Large and Small Organisational Forms of the Rural Economy: Correlation and Functional Limits

Vladimir G. Egorova, Evgeniya V. Shavinab*, Miras Jienbayevc, Andrey A. Inshakovd, a,b,dAcademic Department of Political Economy and History of Economic Science, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russia, cInstitute of Public Administration and Civil Service, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia, Email: b*evgeniyashavina@gmail.com

This article is devoted to the problems that are relevant as Russia moves towards the global agricultural industry of technologies that replace the work of family groups. The authors give their opinion on the correlation and functional limits of large agribusiness and small forms of agricultural organisation. Being based on the material of the sample survey of Russian peasant farms and the results of the All-Russian Agricultural Census — which was first introduced into scientific circulation — the article substantiates the conclusion that in a modern mixed rural economy, a significant place is taken by the family commodity farms that demonstrate not only their natural advantages, but also adaptability to new technologies and market conditions. Pages 1 to 17




Strategic Capabilities, Innovation Strategy and the Performance of Manufacturing SMES in Vietnam

Tran Minh Thaia, aHanoi Finance & Banking University,

The main objective of this study is to examine the mediating role of innovation strategy on the relationship between strategic capabilities and the performance of manufacturing SMEs (Small & Medium Enterprises) in Vietnam.  Strategic capabilities, as a construct in this study, consist of top management capability, technological capability, learning capability and relational capability. Equally in the construct are innovation strategy and manufacturing SMEs’ performance. A conceptual framework was developed based on the Resource Based View (RBV) and Dynamic Capability Theory (DCT). Based on the model developed, a questionnaire was constructed and personally administered at random to collect the data from 229 respondents.  The Partial Least Squared Structural Equation Model was used to test the developed hypotheses of the study. Top management and technological capabilities positively and significantly relates to manufacturing SMEs performance. Similarly, top management, technological, learning and relational capabilities are significantly and positively related to manufacturing SMEs’ innovation strategy.  Innovation strategy positively impacted on performance. However, no significant relationship between learning capability, relational capability and manufacturing SMEs’ performance was established. Moreover, significant mediation effect was established for all the four hypotheses. Consequently, the significant positive impacts of top management, technological, learning and relational capabilities, postulate that the variables are valuable in influencing performance directly and indirectly through innovation strategy. On this note, manufacturing SMEs managers are encouraged to develop and maintain these strategic capabilities for outstanding performance. The results of this research have contributed significantly to the body of existing literature, provided a guide to managers and policies makers, and proffered suggestion for future research based on limitations of the study. Pages 18 to 30




 Andrew Marvell’s Poems Viewed from History of the British Coloniser Perspective

Christinawatia, Moses Glorino Rumambo Pandinb, a,bEnglish Department, Faculty of Humanities, Universitas Airlangga, Email: achristinawati@fib.unair.ac.id, bmoses.glorino@fib.unair.ac.id

The history of colonisation inspired everybody to write. Many works of literature told about the history of colonisation with different issues. This study is going to discuss three poems written by Andrew Marvell in the seventeenth century. The three poems will be approached and analysed by using postcolonial theory to find that the history influenced Marvell in writing his poems. The historical background that could be revealed from this writing, was that the British Empire aimed to persuade the authority of the area to be subjugated and remained to give it its own area under the control of Britain. By applying descriptive interpretative methods, the study finds that the history supports the process of negotiation to make a certain area become a British colony. The British Empire saw the land that was extremely beautiful, like the heaven managed by a professional gardener (in “The Garden”). Marvell uses the word ‘innocence’ from post-colonialist reading, that signifies the object is underestimated. Similarly, ‘green’ is the literal colour of a garden itself, but Marvell also plays other significance to assuming tender, mild, immature, flourishing, gullible, and the like, meaning fresh and new, but smooth and simple as well. From the experience in the poem, the British Empire could realise how hard it is to conquer the colony, as illustrated in the difficulties to achieve a lady’s love (in “To His Coy Mistress” and “The Definition of Love”). The fighting spirit of the British Armies was flared up to authorise the colony. Due to the sophisticated negotiation of the territorial leader, colonisation did not happen and the two countries were able to cooperate with one another. Pages 31 to 43




Zakat – Financial Inclusion Nexus: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

Shabeer Khana, Asad Ejaz Sheikhb, Muhammad Abu Bakarc, Abidullah Khand, a,dAssistant professor, Department of Business Administration, Sukkur IBA University, Pakistan, b PhD scholar, INCEIF, Malaysia, c Master of Science in Islamic Finance, INCEIF, Malaysia

