A Pragmatic Study of Litotes in Trump's Political Speeches

Wafaa Mokhlosa, Ali Abdulkareem Mukheefb*, a,bUniversity of Babylon, Iraq, Email: b*ali.mokif@yahoo.com

Litotes is defined as a figure of speech by which the affirmative is expressed by denying its contrary. The current study is concerned with identifying and analysing litotes in Donald Trump's political speeches on pragmatic level. The study aims at identifying the illocutionary force of litotes, the functions of litotes, which maxim of Grice is mainly breached in the production of litotes to produce implicature, and which type of litotes is heavily used by Trump. The analysis is curried out on data consists of four texts from Trump's speeches during being president from 2016 to 2019. The study concludes that the illocutionary force of litotes in most of the times is asserting. Litotes is used mainly to fulfil the function of emphasis, but it can be used to perform the functions of encouraging and inciting. Trump uses contrary litotes in most of his speeches. Pages 1 to 12




An Exploratory Study of Micro-Context and Macro-Context Barriers to Teaching English Language in Iraqi EFL High School Framework

Husam Mohammed Kareem Al-Khazaalia, aImam Al-Kadhum University College, Email: ahusammohammed@alkadhum-col.edu.iq

The study aims at identifying the challenges and barriers that hinder the educational process. Those barriers include micro-context barriers or linguistic difficulties such as students’ practice of spoken English, textual factors, too much vocabulary in English language, cultural competence and mismatching between what is spoken and written. On the other side the macro-context barriers include large classes, poor teacher knowledge, not enough class time, poor infrastructure, focus on written form in examinations, family education, and sticking into a particular method. The subjects of the study comprise 60 students and thirty teachers. The data collection procedure used in the present study is a double questionnaire; students’ questionnaire and teachers’ questionnaire. After collecting data from the questionnaire and analyse these data statistically, the study findings reveal that Iraqi EFL high school students have micro-context and macro-context barriers that impede their self-development and progress in the teacher-learning process. Some educational implications have been proposed to find some solutions to those barriers from the researcher’s viewpoint. Pages 13 to 28




University and Its Role in Enhancing the Moderate Intellectual Security of Students

Thaer Ahmed Hassoona*, Ammar Salim Abed Hamzab, Wasan Muhsin Hasanc, a,cUniversity of Baghdad/ College of Arts –Department of sociology, bUniversity of Babylon/ College of Arts- Department of sociology, Email: a*thaeralamaar@gmail.com

The study is based on a socio-practical study that includes four chapters. Chapter one: The theoretical framework of the research that consists of two sections. The first section includes the problem, importance and objectives of the study and the second section includes the scientific concepts and terms of study. The second chapter includes four sections. The first is the role of university in promoting moderate intellectual security among students through the university administration. The second section includes the faculty member. The third section is about the curriculum, and the fourth section talks about students’ activities. The third chapter includes the procedures, methodology, community, sample, hypotheses, the tools of the study and statistical methods. While the fourth chapter is includes the test and discussions of hypotheses, the most important findings of the study and the most important recommendations and proposals. Pages 29 to 48




The Role of Iraqi Satellite Channels in Promoting Active Citizenship in Protest movements on October 25, 2019

Thanaa Ismael Rashida, aDept. of Media, College of Arts, University of Babylon- Iraq, Email: abus.thanaa.abd@uobabylon.edu.iq

Television channels are competing to facilitate the right of communication, build up information and knowledge for all recipients, achieve different purposes according to their degree of independence and govern intellectual philosophy. We notice their communicative messages intentionally, which come to close depicting the truth. Satellite TV has a clear role in promoting active citizenship if it is independent and free in handling and treatment. This role is embodied in the diversity of credible sources in their reporting, intense media presence in demonstration squares, proactive coverage of events and their developments, portrayal of modern technologies on TV and employment of multimedia in its communicative messages. A serious investigation can uncover the mystery of the circumstances of some events in all areas (political, economic, cultural, legal etc.) that involve a clear violation of human rights. It can do so in a manner that enhances rational decision-making by participants in protest movements, which promotes active citizenship. This is evident in Iraqi satellite channels’ press coverage of the protest movements in Iraq on October 25. Iraqi satellite TV has a clear role in promoting active citizenship by performing communicative functions. These include news, explanations, interpretations and education. Even when its purposes differ from these, most of channels were leaning towards the aspirations of demonstrators and supporting their demands. They presented pictures full of doubt and accusation of representatives of the government and parties. Some relied on highly credible sources such as reporters, delegates, experts and civil activists, as well as government representatives and some parties. This was able to present a somewhat clear picture of local, Arab and international public opinions regarding the reality of what is going on in the protest movements in Iraq. This is a result of popular and official positions that support the demands of demonstrators and sympathise with the violations they are exposed to. Pages 49 to 60




International Provisions for International Sales Contract Termination Between Parties

Raghad Abdulameer Madhlooma, aCollege of Law and Political Science/University of Diyala, Email: aRaghadabed333@gmail.com

Since long ago, international efforts have been aimed at unifying the international sales regulations of goods. This is because of the particular importance of sales contracts in the field of international trade. They develop trading among countries and protect contracting parties from risks that arise from the application of domestic laws when regulations are ignored. In particular, this involves international regulations and international sales contract termination. The authors of international conventions regulating the international provisions for the dissolution of international sales contracts are keen to preserve the contracts as much as possible and save them from disappearing. They do so by minimising the cases that justify resorting to termination that results in provisions. Specific legal effects may affect one or both parties as parties in an international sales contract. Pages 61 to 77




Business Incubators and their Role in Supporting and Developing Small Enterprises in Egypt and Algeria: A Case Study

Sahar Kareem Kataa, Suad Jawad Kadhimb, Amel Asmar Zaboonc, a,b,cEconomics Department, College of Management and Economics, University of Alqadisyah, Alqadisyah, Iraq, Email: asahar.kata@qu.edu.iq, bSoud.kadem@qu.edu.iq, cAmel.zaboon@qu.edu.iq

An incubator is a seed of the foundation of the establishment of any project. It requires attention and care until the project supports itself. Small projects are the result of the birth of business incubators. The main objective of establishment is to promote the leadership and support of small enterprises and provide advice, guidance and support for it to achieve its economic and social goals. In Egypt, we found that incubators started in 1991, when they were called the social fund for development. The aim was to mobilise local and international financial and technical resources for small projects and to provide services, assistance, office facilities and communications necessary for their work. In Algeria, the concept of a business incubator was introduced in 2003. Algerian legislators incorporated the concept of nurseries or nurseries in their early stages within the legislative frameworks of the said year. These aim to support the establishment of small enterprises and identify financiers. Pages 78 to 99




Postmodernism and Clash of Culture in Ali's Brick Lane

Abdulkadhim Hashim Mutlaga, Hussein Zaboon Mutasharb, aImam Al-Kadhum college, bImam Jaafar Al Sadiq university, Email: aabdulkadhim.hashim@alkadhum-col.edu.iq bHussein.mutasher@yahoo.com

This study purports to investigate the clash of cultures as encoded in Monica Ali’s Brick Lane (2003). The study aims to underpin the problem of immigration from East to the West and the human suffering as a tragic resultant consequence. Being the first fictional work of Ali as a modern British novelist, the work treads the path of human situations through a Bangladeshi immigrant’s milieu in a modern critical sense. The scope of the study will be limited to Brick Lane, which bridges the gap between Eastern and the Western cultures in one artistic fabric and universe. One finding of the study is that the source of the victimisation of women is not always the result of the post-colonial view. It might be also the result of the traditional culture in which the characters live. The significance of the study lies in the fact that it is the first academic analysis of the veins of Ali’s novel from a critical point of view. The study is rounded up with concluding remakes elicited from the critical analysis. Pages 100 to 113




The Effectiveness of Semantic mapping instructions in Promoting Iraqi Students' Vocabulary Achievements

