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The Creativity Revolution and 21st Century Learning

Dr Deborah Trevallion1, Mrs Leticia Nischang Cusanelli1, 1The University of Newcastle, Australia

Our hearts ache with the loss of Sir Ken Robinson, (1950-2020) after an extraordinary life as one of the world’s leading educationalists and thinkers on creativity and innovation. The world has lost a giant with Sir Ken Robinson's passing. Sir Ken Robinson was to education, what Steve Jobs was to technology, and what Stephen Hawking was to physics and cosmology. Sir Ken Robinson, a great educationalist with a deep sense of humanity, an entertaining wit, and massive charm, was one of the world’s elite thinkers on creativity and innovation. Sir Ken shared his understandings so that we might all become better educators. Sir Ken Robinson led us and taught us, encouraging us to use his ideas to revolutionise our teaching for the betterment of the next generation. The world has lost an extraordinary man. This paper discusses the views and the importance of creativity as espoused by Sir Ken Robinson and others. It further suggests how this education revolution could be implemented and promoted with 21st century learning skills within the various secondary schools. Pages 1 to 25

 

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Architextiles: Design in its Multifunctional State

Asna Mubashra1, Syed Ali Qamber2, Nalini Madaan3, 1Incharge Department of Textile Design, College of Art & Design, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, 2Assistant Professor Textile Design Department, Lahore College for women University, Pakistan, 3Hindu School of Architecture, Sonepat, India,

Clothing and shelter are among the basic human needs which have been developing in every respect since human history. The evolutionary process of each has not grown independently from each other. Architextiles is a multidisciplinary concept that combines the creative approach, materials and structures inherent to the discipline of architecture with the same of disciplines of textiles to explore the elements of cross fertilisation of both. This paper proposes a review of the architextile to find connecting points of architecture's relationship with textiles. The exploration is based upon the theoretical influence that Gottfried Semper specified in his writings on the topic of relationship in textiles and architecture. His was an attempt to investigate the similarities found in the design elements of both. The amalgamation of textile elements with dwellings here is explored with the aim of bringing into the limelight the conversion point in the orientation of a knowledge base for architextile. Pages 26 to 40

 

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The Relationship Between in Service Training and Classroom Practices of Teachers at Primary School Level

Dr. Fariha Gula*, Samrana Riazb, aAssistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, *Corresponding Author, bMPhil Graduate, Department of Education, University of Management and Technology Lahore, Pakistan, Email: a*fariha.gul@umt.edu.pk

This current research was aimed to examine the role of professional development in improving classroom practices of teachers to improve teaching learning process. The objectives of the study revolve around the perceived value teachers give to professional development programs and implementations strategies in the classroom after training. Using a cluster sampling technique, 237 teachers participated in the study. A self-developed survey instrument (45 items) and an observation checklist was used to collect data from respondents. Thirty observations were carried out in order to explore implementation strategies of the teachers after getting training. The results affirmed that professional development had a positive impact on the transformation of teachers’ pedagogical practices. The results of the observations also indicated a positive relationship between perceptions and practices of teachers. The results lead towards the recommendations of arranging more professional development opportunities for teachers in the public and private sector. Pages 41 to 53

 

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A Study on the Impact of COVID-19 on students' learning achievements

Muhammad Azeem Sarwar1, Dr.  Faiz Ul Hassan Shah2, Dr. Obaid Aslam3, Muhammad Waqas4, *Dr. Urooj Fatima5, 1Research Assistant, Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, 2HOD Department of Education, Mir Chakar Khan Rind University Sibi, Baluchistan, 3Riphah International University, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Faisalabad. 4Government College University, PhD Scholar, Department of Education, Faisalabad.  5*Riphah International University, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Faisalabad. *Corresponding author. 5*fatimaarooj092@gmail.com, 1Muhammadazeem24@gmail.com, 2syed.f@mckru.edu.pk, 3Muhammadobaidaslam@gmail.com, 4Waqas4812@hotmail.com 

During this pandemic, all the educational institutes of Pakistan (schools, colleges, universities) are using online education platforms to continue academics. However, online teaching is still in the developing stages due to which the students complain about ineffective learning. This investigation aims to identify the issues faced by the students in terms of learning and the recommendations for the educational institutes. The quantitative method was selected. A survey with 200 students studying in different educational institutes of Pakistan was selected. To find results, the regression method was applied for testing the hypotheses. The results obtained indicate that the online education platform in Pakistan is weak and demanding the development of a more robust infrastructure for the educational institutes. The educational institutes need to focus more on the development of a robust educational infrastructure to resolve the issues of a poor learning environment. Pages 54 to 68

 

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Socioeconomic Status as a Mediator in Developing Emotion Regulation Among Students in Secondary Level Education

Sabiha Iqbala*, Nasreen Akhterb, Rabia Tabassumc, Aks-E-Noord, aPh. D, Scholar, Assistant professor Department of Education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, bPh. D Supervisor, Professor of Education, Chairperson Department of Special Education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur,  cLecturer Lahore college for women university, dAssociate Lecturer, Department of Special Education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Email: a*sabiha.iqbal@iub.edu.pk, bnasreen.akhtar@iub.edu.pk, cgreat786@yahoo.com, daksenoor@gmail.com

Socio-economic conditions of the family affect every aspect of individual’s lives. Several studies exposed that the socioeconomic status of families is associated with health, cognitive and emotional development of children. SES is an important element in forecasting the skill of emotion regulation. This study was a survey research and data collected was quantitative data in the form of a questionnaire. The present study examined three trends in the socio-economic situation of families: the level of education of parents; the occupation of parents; and the monthly income of parents. The goal of the current study was to explore the effect of the SES of the family with the ability to implement the emotion regulation strategies among students. The population of the study was students (nearly 14-16 years old) of secondary schools in the district of Lahore in Punjab, Pakistan. The convenient sampling technique was utilised to select the sample of 198 students of 10th grade classed selected from ten secondary schools (5 male and 5 female) in the district of Lahore in Punjab, Pakistan. The ERQ questionnaire was used to gather data from students to determine their ability to control their emotions. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA were used to obtain the results of the study. The analysis of the current study reconnoitred that the education of mothers and fathers affects the positive emotion regulation strategies of their children but that the financial status of the family influences both positive and negative emotion regulation strategies of children. Thus, policy-makers need to concentrate these SES indicators in school curricula to bring about positive change in the personalities of students. Pages 69 to 87

 

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Examining Marketing and Operations Integration in Public Sector Industries

Dr. Abdulmohsin Keshwan, The University of Kufa, Najaf / Iraq, Post code (21), Email. Abdulmohsinj.alkeshwan@uokufa.edu.iq

Extant research has focussed on the interface of marketing and operations in the private sector. However, existing research has neglected how effectively public sector organisations integrate marketing and operations. Previous private sector oriented research has emphasized the importance of cross-functional integration to develop the competitive performance of organisations, and in particular between marketing and operations functions. This is because of the direct contribution of these two areas to create value for customers. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine marketing and operations interface in case study organisations in the public textile industry sector in Iraq; which may struggle to develop their capabilities in the post war Iraqi market. The research carried out 21 semi-structured interviews in the cases in order to gather and to build in-depth understanding regarding the interactions of marketing and operations. The study explored a new approach to investigate the integration between marketing and operations in the Iraqi public sector industries. The research makes significant advances on the extant literature given its focus on a public sector manufacturing industry, with particular emphasis on a post conflict industrial environment and developing country. It posits a theoretical model to drive future research and influence management practice. Pages 88 to 113
 
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The Influence of Corporate Diversification on Tax Policy: Moderating the Role of Firm Size in the Emerging Economy

Muhammad Husnaina*, Muhammad Imad-ud-din Akbarb, Muhammad Mudassar Anwarc, Muhammad Tasnim Khand, aAssistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, University of Sahiwal, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan, bAssistant Professor, Management Sciences Department, National University of Modern Languages, Lahore campus, Pakistan, cAssistant Professor, Department of Commerce, University of Kotli Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Kotli, Pakistan, dUniversity of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, Email: a*m.husnain@uosahiwal.edu.pk

Corporate tax policies are an important area of discussion for tax collection authorities around the globe. Companies use these strategies to avoid their tax and raise after-tax income without violating tax laws. In developing countries, revenue from the tax sector is a big percentage compared to another source of revenue. Therefore, there is a need to extend the literature on tax aggressiveness in developing economies like Pakistan. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of corporate diversification on tax aggressiveness with the moderating role of firm size of the 200 listed firms on the Pakistan Stock Exchange. The frequency of data is annual started from 2006 to 2018. We use the entropy-index to measure the corporate diversification. The result shows that there is significant negative impact of corporate diversification on tax aggressiveness, and firm size moderates the relationship between these two variables. In addition, we use firm characteristics such as leverage, firm profitability, capital expenditure and market to book ratio as control variables. Finally, this study is helpful for regulatory bodies, investors, and government and policy makers to promote corporate diversification strategies in the emerging economies. Pages 114 to 137
 
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Aligning Accounting Curricula with Professional Certification

Dr. Faisal Abdullah Al Hudithi, College of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Email: faalhudithi@iau.edu.sa

This paper aims to share the experiences of aligning postgraduate accounting curricula with professional certification at a leading business school in the Middle East. The entire procedure was based on the notion of "adoption" to "adaptation," originated by the benchmarking approach using a comparative account of 17 MSc accounting programs offering the ACCA route.This research paper presents the findings on various methodological issues of curriculum design such as program objectives, program learning outcomes, entry routes, dissertation versus project, specializations. This paper attempts to bring accounting curricula back to the mainstream and provide numerous benefits to graduates of an academic degree to attain similar benefits as professional accounting graduates. Students enrolled in this program will remain fully employed while completing their Master's, thus increasing their experience and expertise in their field of specialization. It offers more flexibility to its enrolled students as compared to other programs. Typically classes were held in the evening with convenient timings. Some courses were also offered on weekends, and very rarely, a complete semester for certificate/diploma courses may be offered during the summer semester, thus saving one full year for the students.  Students receive the same degree and have access to the same faculty, but this program offers more depth, focus, and professional affiliations than other Master's degree programs. It will also provide international career opportunities to the graduates.  It also provides career progression to the top slot much faster and easier than for other Masters' degree holders. It provides a classical platform for networking and establishing long-term mutually beneficial relationships. Pages 151 to 173
 
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Enhancing Maternal Ability: Mediating for Pre-school Age Children’s Cognitive Development