The contemporary development of Islamic finance raises the question of its practical implications. An important dimension of the effects of the development of Islamic social finance on financial sector development, relates to that of financial inclusion. Despite its relevance, the empirical literature offers little evidence on Zakat-financial inclusion nexus. This paper examines the relationship between Zakat and financial inclusion for the economy of Pakistan during the 1982-2015 period, by using ordinary leased square (OLS) regression and Bayesian estimation methods. The empirical findings of the study suggest that Zakat has a positive impact in furthering financial inclusion. In other words, an increase in Zakat leads to a decrease in financial exclusion. The findings of the study support the view that Islamic social finance can be used as an instrument to eradicate financial exclusion. The study contributes to the existing literature on Islamic finance by suggesting that Zakat can be one of the tools to tickle the issue of financial exclusion. The results are robust against alternative proxies of financial inclusion and models’ specifications i.e. two-stage least square (2SLS), three-stage least square (3SLS) and quantile regression (QR). Pages 44 to 56




The Rise and Fall of Cash WAQF Crowdfunding: Exploring the Shortcomings

Abidullah Khana, Muahmmad Hakimi Mohd Shafiaib, Shabeer Khanc, a,cAssistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Sukkur IBA University, Airport Road Sukkur, Pakistan, bSenior Lecturer, Faculty of Economics and Management, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia,

Cash waqf, which is practiced widely in Malaysia, still lacks a contribution to society. In order to tackle such issues, cash waqf based crowdfunding was introduced. However, it also failed to attract a maximum number of people to endow their cash and failed within a year of its commencement. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the concept of waqf based crowdfunding and to understand the reasons that led to its failure. A single, instrumental case study research design is used, which is comprehended by interview with the managing partner of the only waqf-based crowdfunding platform. The findings reveal that the management of the platform lacked an understanding of the problems that would arise from its operations. Therefore, this study proposes a solution which will help the management of the waqf-based crowdfunding platform to improve its operational framework. The study will open the door for the researchers and the audience from this specific industry to propose different models that may assist the waqf-based crowdfunding to grow and reach a maximum following. Pages 57 to 77




Adapting Reads to Evaluate the Reading Proficiency of Undergraduates in Saudi Arabia

Nasser Alotaibia, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed Ismailb, a,bSchool of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia,

Reading is considered both a complex and a difficult skill compared to listening, speaking, and writing; since reading is the skill that links the other skills. Reading is not simply about recognising words, but it is also about understanding the message coded in written texts. Evaluating reading becomes essential in learning English. The READS or Reading Evaluation and Decoding System was developed and used by Universiti Sains Malaysia to diagnose and assess English reading proficiency among new students entering the university. Apparently, the original READS was designed based on the Malaysian school curriculum and evidently has an encoder that was based on the Malaysian culture. Therefore, a significant degree of contextual biases may exist in the encoder. This study aims to make the necessary adaptions so that the updated READS can be more suitable for use in Saudi Arabia and subsequently, evaluate the reading comprehension of the undergraduates. The adapted READS was evaluated by experts in Saudi Arabia and the results show that the adapted READS is effective in evaluating the Saudi undergraduates reading proficiency. Pages 78 to 93




Discourse of Communication During the Month of Ramadan in Sorong and Mentawai, Indonesia

Rita Erlindaa*, Ismail Suardi Wekkeb, Irwan Abdullahc, Hasse Jubbad, aInstitut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Batusangkar, West Sumatra, Indonesia, bSekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Negeri (STAIN) Sorong, West Papua, Indonesia, cUniversitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, dUniversitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Email: a*ritaerlinda@iainbatusangkar.ac.id

The word choice of the first-person pronoun 'we' shows the attitude of the speaker when positioning the speech partner. The pronoun is considered to involve the speech partner in the communication, so there is no longer an asymmetrical relationship between them. This paper will describe in detail, the syntactic patterns in the use of 'we' as the inclusive plural pronoun in directive speech acts. The data was obtained through the recording of Ramadan lectures that took place in two different regions; Sorong in Eastern Indonesia and Mentawai in Western Indonesia. The results showed that the use of pronouns is associated with complex relationships, both in the attitudes of the parties involved and in the community who are the speech partners in a communication framework. Thus, politeness in communication is disturbed in practice. This paper suggests the need for an understanding of personal pronouns in a cultural context and the need for the development of an equality model in society. Pages 94 to 111




When Internal Control is Effective for the Firms, is it Effective for Small and Medium Enterprise?