Husam Mohammed Kareem Al-Khazaalia, aImam Al-Kadhum University College, Email: ahusammohammed@alkadhum-col.edu.iq

This study aims to investigate whether implementing semantic mapping instructionss of new English vocabulary for Al-Imam Al-Kadhum University College students is advantageous. To accomplish the purpose of this research, the study intends to provide answers to two questions: How does the use of semantic mapping in teaching vocabulary affect EFL College first-year students' learning? Which types of semantic maps are effective in teaching vocabulary based-reading material? The participants were eighty students divided into two groups: a control and experimental group. The control group was given a traditional teaching of vocabulary while the experimental group was taught through using five different types of the semantic mapping strategy, namely a concept categories map; hierarchical organisation map; compare-contrast map; definition, description, example map; and fishbone map. Both groups were tested before and after the experiment. In addition, the experimental group was given a questionnaire to evaluate the five types of semantic mapping strategy. The results of the study indicated that semantic mapping strategies had a positive impact on students' vocabulary performance and reading. The results of the present study reveal that using semantic mapping strategies has a powerful impact and students get engaged with those strategies and learn vocabulary better. Moreover, concept categories maps were regarded to be the best type of semantic mapping strategies and were preferred by students, followed by the compare-contrast map. Finally, the questionnaire findings reflected students' positive attitudes towards using semantic mapping strategies with all their different types. Pages 114 to 125




The Effect of a Genre-Based Approach on Development of Reading Comprehension Skills by Iraqi EFL University Learners

Shurooq Fakhir Abdul Zahraa, aDepartment of English, College of Arts, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Ad Diwaniya, Iraq, Email: ashurooqfakhir@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a genre-based instruction on Iraqi EFL learners. A total of sixty students studying at the University of Al-Qadisiyah, College of Arts, Department of English in the first year were equally distributed into two groups (an experimental group and a control group). A researcher (the instructor) taught the experimental group based on the genre approach and the control group based on the traditional approach of teaching reading comprehension, which is predominant in Iraqi universities. To meet the purpose of this research, the two groups were given a reading comprehension pre-test followed by twenty-four instruction sessions. Then, they were given the same test that they had taken as the pre-test, but this time as the post-test. The results of reading comprehension analysis, analysed by a t-test and independent variable test proposed teaching by a genre-based-group approach, showed that the latter significant role in developing Iraqi EFL learners' reading comprehension skills. The descriptive statistics revealed learners in the experimental group advanced significantly in reading comprehension when compared with the non-genre group. The study indicated that in the performances of both genders (male and female learners) there were non-significant differences. Pages 126 to 146




The Inner Aspects of Paul in David Herbert Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers

Fahim Cheffat Salmana, Sazuliana Binti Sanifb, a,bUTHM, Johor. Malaysia, Email: fahimch83@yahoo.com

This study shows the nature of human beings in the context of society. It also shows the importance of cultural background as a factor that influences humans and reflects behaviour. D.H. Lawrence's Sons and Lovers gives consideration to humans in the context of family and social environments. The writer depicts unbalanced life. For instance, Paul was born and brought up in circumstances of animosity between his father and mother. His mother always prevents him from establishing any relationship with women. Thus, knowing Paul's life gives us an understanding of the domination of mothers even regarding the fate their sons. In the novel, the inner aspects can be traced clearly because the author of the story has chosen some incidents from his personal life. This study will show the psychological elements in the character of Paul that reflect an application of the Oedipus complex. D.H. Lawrence never failed to depict the lives of his characters in all his works. Here, Paul Morel, who is one of the major characters of Sons and Lovers, portrays how he will never escape the bad effects of the class system on his life. Pages 147 to 155




The Role of Accounting Measurement and Disclosure of Intellectual Capital in Rationalising Managerial Decisions

Makki Shahad Dahhama, Kareem Hassan Alib, Jasim Mohammed Yaseenc, a,b,cAl-Qasim Green University , Iraq, Email: amakkialsaady65@gmail.com, bkkaarrmm.a@gmail.com, cjasimYaseen65@gmail.com

The accounting treatments for the measurement and disclosure of problems of intellectual capital controlled by contemporary economic units are considered the most important issues facing accountants. This research aims to find the appropriate accounting treatments to measure intellectual capital. The financial data of the General Company for Electronic Industries has been selected as a sample for the research. Various financial and non-financial measures of intellectual capital were considered. The research reached some important conclusions: many of the elements and components of intellectual capital are not treated with specific accounting entries. Thus, they are estimated in a rough and non-objective way. Moreover, an important part of intellectual capital is human capital that is not measured and determined easily. Pages 156 to 173




Using the Value Analysis Technique to Reduce Product Costs and Improve the Competitive Ability of Economic Units (An Applied Study in Iraqi Industrial Companies)

Hayfaa Kadim Ismael Alobaidia, Alaa Awad Kadhim Albdirib, Aqeel Shamkhi Jebur Al-Bdairic, aUniveraity of Thi-Qar, College of Engineering my life, bDepartment of Finance and Banking College of Management and Economics University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq, cMinistry of Education, The General Directorate of Diwaniya Education Iraq, Email: aHaifaakahdim78@gmail.combalaa.albadiry@qu.edu.igcaqeel.shmke39@gmail.com

The research aims to study the cognitive pillars of the value analysis technique and explain the importance of this technique in achieving a competitive advantage under recent changes and developments associated with the modern business environment. The research used a questionnaire to collect its data. The research sample was chosen from employees who work in Iraqi industrial companies, including administrators, accountants, engineers and technicians. The research reached a number of conclusions, the most important of which is that the value analysis technique is a product design activity. It includes manufacturing products whose functional performance meets the expectations of customers at the lowest cost. Moreover, the value analysis technique helps to identify, analyse functions and exclude functions that do not add value in order to reduce cost and increase value without affecting quality. It does so through the use of creative thinking to help managers to distinguish between activities that add value and those that do not add value. Pages 174 to 197




The Impact of Firm-Specific Risk on Exchange Rate (Evidence from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand)

Dian Indriyania, A.Rina Herawatib, a,bNational Institute of Public Administration, Indonesia (Stia Lan Jakarta), Email: adian.indriyani@stialan.ac.idbaugustin.rina@gmail.com

One of the risks that are inherent to export is the exchange rate. Exchange rate exposure can be measured by identifying systematic risk. Systematic risk consists of country-specific risk and firm-specific risk that is an unsystematic risk. Studies on exchange rate exposure of palm oil especially on firm-specific risk are limited, so the purpose of this research is to fill the gap. This research method is a modified formula of the exchange rate used by Jorion (1990), which consists of two risks, namely country-risk and firm-specific risk. The results show that the coefficient of correlation and multiple linear regression analysis of firm-specific factors significantly influence the exchange rate exposure. The determinant of firm-specific risk that has a significant value consists of market-to-book value, the quick ratio and the openness from a country-specific risk. The volatility of the exchange rate exposure can be influenced by 18.09% with firm-specific factors. Pages 198 to 217




Comparative Study of the Readiness of People for a Cashless Society between Songkhla Municipality and Hatyai Municipality, Songkhla Province, Thailand

Onuma Supattanakula, Ekarach Maliwanb, a,bFaculty of Liberal Arts, Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya, Thailand, Email: aonuma2513@yahoo.com bekarachmaliwan@gmail.com

The purposes of this study is to examine the degree of the readiness of people for a cashless society, and then to assess the differences in the readiness of people for a cashless society between Songkhla Municipality and Hatyai Municipality. The target population of the study is people who are using services via electronic system in Songkhla Municipality and Hatyai Municipality, Thailand. Purposive Random Sampling was used as a surveying technique. Descriptive statistics, for example, Frequency and Percentage, were used to analyse the data. In addition, the data was analysed by Independent Sample t-test in order to test the differences between the groups. The results of the study show that the degree of the readiness of people for a cashless society of Songkhla Municipality is at the moderate level, while it occurs in a high level for Hatyai Municipality. The results of the study also show that there were significant differences in the readiness of people for a cashless society between two municipalities. The findings are useful for improving public and private service providers so that they may respond to financial transactions and achieve a cashless society in the future. Pages 218 to 226