Leny Latifaha, Diah Yunitawatib, Yusi Dwi Nurcahyanic, Suryati Kumorowuland, a,b,c,d Magelang Unit of Health Research and Development Centre, National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Indonesia, Email: a*lenylatifah1@gmail.com

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/15809

The multifactorial risks that accompany IDD (Iodine Deficiency Disorders) aggravate cognitive development deficits in children. The most important factors are poor cognitive stimulation and parenting. This study aimed to analyse the impact of parenting training on maternal skills to mediate cognitive development in children. The study was quasi-experimental pre-post with a control group design. A total of 78 mothers and their children, aged four to five years, from Purworejo participated in the research. Palpation to assess maternal goiter status and Mother-Child Picture-Talk Task (MCPTT) assessed the ability to perform cognitive mediation in children. The Smart Mother Class, a parenting skill intervention, was given for six months (16 meetings), each lasting 60-90 minutes. The risk of low family resources, both economic and caring resources, is indicated by the work and education of the fathers and mothers. Most mothers and fathers have elementary school education and below (60.3). The result show that three months after the intervention there was a significant effect at the positive level, and at six months, the intervention group showed a significant improvement (p< 0.001). Parenting training in low parenting resource settings could improve maternal skills for mediating cognitive development in pre-school age children. Pages 174 to 188
 
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The Relevance of Green Marketing Practices in Consumer Attitudes Toward Sustainable Green Behaviour

Fakhr e Alam Afridia, Shahid Janb, Fayaz Ali Shahc, Bushra Ayazd, Muhammad Irfane, a,d,ePh.D. Scholar, Department of Management Sciences, Islamia College, Peshawar, Pakistan, b,cAssistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Islamia College, Peshawar, Pakistan.  Email: aFalaam89@gmail.com, bShahidjan@icp.edu.pk, cfayaz@icp.edu.pk, dbayaz@numl.edu.pk, eIrfan443@gmail.com

Sustainability has further grown over the past few years, and environmentally friendly practices will be in high demand in the wake of Covid-19. Thus, the need and demand for environmentally sustainable behaviour will increase after the pandemic Covid-19. In the field of consumer behaviour and green marketing, most studies until now have been conducted in developed countries. Like other developing countries, Pakistan is still in the green awakening stage of understanding environmental behaviour. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship of green marketing practices with important predictors of environmental personality traits of individuals towards sustainable green behaviour. This study used a survey method and used a random sampling technique to gather data from respondents through questionnaires via an online survey. Structural Equation Modelling variance-based approach is applied to assess the relationships of the study variables, with the help of Smart PLS3 statistical software. The results show that green marketing practices significantly influence environmental attitude (β = 0.749; t = 26.903), environmental consciousness (β = 0.798; t = 21.426), environmental belief (β = 0.623; t = 16.516), and environmental knowledge (β = 0.660; t = 18.420). This study further extends the sustainable green behaviour research by identifying important personality trait factors that lead to sustainable green behaviour. The study findings also have numerous practical contributions to make by providing objective-oriented scientific evidence for marketers and policy makers in developing effective green marketing strategies. Furthermore, the study findings will also help policymakers, academics and managers to better understand the importance of individual characteristics in the development of a consumer green sustainable environment behaviour. Pages 189 to 206
 
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Non-performing Loans and Bank Stability: Evidence from Pakistan

Dr. Anjum Ihsana, Dr. Mustafa Afeefb, Kaleem Ullahc, Dr. Syed Naseebullah Shahd, a,bAssistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Islamia College Peshawar, Pakistan, cLecturer, University Institute of Management Sciences, PMAS- Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. dAssistant Professor, Abasyn University, Peshawar, Pakistan. Email: aanjumihsan@icp.edu.pk, bmustafa@icp.edu.pk, ckullah@ymail.com, dnaseebshah474@gmail.com

Non-performing loans have been a serious issue in the banking sector worldwide, with implications for bank stability, asserting the need to investigate the extent of the effects of such loans. This study aims to examine the impact of non-performing loans on the stability of Pakistani banks for the period 2006-2018. The negligible significant positive effect of non-perfuming loans to equity was noted on the bank stability. However, results indicate that the level of non-performing loans and their write-offs have significant negative effect on bank stability, seeking the regulator’s attention to tighten the measures to control the magnitude of these loans. The results support the theory of information asymmetry and adverse selection theory, in view of imbalance of information between borrower and lender inducing the provision of low-quality loans and impairing the banks’ ability to identify the credit worthy customers, thus undermining their stability. There is also support to endorse the moral hazard which arises in the case when the government provides deposit safety nets, making the banks inclined to take excessive risk, thereby increasing their instability. Finally, as regards the control variables, bank size was found to have insignificant positive effect while profit depicted significant negative effect on bank stability, in line with the risk-return hypothesis. Pages 207 to 226
 
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Conceptual Framework of Financial Sustainability based on Government Policies Interventions: A Modelling Approach

Sarah Ahmeda*, Dr. S. M. Ali Tirmizib, a,bFoundation University Islamabad, Pakistan, *Corresponding Author

Corporates around the world are developing policies and strategies which can increase their financial health and life. This study aims to propose an optimised model by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for financial sustainability. Furthermore, government policies intervention framework is developed to conduct a pre and post policy intervention analysis. Predictive Analytics are used to assess which policies are useful for long term survival of the firms.  As an example, to further the concept for this study 379 manufacturing sector firms of Pakistan are taken as a sample, and government policies developed over the period of 2005-2019 are included. The manufacturing sector of Pakistan has 25 sub sectors. Vector Auto Regression (VAR) and Structural Vector Auto Regression SVAR are used to test the model.  Moreover, Neural Networks (NN) are further applied for prediction and to get the optimal model. This would be helpful in predicting the financial sustainability of firms moreover, predicting the outcome of policies. Pages 227 to 242
 
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Some Economical Classes of Minimal Circular Generalised Neighbour Designs

Muhammad Nadeema, M. H. Tahirb, Muhammad Ismailc, Rashid Ahmedd, Uzma Iqbale, a,b,dDepartment of Statistics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan, c,eDepartment of Statistics, COMSATS university Islamabad Lahore campus, Lahore, Pakistan, Email: amnadeem@numl.edu.pk, bmtahir.stat@gmail.com, cdrismail39@gmail.com, drashid701@hotmail.com, euzmaiqbal453@gmail.com

Neighbour designs are used to balance out the neighbour effects in the experiments where the effect of a treatment is influenced by the effects of treatment(s) applied to the neighbouring units. Minimal neighbour designs are always economical, therefore, preferred by the experimenters. In circular blocks, minimal neighbour designs can be constructed for v odd, where v is number of treatments. Minimal circular neighbour designs cannot be constructed for most of the cases when v is even. In such situations, generalized neighbour designs are used. In this article, some construction procedures are developed to obtain some classes of minimal circular generalized neighbour designs in blocks of (i) two different sizes, and (ii) three different sizes. Pages 243 to 255
 
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The Impact of Perceived Threat of Covid 19 on Doctors Retention with Moderation of Proactive Personality and Emotional Resilience

Muhammad Bilal Kayani1, Suleman Khan2, Ayesha Zafar3, Muddasir Mehboob4, Muhammad Aksar5, 1,2,4,5National University of Modern Languages (NUML) Rawalpindi, Pakistan, 3Riphah International University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, Email: 1bilal.kayani@numl.edu.pk

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of perceived threat of Covid 19 on employee retention with the moderating effects of proactive personality and emotional resilience. This study was conducted in the context of Pakistan. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaire. These were distributed to the doctors of twin cities hospitals. A total of 230 doctors were asked to fill out the questionnaires. All variables were measured using five-point Likert scale. SMART PLS was used for statistical analysis of data. Results show that first, perceived threat of Covid 19 had a negative significant impact on employee retention. Second, proactive personalities were to be not moderating the relationship of perceived threat of Covid 19 and employee retention. Third, emotional resilience was found to be moderating the relationship of perceived threat of Covid 19 and employee retention. The study has both theoretical and practical implications. Pages 256 to 275
 
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Examining Factors Influencing Adoption of M-Payment: Extending UTAUT2 with Perceived Value

Tayyba Fatima1, Dr. Sadaf Kashif2, Dr. Muhammad Kamran3, Dr. Tahir Mumtaz Awan4*, 1Lecturer Business  Administration, Iqra University,  Islamabad Campus Park Road, Chak Shehzad, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Iqra University, Islamabad Campus Islamabad, Pakistan, 3Assistant Professor, Warsaw University of Business, Warsaw, Poland, 4Assistant Professor of Marketing, Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Park Road, Chak Shehzad, Islamabad, Pakistan, 44000, Corresponding Author* Email: 1tayyba@iqrauni.edu.pk, 2Sadaf.kashif2002@gmail.com, 3muhammad.kamran@wwsb.edu.pl 4*tahir_mumtaz@comsats.edu.pk

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test the suggested modification of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology2 by introducing perceived value as mediating construct in it. To accomplish the specified objective, data was collected from 426 mobile-payment users in Pakistan. Data was then analyzed by using SmartPLS3. Study identified that mobile-payment users consider perceived value as a substantial part of the service along with other external variables.  More specifically all constructs of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology2 affects perceived value except one construct i.e. price value. This study adds value in literature by modifying the model with perceived value and understanding that what attributes of m-payment deliver value to users leading to its adoption. The modified model of this paper empirically proved the replacement of price value with perceived value. Pages 276 to 299
 
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Hate Speech and Stereotyping Against Palestinians in Saudi and Emirati Press

Rasha A. Salameh, Blanquerna/ Ramon Llull University, Barcelona, Email: rsalameh1984@gmail.com

This study aimed at identifying the level of hate speech and stereotyping against Palestinians in the Saudi and Emirati press. The research analyses the content of a sample comprising two Saudi newspapers, Al-Sharq Al-Awsat and Okaz, and two Emirati newspapers, Al-Emarat Al-Youm and Al-Ittihad, from within the time period between January 1 and October 31, 2020. In the surveyed sample, hate speech and stereotyping of Palestinians coincided with the announcement of the deal of the century. This deal was rejected by the Palestinian leadership, who also rejected the normalisation steps taken by two Gulf states, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain, with Israel, in contradiction with the Arab Peace Initiative, which stipulated peace between Israel and Arab countries in the event of establishing a Palestinian state on the 1967 borders. For example, some Gulf States’ drama works aired in the month of Ramadan included hate speech against Palestinians, in addition to reviewing the history of the Jewish presence in the Gulf countries. The results of the researched sample show that (82.1%) of the monitored materials contain hate speech, and the percentage of stereotyping of Palestinians in the surveyed sample reached (88.2%), and (62.7%) of the materials monitored were not objective. Pages 300 to 316
 