Siti Noor Khikmaha, Diesyana Ajeng Pramestib*, Nur Laila Yulianic, Mulato Santosad, a,b,c,dFaculty of Economic and Business, Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang, Indonesia, Email: b*diesyana.ajeng@ummgl.ac.id

The existence of Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) is one of the important factors supporting the country's economy, because it helps to alleviate poverty, whilst acting as a source of foreign exchange for the country. However, in the last three years, the number of SMEs in Indonesia, and especially in the Magelang Regency, has decreased quite dramatically. Hence, this study was conducted to analyse the effectiveness of internal controls carried out by Small and Medium Industries (SMIs), which have functioned as one of the supporting systems for business operational sustainability and effectiveness in large companies. This study uses a mixed method to answer the research objectives. This study, conducted on 100 SMEs, resulted in the finding that only two COSO indicators had a statistically significant effect on internal control; namely, communication and information. Whereas, control environment, risk assessment, and control activities had no significant effect. This finding is reinforced by the results of the group discussion forum, in which SME was only able to do these two things, be it simply and without standardised control. Thus, COSO’s internal control has not been effectively applied to SME. Meaning, it has the potential to suffer from bankruptcy when it is unable to anticipate problems, especially those originating from external fluctuations. Pages 112 to 125




The Interaction of Children’s Early Moral Development Process through a Holistic Approach

Nilawati Tadjuddina*, Rifda Elfiahb, Meriyati Meriyatic, Ismail Suardi  Wekked, Antomi Saregare, a,b,c,eUniversitas Islam Negeri Raden Intan Lampung, Lampung, Indonesia, dSekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Negeri (STAIN) Sorong, Indonesia, Email: a*nilawati@radenintan.ac.id,  bsyaifulrifda@gmail.com

This study aims to find the right moral concept for children's early moral development process in the academic, religious, and cultural aspects in Indonesia. The study was carried out by studying the interaction within the family, school, and environment. The research method used was qualitative by conducting observation, interview, and documentation. The data analysis technique used was an interactive analysis. The results of this study show that (1) the moral concepts are based on the cognitive views of culture, religion, and academics in Indonesia; and (2) parent and child interactions in the moral development process tend to use an authoritative parenting pattern (80.25 per cent), authoritarian parenting pattern (14.82 per cent), indulgent parenting pattern (3.70 per cent), and indifferent parenting pattern (1.23 per cent). The interaction of early childhood at school in the process of moral development on the moral knowing dimension is 110 (92.55 per cent), the interaction of the moral feeling dimension is 88 (79.79 per cent), and early childhood interactions in the moral action dimension is 65 (84.27 per cent). This shows that children already have the knowledge of moral values and can feel and know the consequences of the moral actions they do. In conclusion, the moral concept in academics, culture, and religion implemented in Indonesia, is the moral concept according to the cognitive view by Piaget and Kolhberg; it is applied in religious values, and the process of moral development in early childhood can develop through interaction in the holistic approach. Pages 126 to 142




 The Role of Experience Quality and Customer-Perceived Value on Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty: A Case Study of Indonesian Outdoor Cafés

Andriani Kusumawatia*, Karisma Sri Rahayub, a,bBrawijaya University, Faculty of Administrative Science, Indonesia, Email: a*andriani_kusuma@ub.ac.id

This study aims to identify experience quality dimensions, and to relate experience quality, customer-perceived value, and customer satisfaction which impact customer loyalty at outdoor cafes with nature-nuances. Empirical evidence for this study is collected from 168 respondents. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is based on Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis. The result indicates that experience quality directly influences customer loyalty. The finding also yields that the indirect effect between experience quality, and customer-perceived value, upon customer loyalty, is mediated by customer satisfaction. The most important dimensions of experience quality perceived by customers are the quality outcome during the visitation, and the post-purchase decision-making. This study can guide outdoor café managers in strategies that enable customer loyalty by increasing experience quality, customer-perceived value, and customer satisfaction. Pages 143 to 159




Engaging Customer Experience in Accelerating Transformational Performance through Co-creation Strategy

Firdaus Alamsjaha, Leonardus W Wasono Mihardjob*, Faizal R Djoemadic, a,bBusiness School, Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta, Indonesia, Faculty of Economics and Business, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia, Email: b*mihardjo@gmail.com