Educational Management for Heterogeneous Schools: A Study of the Understanding of Justice Among Principals

Akhmad Arif Musadada, aDepartment of History Education, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: aakhmadarifmusadad@staff.uns.ac.id

This study aimed to examine the understanding of the concept of justice among principals and its implementation in school management to address the academic disadvantage of students from low SES families. The problems raised are: (1) What is the understanding of justice among principals in the educational management of schools? (2) What is the effect of a principal's understanding of justice on efforts to eliminate structural inequality in education? To answer the two research questions, this study used the Focus Group Discussion (FGD) method and the equity approach. The results showed that principals understood justice as giving equal treatment to all students without considering differences in gender, religion, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The impact is that students from low SES and having low prior knowledge have been left behind. When the principals were challenged to overcome these problems, they recommend establishing study groups with diverse members, so the students can help each other. Pages 227 to 242




Analysis of the Factors Affecting Syrian Construction Companies’ Performance

Hassan Fehana, Osaro Aigbogunb, a,bBinary University of Management and Entrepreneurship, Malaysia, Email: ahassanfehan747@gmail.combosaro.aigbogun@gmail.com

The goal of this study is to present the preliminary results of the reliability of the measurement scales used to gather data that investigates the effect of organizational factors on the performance of Syrian construction companies with “Institutional Pressures” as the potential moderator of the relationship between these factors and performance outcomes. The measurement scales have been adapted and subjected to content validity testing with academic and industry experts. This present paper reports the reliability of the measurement scales used for data collection from a sample of 20 building experts in Syrian construction organizations using a seventy-nine-item questionnaire instrument. The reliability of the measurement scales was tested by determining the internal consistency. This was done by computing the average inter-item correlations utilizing Cronbach alpha. The findings of the reliability test show Cronbach’s alpha values above the generally accepted threshold of 0.7. Hence, these findings provide the researcher with an insight into the reliability of the measurement scales of the construction firm's performance measures along with the specific organizational factors that may affect performance. Pages 243 to 258




The Relationship Between Digital Transformational Leadership Styles  and Knowledge-Based Empowering Interaction for Increasing Organisational Innovativeness

Ardia, Sundring Pantja Djatib, Innocentius Bernartoc, Niko Sudibjod, Aneu Yulianeue, Hezkiel A.Nandaf, Kezia A.Nandag, a,b,c,dGraduate Business School, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Tangerang, Indonesia, eDoctoral Program, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Indonesia, fDoctoral Program, Institute for Health Informatics, University of Minnesota, USA, gDepartment of Communication, Binus University, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: aardi.kho@lecturer.uph.edubpantja.djati@uph.educinnocentius.bernarto@uph.edudniko.sudibjo@uph.edu,  eanjusu09@gmail.com,  fnanda072@umn.edugkeziananda@gmail.com

The effects of leadership styles on organizational innovativeness are still arguable due to inconsistencies. Many researchers analysed the direct and indirect relationships with antecedent variables of organizational innovativeness. The influence of transformational leadership styles has widely been confirmed to have an effect on organizational innovativeness. However, organizations sometimes fail to achieve organizational innovativeness due to their limited understanding of the relationships between leadership, and knowledge-based empowering interaction that will enhance organizational innovativeness. This study is constructed to fill a research gap between Digital Transformational Leadership Styles and Organizational Innovativeness with Knowledge-Based Empowering Interaction as a mediator. This research used owners and executive from 32 digital firms as samples. Data was gathered through an online questionnaire using Likert’s Scales, and analysed with Smart Partial Least Squares. The result is that organizations should consider the Knowledge-Based Empowering Interaction to increase Organizational Innovativeness. Pages 259 to 277




Determining the Efficiency of Maintenance Programs Using Performance Indicators: Case Study in Electric Cables and Wires Factory

Aseel Ali Mezhera, Amel Abed Mohammed Alib, aUniversity of Al Qadisiyah, Iraq College of Administration & Economics Department of Businesses Administration, bUniversity of Babylon, Iraq College of Administration & Economics Department of Industrial Administration, Email: Aseel.Mezher@qu.edu.iqbus.amel.abed@uobabylon.edu.iq

The performance and competitiveness of industrial organization are based on the relabelling availability and productivity of their production facility. In order to achieve the desired level of performance from these facilities, those responsible for maintenance need to adopt plans and strategies and choose the path that ensures good performance. This study aims to calculate the performance indicators of maintenance work in the electrical cables and wires factory of Ur State Company. The leading and lagging indicators were applied in order to measure the efficiency of the performance of the maintenance work in order to help the senior management choose the method or methods of maintenance that suit the nature of the company's work in general, and the community research factory in particular. These indicators were calculated for the first six months of 2019 and for all the machines that make up the production line in the lab according to the actual operating times, the breakdown times and all the other actual data needed to calculate these indicators, which were collected from the company's records as well as field visits, personal interviews conducted and direct observation. Pages 278 to 300




Poetic Truth in Byron’s Sennacherib and Sardanapalus

Abdulkadhim Hashim Mutlaqa, aImam Al-Kadhum University College, Email: aabdulkadhim.hashim@alkadhum-col.edu.iq

This study is set to explore Lord Byron’s Destruction of Sennacherib and Sardanapalus in the light of Aristotle’s literary philosophy by examining the Byronic hero as a poetic truth against the Assyrian Kings as a historical truth. While historical truth is controlled to the past, the poetic reality is timeless as it is universal and invented. The study proceeds with the hypothesis that the lead as a poetic truth is universality. It aims at exploring the essence of human nature as well as the nature as human relation in Byron’s Destruction of Sennacherib and Sardanapalus. Through an analysis of the texts, the study concludes that poetic writings are the idealized micro-spheres or the macro-sphere of reality. Pages 301 to 309




The Role of Digital Marketing in Business Performance with the Moderating Effect of Environment Factors among SMEs of UAE

Mohammed T. Nuseira, Ahmad Aljumahb, a,bDepartment of Business Administration, College of Business, Alain University, Abu Dhabi Campus, P.O. Box 112612, Abu Dhabi, UAE, Email: aMohammed.nuseir@aau.ac.aebAhmad.aljumah@aau.ac.ae

The present research investigates the role of digital marketing on business performance in the small and medium enterprises sector of the United Arab Emirates. Technological advancements, such as the utilization of digital applications, enable firms to communicate with customers, while being responsive towards competitors with minimal resources. The ability of customers to seek information from SMEs products or services must be provided easy, timely and correctly through various digital technologies. The purpose of this research paper is to determine the empirical relationship between digital marketing and business performance among SMEs of UAE. The study was conducted on marketing managers and IT managers of SMEs to determine the proposed framework. The collected data was analysed on SMART-PLS through measurement and structural equation modelling and was based on the results of a study investigating how digital marketing influences business performance. The environment is considered to be an essential factor in business performance. The study found that hypothesis H1 was accepted but H2 and H3 were rejected on statistical grounds. The study did not observe any moderation in the proposed variables of the present research. The study is novel in determining the empirical investigation between digital marketing efforts and business performance with moderation effect of environmental factors. Pages 310 to 324




The Correlation Between Emotional Intelligence, Academic Achievement, and the Use of Social Media in Senior High School Students

Mulawarman Mulawarmana*, Fahmi Nuzulul Hudab, Suharso Suharsoc, Muslikah Muslikahd, a,b,c,dUniversitas Negeri Semarang, Guidance and Counseling Department, Faculty of Education, Email: a*mulawarman@mail.unnes.ac.id