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The Impact of the Coronavirus Pandemic on the Profit of Jordanian Banks Listed on the Amman Stock Exchange

Dr. Khalil S. M. Abu Saleema*, Dr. Ibrahim M. Oleimatb, Muaath M. Oleimatc, aAssociate professor in accounting, The World Islamic Sciences & Education University (W.I.S.E), Amman, Jordan. Faculty of Business & Finance. *Corresponding author, cMaster Degree in Accounting, General Manager at Helpers For Consultations and Logistic services, Email: a*Khalil.Abusaleem@wise.edu.jo, bi.oleimat@gmail.com, cMuaath.m.oleimat@gmail.com

The study is actually designed to examine the potential effects of COVID-19 cases on the financial environment in Jordan. The findings suggest a financial impact across the country, despite the fact that nearly all organisations across the country are facing a major impact. Additionally, permanent blocking is recognised as a threat to organisations' overall view. COVID-19 is likely to impact the global economy. To be able to assess the credible outcome of the COVID-19 program on Jordan's financial environment, it is necessary to focus not only on the financial attack, but also on what makes it important for Jordan. Leaders in government foundations and leaders in Jordan responded to it. The coronavirus creates standard methods for immediate cooperation. With that in mind, the article seeks to look at Covid's findings on Jordan's monetary environment as the best strategy to get the economy back on track to half-build it. The aim of this research is to identify the impact of the coronavirus on the profit of Jordanian banks listed on the Amman stock market. Pages 317 to 325
 
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The Role of Women in the Security Paradigm of Afghanistan

Dr. Muhammad Tariqa, Anwar Alib, Sami Ullahc, Irshan Arifd, Umair Irshade, Ayesha Alif, Amjad Ali Khang, Said Saeedh, a,gLecturer Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra, bTeaching Assistant, Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra & Ph.D Scholar (Department of Pak Studies AUST). c,d,e,fM. Phil Scholar, Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra, hPrincipal Elementary & Secondary Education, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Email: amuhammadtariq@hu.edu.pk, bAnwarali@hu.edu.pk, cusami54354@gamil.com, dirshanarif@gmail.com, eumairxp1@gmail.com, fayeshashoukatali128@gmail.com, galiamjad@hu.edu.pk, hSyedsaeed54@gmail.com

Respect for women is the sign of a civilized society. Those societies where they work shoulder to shoulder with men without any harm and threat from the male counterparts, highlight the image of their country. Women in Afghanistan have passed through tormenting transitions partly during the Taliban regime and partly in the post-September 2001 scenario from the male members of the society. But the nature of their suppression is different in both the eras, in the former case they had to abide by certain strict Islamic orders relating to the Purda system while in the latter case they have to face the issues of sexual harassment, abuse, risks to life and property and obstacles in the way of their political participation. Objective of the study focusses on analyzing the role of women in the security paradigm of the country in the post-September 2001 scenario while research questions focus on the role played by women in maintaining peace and security, impact of the Security Act of 2017 on the status of women, the issues of sexual harassment and abuse faced by women and systemic mechanism of rules and laws for regulating the behavior of the civil and security servants so as to pave the way for the women to perform their duties efficiently. The study adopts qualitative approach mainly relying on the secondary sources of documents analysis to heighten the significance of women in protecting the country against internal and external aggression. Pages 326 to 338
 
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The Theory of Victimization: A Case study of Women in Afghanistan

Dr. Muhammad Tariqa, Amjad Ali Khanb, Irshan Arifc, Umair Irshadd, Ayesha Alie, Said Saeedf, Anwar Alig, a,bLecturer Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra, c,d,eM. Phil Scholar, Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra,  fPrincipal Elementary & Secondary Education, Khyber Pkahtunkhwa. gTeaching Assistant, Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra & Ph.D Scholar (Department of Pak Studies AUST). Email: amuhammadtariq@hu.edu.pk, baliamjad@hu.edu.pk, cirshanarif@gmail.com, dumairxp1@gmail.com, eayeshashoukatali128@gmail.com, fSyedsaeed54@gmail.com, gAnwarali @hu.edu.pk

The theory of victimization is an important theory in social sciences and particularly has great relevance to the subject of Political Science. It explores the various stages through which the victims have to undergo during the course of time. This article focusses on the theory of victimization as applicable to the women in Afghanistan. The theory dilates upon five different stages circling around the structural conduciveness, political consciousness, ideological occurrence, political mobilization and political recognition. Women in Afghanistan have passed through this aspect of victimization particularly during the period of Taliban but had to struggle hard for their survival. The post-9/11episode enabled the women to go through the five stages by giving them political recognition. Objective of the study is to analyze the theory of victimization in the perspectives of women in Afghanistan during the period of Taliban by comparing their status to the current regime. Research questions of the paper include the sense of deprivation that women have been facing, the worst scenario faced by the women in the history of the country, decision of the US government not to involve the government of Afghanistan in the US-Taliban peace deal and the role of the intra-Afghan talks by including women in the peace talks with the government of Afghanistan but the great tragedy lies in the fact that they have not been included by the Taliban in their team for negotiating with the Afghan government.  The paper adopts qualitative approach through secondary sources owing to the importance of the study in the current scenario. Pages 339 to 350
 
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Analyzing Nexus between Financial Reforms and Savings in Pakistan: An Econometric Investigation

Muhammad Awaisa, Adiqa Kausar Kianib, Mohamed Asmy bin Mohd Thas Thakerc, Asif Razad, Sarah Qaime, aAssistant Professor (Finance). Department of Economics & Finance, Foundation University Islamabad, Pakistan, bDepartment of Economics, FUUAST, Islamabad, Pakistan & Future Technology Research Centre, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, douliu, Taiwan, cAssociate Professor, Department of Economics and Management Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Gombak Campus, dHead of Business Operations, DPL Pvt Ltd, Islamabad, Pakistan, eAssistant Professor (Finance). Department of Economics & Finance, Foundation University Islamabad, Pakistan, Email: am.awais@fui.edu.pk, badiqa@yuntech.edu.tw, casmy@iium.edu.my, dasifrizvi@hotmail.com, eSarah.qaim@fui.edu.pk

Development economists and policy makers across the globe extensively discuss the factors affecting the growth performance of developing economies. The recent financial crisis and poor performance of financial sector instigated the economies to shift from suppressive regulations to deregulations of interest rate along with implementation of a few other open options. International funding agencies provided technical as well as financial assistance to carry on the agenda and achieve optimal policy mix. Keeping in view its importance, present study tests the empirical nexus between financial reforms and savings in Pakistan. Data set ranges from 1980 to 2015 and application of econometric method of Johansen co integration method found the short run and long run saving function. Major findings suggested that financial reforms gave a boost to saving rate and hence contributed towards overall performance enhancement in Pakistan. The results of other control variables show positive and robust relationship according to theoretical background. Pages 351 to 365
 
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A Revision of Sex Competency Framework toward Digital Transformation and Covid-19 Pandemic

Nhung Nguyen Thi Phuonga, An Chu Thi Thuyb, Hien Nguyen Ngocc, Ly Tran Hangd, Son Pham Xuane, a,b,c,d,eVinh University, Vietnam, Email: aphuongnhungdhv@gmail.com, banchuthithuy@gmail.com, cngochiendhv@gmail.com, dlyxinh2006@gmail.com, ephamxuanson73@gmail.com

While the Covid-19 pandemic has affected all aspects of lives and forced some business operations to close due to social distancing, education must stay available in many countries. The migration of education to remote learning requires that teacher competency standards should be revised to accommodate the new normal world. This research aims to revise sex competency framework for teachers in primary and secondary schools in the context of digital transformation age and social distancing. The Delphi technique was used to obtain consensus from 12 panelists and 264 teachers. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the adequacy of the standards. The change in ratings was marginal after two rounds, so the results were deemed consistent. Six standards were proposed including: be aware of gender issues, design a sex education plan, organise sex education activities, deliver sex content via remote learning, examine and evaluate sex education, and consult and support for gender issues. An Augmented Reality tool was provided to support teachers to meet the requirements of the new standards. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology model was used to evaluate the developed tool. Results from the generalised structure component analysis largely confirmed the hypothesised model. Pages 389 to 409
 
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An Overview of Prospective Teachers Teaching Practicum Challenges in District Peshawar, Pakistan

 Mir Ahmad Shah1, Dr. Syed Munir Ahmad2, Dr. Wilayat Bibi3, Saira Akhtar4, Dr. Khisro Kaleem Raza5, Dr. Muhammad Rauf6, Dr. Arshad Ali7, Dr. Amjad Reba8, Dr. Jehanzeb Khan9, Uzma Rehman Khattak10, 1Lecturer, Higher Education Department, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan,  2Associate Professor, Institute of Education and Research University of Peshawar, Pakistan,  3Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University Peshawar, Pakistan, 4Lecturer in Education, National University of Modern Languages, Peshawar, Pakistan, 5Associate Professor, Department of Education, Sarhad University Peshawar, 6Director, Institute of education and Research University of Peshawar, Pakistan, 7Professor, Institute of education and Research University of Peshawar, Pakistan, 8Assistant Professor, Institute of education and Research University of Peshawar, Pakistan, 9Institute of Education and Research, University of Peshawar, Pakistan,  10Lecturer, Department of Education, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University Peshawar, Pakistan, Email: 1mironly@yahoo.com, 2 munir_ahmad@uop.edu.pk, 3wilayat.bibi@sbbwu.edu.pk, 4 saakhtar@numl.edu.pk, 5khisro.edu@suit.edu.pk, 6mrauf@uop.edu.pk, 7arshad_ali@uop.edu.pk, 8amjadreba@uop.edu.pk, 9jehanzebpk@outlook.com, 10uzmahkhattak@yahoo.com

This study aimed at analyzing problems and difficulties of prospective teachers during their teaching practicum. The data were collected purposively from 120 prospective teachers enrolled in B.Ed. (Hons) program at the University of Peshawar, Islamia College University Peshawar, and Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar.  Data were generated using a standardized tool: Extended Practicum Learning Environment Inventory (EPLEI). The findings show that prospective teachers faced several challenges related to their teaching practicum. These included anxiety of facing class, classroom management, school head expectations, assigned responsibilities, lesson planning, absence of triad meetings and seminars, rare supervisory visits, and inadequate evaluation and guidance. Moreover, the other challenges include the limited opportunities in school, freedom of lesson selection, lack of instructional materials, and various restrictions in the school. Given the issues, challenges and problems that prospective teachers encounter and face in their professional development, there is a need for harmonising and instituting processes, procedures, and practices within the teacher training institutes and teaching practicum schools so that concerted efforts are made for supporting the future teachers and leaders in their all-round development. Pages 410 to 421
 
