and specialists have given significant importance to the marketing aspect of the business to business environment, but they are yet to realise the significance of brand orientation. This paper explored the impact of brand orientation on deciphering resources of  organisations into meaningful brand behavior. Explicitly, two important points have been investigated: first, identifying the elements which stimulate managers in embracing brand orientation; second, analysing the practices that enable business to business branding to affect brand performance. Data was gathered via different organisations working in Indonesia, relating to different industries. Results reveal that organisational strategic direction and marketing competence progressively affect organisational brand orientation, which ultimately affects the organisational brand behavior and performance, and prompts dynamic participation from customers in establishing co-creation of value. Pages 178 to 200

 

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 The Era of e-Commerce & Online Marketing: Risks Associated with Online Shopping

Somdech Rungsrisawata, Thanaporn Sriyakulb, Kittisak Jermsittiparsertc,d*, aFaculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bFaculty of Business Administration, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand, cDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, dFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam,

*Corresponding author: E-mail: kittisak.jermsittiparsert@tdtu.edu.vn, asomdech.ru@ssru.ac.th,  bajbamut@gmail.com

Online businesses offer numerous web-based advertising  opportunities to organisations besides web-based shopping; the strategy to grow their market via online channels has intrigued and been implemented by retailers to boost  products and services. The utilisation of innovation (i.e., PC, web) in online shopping or marketing is  carried out for the execution of enhanced marketing. The trend of online shopping is speeding up at a quick pace. The perception of the general public towards E-Commerce is now adjusted and in such a manner  is making  consumers risk takers. In this study, ideas from different researchers are put forth. The investigation on the trend and status of  women in the field of E-Commerce is studied. Women in this era are assumed to perform an overwhelming job with regards to shopping. The main risk or the factor that appears for the women which stops them  from shopping online is the ‘Trust’ factor. They only prefer shopping when they hear positive word of mouth from their family or friends. Pages 201 to 221

 

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Factors Determining Consumer Buying Behaviour in Online Shopping

Somdech Rungsrisawata, Watcharin Joemsittiprasertb, Kittisak Jermsittiparsertc,d*, aFaculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bDivision of Business Administration, ASA College, New York, USA, cDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, dFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam,

*Corresponding author: E-mail: kittisak.jermsittiparsert@tdtu.edu.vn, asomdech.ru@ssru.ac.th,  bwatjoemsittiprasert1@asa.edu

The motive of this study is to find out the determining factors that encourage and influence the online buying behaviour amongst  consumers. In  a world where everything is available on the internet and everything is  becoming digitised, developing and emerging markets are still behind the developed markets and need to  measure up  to them in order to stand out. There are various factors that influence  online buying behaviour amongst  consumers, but this study will focus only on those producing the most impact . Design/Methodology/Approach- This study is based on a quantitative approach, as it helps in testifying and applying the hypothesis. It is a correlation study where it aims  to find out the relationship between the variables. The statistical tool used in this study is SPSS and the tests that have been applied were Multiple Regression Analysis and Reliability Analysis. The sample size is 350 and the targeted audience are people living in Malaysia from age 18 and above. Findings- The findings of this study suggest that the hypotheses are accepted and the literature review provided as per the earlier studies  is consistent with the hypothesis of our study, which  states that perceived benefit and psychological factors (such as security, privacy, and trust) have a direct and significant relationship with online buying behaviour; on the contrary, perceived risks have an inverse and negative relationship with online buying behaviour. Research Limitations/Implications- This study is only applicable in a Malaysian context, as the demographics and economic situation of the market was kept  to these conditions while doing this research. Also, the sample of size does not necessarily cover every individual in the Malaysian context. The results might vary. Furthermore, this study is beneficial for the marketers and the business managers of e-commerce websites. Also, it should be  used as an example for teaching  students of business to  demonstrate the e-commerce and online shopping behaviour influencing factors, as our future is based on the whole new digital world. Pages 222 to 237

 

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Influence of Beliefs on Attitudes and Intention of Adopting e-Health System among the Public Hospitals of Thailand

Sakapas Saengchaia, Jintana Pattanapongthornb, Kittisak Jermsittiparsertc,d*, aFaculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bOffice of Expert Committee, Department of Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand, cDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, dFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam,

*Corresponding author: E-mail: kittisak.jermsittiparsert@tdtu.edu.vn, asakapas.sa@ssru.ac.th,  bjin_pattana@yahoo.com