This study aims to examine the correlation between emotional intelligence (EI) and learning achievement with social media usage on students. This research is correlation quantitative. Subjects were 4 of 10 schools with 226 students using cluster random sampling and purposive sampling. The data was obtained by the questionnaire of social media usage, the scale of emotional intelligence (EI), and the ledger documentation. Validity rate on all of the instruments was high with the level of error 5%, as well as the reliability of the instruments which was also high. The descriptive analysis used mean and standard deviation, while hypothesis testing used the product moment correlation and multiple. The research results found a negative and significant relationship between EI with social media usage (rxy = -0.251; p <0.05). Furthermore, there is a significant negative correlation between the learning achievement and social media use (rxy = -0.429; p <0.05). There is also a significant correlation between emotional intelligence and learning achievement with social media usage (ryx1x2 = 0.472 ≥ 0.138; p <0.05). It can be concluded the higher EI and learning achievement, the lower social media usage among students, and otherwise. The variables of EI and learning achievement contribute negatively towards the social media use. Pages 325 to 335




Using Time Driven Activity Based Costing (TDABC) in Measuring the Cost of Bank Service (Applied Study in Al-Rafidain Bank)

Zina Mohammed Sabti Najim Al Askarya, Hayder Oudah Kadhimb, Alyaa Hussein Mohmmed Ali Alesaac, aTechnical University of Al Furat Al Awsat Technical Institute / Karbala, bDepartment of Accounting College of Management and Economics University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq, cCollege of Veterinary Medicine Department of Public Health University of Al-Qadisiyah,Iraq, Email: aZena_zena@kit.edu.iqbhadier.saidy@gu.edg.ig  cAlyaaalesi@qiu.edu.iq

The current research aims to explain the knowledge bases of time driven activity based costing (TDABC) by examining the concept of this approach, its importance, cost drivers, time equations, the steps of applying this approach in the economic units, as well as the role of this approach in measuring the cost of the bank service. This is to determine the real amount of net profit. TDABC was developed in 2003 in order to treat the practical problems faced by economic units when using activity-based costing (ABC). The TDABC approach to the treatment of the problems and shortcomings of ABC, and the introduction of the optimal time approach of the cost with activity based costing, has overcome problems and shortcomings of ABC. The TDABC approach is less costly, faster to implement and easier to use. It also helps in determining the cost rates based on the actual capacity to supply resources. Pages 336 to 356




Hegemony Practice of Consumers in Disruption Era

Nyoman Sri Subawaa, Ni Wayan Widhiasthinib, aStudy Program of Management, Universitas Pendidikan Nasional, bStudy Program of Public Administration, Universitas Pendidikan Nasional, Email: a*shribawa@undiknas.ac.id

Disruption is interpreted as a change that occurs using new ways and patterns, this has affected many things including the tourism industry in Bali. Hegemony occurs massively through the use of information technology, especially social media, which is carried out by consumers and producers through their digital marketing networks. As one of the main destinations of world tourism, and very strong in maintaining its customs, culture and traditions, Bali must bow to disruption followed by transformation. The problem of this research is how is the practice of consumer hegemony in the era of disruption? The study was conducted in the Province of Bali, Indonesia, considering the choice of research locations due to rapid changes in community behaviour, in line with global cultural changes that  affect cultural changes in local communities. Data was analysed descriptively, qualitatively and interpretatively, by collecting data through observation, interviews and participation in action research. Determination of informants in this study using purposive techniques, especially judgment and convenience through the interview process. Data validity testing is done by triangulation. The results show that there has been a hegemony over consumers in this era of disruption, which is practiced through the dominance of producers through social media. The marketing of tourism services has experienced a disruption, which includes a disruptive mindset and a disruption society on marketing agents who initiate sales of tour packages online, network and use applications. Consumers have become marketing agents for their environment, and are a reference to future consumer behaviour trends. Hegemony is carried out with social media as the primary means, and there is a transformation of local wisdom of the Balinese people, following the pattern of economic sharing, and the application of the principle of new public service by the government through the publication of several tourism regulations. Pages 357 to 375




Renewable Energy Sources in International Energy Markets: Reality and Prospects

Ahmed Jassim Al-Yasiria*, Maan Abood Alib , Raed Saiad Alic, Heider Nima Bekheetd, a,dDepartment of Economics , Faculty of Administration and Economics, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq. b,cDepartment of Economics, Faculty of Administration and Economics, University of Misan, Misan, Iraq. Email: a*ahmedjalyaseri@uokufa.edu.iq, bmaanabood3@gmail.comcRaid1982100@gmail.com  dheider.nima@uokufa.edu.iq

Energy sources are a requirement of our daily actions as a means of improving human progress, which contributes to further development and productivity. Renewable energy will help to mitigate climate change effectively, but this use should be sustainable to meet the needs of future generations of energy. In particular, there is still limited knowledge of the interrelationship between renewables and the size of global energy demand. This study aims to explore the reality and future of renewable energy sources in the world and how shifting from traditional fossil-fuel energy sources to renewable energy sources can reduce the impact of climate change. The study uses a qualitative research approach by reviewing papers in the scope of the study, as well as reports and statistics from international and regional energy production  organisations. The results, based on reports by the International Energy Agency and OPEC, show that dependence on renewable energy sources will increase globally over the next two decades, making it a major source of energy in the global energy markets. All types of renewable energy sources are non-emissions that will help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the future. However, expenses, price levels, policies and market conditions have become barriers that prevent developing and least-developed countries from fully exploiting renewable energy production technologies. There is, therefore, a real need to establish a state of global cooperation to support developing countries, including Arab countries, to ensure access to renewable energy sources and clean energy technologies. Pages 376 to 393




The Impact of Education Quality on the Financial and Educational Sciences Programs

Alaa Mohamad Malo-Alaina, Eman Nayef Al Njadatb, a,bAl-Balqa Applied University, Aqaba, Jordan, Email: aprof.maloain@bau.edu.jobemanal-njadat@bau.edu.jo

This study aimed to evaluate both the financial and educational sciences program from the viewpoint of students at Aqaba university college (AUC) affiliated to Al Balqa Applied University (BAU) during the academic year 2019, the evaluation was based on the third standard " Academic Program " in regards to teaching and learning, study plans, evaluation of educational output. The researchers adopted the descriptive analytical approach using a survey method to achieve the study objectives; the study sample consisted of 218 students, distributed equally between the programs. The results demonstrate that there is a positive impact by the students at Aqaba university college (AUC) towards the quality of education, pertaining to teaching and learning processes, study plans and evaluation of educational outputs. Pages 394 to 408




The Comparison between the Effectiveness of Guided Discovery Model and Inquiry Model for Early Childhood Education Students

R. Sihadi Darmo Wihardjoa*, Yuliani Nuranib, Syahrul Ramadhanc, aEnvironmental Education, Graduate Program, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Complex of Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Building M. Hatta St. Rawamangun Muka, East Jakarta, Indonesia, 13220, bEarly Childhood Education Program, Universitas Negeri Jakarta. Complex of Universitas Negeri Jakarta Building M. Hatta St. Rawamangun Muka, East Jakarta, Indonesia, 13220, cYogyakarta State University. Jalan Colombo No. 1, Karangmalang, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia, Email: a*rsihadi@unj.ac.id

This research paper aims to know the effectiveness of the Guided Discovery model towards the cognitive competence, meticulous attitude, and psychomotor skill and to know the comparison between the effectiveness of the guided discovery model and the conventional model. The type of this research was quasi-experimental research. This research was conducted by Early Childhood Education (PAUD) Major of Jakarta State University (UNJ) by determining one class that would receive the treatment (the experimental class) and one other class as the control class. Based on the analysis results, it can be concluded that the learning by using the guided discovery model is effective to improve the cognitive competence, meticulous attitude, and psychomotor skills. Based on the average scores and the value of the comparison test between the experimental group and the control group for the cognitive competence and meticulous attitude tend to be more effective when guided discovery was applied. While for the psychomotor skill, the result of its effectiveness is relatively the same (there is no significant difference) between the experimental group and the control group. Pages 409 to 418