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Effects of Supportive Supervision on Improved Quality Healthcare Service Delivery

Charity I. Anoke1, Herbert E. Onuoha2, Elizabeth O. Njoku3, Erasmus Odima Aka4, Philip O. Ukemezia5, 1Department of Economics, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria, 2Department of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany, 3Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, 4Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria, 5Center for Disaster Risk Management and Development Studies (CDRM/DS), Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State. Email: 1charity2ifeyinwa@gmail.com

This paper examined the effect of supportive supervision on improving the quality of health service delivery in primary healthcare in Nigeria. Specifically, the study ascertained the levels of supportive supervision that can lead to improved quality of health service delivery at primary healthcare centres (PHCs), and analysed empirical findings from different literatures. The content analysis approach was employed to discuss the levels of supportive supervision and the empirical findings from other literatures. The study indicated a paradigm shift in the level of supervision in the selected districts. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should focus investment in high-quality supervision and increase efforts to ensuring compliance to integrated supportive supervision protocols at PHCs for significant impact on improved health service delivery. Supervisory teams should ensure and encourage completeness of records for supportive supervision through adequate documentation for quality data analysis outcome. Program managers should ensure timely implementation of supportive supervision, i.e., monthly, quarterly or biannually, using qualified supervisors and tools. The use of bulk SMS is suggested, should there be any restriction to field visits, like curfew or lockdown. The authors conclude that high-quality supportive supervision can help defaulting health workers to change their poor attitude to health service delivery and attain full potential, as well as people achieving optimal health. Pages 422 to 434
 
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Some New Constructions of Minimal Neighbour Designs in Circular Blocks

Abdul Salama, Rashid Ahmedb, Muhammad Daniyalc, Muhammad Ismaild, Huma Rehmane, a,b,cDepartment of Statistics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan, d,eDepartment of Statistics, COMSATS university Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore, Pakistan

Neighbour balanced designs are useful for cases where the performance of a treatment is affected by the treatments applied to its neighbouring plots. Among these designs, minimal Neighbour balanced designs are preferred because these are economical. In this article, some generators are developed through the method of cyclic shifts to obtain minimal circular Neighbour balanced designs in blocks of (a) equal sizes, and (b) two different sizes. Pages 435 to 456
 
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From the Myths and the Beliefs on Naga of the Isaan People to Cultural Tourism: A Case Study in Nongkhai Province, Thailand

Dr. Arunee Sriruksaa, Dr. Kittisan Sriruksab, aASEAN Languages Center, Faculty of Humanity and Social Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Naimuang Subdistrict, Muang District, Khon Kaen Province, 40002, Thailand, bFaculty of Fine and Applied Arts, Khon Kaen University, Naimuang Subdistrict, Muang District, Khon Kaen Province, 40002, Thailand, Email: aArunsr@kku.ac.th, bKitisri@kku.ac.th

This article highlights the evolution of the myths and beliefs on Naga of the Isaan people into cultural tourism through a case study in Nongkhai province, Thailand. The article is part of the research results on the beliefs around Naga in Nongkhai province, Thailand. The research aimed to study the history of the belief in Naga, and the area in Nongkhai province where the belief is still prominent, through non-participatory observation, non-structured interviews, and the study of the related documents and research. The study revealed the Nongkhai people have been passing down the myth and the belief of Naga, through storytelling from their ancestors to the current generation, as a way to maintain their faith in Buddhism and to draw the connection between the belief and their settlements. Currently, the myth is being passed on to the tourists who show an interest in knowing more about the tradition and culture. The "Naga fireballs" phenomenon, which had become a majestic festival that reflects the identity of the children of the City of Nagas, is also being passed on this way. The myth and belief are still present, but their role has been added to, according to the social context that focuses more on the economy, by incorporating them as part of the provincial cultural tourism. This is a way to increase the values of the culture, society and economy, both at the local and the national level. Pages 457 to 470
 
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The Factors Influencing the Adoption of E-Payment System by SMEs

Darlin Apasrawirotea, Kritcha Yawisedb, a,bFaculty of Business, Economics and Communications, Naresuan University, Thailand, Email: bKritchay@nu.ac.th (Corresponding Author)

The research described in this paper reports the findings from interviews with twenty-five Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in various business sectors in Thailand that currently implement an Electronic Payment System (EPS). This research investigates how Thailand SMEs adopt and develop the EPS process, and its requirements that would help benefit them with such adoption, from the perspectives of owner-managers in different business sizes and sectors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in this research with each individual participant and the interview manuscripts were analysed by using thematic analysis. The findings of this research indicate that SMEs were at the early stage of EPS adoption, supported by informal decision-making processes. The findings show that the current EPS adoption was relatively ad hoc and not supported by a formally defined strategy. The factor affecting SMEs adoption of EPS is owner-manager knowledge, skills, and experience in technology. The method that SMEs generally employ to obtain such knowledge is by observing the EPS activities of other similar businesses in their industry sector and imitating and adapting such activities for their own use. The challenges associated with the adoption and implementation of EPS includes the age of owner-managers and a lack of leadership knowledge. Pages 471 to 489
 
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The Impact of Covid-19 on the Aviation Industry: A Post Covid Econometric Analysis

Dr Zaib Maroofa, Dr Muhammad Jawadb, Dr Munazza Nazc, Muhammad Haroon Jabbard, Noman Waheede, aFaculty of Management Sciences, Foundation University Islamabad, Pakistan, b Department of Commerce, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan, cDepartment of Mathematics, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan.dDepartment of Business Information systems, Torrens University, Australia, eDepartment of Commerce, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan. Email: aZaib.maroof@fui.edu.pk bmuhammad.jawad@fjwu.edu.pk, cmunazzanaz@fjwu.edu.pk, djabbar@business.torrens.edu.au , enauman_acc@yahoo.co.uk  

A newly discovered COVID-19 disease, notoriously known as Coronavirus, caused by the novel Corona Virus has shaken the world. It is no surprise that the aviation industry has been hit hardest by the Corona Virus. The current research makes an effort to identify the post effect of Covid-19 on the aviation industry in Belgium, Albania, Austria, Finland, Germany, Italy, Spain, France, Turkey and United Kingdom. The study explained the magnitude or impact of Covid cases and Covid deaths on Airline traffic, Freight traffic and Passenger traffic. To meet the objectives of the current study the two models have been tested separately. In the first model, we tested the impact of Covid cases on the study variables Airline Traffic, Freight Traffic and Passenger Traffic. In second model, we tested the impact of Covid deaths on the study variables Airline Traffic, Freight Traffic and Passenger Traffic. The study also applied the Augmented Dicker’s fully test to measure the stationarity of data. Results of the panel data showed that Covid cases as well as Covid deaths posed a significant declining impact on Air traffic, Freight traffic and Passenger traffic. Furthermore, VAR, Impulse Response Function (IRF) and Variance Decomposition has been applied for describing shocks, quantifying shocks and explaining intra and inter dependencies between the study variables in detail. Pages 490 to 510
 
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A Review of Legal Impacts of COVID-19 Studies: Trends and Future Challenges

Serkan Kaya1, Muhammed Danyal Khan2, Ammara Mujtaba3, 1Istanbul Medeniyet University, 2University Gillani Law College, 3Bahria University Islamabad, Email: 1serkan.kaya@medeniyet.edu.tr, 2danyal@bzu.edu.pk, 3ammara.buic@bahria.edu.pk

This paper aims to review the literature in COVID-19 in terms of a law published up to 10 May 2021 and to critically analyse insight and directions for future studies. The paper gathers data from Scopus databases and objectively chooses 224 documents.  This research classifies dominant authors, leading journals, top contributing countries, uppermost funding organisations and involvement by subject area. The results of this research indicate that there is an increasing trend of applying law for enhancing a measure of protection against the coronavirus pandemic. This paper systematically reviews the data for COVID-19 studies in law, aiming to provide an inclusive but straight impact of COVID-19 on law. Pages 511 to 520
 
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Stakeholders’ Satisfaction with the Implementation of Inclusive Education in East Jakarta

Bahrudina*, Indra Jayab, a,b, Faculty of Education Science, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Rawamangun Muka Rt.11/Rw.14 (Postal Code-13220), Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*bahrudin@unj.ac.id

This research aims to derive an empirical description of stakeholders’ level of satisfaction with the implementation of inclusive education in East Jakarta. Stakeholders coming from state schools implementing inclusive education for Senior High School (SMA) and Vocational School (SMK) level were employed as the population of this survey research. Data of the research was collected by means of a questionnaire, which served as the instrument, and analysed with descriptive analysis. Employing this technique, the data derived was analysed and described to address respective problems figured out in the research. The data was then described based on indicators of the problem in order to draw a conclusion. A survey method was employed in this research which was conducted in state schools implementing inclusive education in the area of East Jakarta. Findings of the research show that the stakeholders of SMAN and SMKN, implementing inclusive education, feel satisfied with how such a sort of education has been conducted in East Jakarta. Pages 521 to 529
 
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Issues & Challenges of Distance & Online Business Education in Pakistan during COVID 19

Khurram Ashfaqa*, Shafique Ur Rehmanb, Dr. Durr-e-Nayabc, Muhammad Farooq Rehand, Adil Riaze, Amer Alif, aAssistant Professor, College of Commerce, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan, bFaculty of Management Sciences, ILMA University Karachi, Pakistan, cLecturer, Department of English, The Women University Multan, Pakistan, dAssistant Professor, College of Commerce, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan, eLecturer, Government College University Faisalabad (Sub-Campus Hafizabad), Pakistan, fMPhil Scholar, College of Commerce, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan, *Corresponding Author, Email: a*Khurram.ashfaq@gcuf.edu.pk

This research study examines the issues and challenges of distance & online business education in Pakistan in the scenario of the turmoil of COVID-19. The basic objective of this research was to highlight the problems of faculty members and students. Many issues and challenges may occur due to the sudden shift from traditional education system to online education system. This research was a qualitative study and data from the 20 respondents was collected through semi-structured interviews through asking open-ended questions. The data was analyzed through thematic analysis which is a form of qualitative data analysis that is available, dynamic and increasingly popular. The study findings highlighted that in underdeveloped countries such as Pakistan, there are a lot of issues and challenges for distance & online business education. The students and teachers have been facing many problems like technological issues, internet connectivity, isolation, lack of face to face interaction, time management, load shading, lack of teachers training and use of ICT tools, students assessment challenges, environmental and behavioral problems, etc. In addition to this, their social lives are also badly affected due to COVID 19. The findings showed that online education is not a substitute for formal education. It was fine in the COVID-19 outbreak situation but after ending this epidemic, formal education should be adopted. Online business education can also be a part together with formal business education. Pages 530 to 548
 