Disruptive innovation shifts strategy from competition to collaboration. The collaboration with customers is also known as co-creation strategy and predominantly drives transformational performance. Transformational performance is based on performance management theory and transformation paradigms. However, its development to ensure the works of co-creation strategy, based on customer experience, remains unclear. To address this gap the digital transformational model based on co-creation strategy, with a focus on customer experience, was investigated to accelerate transformational performance. This study uses quantitative research, with a sample of 35 representatives from telecommunication firms. The findings demonstrate that co-creation strategy significantly supports customer experience, in driving transformational performance. Customer experience also appears to significantly impact co-creation strategy indirectly. The findings have theoretical implications for the emergence of collaboration strategy in the disruptive era. They show practitioners how co-creation strategy is becoming key in sustaining the business, as it shifts the focus onto the development of customer experience to drive transformational performance. Suggestions for future research are also included in the study. Pages 160 to 176




 Humour and Self-Expression: Suffering and Resistance in the January 25 Revolution

Anwar Fayez Al Bzoura, aZarqa University, Jordan, Email: aabzour@zu.edu.jo

This paper presents a linguistic study of some humorous texts produced during the eighteen-day revolution of January 25, 2011. Egyptians, exploiting their renowned sense of humour, created various humorous forms to satirize autocratic rule, to expose various aspects of its maladministration such as political and economic corruption, as well as the hard living conditions, and to articulate their revolutionary demands. The aim of this study is to demonstrate this skilful use of humour as a form of resistance and revolution. It examines the revolutionary aspects of their humour. It also attempts to uncover the various functions fulfilled by producing jokes, banners and caricatures. More importantly, this study attempts to apply the Cooperative Principle (CP), and the General Theory of Verbal Humour (GTVH), presented by Attardo and Raskin (1991), to examine Arabic humorous texts. This study asserts that using humour to resist autocratic regimes is a form of ‘politicotainment’, which combined entertainment and political humour that asserts the powerful impact of humour during the revolution. It also highlighted various aspects of these texts through employing the two linguistic tools. It also emphasised the use of humour as a coping mechanism, as well as a corrective means to some desirable change. Pages 177 to 195




Contrastive Syntax Transitivity in Arabic and English

Ala Eddin Sadeqa, Laith Salman Hassan Hadlab, a.bDepartment of English Language, Literature and Translation, Zarqa University, Zarqa, Jordan. Email: aAlaeddin71@yahoo.com, blaith_salman2003@yahoo.com

Arabic and English are two major languages that have numerous similarities and differences in all linguistic domains, especially grammar. A serious issue of great importance in both languages is intransitivity and transitivity.  Therefore, the present study contrasts and compares transitivity in both Arabic and English. The first similarity found is that Arabic and English distinguish intransitive and transitive verbs differently. Second, the object in both Arabic and English can be omitted in certain conditions without affecting the type of the verb. Third, sometimes transitive or intransitive verbs require adverbial complements if the meaning is vague. Fourth, there are certain verbs in both languages that must be followed by two objects. Finally, there is an indirect object in both languages. By contrast English is different from Arabic. First, in the latter there exist ditransitive and even tritransitive verbs, whereas in English there are only ditransitive verbs that must include at least one indirect object. Second, unlike English, in Arabic an intransitive verb can be changed into a transitive one using several means. Third, the sentence order in English affects the subject and the object, while in Arabic the order has nothing to do with the case. Fourth, Arabic has a closed set of underivable intransitive verbs that do not exist in English. Fifth, unlike Arabic, the intransitive verbs in English have several subcategories such as ergatives and middles. Pages 196 to 202




Problems Faced by Jordanian Undergraduate Students in Speaking English

Ibrahim Fathi Huwaria, a,Assistant Professor of Applied Linguistics at the Department of English Language and Literature, College of Arts, Zarqa University, Jordan, Email: aibrahimhuwari@yahoo.com/ihuwari@zu.edu.jo

Speaking in English is a problem faced by EFL/ESL learners, particularly in Arabic countries. Research on students' speaking skills in English for non-English speaking countries such as Jordanian is limited. The researcher carried out a qualitative case study which explored the problems faced by Jordanian undergraduate students at Zarqa University (ZU) while speaking English inside the classroom. The participants of this study consisted of Jordanian undergraduate students at ZU, who are enrolled in an English language and literature major in their first year of studies. All of them share the same mother tongue and the same specialization. The researcher interviewed twelve students, then analysed them. The findings were divided into four main themes with different sub-themes: linguistic matters (like pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary), psychological factors (inhibition, lack of motivation), learning environment (topics of speaking modules, limited time), lack of practising. Pages 203 to 217