The Implementation of “Arif” Social Behaviour within Perssin Supporters in Sinjai District

Arifuddin Usmana, Andi Agustangb, aDepartment of Physical Health Education and Recreation, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia, bDepartment of Sociology, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia, Email: aarifus1303@gmail.combandiagust63@gmail.com

This study employed survey research and aimed to determine the implementation of ARIF social behaviour of the Sinjai Perssin supporter community in Sinjai District. The population was the management and supporters of Sinjai Perssin Sinjai Regency. The samples were administrators and supporters of Sinjai Perssin Sinjai District, amounting to 70 samples. The technique of determining the sample was  utilizing purposive sampling. This study employed descriptive frequency analysis as the data analysis technique. The findings revealed that the implementation of ARIF social behaviour which was an abbreviation of Aggressive, Religious, Innovative, and Fanaticism of the Sinjai Perssin supporter community in Sinjai District was categorised as “good”, which consisted of indicators and sub-indicators such as Action, Reaction, Belief, Trust, Creativity, Pride and Self-sacrifice showing a statistical percentage value of 67.35%. Pages 419 to 440




The Enforcement of Constitutional Democracy: Creativity in Growing Responsive Law in Indonesia

Djunaedia, aUniversitas Swadaya Gunung Jati, Cirebon, Indoneseia, Email: a*junaedipasca@unswagawati.ac.id

The term of democracy for many people is considered as a word that implicates noble values, a struggle for independence, and a better way of life. Democracy constitutionally means that democracy is not only a method of majority in authority through people’s participation and independent competition, but also means that democracy contains similar values, independence, and pluralism. In line with it, the existence of democracy gives participation space for the people is expected to be able to control legal system, hence,  law must be returned to its substance, which is in order to give a sense of justice, a sense of pleasantness, and a sense of welfare for people’s survival. Therefore, a change of democracy constitutionally aims at forming a responsive legal character  following people’s noble desire, which is social justice for all people. Pages 441 to 451




Development of Local Cultured Textbook for Improving the Speaking Ability of Foreign Workers in Indonesia

Laily Nurlinaa*, Andayanib, Retno Winarnic, St.Y. Slametd, aUniversitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta; Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto , Indonesia, b,c,dUniversitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta , Indonesia, Email: alailynurlina@ump.ac.idbandayani.staff@uns.ac.idcwinarniuns@yahoo.comdslametsty@yahoo.co.id

Foreigners working in Indonesia, tend to find it difficult communicating with locals.  The Indonesian government has mandated workers to possess a certificate Indonesian language ability. Therefore they need to learn the language. Nevertheless, several Indonesian Language Studies have no proper learning material especially on local culture understanding so this study aims to develop it. This research and development have 3 main stages namely exploration, development, and experimental step. Pages 452 to 465




Current Situation and Management Solutions for Bilingual Education in Primary School

Hoai Phuong Trana,, Quoc Tien Leb, aHanoi National University of Education, Email: aphuongth@hnue.edu.vn ; bHaiphong Department of Education and Training, Haiphong, Vietnam

Less than a quarter of countries around the world recognise the use of two official languages in their country. In multilingual countries, governments either openly or implicitly enforce a monopoly policy even though the number of people who can speak two or more languages overwhelms the number of people who can only speak one language. This monologue policy has caused many political, socio-economic, and educational disadvantages for minority language speakers. Therefore, a new education - bilingual education has gradually been expanded in these multilingual countries. Vietnamese - English bilingual education at the primary level in Vietnam is attracting much attention from managers, educators, and parents. At most primary schools in Vietnam, English is introduced, and the program is from grade 3; even some schools have tried to use English to teach some subjects such as Math and Science from 1st grade towards bilingual education for children. This study was conducted at two primary schools in Hanoi to understand the model, orientation, and views on bilingual education through a survey of 41 teachers and interview 2 professional managers and 2 school leaders. The research results show that although the shared opinion of both schools' leaders and lecturers supports bilingual education, at present, new schools are only in the direction of intensive English, there is no bilingual training model due to reasons such as the number of subjects that can be taught in English, the length of class, teachers and education policy. Pages 466 to 482




A Study of the Core Relationship between Cyber-Bullying and Coping of High-School Pupils in Vietnam

Quoc Tien Lea, aHaiphong Department of Education and Training, Haiphong, Vietnam, Email:  aLequoctien@haiphong.edu.vn

Currently, bullying is a very concerning issue in society in general and in the school environment in particular. A new form of "bullying" called "cyberbullying" is also creating a high amount of anxiety and attention to society, especially in the current period, when information technology is growing. The use of mobile phones and the Internet to post inappropriate or harmful images or use cruel words to insult someone has caused emotional trauma and psychology for them, making them affected their studies and activities. Equipping teachers and students with knowledge of bullying, in particular, talks about bullying and related factors such as gender, age, personality, families can help reduce bullying in schools. Activities such as life value training, skills to make friends and communicate with friends will help them know how to treat you better. Life skills courses can help students be able to cope with and solve the difficulties and conflicts encountered in life most effectively. From there, contributing to improving the bullying phenomenon in students is increasingly severe today. Bullies come in many forms and levels. Over time, most of us, in our childhood or as adults, may have to deal with some bullies. Recent statistics show that one in four children is occasionally bullied. At work, at home, in the military, in hospitals, even in nursing homes, bullying has become a problem for adults. We have to deal with bullies carefully, and above all, that behaviour must be prevented. The article mentions a study that explores the relationship between cyberbullying and how high school students cope with cyberbullying. 736 students from 8 secondary and high schools in Hanoi, Hai Phong, and Hai Duong participated in this study. Results showed that 183 students (24% of the total study population) were victims of at least one form of cyberbullying. The extent and form of bullying among victims vary in terms of gender, region, age, and education level. Victims rarely share their bullying and avoid the problem, but they are aware of the seriousness of cyberbullying, considering it is not just a regular occurrence online. Pages 483 to 500




Management Solution to Innovate English Teaching Activities in Secondary Schools

Thi Anh Thu Doa*, Quoc Tien Leb, aVietnam Maritime University, Haiphong, Vietnam, bHaiphong Department of Education and Training, Haiphong, Vietnam, Email: a*anhthu@vimaru.edu.vn"

Currently, with the faster development of information and science and technology, the knowledge economy plays an increasingly prominent role in the development of productive forces on a global scale. The knowledge economy requires people to have a lot of new knowledge, skills, and a positive attitude to control life. Moreover, the trend of international integration today requires each country to have a high-quality human resource, able to work in a multilingual and multicultural environment. Vietnam is facing a significant challenge of vital importance in history to have to find creative ways to integrate into the region and the world. In this context, the human factor - high-quality human resources are the decisive factor for economic development. English has been raised as the role of a necessary quality competence of the personality of modern Vietnamese people. English - an international language that has indeed become a significant means of communication and is the key to the door of human knowledge treasure, significantly contributing to the industrialisation and modernisation of the country, helping us to step on the path of international integration firmly. English has an important role and position in the cause of education and training and the development of the country. In the past years, the teaching activities of English at secondary schools (junior high schools) have had many innovations, bringing significant results. Nevertheless, the way of managing the activities of the university in general and the English subject, in particular, is primarily based on self-learning experience, so it does not meet the current renovation requirements. In this paper, the authors will focus on studying the current situation of English teaching management at secondary schools in Vietnam, thereby proposing measures to manage teaching activities to improve the quality of teaching English. They  gave junior high school students the ability to meet the increasing demands of the whole society. Pages 501 to 512




Orientation for an Education 4.0: A New Vision for Future Education in Vietnam

Quoc Tien Lea, aHaiphong Department of Education and Training, Haiphong, Vietnam, Email: aLequoctien@haiphong.edu.vn