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The Vernacular Architecture Drawing a Line of Tai-Yuan House, Thailand

Thongtep Sirisoda1, Rawinan Loymek2, 1Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Pathum Thani, Thailand, 2King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: 1Thongtep_S@rmutt.ac.th

The study of vernacular architectural styles will represent the living conditions of people in the past who lived their way of life within the context of their habitat environment. With the passage of time, urban culture expands into rural society and architectural styles are changed. The vernacular architecture of Thailand's central region is distinctive. A wide range of knowledge also obscures the physical characteristics of vernacular architecture. Collecting the actual data in the area uses basic techniques such as working with hands and pencils. But it can produce high-quality results, such as drawing detailed and realistic building lines in all aspects, for example, dimensions, light, shadows, proportions, and are easily understood by the public. As a result, it is the source of this research that the study of Tai-Yuan vernacular architectural is through the process of drawing a line for spatial identity in Sao Hai District, Saraburi Province, Thailand.  The qualitative research methodology is used in the study. The results of the research were as follows: The study of vernacular architecture's styles through a drawing line process, it consisted of two pictures that showed the identity architectural style of Tai-Yuan vernacular architecture, Sao Hai District, Saraburi Province, Thailand. Pages 549 to 557
 
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The Impact of Change-Oriented Leadership on Employees’ Performance: Mediating Role of Employees’ Engagement

Mohsin Bashira, Shaham Saleemb, Qurah-tul –Ainc, Muhammad Waseem Barid*, Muhammad Shahid Tufaile, a,b,dLyallpur Business School, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan, cDepartment of Public Administration, University of Kotli, AJK, eDepartment of Management Sciences, University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan, *Corresponding Author, Email: amohsinhust@gmail.com, bshaham_saleem@yahoo.com, cqurratulainkhan85@hotmail.com, d*muhammadwaseembari786@hotmail.com, emshahidtufail@gmail.com

Employees’ engagement, employees’ performance, and organizational performance are positively interlinked. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of employees’ engagement between change-oriented leadership and employees’ performance. With a time-lag approach (3 waves) and a structured questionnaire, the data were collected from 271 employees (Nurses) working in health units of Pakistan. For the empirical investigation, a partial least square- structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach was used. The results of this investigation are as follows, change-oriented leadership has a significant positive impact on employees’ performance, and employees’ engagement partially and complimentary mediates the relationship between change-oriented leadership and employees’ performance. In other words, change-oriented leaders play a significant role to engage the employees and motivate them to increase their performance. This study extends the limited understanding of change-oriented leadership and its relationship with employees’ engagement and performance. The limitations and future research directions are discussed in the last section of this study. Pages 558 to 580
 
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Empirical Analysis of Fashion Market Trends and Its Impact on Young Consumers: A Study from Pakistan

1Muhammad Daniyal, 2Muhammad Rajab, 3*Roseline Oluwaseun Ogundokun, 4Zafar Iqbal, 5Muhammad Riaz, 1,2,4Department of Statistics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 63100, Pakistan, 3Department of Computer Science, Landmark University Omu Aran, 251101, Nigeria, 5Department of Statistics, Rahim Yar Khan campus of the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan *Corresponding Author, Email: 1muhammad.daniyal@iub.edu.pk,2rajabmalik@yahoo.com,3*ogundokun.roseline@lmu.edu.ng, 4zafariqbal101@hotmail.com, 5muhammad.riaz@iub.edu.pk

The fashion industry is an excellent and fascinating world of creativity and elegance. Since our birth, we receive outfits that depict the way our parents dress us and, the minute we are grown up, we dress as we are encouraged. Teens are extremely self-conscious about their appearance and are often obsessed with details that adults don't take into consideration. Teens use fashion to express their relationships, social status, and relationships with peers. This investigation aims to look at the outcome of fashion on teenage girls and their spending priority. For this purpose, a sample of 500 students was gathered and the response was collected through questionnaire filling technique. Chi-square and correlation analysis were utilized to explore the strong point of association amid diverse factors. Binary logistic regression was employed to explore the connection amid the significance of fashion and other social factors. Multiple regression was used to look at the spending trend of the teenage girls on their dresses, shoes, and cosmetics. Pages 581 to 589
 
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Curriculum Delivery and Digital Divide in South African Higher Institutions During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case of Social Injustice

Oluwatoyin Ayodele Ajani1 & Bongani T. Gamede2, 1Edu-HRight Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2Department of Social Sciences Education, University of Zululand, South Africa, Email: oaajani@gmail.com

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the world has led to a drastic change in every sphere of mankind all over the world. The pandemic led to the collapse in all human activities, as well as physical contacts having been hindered and replaced with social distancing. One of the sectors that has been severely hit is the education system. This discourse article aims to explore the curriculum delivery and coverage in South African higher institutions of learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Determining how curriculum can be delivered to ensure coverage of it, to salvage the academic year due to closure of all educational facilities during the phases of lockdown in South Africa therefore, is a worrisome concern to the stakeholders. Adoption of full online teaching and learning during the lockdown periods revealed that many students from poor economic background and rural areas suffered socio-economic inequalities that hindered them from benefitting effectively from various online platforms that have been adopted by the South African institutions. The study explores strategies to ensure curriculum delivery and coverage to ensure the fulfilment of the purpose of the education system. The study recommends adequate support to these students by the Department of Higher Education and Training, the Universities and other bodies through adequate provision of laptops, diverse internet data packages, etc. The study also calls for the evaluation of the situations for future planning as well as the inclusion of pandemic management in the university curriculum. Pages 590 to 603
 
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Employees Stress in Meeting Customers’ Growing Needs during Covid-19: A Comparative Study of the Telecom Sector in Saudi Arabia

Dr Ameen S Alharbi, Assistant Professor and Dean, College of Business Administration, University of Business & Technology, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Email: ameen@ubt.edu.sa

The ongoing plight of Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) has affected lives significantly; requiring organisations and people to adapt to this difficult time. This study focuses on having an insight into how employees in the Telecom sector are trying to keep up with the dire emergent needs and challenges in Saudi Arabia. This study sheds light on three factors namely; working from home (working hours, work environment, and screen time), organisational support (salaries, workload, and resources), personal traits (family support, self-motivation for work, and leisure time). These were the three factors taken for this study and employees were asked about coping strategies.   A random group of 272 employees was selected from the telecom sector (STC and Mobily). A quantitative approach and simple random sampling design were used to collect the data through a questionnaire. The SPSS 25 was used for analysing the accumulated data, deducing findings and testing hypotheses. The findings of the study indicated clearly that there is a direct link between reduced performance and stress, in correspondence to the three mentioned variables of the present study. The inference advocates the notion that there is an urgent need for assistance and a constructive organisational system to succour employee’s emotional and mental health. Pages 604 to 621
 
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An Empirical Study on the Causes of Intolerance among the Youth of Karachi

1Dr. Muhammad Yaseen, 2Dr. Yasmeen Sultana Farooqi, 3Gulshan Munir, 4Dr. Amir Jan, 5Dr. Abdul Rab, 6Gohram Baloch, 1Teaching Fellow, Department of Sociology, University of Turbat, 2Associate Professor, Ilma University, Karachi, 3Lecturer at Department of Sociology, SBK women University, Quetta, 4,5Assistant Professor at Department of political Studies, Lasbela University, Uthal, 6Lecturer, Department of Social Work, University of Balochistan, Email: 1yaseendashti.soc@gmail.com, 2dr.yasmeensultana@gmail.com, 3gulshan.badini@gmail.com, 4amirluawms@gmail.com, 5abdulrab00093@yahoo.com, 6gohramrind969@gmail.com

The present study explores various factors that manifest intolerance in youth in the society. The factors exhibiting intolerance are categorised into four sections: economic, demographic, socio-political and cultural factors. Economic factor includes unemployment of individuals and perception of economic threats to the country. Demographic factors comprise of age, education, and socioeconomic status of individuals. Beside this, socio-political factors are political orientation, welfare system and citizenship government. While the cultural factors include social trust, outgroup contact and perception of ethnic threat. The area of the study was the University of Karachi. The calculated sample of 170 respondents was taken from all departments of the University of Karachi. Stratified equal proportionate sampling was used for the distribution of the respondents. A questionnaire was used as a tool for the data collection. Hypothesis were tested through SPSS software. It was observed that multi factors were responsible for intolerance of youth. Those factors included age, family, economic, social, educational environment, religious factors, political factors and media were found to be the cause of intolerance among youth of the Karachi. Pages 622 to 632
 
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Prevalence of Drug Abuse in Educational Institutes of Pakistan: A Phenomenological Study

Dr. Said Saeed1, Dr. Imtiaz Ali2, Dr. Muhammad Nadeem3, Dr. Fazli Khaliq4, Dr. Muhammad Tariq5, Muhammad Zulfiqar Ali6, Mehnaz Begum7, Dr. Sajjad Hussain8, Dr. Irfana Rasul9, 1Principal, Elementary & Secondary Education Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan, 2SST, Elementary & Secondary Education Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 3Principal Officer, Mines & Minerals Department Punjab, 4Lecturer, National College of Physical Education Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 5Lecturer, Department of Political Science Hazara University Mansehra, 6M.Phil. Scholar Education Department AWKUM, 7Lecturer, Department of Education, University of Swabi, 8Assistant professor, Deputy Director QEC, University of Swat, 9Dr. Irfana Omer, PhD University of Management and technology, Lahore, Email: 1syedsaeed54@gmail.com, 2imtiazali1120@gmail.com, 3mnadeem439@gmail.com,   4khaliq78@yahoo.com,   5muhammadtariq@hu.edu.pk, 6z.aqureshi@hotmail.com, 7mehnaz.education@yahoo.com, 8sajjadhussain@uswat.edu.pk, 9irfana.omar1@gmail.com