Credit Risk Management and Business Intelligence Approaches of the Banking Sector in Jordan

Khaled Alzeaideena, aAssociate Professor of Business Administration. Zarqa University, Jordan, Email: akhaledhamaidah@yahoo.com

Banking is one of the key segments supporting sustainable economic progress in Jordan. Hence, banks in Jordan are tremendously significant financial establishments that pursue profit through financial services through dealing with different risks. Their loan decisions are crucial because they can avert credit risk. However, loan sanction assessment at Jordanian banks is particularly based on credit officers’ intuition, and sometimes a combination of their judgment and traditional credit scoring models. Consequently, it is important to assess the riskiness of the banking sector in Jordan. Their clientele data is stored in data warehouses, that can be considered as concealed knowledge assets to be read and exercised via data mining tools. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) denote a recent development of statistical techniques, and promise tools for data mining and data processing. The current study attempts to develop an artificial neural network model, to support credit evaluation at Jordanian commercial banks, based on applicants’ characteristics. The proposed model can help credit officers better decide loan applications. It was developed by using a real world credit application to applications both granted and rejected, by different Jordanian banks. Experimental outcomes showed that artificial neural networks can complement existing classification methods. Pages 218 to 230




Postmodernism and Science Fiction: A Confluence

Munther Mohd. Habiba, aDepartment of English Language, Literature and Translation, Zarqa University, Zarqa, Jordan.

There is close link between postmodernism and science fiction. Postmodernism offers a new approach for studying science fiction. Postmodernism emphasises the disappearance of boundaries between the artificial and natural, and reality and imagination, in the culture. Science fiction is a postmodern genre in which the boundary between the artificial and the natural is collapsed. Both postmodernism and science fiction concentrate on the drastic change in human life brought by the technology and media. Hyper-reality, simulation and post-industrial society are at the centre of both postmodernism and science fiction. The postmodern critics like Jean Baudrillard, Lyotard, and Donna Haraway turn to science fiction and consider it as a major form for representing the postmodern condition. Postmodernism has been discussed and defined again and again by these critics. Science fiction has an advantage over other genres of literature, in that it depicts the effect of science, technology and new economies of information technology. Postmodernism also concentrates on the influence of simulation and information technology on the world since World War II. The present research paper traces the influence of postmodernism on science fiction and the development of science fiction. Pages 231 to 244




Creating Discourse Using Figures of Speech in the Speeches of King Abdullah II

Kamal Ahmad Alruzzia, Kamariah Binti Yunusb, aDepartment of English Language and Translation, Faculty of Arts, Zarqa University, Jordan, bFaculty of Languages and Communication, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, Email: aKamalruzzi@yahoo.com, bKamariah@unisza.edu.my

Language is the main medium to create discourse for politicians and public speakers. Deviations from the norm create multiple levels of meanings, in both spoken and written language. This paper tackles the effect of using some figures of speech by political speakers. To narrow the discussion, some speeches of King Abdulla II are analysed in terms of using simile, metaphor and personification. Such figures of speech make the discourse more effective in reaching its intended aims, by forging listeners, not only to enjoy the ornamentation of the speech, but to think and act of the events and situations discussed. The paper shows that using figures of speech by political speakers is one method of creating understanding of concepts and abstract ideas. In addition, it is a method to send messages more effectively and purposefully. Pages 245 to 253




Arabic Synonyms in Bilingual Arabic-English Dictionaries

Kamal Ahmad Alruzzia, Kamariah Binti Yunusb, aDepartment of English Language And Translation, Zarqa University, Jordan, bFaculty of Languages and Communication, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, Email: aKamalruzzi@yahoo.com, bKamariah@unisza.edu.my