The phrase "fourth industrial revolution" contains a significant change, not only changing the economy but also the whole culture and society. The industrial revolution 4.0 has turned our Earth into a village. No area on earth is a separate, inviolable territory. Education is considered a key area of training human resources in the era of industrial revolution 4.0. Recently, with the explosion of data, the results of digitalisation and Internet connectivity everywhere are becoming the foundation of revolution 4.0. Industry 4.0 requires education of 4.0. "Education 4.0", education shortly originates from the industrial revolution 4.0 (Industry 4.0). It is a technological revolution that is growing at an exponential rate, which is expected to explode in 2020 and create a fundamental change in the knowledge economy. The 4.0 Industry can lead to greater inequality in society, especially the risk of disrupting the traditional labour market, proceeding to establish a new labour market in which the competition of creative knowledge. Besides the significant impacts on the economy, the industrial revolution 4.0 must also have a significant impact on Vietnam education. The industrial revolution 4.0 requires active, independent, free, self-study, self-study, self-motivating, especially creative thinking of all circles. In the industrial revolution 4.0, people do not talk about qualifications; people will be judged according to the value they bring to society, regardless of qualifications and origin. Future teachers will have to teach people to learn how to self-learn, self-thinking, and self-improvement. Workers will become global citizens and emulate anytime, anywhere. In this revolution, each of us must  mobilise, change, and moult. What is extraordinary is that no one can stand outside this revolution, if people do not move according to it, they will be left behind. The paper focuses on an overview of the development trend of Vietnamese education in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0. This article presents an overview of the fundamental changes in educational technology in the future. Also, the author emphasised the opportunities and challenges of Vietnamese education before the threshold of education 4.0 of progressive humanity. Pages 513 to 526




Improving Teaching Capacity for Teachers of Social Sciences before Requesting the Innovation of the General Education Program

Thi Lan Phunga*, Quoc Tien Leb, Thi Tuyet Mai Buic, a,bHaiphong Department of Education and Training, Haiphong, Vietnam, cDepartment of Education and Training of Kien An District, Haiphong, Vietnam, Email: a*phunglangdhp@gmail.com

Social sciences play an essential role in the development of society, as well as building and fostering personality. In the current renovation process in our country, social sciences education must actively contribute to the renewal process and become a sharp tool in renewing thinking, building scientific arguments for the way to go up to socialism in our country, build a right stance, viewpoints, build socialist awareness and personality. Humanities and social sciences help orient human development, closely related to social issues, it is the science that directs people to sincerity - holiness - beauty that few sciences can replace. The teaching staff is the force that determines the quality of training. Teachers of social sciences have the duty to convey the quintessence of the nation, thereby educating many successive generations with quality and reliable knowledge to shoulder the work of the country. The old experience is that there must be good teachers in basic sciences in general and social sciences in particular in order to teach well and solidly develop educational science. To contribute to improving the quality of education and training in schools, a permanent solution is to improve the quality of social science teachers. They are people who directly equip themselves with knowledge, educate, build up their political spirit, beliefs, motives, and wills; In particular, teaching capacity is the essential factor. Currently, the capacity of teaching staff in social sciences subjects still has some issues that need to be addressed before the requirements of educational innovation. In this article, the author focuses on clarifying two main contents: (1) Current situation of teacher capacity (teachers) teaching social sciences subject to the requirements of educational innovation; and (2) Proposing solutions to improve the capacity of teachers to teach social science subjects, to meet the requirements of a new school education program. Pages 527 to 541




Administration of Teaching at High Schools by Orientations in STEM Education

Thi Tuyet Mai Buia*, Quoc Tien Leb, Thi Lan Phungc, aDepartment of Education and Training of Kien An District, Haiphong, Vietnam, b,cHaiphong Department of Education and Training, Haiphong, Vietnam, Email: a* tuyetmainb@gmail.com

Emerging from the requirement for ongoing education, linking teaching activities with real life, science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)-oriented teaching activities are an urgent and essential requirement, raising the minds and skills of teachers in the educational period 4.0, and having a profound impact on the effectiveness of teaching activities. STEM education makes a positive contribution to the preparation for the implementation of a new school education program. STEM education is an educational perspective, in which STEM subjects are logically linked to, and integrated and applied in, specific real-world contexts, expanding schools, connecting with the community and developing learner competencies in STEM fields. Today, the new perspective of STEM education is to develop learners’ abilities not only in science but also in social fields. Vietnam’s new general education program is similar in orientation to this new view of STEM education. The benefits of the application and implementation of STEM in general education in Vietnam are undisputed because of the very practical benefits; this method also brings a modern educational philosophy to the trend of industrial revolution 4.0. However, the management of teaching activities in secondary schools when applying the STEM method is not always easy. This article examines the current situation regarding managing teaching activities in high schools, thus offering solutions to improve the quality and effectiveness of teaching activities when applying STEM widely to schools. Pages 542 to 556




Application of Change Management Theory to Command New Teaching Activities in High Schools

Quoc Tien Lea*, Thi Tuyet Mai Buib, Thi Lan Phungc, a,cHaiphong Department of Education and Training, Haiphong, Vietnam, Department of Education and Training of Kien An District, Haiphong, Vietnam, Email: a*a*Lequoctien@haiphong.edu.vn

Today’s science and technology revolution is developing rapidly, leading to an explosion of information. The world is now entering the Industrial Revolution 4.0, which requires each individual to acquire and update a large amount of knowledge, modern achievements in the fields of natural sciences, social sciences and humanities so they can adapt quickly to modern life. The teaching process in high schools is struggling to maintain pace, as the volume of knowledge is increasing and becoming more complicated, but the available learning time is limited. To resolve such conflicts, innovative education and teaching methods are required, oriented to developing students’ capacity to foster an ability for self-study and the capacity for lifelong learning. The Ministry of Education and Training issued a draft general education program in August 2015, which includes essential innovations. Therefore, the management of schools – and particularly the management of teaching activities – must also make changes to meet the requirements of the program. Leaders of secondary schools need to master and actively direct the renovation of teaching activities in inclusive schools in order to implement the general school education program. With regard to change management, the author proposes measures to direct innovation in teaching activities in schools towards the implementation of general education.Pages 557 to 568




Sustainable Development of Logistics in Vietnam in the Period 2020–2025

Hoang Phuong Nguyena*, aAcademy of Politics Region II, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam, Email: a* nghoangphuong11@gmail.com

Globally, logistics has entered a boom period, but in Vietnam the logistics industry is still in its infancy, although the country has focused much more on developing this service industry in recent times. In Vietnam, logistics and the new, complete and comprehensive content of logistics constitute a relatively new field, including both theoretical systems and practical operations. Enterprises specialising in providing logistics services only partly meet the needs of the domestic market, and have not yet reached regional and world markets. Hard and soft infrastructure conditions for the development of this service in Vietnam are very limited. Other relevant laws, such as the Maritime Law and the Transport Law, lack many guiding decrees. Financial and customs issues related to logistics services are still inadequate. Highly qualified human resources in the field are also seriously lacking. In particular, a new revolution is taking the entire economy to join – the Industrial Revolution 4.0. This is not associated with the birth of any specific technology, but rather has emerged from the convergence of many different technologies, in which the focus is on nanotechnology, biotechnology and information technology. The Industrial Revolution 4.0 requires industries in society to transition to a smarter approach to meeting the needs of society. With an important role in the development of businesses in particular and Vietnam in general, logistics must also keep up with the trend of this digital age. This article focuses on researching the factors that can affect logistics activities in Vietnam, especially under the impact of international economic integration and the Industrial Revolution 4.0. It proposes highly feasible solutions to the factors that have negative and positive impacts on Vietnam’s logistics market.Pages 665 to 682