Drugs are detrimental to youth’s health. Drug abuse is a chronic issue of the current time and destroys the future generation and social order of humanity. The study aimed to explore the educated youth resorting to drug abuse, to ascertain the role of parents in managing the future goals of their children, to find out the role of education institutes in control of drug abuse, and to highlight the healthy relationship among stakeholders for the overall development of youth. Why are the educated youth resorting to drug abuse? What should be the role of parents, the role of education institutes and stakeholders in the control of drug abuse? A qualitative approach (phenomenology) was adopted. The population of the study was teachers and youth of educational institutions. The sample was n=20 10 teachers + 10 students using convenient sampling techniques. In-depth interviews were used as research tools. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to analyse the data. It was found that the abuse of drugs is on the rise in the youth of Pakistan due to the negligence of academia, parents, and teachers. It is recommended that the academia administration, parents, and teachers may play a  positive role in the eradication of this fatal menace. Pages 633 to 652 
 
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Identification of Indo-Pak Trade Patterns in Post-SAFTA Regime through Ratio Analysis Technique

Dr. Samra Kirana, Dr. Zain Ullahb, Waseem Khanc, Wisal Ahmadd, Dr. Alam Rehmane, Muhammad Zeeshanf*, Dr Kashif Saleemg, a,bAssistant professor, City University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, cAssistant Professor HITEC university Taxila, dAssistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences Qurtuba University of Science and Information Technology Peshawar. eFaculty of Management Sciences, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad; Pakistan, fCollege of Business Administration, Liaoning Technical University, Liaoning province, XingCheng, 125105, China, *Correspondence Author, gAssistant professor, Qurtuba University Science and information technology D I khan, Email: ask@cusit.edu.pk, bUzain15@cusit.edu.pk,  cwaseem.khan@hitecuni.edu.pk, dwisalahmad0490@gmail.com, eamrehman@numl.edu.pk, f*Abobakarmzk1@gmail.com, gkashifsaleem9212@gmail.com

The main aim of this paper is to analyze the Indo- Pak trade patterns and trade creation or trade diversion effect in the post-SAFTA regime. Based on time-series data from 2005 to 2015, a ratio analysis approach has been used to investigate trade flows and its effect between Pakistan and India. The ratio of regional trade independence, comparative advantage, trade complementariness, and regional orientation were applied. The main finding of this work is that a large amount of trade potential between Pakistan and India remained untapped. Both economies are trading more with large economies, as a result, they are paying a large amount of transaction cost and are not availing benefits of regionalism due to many political and military conflicts. The paper concludes that in order to unleash trade potential between Pakistan and India both countries have to adopt liberal trade policies, abolish their non-tariff barriers and decrease political and military tension in order to gain welfare effects of trade liberalization. The work is an attempt to estimate and analyze trade potential of between Pakistan and India. Which will provide policy guidelines and highlight potential markets for future investments. Pages 653 to 669
 
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Socio-Economic Impacts of Afghan Refugees on Pakistan after 1979

Amir Jana, Shumaila Kamal khanb, Dr. Muhammad Ramzanc, Gulshan Munird, Abdul Rabe, Arshad Ahmedf, Muhammad Yaseeng, aAssistant Professor, Department of Political Studies, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences, Uthal, Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan, bLecturer, Department of Sociology, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences, Uthal, Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan, cTeaching Assistant, Department of International Relations, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan, dLecturer, Department of Sociology, SBK Women University Quetta, eAssistant Professor, Department of Political Studies, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences, Uthal, Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan, fLecturer, Department of Economics, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences, Uthal, Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan, gLecturer, Department of Sociology, University of Turbat, Balochistan, Pakistan, Email: aamirluawms@gmail.com, bshumailakamal88@gmail.com, cramzanmkolachi@gmail.com, dGulshan.badini@gmail.com, eabdulrab00093@yahoo.com, firshadmehr002@gmail.com, gyaseendashti.soc@gmail.com

This paper aims to explore the social and economic implications of Afghan refugees on Pakistan after the Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan in 1979. The Afghan refugees have migrated to Pakistan in great number due to socio-cultural affiliation with the people of Pakistan. Moreover, the presence of Afghan refugees in Pakistan has been perceived as a security and economic threat for Pakistan, however, Pakistan has been extremely generous to greet them warmly. The paper is qualitative in nature, which has been based on historical perspective of the study in order to find out the impact of the Afghan refugees on Pakistan. Most importantly, the paper aims to address the question, how Pakistan could afford to allow a large number of Afghan refugees in Pakistan for a longer period of time. In addition to this, the paper also aims to investigate the measures of Pakistan for repatriating Afghan refugees first. Pages 670 to 680
 
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The Return on Assets and Profitability Growth of Islamic Banks

Dr. Syed Muhammad Ali Tirmizia*, Mr. Mohammad Rohan Ghazib, Dr. Shahbaz Khanc, Dr. Shahzad Hussaind, Prof. Dr. Syed Mutahir Hussain Shahe, aAssociate Professor, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, Foundation University Islamabad, Rawalpindi Campus, Pakistan. bLecturer (Instructor) Commerce, Government College of Commerce, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. cAssistant Professor, Department of Economics & Finance, Faculty of Management Sciences, Foundation University Islamabad, Rawalpindi Campus (FURC), Pakistan. dAssistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, Foundation University Islamabad, Rawalpindi Campus (FURC), Pakistan. eVisiting/ Adjunct Professor, Institute of Business & Management (IB&M), University of Engineering & Technology,  Pakistan. *Corresponding Author, Email: a*dr.alitirmizi@fui.edu.pk, bm.rohanghazi@gmail.com, cshahbaz.khan@fui.edu.pk, dshahzad.hussain@fui.edu.pk, emutahir5@gmail.com

In this study the impact of bank specific microeconomic factors including capital adequacy, liquidity and investment to total assets on Return on Assets, the profitability measure of the Islamic banks operating in Pakistan has been investigated with special focus on assets. Financial statements of Islamic banks including Bank Islami, Meezan Bank, Dubai Islamic Bank, Al Baraka Bank and Burj Bank have been utilised to analyse financial data over the period 2008 to 2015. The outcome of panel data regression has highlighted that capital adequacy has impacted negatively and significantly due to tight control measures and prevalence of risk. However, liquidity has impacted positively but insignificantly, while investment to total assets has a positive and significant influence on the profitability. This implies that, it is vital for Islamic banks to focus more aggressively on a return on assets driven investment approach in order to gain and maintain sustainability in their profit margins. Moreover, Islamic banks may increase their year-on-year profitability in the future if they accordingly plan adjustments in liquidity and capital adequacy allocations by deploying moderate control measures and risk management practices. Pages 681 to 702
 
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The Role of Religion in the Lives of South Asians: A Case Study of Rohingya and Kashmiris Muslims

Dr. Sarah Umer, Associate Professor Art and Design, University College of Art and Design, University of Punjab, Lahore, Email: sarah76khan@gmail.com, sara.cad@pu.edu.pk

South Asia has been a home to several religions since ancient times and the history of religion in the region can be traced back to the Indus Valley civilization. Although, no religious icons or buildings were found from this civilisation to indicate their religious affiliations, nevertheless the artifacts and architectural structures speak volumes about the nature of their religion despite the absence of a deciphered Indus script. This paper intends to shed light on the role of religions practiced in this region, initially beginning with the Indus religion; however the birth and role of other indigenous religions of the land like Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism shall be discussed to understand the importance and role of religion in the lives of South Asians. Moreover, considering these religious affiliations and the strong connection that the people of this land have with their respective religions, two current examples: Rohingya and Kashmiri Muslims will be discussed in detail to see how religion has been manipulated by political agents to gain power at the cost of innocent human lives. An action, which is in direct contradiction to their religious teachings and can be considered as the primary cause behind the current political and religious unrest in South Asia, which must be put to rest before it is too late. Pages 703 to 717
 
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Legal Protection of Workers in the Settlement of Disputes of Work Relationship (Pemutusan Hubungan Kerja) by Companies Based on Legal Labour Perspective

Yusmedi Yusuf1*, Mella Ismelina Farma Rahayu2, Amad Sudiro3, 1,2,3Tarumanagara University Jakarta, *Corresponding author, Email: 1*yusmedi@unis.ac.id, 2mellaIsmelina@yahoo.com, 3ahmads@fh.untar.ac.id

Termination of employment by a company often results in disputes with the workers. The rule of law provides protection in carrying out industrial relations for workers, employers and the government. The perspective of labour law has the objective of social justice through settlement of dismissal disputes based on work agreements, company regulations and collective labour agreements. The government intervenes in regulating work termination disputes based on Law Number 13 of 2003 concerning manpower, abbreviated as UUK and Law Number 2 of 2004 concerning Settlement of Industrial Relations Disputes, abbreviated as UUPPHI. The research method used is the method of normative legal research, namely research on library materials that are basic data, in science classified as secondary data. Normative legal research serves to provide juridical arguments when there are vacancies, obscurity and conflict of norms. Company dismissal disputes are resolved by means of bipartite, conciliation, mediation and industrial relations courts. Legal protection for workers in settling disputes over termination of employment by companies harms the normative rights of workers; it takes a long time, starting from bipartite negotiations, through mediation to the Industrial Relations Court. Workers have lost their basic rights, namely the right to work and a decent life, based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. Pages 718 to 726
 
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Effect of Companies Act 2013 on the Relationship Between Non-Audit Services and Earnings Management in India

Khurram Ashfaqa*, Sohail Younusb, Shafique Ur Rehmanc, Adil Riazd, Hina Razzaqe aAssistant Professor, College of Commerce, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan, bLecturer, University of the Punjab Jhelum Campus, Pakistan, cFaculty of Management Sciences, ILMA University Karachi, Pakistan, dLecturer, Government College University Faisalabad (Sub-Campus Hafizabad), Pakistan, eCollege of Commerce, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan, *Corresponding author, Email: a*Khurram.ashfaq@gcuf.edu.pk

This study investigates the moderating effect of the Companies Act 2013 on the relationship between Non-audit Services (NAS) and Earnings Management (EM). Furthermore, it investigates the effect of the Companies Act 2013 on the relationship between the presence of independent directors on the board and earnings management. To achieve these objectives, a sample of BSE 500 index companies has been selected that were listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) for the four years period 2012, 2014, 2015 and 2016. Variables such as non-audit services have been measured through the ratio of non-audit fee to total audit fee, and earnings management through discretionary accrual models such as Jones and Modified Jones model. Results show that based on descriptive statistics, the NAS fee ratio is lower in the post Companies Act period than the pre-Companies Act period. Results of regression analysis report that regulations on the reporting of internal control and restriction on non-audit services are significantly negatively associated with earnings management practices. Furthermore, following the enactment of the Companies Act 2013, the role of independent directors has become more effective in curbing management from engaging in earnings management. Finally, following the enactment of the Companies Act 2013, companies with a decline in non-audit services are significantly less engaged in earnings management practices. Thus, these results imply that these regulations are effective in improving the monitoring role of independent directors and audit committees in protecting shareholders’ interest. Pages 727 to 749
 