This paper investigates the meaning of two pairs of synonyms taken from the glorious Qur'an, and how the compilers of bilingual dictionaries treat them while giving their meaning. The amount of information given under each word will also be investigated. The two pairs of synonyms under investigation are: (Al gaiØالغيث    / Al matarالمطر) and (Al khawfالخوف /  Al khashyahالخشية). The three bilingual Arabic-English dictionaries concerned in the present study are AL MAWRID: A modern Arabic English Dictionary (1997) by Dr. Rohi Baalbaki, A Dictionary Of Modern Written Arabic (1979) by Hans Wehr, and A Learner's Arabic-English Dictionary (1984) by F. Steingass. The results show that the three selected dictionaries equally treated the two pairs as complete synonyms, while they varied in the amount of information they provided for each item. Pages 254 to 261




Creating Shared Value (CSV): The Sustainable Business Model

Titiek Rachmawatia, Basukib, Hamidahc, aDoctoral Program at the Faculty of Economics and Business, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia, b,cLecturer Faculty of Economics and Business, Airlangga University, Surabaya Indonesia, Email: atitiek.rachmawati-2016@feb.unair.ac.id, bbasuki@feb.unair.ac.id, chamidah@feb.unair.ac.id

Objective: CSV (Creating Shared Value) is a sustainable business model. CSV is an expansion of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility). CSR is a kind of corporate responsibility as to social value, however CSV involves not only social but also economic value. Therefore, by implementing CSV a company increases both social and economic value. Design/methods/approach: A literature review. Results: A company which implemented CSV also revealed a sustainable business model. It was expected to benefit both society and the company through increased economic and social value. Economic value encompassed increased profit, productivity, and expanded market share. Social value included area and infrastructure development, social innovation improvement, and society durability. Practical implication: This study is expected to be advantageous for entrepreneurs developing CSV as a sustainable business model. Originality/value: The present study focuses on CSV as a sustainable business model. Exploration results are elaborated into a summary and solution proposed by previous researchers. Pages 262 to 269




 The Existence of Electronic Courts (E-Court) in Realizing Simple, Fast and Low-Cost Justice

Hanum Rahmaniar Helmia, aFaculty of Law Airlangga University Email: ahanum@fh.unair.ac.id

The Supreme Court Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 3 of 2018 concerns the electronic administration of cases. It is intended to provide electronic court-based services. “E-Court” services include E-Filing (electronic case registration), E-Skum (calculation of electronic advance fee cases), E-Payment (electronic down payment in advance) and E-Summons (calling parties electronically). Through E-Court services, cases can be registered online, to assist litigants and advocates. It is relatively simple, fast and people do not have to come to court. In addition, E-Court services are cheaper. The bailiff does not need to go to the parties to deliver release, because people are called by email. To follow juridical forms, E-Court services must follow civil procedures such as provisions governing absolute and relative competence, provisions regarding procedures for calling parties, and other provisions. Pages 270 to 278




Perceived Sustainability and its Effects on Trust and WOM Intention: a Study in Nature and Cultural Tourism

Andriani Kusumawatia*, Humam Santosa Utomob, Suharyonoc, Sunartid, a,b,c,dBrawijaya University, Faculty of Administrative Science, Indonesia, Email: a*andriani_kusuma@ub.ac.id

This research aims to investigate the effects of perceived sustainability on tourist trust and word-of-mouth (WoM) intention. A survey was carried out on 450 international tourists visiting Bali during the May-August 2018 period. The measuring scale used was the Likert’s scale, and the analysis instrument used was WarpPLS. The research results indicate that perceived sustainability had a significant effect on tourist trust, that perceived sustainability had a significant effect on WoM intention, and that tourist trust had a significant effect on WoM intention. The results contribute to the closing of the gaps in previous research studies, especially those on the effects of perceived sustainability on tourist trust and WoM intention at culture and nature-based destinations. Based on the results, it is recommended that tourist destination management maintain sustainability by conserving nature, preserving local cultures, and appreciating tourists’ value of money so that the tourists have a trust in the tourist destinations’ future and have a strong intention to recommend to others. Pages 279 to 295




Public Relations Involvement and Community Satisfaction in Universities

Muhammad Noor Saleh Al Adwana, aCollege of Communication and Media, Al Ain University, P.O. Box: 112612, Abu Dhabi, UAE, Email: amuhammadnoor.aladwan@aau.ac.ae

This paper aims to investigate the importance of public relations in community involvement and the role of various public relations activities in community satisfaction. A questionnaire was distributed among 250 students in the Applied Science Private University in Amman, Jordan. The research shows a positive effect of public relations and types of activities on community satisfaction, while positive but a non-significant effects of community involvement on community satisfaction. Pages 296 to 303




Impact of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMCs) on   Hotels’ Marketing Performance