For the context of a developing country like Thailand, it is not possible for all citizens of the country to afford private clinics or medical services .  Millions of people die every year  from various diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, plague in the continent, due to lack of implementation of e-health care systems. Much research shows that health information technology (HIT) and, in particular, electronic medical records (EHR) provide efficient  and effective care. This study aims to examine the relationship of health care practitioners’ intentions to adopt e-health care systems, with selected constructs such as beliefs,  attitudes and intentions of adopting e-health care systems among hospitals in Thailand. This study used a quantitative approach to investigate influences of belief on intention through the mediating role of attitude. This study finds that there is a mediating influence of attitude between belief and intention towards adopting e-health systems. The level of significance shows belief has a higher variance level on intention. The findings of this study will be able to give a clear and constructive picture of adopting e-health that would provide top-level management of health care centres with   effective implications for adopting e-health systems in Thailand. Pages 238 to 255

 

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The Role of Subjective Norms on the Adoption of Information and Communication Technology in Health Care in Thailand

Sakapas Saengchaia, Jintana Pattanapongthornb, Kittisak Jermsittiparsertc*, aFaculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bOffice of Expert Committee, Department of Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand, cDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, dFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam,

*Corresponding author: E-mail: kittisak.jermsittiparsert@tdtu.edu.vn, asakapas.sa@ssru.ac.th,  bjin_pattana@yahoo.com

In Thailand, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) needs to be taken into account when it comes to healthcare;  healthcare plays a vital role for the advancement of the country, as it is responsible for most of the country's dedicated work. Also, ICT has become the main facilitator for conducting business activities. Therefore, it is now time to consider the adoption of internet-based ICT for healthcare. Public health care services in Thailand  are funded by the Ministry of Public Health and monitored by the Department of Medical Services. Medical Services and government hospitals are under accountability of the Ministry of Public Health services. A total of 239 usable data sets proceeded for further analysis after screening the dataset and deleting  missing data. Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24 was used for analysing the data. The ANOVA test was conducted to  discover the differences of  opinion among hospital staff in terms of intention to adopt ICT and subjective norms. Significant differences were not found for intention in terms of different educational background. Research also found that subjective norms is significantly influencing hospital staff’s intention to adopt ICT.  Pages 256 to 276

 

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Determinants of Loyalty Intentions among Thai Banking Customers: A Knowledge-Based Perspective

Prateep Wajeetongratanaa, Watcharin Joemsittiprasertb, Kittisak Jermsittiparsertc,d*, aFaculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bDivision of Business Administration, ASA College, New York, USA, cDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, dFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam,

*Corresponding author: E-mail: kittisak.jermsittiparsert@tdtu.edu.vn, aprateep.wa@ssru.ac.th,  bwatjoemsittiprasert1@asa.edu

The current study is interested in knowing the determinants of  loyalty intentions among the employees working in  Thai banks. The perceived risk, trust, perceived price, customer satisfaction, and knowledge are studied as the determinants of  loyalty intentions  among Thai banking customers. The study has examined the mediating role of customer satisfaction and the moderating role of knowledge as well. The study has used the knowledge-based view to achieve the research objectives of the current study. The study has employed SEM-PLS to achieve the research objectives of the study. Structural equation modelling is  the statistical multivariate technique used for analysing the structural associations. It is a combination of multiple regression analysis and factor analysis and is generally employed to analyse the existence of a structural association between the measured and the latent constructs. Researchers prefer to use this method because it is capable of estimating multiple as well as interrelated associations in a single analysis. The findings of the study are in line with the proposed hypothesis of the study. The study is among the pioneering studies on the issues related to employee loyalty among Thai bankers. The study will be helpful for the policy makers, researchers, academics and banking top management in understanding the issues related to loyalty intention  among Thai bankers. Pages 277 to 295

 

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Role of Physical Environment to Create Corporate Image and Customer Loyalty of Thai Airline Customers: The Moderating Role of Perceived Value

Somdech Rungsrisawata, Puttisat Namdejb, Kittisak Jermsittiparsertc,d*, aFaculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bPolitical Science Association of Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand, cDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, dFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam,

*Corresponding author: E-mail: kittisak.jermsittiparsert@tdtu.edu.vn, asomdech.ru@ssru.ac.th,  bputtisat@gmail.com