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Analysis of Influence of Raw Materials Fees and Factory Overhead Costs on Gross Profit

Asep Mulyana1, Endang Susilawati2, 1,2Faculty of Economics, Nurtanio University, West Java – Indonesia, Email: 1asepdiymulyana@gmail.com, 2endalist@yahoo.com

The purpose of  this study to estimate the accuracy of the research data,and to know how much the influence of raw material costs and factory overhead costs on gross profit. The study was conducted on the type of cigarette industry at PT Hanjaya Mandala Sampoerna,Tbk, the reason researchers chose PT H.M Sampoerna, Tbk as the object because based on the data that it has the highest gross profit compared to similar companies. The method used is descriptive analysis with  the help an IBM SPSS Statistics 25 program. In this  study  used secondary data processing namely the financial statements of  PT Hanjaya Mandala Sampoerna, Tbk for a period of seven years, in 2011-2017. The results showed that the data tested were normal by using Kolmogrov Smirnov  and Scatterplot tables, based on correlation coefficient test shows a very strong relationship, and the cost of raw materials and factory overhead costs respective has  partially significant influences on  gross profit, also both of  cost of raw materials and factory overhead costs have simultanously significant influences on  gross profit PT Hanjaya Mandala Sampoerna,Tbk. Pages 750 to 761
 
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The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Firm Performance: Firm-Level Evidence from Pakistan Stock Exchange

Syed Muhammad Imrana, Ramsha Saleemb, Hafeez Ur Rehmanc, aLecturer, Government Degree College Yazman, Pakistan, bAssistant Professor of Economics, Lahore College For Women University, Lahore, Pakistan, cLecturer, Department of Economics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Email: asyedimran.ravian@gmail.com, bramsha.saleem@lcwu.edu.pkchafeez.rehman@iub.edu.pk

The massive spike of global pandemic of Coronavirus deteriorates public, financial and economic health which severely affected national and global economies. At the firm-level, the Coronavirus negatively affect performance of the firms. We used the financial data of 540 listed firms in Pakistan Stock Exchange to estimate the effect of COVID-19 on firms’ performance. The results of the empirical analysis shown shows that global pandemic of COVID-19 has significant negative effect of the return on asset of the listed firms in Pakistan Stock Exchange. The efficiency and the profitability of the firm can be boost only through hygienic work environment and ensuring minimum human contact which finally reduce the impact of global pandemic of COVID-19. Pages 762 to 768
 
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The Impact of Social Media on the Digital Protests in Jordan

Dr. Mazen Mohammad Al-Fedawi, Assistant Professor, Middle East University, Amman, Jordan

The aim of this study was to define the role of social media sites in digital protests in Jordan from the perspective of activists. To accomplish this goal, the researcher used the descriptive analytical method on a random sample of (430) activists on social media sites. The data was analyzed by the researcher using the statistical analysis software (SPSS). (74.4 %) of the study sample seeks permanent access to political content through social media, while 66.7 % indicated that social media plays a significant role in providing political information, and that the freedom provided by social networking sites to express opinions and thoughts, as well as the ease of receiving, accessing, and exchanging information with others, are the most important reasons for Jordanians resorting to social networking sites to express their opinions. According to the study, 54.9 % of activists confirmed that (Facebook) is the most commonly used and reliable social networking platform for sharing ideas and opinions, and 95.3 % of the study sample transmits knowledge, opinions and political discussions relating to government decisions are made through social media. And that (73.0 %) of the study survey respondents agree that social media has influenced Jordanian protests in terms of organization and coordination. Pages 769 to 794
 
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IPO Underpricing are Affected by the External and Internal Factors - An Evidence from Pakistan Stock Exchange

Adarsha Bhattarai1 Mohammad Adnan2, Raima Adeel3, Dr Muhammad Irfan4, 5Tasawar Abdul Hamid, Dr. Rana Tahir Naveed6, 1Lincoln University, California, 2SBS Swiss Business School, 3Institute of banking & Finance, Bahauddin Zakariya University, 4Institute of banking & Finance, Bahauddin Zakariya University, 5Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK, 6Department of Economics and Business Administration, Art & Social Sciences Division, University of Education, Lahore, Email: 1adarsha.bhattarai2002@gmail.com, 2adnan.abdulhamid@gmail.com, 3raimaadeel@bzu.edu.pk, 4dr.mirfan@bzu.edu.pk, 5tasawar.abdulhamid@gmail.com,  6Tahir.naveed@ue.edu.pk

The purpose of this research is to provide insight into how the qualifications of the board of directors affect the exhibition of companies offering a basic public offering. The hypothesis shows that the organization accusations of the board and the investors are compared normally. As an organization depicts a surprising corporate governance model, it will be generally accepted that confidence close to the idea of ​​monetary disclosure increases among market individuals and the targeted rate of return falls. We are investigating the effect of board qualifications on IPO implementation in Pakistani stock market in 2010-2020 period. The Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan aggregates Pakistani stock trading area. Also, during this period, 100 organizations and 99 organizations referred to were settled for sampling the assessment was coordinated with a relapse of an OLS, linkage research, and clarifying metrics. Because the structure of the card is modestly consistent on the sample, and the variation between firm perception is almost nothing. Thus, the conclusion is concluded with the view that the qualifications of the board of directors have a moderate effect on the IPO underpricing. In the interim period, the sole quality of the board of directors, which was found to have a critical negative relationship with the public offering in the post-study impact, was the size of the board of directors. With the implementation of IPOs, the various segments of board quality are certainly enormous. Pages 795 to 806
 
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Advances in Supply Chain Management using Big Data Business Analytics

Tasawar Abdul Hamid1, Mohammad Adnan2, Ayaz Qaiser3, Dr Mahmood Rehmani4, Adarsha Bhattarai5,  Dr. Rana Tahir Naveed6, 1Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK, 2SBS Swiss Business School, 3,4Department of Business Administration, University of Sialkot, Pakistan, 5Lincoln University, California 6Department of Economics and Business Administration, Art & Social Sciences Division, University of Education, Lahore, Email: 1tasawar.abdulhamid@gmail.com,   2adnan.abdulhamid@gmail.com, 3ayaz.qaiser@uskt.edu.pk, 4mahmoodrehmani@gmail.com, 5adarsha.bhattarai2002@gmail.com, 6Tahir.naveed@ue.edu.pk

The current dynamic and increasingly serious market has expanded the complexities that constrain organizations around the world from starting to take advantage of Big Data regulations to support competition around the world, as it turns out that they are fetching more data determined in dealing with supply chains. Subjective strategies are applied in this review to better understand the wonder of Supply Chain analytics. An inductive methodology of meeting type was applied to obtain new observational data. Fifteen semi-organized meetings were held with administrative professionals in the study of the supply chain, management and big data analytics. The obtained observational data were then analyzed using the topical examination technique by the help of the previous literature and the case studies .Key discoveries in this premise are partially rejected by past reviews and existing articles in terms of the implications, definitions, and uses of the three types of Analytics. Moreover, the discoveries offer new methodologies and perspectives that the latest analytics apply at both basic and operational management levels that shape supply chain management plans. Pages 807 to 819
 
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An Empirical data investigation of the Greenfield Investment: Welfare nexus from low-income countries

Ali Raza1, Muhammad Tariq3, Bibi Aisha Sadiqa4, 1Lecturer in Department of Management Sciences, The University of Haripur, Pakistan. 3Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan. 4Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan. Emails: 1alirazaeco@gmail.com, 3tariq_noor@awkum.edu.pk, 4agrieco24@yahoo.com

Foreign investment is considered as healthy investment that can potentially push a country’s economy out of crisis and can lead towards prosperity in case of low income developing countries. Moreover, foreign investments such as the Greenfield investment is considered as the most appropriate in terms of bringing improvements in economic growth as well as health, education and overall welfare of a country. For that purpose, this study considers 14 low income countries with a time series data for the period starting from the year 1998 till 2017.  Im Pesaran and Shin (IPS) test is used for unit root testing while a one-step system GMM is applied for full analysis. After carrying out the necessary analysis the results demonstrated that foreign investment as Greenfield has positive impact on the economic growth, education, health and welfare of low-income countries. Remittances also show a healthy and positive relationship, while aid as foreign assistance has negative associations with all dependent variables.  From the policy point of view as low-income countries have a lack of capital; however sufficient natural resources therefore a flexible foreign investment policy is recommended. Through friendly foreign investment policies, countries can attract more investments which may potentially be used for the welfare of peoples. Pages 820 to 835
 
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Exploring Indicators of Transformational Impediments to Peace Process at University level in Pakistan

Dr. Said Saeed1*, Dr. Imtiaz Ali 2*, Dr. Muhammad Nadeem3*, Dr. Irfana Rasul4*, Dr. Muhammad Tariq 5* Muhammad Zulfiqar Ali6*, Mehnaz Begum 7* Dr. Sajjad Hussain8* Dr. Fazli Khaliq9*, 1*Principal, Elementary & Secondary Education Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan, 2*SST Elementary & Secondary Education Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan, 3*Principal Officer, Mines & Minerals Department Punjab,  4*Dr. Irfana Rasul, PhD University of Management and Technology, Lahore,5* Lecturer, Department of Political Science Hazara University Mansehra, 6*M.Phil. Scholar Education department AWKUM, 7*Lecturer, Department of Education, University of Swabi,8*Assistant professor, Deputy Director QEC, University of Swat,9*Lecturer, National College of Physical Education Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Email: 1*syedsaeed54@gmail.com, 2*imtiazali1120@gmail.com3* mnadeem439@gmail.com,   4*irfana.omar1@gmail.com  5*muhammadtariq@hu.edu.pk, 6*z.aqureshi@hotmail.com  7*mehnaz.education@yahoo.com 8*sajjadhussain@uswat.edu.pk 9*khaliq78@yahoo.com  

The paper represents the most active and peaceful signs of change in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa universities. The main objective of the study was to identify the major challenges facing educational institutions in relation to a culture of peaceful development. In addition, this study provides important data for the development of peace in universities. Value calculations were used to gather feedback from respondents. For this reason, an in-depth interview protocol was organized for the heads of public universities/heads of various departments of social sciences. In addition, the data were analyzed with thematic analysis nvivo which was used for in-depth analysis and presentation in a cloud-based approach (MAXQDA 18). The results of the study, however, show that universities face different levels of influence on teacher experience, student behavior, and their social impact. The study further suggests, that according to experts there is a need to formulate simple and practical strategies to overcome the problems that lead to violence in educational institutions, there is room to work on teachers and student relations, development and positive values ​​and environmental evaluation, and engaging students in creative and beneficial activities for peace in everyday activities. Pages 836 to 849
 