Human Resource Management of Logistics in Vietnam: Status and Policy Solutions

Hoang Phuong Nguyena, aAcademy of Politics Region II, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Email: anghoangphuong11@gmail.com

Along with the strong development of science and technology and the trend of globalisation, logistics activities from production to consumption play an increasingly important role in the competitiveness of enterprises in the manufacturing industry – both services and the entire economy. Vietnam is one of four Southeast Asian countries with great potential to develop both infrastructure and logistics systems. An action plan to improve competitiveness and develop logistics services was released in Vietnam, with projections to 2025, showing the government’s interest in this very important sector of the economy. Indeed, human resources are the most difficult problem of the logistics industry today because, due to rapid development, the human resources of this industry are both insufficient and poorly trained. Therefore, research on issues related to logistics services has attracted the attention of many scientists as well as managers, both at home and abroad. This article provides an overview of the current situation of human resources in the logistics service industry in Vietnam, analyses the causes of the limitations and provides a suggestion for developing human resources for this service industry. It also investigates the real situation of human resources of the logistics industry and proposes solutions to develop human resources to improve the competitiveness of Vietnam’s logistics in the global service chain.Pages 569 to 583




Applying Change Management Theory in Developing CDIO-based Curriculum at Universities in the Vietnamese Ministry of Transport

Thi Lan Anh Vua*, Thi Thu Hang Nguyenb, aHo Chi Minh City University of Transport, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam, bNational Academy of Education Management, Hanoi, Vietnam, Email: a* lananhnn@hcmutrans.edu.vn

The society in which we live is becoming an information and knowledge society and global economy, which requires building a ‘thinking’ workforce. For universities, this means that the context of teaching has changed, with great interest and high demands from the community. Universities are put under pressure to provide their students with training for learning outcomes of internationally required knowledge, career skills and attitudes. This means that there is a need for an important change in thinking and practice in operating the university. The burden of great responsibility requires a reorganisation of university operating activities, including changes in the governance structure, teaching methods and curriculum development, and clearly defining learning outcomes. Higher education has experienced considerable change due to the Industrial Revolution 4.0, which is a result of the digital world. Universities must have access to the advanced curriculum development methods adopted by education quality management associations. The CDIO approach is one of the leading advanced methods of developing higher education programs currently being implemented by technical universities. This article focuses on applying the theory of change management in education to develop CDIO-based training programs for universities in the Vietnamese Ministry of Transport. Pages 584 to 604




The Level of Social Intelligence of Special Education Teachers in Al-Ain City, from Their Own Perspective

Ziyad Kamel Ellalaa, Saeb Kamel Ellalab, aAssistant Professor of Special Education Al Ain University Faculty of Education, Humanities Sciences Department United Arab Emirates, bAssociate Professor of Special Education Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University College of  Education, Department of Special Education Saudi Arabia,

The study aimed to determine the level of social intelligence of special education teachers in Al-Ain City from their own perspective, regarding gender variables. The study sample comprised 93 teachers (45 male and 48 female). To achieve the objectives of the study, the two researchers adopted the English copy of the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale (TSIS) prepared by Silvera et al. (2001), in order to measure the level of social intelligence. The scale included 21 items distributed on three dimensions: social information processing, social skills and social awareness. To determine the results, arithmetic means and standard deviations were used to answer the first question and a t-test was used to answer the second question. The results revealed that teachers’ social intelligence was high for the dimension ‘social information processing’ and average for the two dimensions ‘social skills’ and ‘social awareness’. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences at the level of social intelligence pertaining to the two dimensions ‘social information processing’ and ‘social awareness attributed to gender’, but there were differences in statistical significance for the dimension ‘social skills associated with teachers of special education’ at Al-Ain, from their perspective, in favour of males. The study came up with some recommendations. Pages 605 to 620




Immersion in Education: State and Prospects

Vladimir Fedorova*, Tatiana Stepanovab, Aleksandr Stepanovc, Yevgeniy Dorozhkind, Alexander D. Tretyakove, a,c,d,eRussian State Vocational Pedagogical University, Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation, bUral Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation

The relevance of this study is associated with the need to search for new techniques and technologies for the effective development of educational processes in the dynamic, intensive and extensive growth conditions of the modern information space. The study aimed to identify an effective approach to educational processes associated with immersion practices, while focusing on a system of various modalities of information. Research methods included historical and empirical analysis of immersion processes, the neuropsychological method and the method of mathematics of fuzzy sets. Monitoring of educational immersion processes related to testing, questionnaires and surveys of students in schools, colleges, higher educational institutions in the areas of fine art and design made it possible to determine the vectors of structuring immersion information. The practical development of immersion technologies confirmed the relevance of the use of immersion in educational processes. In the process of considering educational immersions, systemic and integral signs of audio, visual, composite and simultaneous immersions were revealed. The prospects of immersion in education are justified by examples of positive historical and modern experience in its application – bilingual, medical, humanitarian, design and so on. This experience became the basis for drawing up a design model for the use of educational immersion and the theoretical transformation of actual knowledge and practices of various textual immersions into the proposed idea of an immersion educational approach, which requires methodological, methodical and technological disclosure.Pages 621 to 632




The Features of the Method and Style of Voltaire’s Philosophising

Tatiana Torubarovaa, aKursk State University, Kursk, Russian Federation, Email: atorubarova1t@rambler.ru

This article reveals the specificity of Voltaire’s philosophical reflections, stemming from the educational tendency that determines the peculiarity of the plot moves and the mental operations of his philosophising. The author explicates the state of mind of the time in which Voltaire’s thought crystallised, and that contributed to the formation of a new form of discursiveness. The analysis enabled the shaping of an understanding of the reasons why satire and irony have become the key method in such a discourse. The author addresses the rhetorical techniques and Voltaire’s sophistic technique, and gives their classification. In particular, Voltaire’s method of simplifying reality, philosophical monologism, projection and imaginary experience are analysed. The elements of style are examined in which the method of polemical misunderstanding and deliberate stupidity plays an important role. Voltaire’s philosophical ideas, derived from and defined by this context, are revealed. The author thus provides an insight into the deep connections of Voltaire’s method and style of philosophising with the core of his metaphysical position and socio-political doctrine.Pages 633 to 651




Modernisation of School Historical Education: Comparative Experience of Russia and Great Britain

Gulnara Burdinaa*, Irina Krapotkinab, Liliya Nasyrovac, a,b,cElabuga Institute (branch) of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Elabuga, Russian Federation, Email: a*burdinagm@rambler.ru

In recent years, questions have arisen about defining the goals of educational strategies in connection with the modernisation of the education system. These have been a subject of discussion for both Russian teachers and the professional community of other countries. The most pressing issue in these discussions is the problem of historical education. The article analyses the specific features of modern reformation processes in school history education in Russia and the United Kingdom. Analysis of the development experience of the UK school system makes it possible to compare the general and specific features of the reform of school history education in the United Kingdom and Russia. A comparative analysis of the reform of school history education in the represented countries showed that the priority goal of the reforms being carried out in both countries is to improve the quality of school history education. The author highlights the stages of reforming school education in Russia and the United Kingdom, during which approaches to teaching history changed. The results and conclusions of the study contribute to a deeper understanding of the process of modernisation of school history education and the definition of key priorities in school history education. The article’s findings will be useful for school and university teachers, as well as a wide circle of readers interested in modern education.Pages 652 to 664



Does Malaysian Islamic Money Market Efficiently Predict Inflation in the Future? Evidence from Fisher Effect Theory

Nurazilah Zainala, Law Siong Hookb, Annuar Md Nassirc, Mohammed Hariri Bakrid,

aUniversiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia, bUniversiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia, cXiamen University Malaysia, Malaysia, dUniversiti Teknikal Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: anuraz3169@uitm.edu.my,  blawsh@upm.edu.my,  cannuar.nassir@xiamen.com,  dhariri@utem.edu.my