The primary goal  of conducting the present research is to examine the role of physical environment  when creating brand image and the customer loyalty of Thai Airline customers.  The  study aims to explore the causal impact of the corporate image developed in the minds of customers as a result of physical evidence like cleanliness, decor and spatial layout in relation  to customer loyalty. Corporate image is the response of consumers towards the total offering of the organisation. It is well-defined as being a sum of impressions, ideas and beliefs of service and product providers towards the quality communicated by everyone during client interaction. The study has argued that the image is the perception in the mind of the customer. The study has revealed the fact that the perception of the customer is mainly dependent upon the physical factors of the environment and price perception regarding the service provider. There are a very  small number of cues available for service providers. A total of 407 questionnaires were distributed among the international and domestic travellers of Thai Airlines with a response rate of 58.5%. The SEM-PLS is employed to reach the ultimate objectives of research. The existing research  aimed to  reveal how the management and design of services can impact the perceptions, behaviours and emotions of customers, and the influence of this association on the services of organisations. The results of current research have shown agreement with the proposed hypothesis. The study will be helpful for  policy makers, and researchers in understanding the issues related to customer loyalty  towards Thai Airlines. Pages 296 to 314

 

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Natural Environment and Circular Economy? Contemporary Findings from ASEAN

Sakapas Saengchaia, Thanaporn Sriyakulb, Kittisak Jermsittiparsertc,d*, aFaculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bFaculty of Business Administration, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand, cDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, dFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam,

*Corresponding author: E-mail: kittisak.jermsittiparsert@tdtu.edu.vn, asakapas.sa@ssru.ac.th,  bajbamut@gmail.com

This study examines the relationship between the natural environment and the circular economy in the ASEAN region. For better understanding, factors like carbon emission, renewable energy consumption, total natural resource rent, and plant species are selected to reflect the idea of the natural environment. For the circular economy (CE), generation of municipal waste per capita, generation of municipal waste per GDP, and generation of waste per DMC are calculated as direct measures. For the empirical investigation, panel regression models like OLS regression, fixed effect, and random effect models are applied while comparing their coefficients through Hausman and Lagrange Multiplier tests. It is found that carbon emission (factors 1), and renewable energy consumptions have shown their significant influence. Whereas, for the generation of waste (per GDP), there is significant and positive influence from TNRR and significant and negative from TNRR and NOE, under a full sample of the study. For the third indicator of CE (generation of waste per DMC), the effect of GHGE, REC is positively significant, but through PS, the effect is positive and significant (only in OLS regression estimator). Additionally, this study has considered the first and second log difference for all three measures of CE with the causal impact from all indicators of the natural environment. This study has reasonably provided a significant and contemporary addition  to the literature of the circular economy and environment for both developed and developing economies. Additionally, study findings are providing an excellent understanding  for study of the relationship between environmental factors and CE in ASEAN. It is highly recommended that students in the relevant fields, academics, and researchers  should use this research as documented evidence. Pages 315 to 333

 

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Financial Effectiveness, Investment Efficiency, and Quality of Financial Reporting: Evidence from ASEAN States

Prateep Wajeetongratanaa, Thanaporn Sriyakulb, Kittisak Jermsittiparsertc,d*, aFaculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, bFaculty of Business Administration, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand, cDepartment for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, dFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam,

*Corresponding author: E-mail: kittisak.jermsittiparsert@tdtu.edu.vn, aprateep.wa@ssru.ac.th,  bajbamut@gmail.com

The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between investment efficiency, financial reporting quality, and financial effectiveness from the context of the two ASEAN states of Thailand and Indonesia. A sample of 25 firms from both regions was collected for the comparative analysis. For financial effectiveness, four measures under the title of ROA, ROE, ROS, and ROCE were used. The findings of this study indicate that both investment and financial reporting quality are significant determinants of financial effectiveness in both regions. Managerial implications of the study include robust evidence for the association between investment efficiency, financial reporting quality, and financial effectiveness. Decision makers can utilize these findings for present and future endeavours. Key limitations include ignoring overall ASEAN region, and the absence of latest time duration. Future research can reconsider these limitations. Pages 334 to 350

 

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Benchmarks of Authority in Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Awam and the Commission of State Civil Services (KASN)

Azharia, Roslinab*, Muhammad Uhaib As'adc, Ahmad Tarmizi Bin Abd Karimd, Kittisak Jermsitiparserte, Rofiqul Umamf, aUniversitas Sembilanbelas November Kolaka, Sulawesi Tenggara, Indonesia, b,c Faculty of Social and Political Science at Islamic University of Kalimantan, Banjarmasin, Indonesia, d Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja, Johor, Malaysia, e Social Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, f School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan,