Marzouq Ayed Al-Qeedaa, aProfessor College of Communication and Media Al Ain University Abu Dhabi, UAE, Email: adr_marzouq@yahoo.com

Objective. This research aims to provide insights of IMCs by empirically examining the concept in a new context, which is the hotel industry, and its impact on marketing performance. Design/methodology/approach. The research uses survey methodology to assess the impact of some IMCs tools on marketing performance, from the point view of managers and guests in high-quality hotels in Abu-Dhabi city/UAE. Findings. Public relations, advertising, and social media marketing as integrated marketing tools are positively correlated, and significantly impact on hotels' marketing performance. Moreover from managers' point of view, Abu Dhabi hotels show a high level of IMCs implementation and significant differences regarding some communication tools. From the guests’ point of view, significant differences are obtained between hotels. Research limitations/implications. This research is limited to the UAE hotels context - Abu Dhabi city. Future studies should approach a greater number of hotels to obtain more representative results. Practical implications. Managers need to adopt a holistic vision of marketing communications and regularly analyse customers' opinions and feedback to understand if their marketing campaign works. Originality/value. This paper presents several original contributions, thus filling the gap in the literature. First, IMCs are analysed in a new environment, which are high-quality (five star) hotels. Second, the study was conducted in UAE. Research on IMCs is rather neglected in the Arab region generally. Third, in addition to managers’ opinions, guests’ perceptions and opinion are assessed, thus, highlighting that customers need to be considered as real “co-managers” in any successful integrated marketing communications strategy. Pages 304 to 323




A Paradigm for Employing Social Media to Achieve Sustainable Development Objectives

Mai Abd Algnae Youssef Mahmouda*, Yousef Nemir Abu Eadb*, Muhammad Noor Saleh Al Adwanc, aCollege of Media, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya, bFaculty of Mass Communication - Yarmouk University, Jordan, cCollege of Communication and Media, Al Ain University, P.O. Box: 112612, Abu Dhabi Email: a*doctormai532@gmail.com, b**yousef.n@yu.edu.jo, c***muhammadnoor.aladwan@aau.ac.ae

This research aims at a model for employing social media to achieve the objectives of sustainable development. The researchers used a descriptive and analytical approach to survey and analyse the previous literature, to infer the results of this research. In addition, this qualitative analysis was conducted to interpret the ideas and results of partial and quantitative research related to this study, to support the information collected and thus design the model. Findings revealed that the ability of social communication to achieve the objectives of sustainable development is still limited and restricted to traditional uses. Hence, this proposed model aims to optimize the employment of social media to achieve the goals of sustainable development based on the researchers’ vision. Pages 324 to 331



Actor Relation Pattern with Nature Based ‘Tri Ning Danu’ in the Bedugul Tourism Area of Bali, Indonesia

I Nyoman Sunartaa, Made Adikampanab, Saptono Nugrohoc, Yohanes Kristiantod, Nuruddine*, a,b,c,dFaculty of Tourism, Udayana University Bali, eVocational Faculty of Airlangga University Surabaya, Email: acairns54@yahoo.com,  badikampana@unud.ac.id,  cSaptono_nugroho@unud.ac.id,  dyohanes_ipw@unud.ac.id,  e*nuruddin@vokasi.unair.ac.id

Bali is a tourist destination city of the world and includes the Bedugul Tourism Area. The successful management of the area is inseparable from the pattern of relations between tourism stakeholders and lake-based nature. This study focuses on the identification of tourism stakeholders and tourism actors in Lake Buyan, Tamblingan and Beratan in the Bedugul Caldera, which form a pattern of relationships commonly called Tri Ning Danu. This study uses qualitative research methods with a field research model. The process of gathering data occurs through a process of observation, conducting in-depth interviews with selected informants using a purposive sampling process, and the study of documentation in literature relevant to the research theme.Several of the findings in this study are as follows. Tourism stakeholders in Bedugul, Bali consist of local communities, government officials, and tourism entrepreneurs. Each actor has his own interpretation in determining the pattern of their relationship with the lake, which includes theological, ecological and tourism interpretations. Theological interpretations are produced by local communities; ecological interpretations are produced by government officials and bureaucratic elements; while the tourist interpretation is produced by tourism entrepreneurs who pragmatically produce economic tourism practices. Finally, the implications of these various interpretations give birth to the contestation between actors in the management of Tri Ning Danu in the form of latent conflicts. Pages 332 to 344
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