Fisher theory explains relationship between interest rate and expected inflation rate that indicates market efficiency. In Malaysia, the Islamic money market has gained importance since its own largest composition in Malaysian financial market. This study attempts to examine the existence of Fisher Effect relationship in Malaysian Islamic Money Market. Period of the time series data spanning from 2010 to 2017. Three variables include in this paper which are Inflation Rate (INF), 3-months Malaysian Islamic Treasury Bills Rate (MITB) and Islamic Interbank Rate (IIR). First stage of analysis is to examine the existence of the Fisher effect relationship by applying Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach as an estimation method. Second stage analysis is to determine the Fisher Effect relationship appear in a weak or strong form relationship. The findings suggest the Fisher Effect theory exists in Malaysian Islamic money market thus implies the efficiency of Islamic Money Market to predict inflation’s movement in the future. However, it appears in a weak form of relationship. Overall, the outcome of this study is highly benefit to policy maker as the role of Fisher Effect in predicting inflation reflect an effective monetary policy to promote economy growth and sustainable development. Pages 665 to 682

The Theme of Technocracy in Two Plays by Edward Bond: Lear and the Bundle

 Muslim Mohd. Lehmood Al-Mamouria, Aqeel Muslim Mohammedb,  a,bAL-Mustaqbal University College, Hilla, Babylon                     

Like Sigmund Freud, Bond analyses the pathology of some civilized communities. The primary symptoms of the pathology, for Freud, are those social neuroses which make life in certain civilized societies a burden and a threat, particularly war and aggression. One of these symptoms, for Bond, is technocracy. But why does technology, thought to provide happiness, manage nonetheless to make its own distinctive contribution to this pathology? That is what this paper attempts to investigate in the plays Lear (1971) and The Bundle (1978). Pages 683 to 697

Dialectical Rules of Engagement in Cyber War

Abdulkareem Kadhim Ajeela, Kareema Lateef Abdullahb, a,bCollege of Media /Dept.of Press/University of Thi-Qar/Iraq, Email: a*abdkazm@gmail.com

The study deals with the rules of engagement in cyber war, which have not yet crystallised, unlike the traditional wars. The most important thing is how to distinguish between combatants and civilians from participating in cyber war and what the limits of this distinction are, so when the hacker becomes a fighter. As a result of the great world scientific development in electronics, there is a series of important inquiries to determine strategies for military response, and how to deal with the enemy. These inquiries decide whether a country is subjected to cyber-attack or to a normal attempt of piracy, whether it is made for amusement purposes or it is a theft of accounts by some amateurs and hooligans. Also, it determines the limits of the national sovereignty of the state in cyber war, and whether the attack on websites of civilian bodies belonging to the state (government), is an electronic attack that should be responded immediately or not, and what the limits of international responsibility for cyber-attacks and others are. Pages 698 to 710

Innovative Press Advertising in Digital Media

Adheem Kamil Zreyazba, Hatam Badawi Obeidb, a,bDept. of Media College of Arts, University of Babylon-Iraq, Email: a*adheem.kamil@uobabylon.edu.iq

This analytical descriptive study focused on the issue of the innovative advertisement in the digital media participatory, which has become a priority of the press sites in the competition and reception and development towards professional journalism. The study focused on a number of topics, conceptual problems, cognitive construction, developmental stages, communication problems, the philosophy of the advertising industry and innovation, determinants of advertising innovation. The study has concluded the following: - Innovative advertising is a communication process that includes new methods, techniques or innovative ideas, in which communication elements are embodied, existing communication needs are met, communication channels are used for the purpose of influencing, and the recipient is convinced of physical or intellectual products. - Innovative ideas and advertisements deny them the status of innovation in their application and circulation, which requires innovation to ensure the attractiveness of the beneficiary of advertising services. - The problem of innovative advertising lies in the need to absorb it to all dimensions of the communication process in a symbolic manner and represent the application of all phases in support of the final decision on the product marketed. - The innovative declaration enabled training and development. Pages 711 to 725

Contrasting Masculinity and Femininity in Different Arabic Dialects

Nizar Abdellatif Sabera, Ashraf Adnan Hassanb, abFaculty of Islamic Studies/University of Babylon, Email: a*nabd5874@gmail.com

This paper aims to study an important subject in Arabic dialects, namely the masculine and feminine. This subject has preoccupied the ancients before the modernists. They fought to seize it. The dialects of Arabs differed in the masculinising and feminising of words. Studying this subject is of great importance. It is possible to identify the differences between Arab dialects regarding the masculine and feminine. This paper aims to find out the methods used in this subject and tries to uncover some of the laws through which the words evolved and differed in their masculine and feminine nature. This is possible due to the absence of a significant difference in the unified language and dialects of the Arabs. However, there were differences in some phonological, morphological, grammatical and semantic phenomena in the past. The study is divided in two sections. The first deals with the study of the phenomenon of masculinity and femininity in Arabic and some other languages. The second presents words in which masculinity and femininity differed in Arabic dialects. The study has concluded a number of results: (1) The different dialects of femininity and masculinity are not vast and almost exclusively in the name of the sex. This distinguishes the singular from the plural in ‘T’. (2) Old and new students have been masculine and feminine in Arabic. They fought to control and set laws for it, however, many words still oscillated between the masculine and feminine, especially those without signs of femininity. Consequently, scientists resorted to hearing as a way to distinguish between what is masculine and what is feminine. (3) The books of the ancients listed the proven Arab masculinity and femininity of things, accompanied by citation in poetry or prose. Without diligent reaching laws establishing masculinity and femininity, if a difference is mentioned, there is often a dispute over whether the it is proven or denied by the Arabs (a dispute in hearing only). (4) The Arabic language is one of the finest languages in the world in the expression of masculinity and femininity as well as the most accurate among its Semitic sisters. (5) Originally, language calls males masculine and females feminine. However, some dialects contradict original decisions to listen to people’s use, as they may alter pronunciation or meaning. (6) Different dialects may differ due to various references to masculinity and femininity, or because the masculine dominates the feminine. Pages 726 to 738

Transitioning the Iraq Economy towards a Market Economy by Using Johnson Transfers for Some Indexes - Period 1994-2013

Rasha Kahleda, Ahmed Abdulrazaq AbdulRudhab, Hatem Kareem Balhawic, a,cWasit University Faculty of Administration & Economics, bMiddle Technical University Kut Technical Institute

This study is about transition mechanics for a market economy. This transistion offers solutions for all the countries that suffer from structural imbalances and economic problems, so the study came to confirm the mechanisms and application in practice for the Iraqi economy to get out of the predicament and its integration into the global economy. The deterioration of the Iraqi economy is plagued within the framework of the totalitarian regime market concerned with economic affairs  and searching for solutions and treatments to prevent the continuing deterioration and chaos that has swept the country.  This has come accompanied with the visions of global institutions at the centre of capitalist ideas and the failure of socialist ideals in production process management.  This study confirmed analysis of the Iraqi economy in reality and socially for Iraq by using the descriptive-analytical method. To frame the theoretical side the quantitative method (method of Johnson transfers and multiple linear regression) was used to obtain results, and select a time series for the period of 1994-2013. The study showed that there is a positive relationship between the financial revenues of the oil sector and the size of government spending, especially in recent years, and also showed the contribution of the agricultural and industrial were shy in participation in GDP items.  A study result is the recommendation to activate the role of other economic sectors and not to entirely rely on the oil sector; the treatment of unemployment problem through meeting success requirements of the agricultural sector and a decent life for rural residents including guidance, support and encouragement for the exercise of agricultural activity.  This comes within a frame of balanced price policies and the imposition of taxes on imports which compete az local agricultural products in the seasons of production.  There is no doubt that the provision of satisfactory job opportunities for young people will contribute significantly to economic stimulation increased member purchasing power to prevent the deterioration of the security situation and therefore its treatment of the economic problem is at the same time a security problem that threatens the country's stability. Pages 739 to 752
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