Email: b*alimuddin.roslina81@gmail.com

The purpose of this research is to analyze the performance of the State Civil Service Commission of the Republic of Indonesia with the Sabah Public Service Service of Malaysia. Previous research indicates that Malaysia has a superior governance system  compared to Indonesia . To support the performance of civil servants, Malaysia has the Sabah Public Service Center. This institution performs a supervisory role and is also involved in career development. Malaysia ranked third in quality of governance among ASEAN countries as it always upholds the principles of professionalism. Although Malaysia previously had a reputation of corrupt practices, the Malaysian government immediately took measures to restore the country’s image. Whereas in Indonesia, since regional autonomy, practices of corruption and politicization of the bureaucracy have always stigmatized the government both at central and regional levels. Although the State Civil Service Commission (KASN) is responsible for recruiting and developing a bureaucratic career, there are still practices of bribery and corruption. This provides the theoretical basis for comparing the performance of KASN with Malaysia's Suruhanjaya Ordinary Service. The purpose of this research to provide recommendations to the government in order to formulate policies to govern KASN. The result of this research paper will allow the government to address various historic issues related to recruitment and career development of ASN. Pages 351 to 362

 

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The Use of Management Strategies to Attract the Public's Interest in Pesantren: A New Model for Pesantren Dynamics Study

Munifaha, Syamsul Hudab, Ulfi Dina Hamidac, Subandid, Muhamad Syazalie, Rofiqul Umamf, a,b,cFaculty of Tarbiyah, Institut Agama Islam Kediri, Indonesia, d,eUniversitas Islam Negeri Raden Intan Lampung, Indonesia, fSchool of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan, Email: amunifahkediri@gmail.combsyamsulhudaiainkediri@gmail.comculfidina@iainkediri.ac.iddsubandi@radenintan.ac.idemuhamadsyazali@radenintan.ac.idfegk71822@kwansei.ac.jp

This research reveals a management strategy undertaken by schools to attract public interest. This strategy is based on modern science, while retaining value principles. The dynamics of the new Pesantren model is emerging around formal education and focuses on the increasingly important role of improving the quality of human resources in science and technology to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society. This study aims to investigate the use of management strategies implemented by schools to attract public interest against boarding. Subjects  were boarding school students and were used to test the new model developed around the formal educational environment. Qualitative research methods were used. These methods included data collection through interviews with caregivers / businesses, students, and guardians of students. then observation, and documentation. The study concluded that there is a new model emerging in schools around formal education. This model is now proved to effectively implement management strategies to improve the quality of schools and student resources.  The new Pesantren model of modern education aligns with the typical educational boarding school. The new model differs by improving the school’s ability to adapt to the times and respond to the public interest without rejecting the traditions and heritage of the Indonesian nation. Pages 363 to 383

 

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Behavior in Early Childhood (2-3) Years: A Case Study on the Use of Gadgets in Social Environments

Sri Sumarnia, Shelly Tri Yuni Pertiwib, Rukiyahc, Windi Dwi Andikad, Ruri Tria Astikae, Abdurrahmanf, Rofiqul Umamg, a,b,c,dDepartment of Early Childhood Education, Universitas Sriwijaya, Palembang, Indonesia, ePascasarjana Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia, fDepartment of Graduate Science Education, University of Lampung, Indonesia, gSchool of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan, Email: asri_sumarni@fkip.unsri.ac.idbshellytriyunipertiwi01@gmail.comcrukiyah@fkip.unsri.ac.idddwiandika892014@gmail.comeruritriaastika@yahoo.comfabdurrahman.1968@fkip.unila.ac.idgegk71822@kwansei.ac.jp

This study aims to find in-depth meaning regarding the behaviour of gadget-users in children aged (2-3) years. This study uses qualitative approach with a case study. This research uses qualitative data in the form of words, visual, and audio-visual documentation collected through participant, observation, and in-depth interviews about children's behaviour while using gadgets. The analysis of the data will be conducted according to Creswell. This includes providing raw data in the form of transcripts, field notes, and the researchers' own views, storing and organizing data to be analyzed, reading all data, coding, compiling themes and descriptions of the data, constructing between theme, interpretation and assigning meaning to the themes arranged so that a conclusion can be drawn. The study used three research subjects aged (2-3) years who use gadgets in their daily lives. The results showed that 1) Children assign other people as role models in using gadgets, 2) Child behaviour in a motoric physical aspect, demonstrates that children mimic the movements performed by the characters in the video, 3) Child behaviour in cognitive aspects, children learn from what that they see and practice in their activities. 4) Child social development is lacking, because when playing with gadgets, children focus on what they see and do not care about the state of their environment, 5) Development of children's behaviour in an emotional aspects is more likely to show an attitude of joy, anger, and temper tantrums. 6) Children use the YouTube application to view video content of children playing on the playground, and animated videos of songs. 7) Children use gadgets for 30 minutes to 2 hours per use. Pages 384 to 404

 

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Rational Decisions in Communities Affected by Annual Floods in East Java, Indonesia

I.G.A.A. Noviekayatia, Djoko Budi Utomob, Herlan Pratiktoc, Moses Glorino Rumambo Pandind*, a,b,cFakultas Psikologi Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya, dFaculty of Humanities, Universitas Airlangga Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: anoviekayati@untag-sby.ac.idbdjokobudi@untag-sby-ac.idcherlanpratikto@untag-sby-ac.idd*moses.glorino@fib.unair.ac.id

Rational decision making is a systematic and logical way of creating resolutions. It is needed in critical situations, especially the unavoidable ones, such as annual floods. People affected by this natural disaster can continue living their lives if good rational decisions are made. This research paper consists of two studies. The first identifies rational decision making, based on age, education, socio-economics, and gender. The second is based on decisions associated with resilience, coping strategies, and age. A total number of 354 people from various cities in East Java were used as subjects for the study. In the first study, 58% of the people made good rational decisions, with the remaining 42% making low decisions. Furthermore, education was found to significantly influence the decision making process. The second study found a significant relationship between the resilience, coping strategies, and age with the ability to make rational decisions. The results of this study will be used to make better decisions for the communities in order to minimize physical and psychological impacts. Pages 405 to 415

 

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Building the Effectiveness of Knowledge Sharing Through Organizational Culture, Structure, and Strategic Resources

M. Muhardia, N. Nurdinb, A. Irfanic, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Islam Bandung, Indonesia, Email: a*muhardi.zainudin@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is to analyze how organizational culture, organizational structure, and strategic resources contribute to building knowledge sharing effectiveness. This study uses a statistical approach to analyze the importance of the contribution of organizational culture, organizational structure, and strategic resources in building effective knowledge sharing. The study was conducted at two boarding schools in Indonesia. Questionnaires and interviews were the techniques used in primary data collection. Furthermore, the data obtained are processed statistically using multiple regression. This article draws the conclusion that organizational culture, organizational structure, and strategic resources contribute positively and significantly in building the effectiveness of knowledge sharing. Organizational culture that has religious and educational value, creates synergy, and strategic resources are conducive to building effective knowledge sharing in efforts to develop human resources. The effectiveness of knowledge sharing and the various factors that influence it can not only be developed in boarding schools as examined in this paper, but the effectiveness of knowledge sharing can also be built in non-educational institutions, including other non-profit institutions. Pages 416 to 429

 

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The Mediating Role of Knowledge Management and the Moderating Role of Additive Manufacturing (Industry 4.0) in the Relationship between Knowledge Management Capability and Firm Performance: A Case of KPMG Thailand

Kittisak Jermsittiparserta, Chanatat Boonratanakittiphumib*, aSocial Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, bKing Mongkul’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Prince of Chumphon Campus, Chumphon, Thailand, Email: akittisak.j@chula.ac.thb*b.dr.chanathat2013@gmail.com

The current study is interested in examining the mediating role of knowledge management and the moderating role of additive manufacturing (Industry 4.0) in the relationship between knowledge management capability and firm performance of KPMG Thailand. KPMG is one of the leading manufacturers in Thailand. Several researchers have shown interest in investigating how supply chain management approaches influence organisational performance using a non-integrative outlook. For instance, examining the linkage among knowledge management and organisational performance, while attempting to analyse the association among organisational performance and supply chain management. However, these researchers also ignored knowledge management and the emerging role of additive manufacturing. Thus, the current study is planned to bridge the gap and to highlight the issue of additive manufacturing as KPMG established a new Speedfactory in Thailand in 2018. The present study selected Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling for analysing the relationships between the variables involved in this study.  Partial Least Squares regression is a second-generation statistical technique for structural equation modelling. The results have shown another interesting finding of the validity and reliability of the developed measures; these measures act as useful tools to assess the KM’s capability perspective. The results also indicated that it is essential for managers to understand a firm’s existing knowledge capability before setting any expectations. Furthermore, the results also offer vital insights to determine the organisational ability to grasp the existing set of knowledge. Pages 430 to 449