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Management Control Systems and Balance Score Cards: From the Perspective of the Education Industry

Adeel Israra, Aqeel Israrb, Adnan Anwarc, Atif Azizd, Tariq Saeede, aAssistant Professor, COMSATS University Islamabad, bAssistant professor, Institute of Research Policy, c,dAssociate Professor, Karachi Institute of Economics and Technology, eHead of IT Department, Karachi Institute of Economics and Technology

This paper aims to examine the relationship between management control systems (MCS) and contextual variables such as environment, technology, structure, size, strategy, and culture with the moderating effect of Balance scorecard. The present study discusses contextual variables and management control systems in the uni-dimensional construct. Preliminary findings suggested that management control systems (MCS) and contextual variables are important in designing a management control process for the education industry. In addition, general current study proves that control factors also have great importance in the Malaysian education sector especially in encouraging academic and non-academic staff to achieve organisational goals. The current research provided a conceptual framework for management control systems in the Malaysian Education Sector (i.e., University) and suggested future implications. Moreover, the current study discussed the importance of management control systems (MCS), which help the education sector to determine the most effective way to apply and utilise MCS design in the Malaysian education industry. Pages 850 to 867
 
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Muhammad Muzammil Ghayasa, Dr Ume Sumayyab*, Dr Ume Amenc, Abida Shaheend, aLecturer – Iqra University, bAssistant Professor – Iqra University, cAssistant Professor- Dow University of health sciences, dAssistant Professor – Iqra University, *Corresponding author, Email: amuzzammilghayas87@gmail.com, b*sumayya@iqra.edu.pk, cUme.amen@duhs.edu.pk, dabidashaheen@iqra.edu.pk

This paper aims to explain the relationship between learning organisational practices and dimensions of organisational commitment. Two separate instruments were developed for the purpose of the research. The first instrument consisted of twenty-one items and was used for measuring seven learning organisational practices namely continuous learning opportunities, dialogue and inquiry, team learning and collaboration, empowerment, embedded systems, systems connection, and strategic leadership. On the other hand, the second instrument consisted of twenty-four items and was used for measuring three dimensions of organisational commitment namely affective, normative and continuance commitment. The data was collected from 270 employees of the IT sector at two different points in time. Three separate Multiple Regression Analyses were used as the statistical technique. Results indicated that six of the seven learning organisational practices included in the study, namely continuous learning opportunities, dialogue and inquiry, team learning, and collaboration, empowerment, embedded systems, and systems connection are significantly related with the affective commitment. On the other hand, six of the seven practices included in the study namely continuous learning opportunities, dialogue and inquiry, team learning, and collaboration, empowerment, embedded systems, and systems connection have a significant relationship with the normative commitment. Last but not least, five of the seven practices included in the study, namely continuous learning opportunities, dialogue and inquiry, team learning, and collaboration, empowerment and systems connection have a significant relationship with the continuance commitment. Pages 868 to 880
 
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School Principal’s Perceived Practices and Challenges of Human Resource Management: A Gender Perspective Lens

Sadruddin Bahadur Qutoshi*1, Sajjad Haider** & Zaigham Ali**, *Department of Educational Development, Karakoram International University, Pakistan**Department of Business Management, Karakoram International University, Pakistan, 1Corresponding Author Email: sadruddin.qutoshi@kiu.edu.pk

While much is written about human resource management practices in general organizations, far less is known about the school as an organization and role of women principal as a human resource manager. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived practices and challenges of women principles as human resource managers in private schools. Since it has been widely accepted that performance of institutions highly depends upon the way human resources are perceived and managed. Applying the case study method, the data generated using the semi-structured interview.  The findings of the study show that the women principal, to a great extent, had an understanding about the concept of human resource management such as recruitment, selection, induction, monitoring and evaluation, training, and development. The principal also found to be the key person in employee’s performance appraisal, job design and their motivation. In doing so the principal faced challenges in employees’ career planning, effective retention approaches, and providing incentives with attractive salaries etc. The study recommends private schools to develop a comprehensive human resource management system on priority basis which could address such kind of challenges. Pages 881 to 904
 
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Credit Card Adoption in Vietnam: A Perspective of the Stimulus Organism Response Model

Nam Hoang TRINH1*, Ha Hong TRAN2, Quan Duc Hoang VUONG3, 1*First Author and Corresponding Author. Lecturer, Faculty of Management Information System, Banking University Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2Lecturer, Faculty of Banking, Banking University Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 3Associate Professor, Ton Duc Thang University, Vietnam. Email: 1*namth@buh.edu.vn, 2hath@buh.edu.vn, 3quanvuong.aca@gmail.com

This study aims to develop a theoretical model in order to determine perceived risk, their antecedents and consequences in credit card adoption. Using the Stimulus Organism Response model, the study proposes relationships between information system quality, perceived risk, and the intended use of credit cards. However, despite prior studies on consumer behaviour, this study introduces three components of perceived risk in source, including transaction risk, payment risk and credit risk. Therefore, preliminary research is helpful to describe and measure the research constructs in the proposed model. With data collected from 538 bank customers, this study conducts the structural equation model to test the research model and proposed hypotheses. The results analysis shows that information quality, system quality, and service quality have negative effects on transaction risk, payment risk, and credit risk. Meanwhile, three components of perceived risk in source are the significant inhibitors of the intended use of credit cards. These risk perceptions account for 46.8% of the variation in intended use. The findings provide bank managers solutions to achieve a high-quality information system, which may reduce consumer apprehension about potential losses and then encourage their intended use of credit cards. Pages 905 to 923
 
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The Impact of Rehabilitating Strategies on Learning of Inmates: Evidence from Central Prison, Khairpur

Shabana Abdul Jabbar Phulpotoa, Mahnaz Aslamb, Prof. Dr. Muhammad Yousuf Sharjeelc, Noman Ali Samod, Abid Ali Ujjane, Shehzad Haiderf, aSindh Education and Literacy Department, Junior School Teacher, bAssistant Professor university of Turbat, cDepartment of Teacher Education, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, dAssistant Manager Training, The Citizen Foundation (TCF), eSZABIST Social Sciences Scholar, Faculty of Social Sciences, fLecturer-Department of Education, LUAWMS-Lasbela, Email: ateachersp7@gmail.com, bmahnazbaloch1313@gmail.com, cyousufsharjeel@hotmail.com, dnomanalisamo4@gmail.com, eabidaliujjan43@gmail.com, fwarriors.uthal@gmail.com

Despite the current attention on the corrective rehabilitation process for inmates within prisons, a number of studies regarding learning factors have been carried out. This study was designed as a case study and data was drawn with the help of a semi-structured interviews of inmates within Central Prison Khairpur. Positive and negative factors involved in inmates’ learning were analysed. Results of the study show that there are few positive factors involved in improving inmate’s learning while the large number of negative factors affect their social, psychological and economic development. The results support the corrective measures by the authorities in the central prison in Khairpur. These factors are suggested to take this study further into future research in the field of corrective rehabilitation process within the region. Pages 924 to 940
 
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The Dolalak Dance of Purworejo Regency Central Java: A Changing Performance as Entertainment

Riva Amelia, R.M. Pramutomo, Indonesia Institute of the Arts Surakarta, University of Limerick, Ireland, Email: rivaamelia2207@gmail.com rmpram60@gmail.com

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/15872

Dolalak dance is a type of folk dance originating from Purworejo Regency, Central Java Province. Research on Dolalak Dance has been carried out by many dance researcher’s with various perspectives. However, Dolalak Dance in Central Java still has its appeal and uniqueness to be studied with new perspectives. This article is a new perspective on Dolalak Dance which sees changes in appearance due to the presence of the women's Dolalak dance group. The perspective used in this article is ethnocoreology. This is an interdisciplinary study that focuses on the changing aspects of the origins of the Dolalak dance with religious nuances and then turn it into an entertainment and  performance art, with a new style of appearance. The ethnocoreological approach views dance as a cultural product. In such a sense, ethnochoreological analysis is based on the ethnographic method of dance from the physical point of view of the Dolalak dance performers and all aspects of its appearance. Thus, this article is a way of looking at Dolalak dance from the point of view of changing the aesthetic response of the female Dolalak dancers to become a model of entertainment performance art. Pages 941 to 956
 
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A Survey of Relative Values (Ethics Practices) of Teachers in Schools: Empirical Evidence on Teachers’ Characteristics

Dr. Syed Zubair Haidera, Dr. Uzma Munawarb, Asma, Asmac, Muhammad Aneesd, Dr. Khisro Kaleem Razae, Dr. Abdul Wadoodf, Dr. Farooq Hussaing, Shakila Malikh, Zafar Iqbali aAssistant Professor, Department of Educational Training, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan, bAssistant Professor, Department of Education, Government Sadiq College Women University Bahawalpur, Pakistan, cLecturer, Department of Education, Islamia College University, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, dLecturer in English, Govt. College Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, eAssociate Professor (HOD), Department of Education, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology Peshawar, fAssistant Professor, Department of Education, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology Peshawar, gDepartment of Physical Education and Sports, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, hPhD scholar, Qurtuba University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan, iAssistant Professor, Government College Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Email: azubairiub@hotmail.com, bdruzmamunawar@gmail.com, casma@icp.edu.pk, daneesjaffarshah@gmail.com, ehod.edu@suit.edu.pk, fabdul.wadood3376@gmail.com, gfarooqhussain@awkum.edu.pk,  hshakila.malik224@gmail.com, izafariqbal101275@gmail.com

Ethics are the most concerning issue these days. Different approaches and innovations have been introduced into schools for teachers’ ethics practices. However, a better hypothetical and pragmatic consideration of the precursors of the ethics practices of teachers is needed. The authors investigate what ethics practices are used in public and private schools and what roles the teachers are playing in determining the ethics. The data covered school levels from primary to secondary education, obtained from 1,435 teachers using the Ethics Practices Scale (EPS). Mean, SD, EFA, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were conducted to measure ethics practices and teachers’ characteristics. The results express that teachers’ gender, school type and teachers’ designation (job-position) seem to be the decisive factors shaping the teachers’ ethics practices in schools. More studies on the precursors of ethics practices are needed. Pages 957 to 975

 
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The Poetics of Mythological Spaces in Contemporary Vietnamese Prose from 1986 to Present

Quoc Hieu Le, M.A, Institute of Literature (IoL), Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences (VASS), 20 Ly Thai To, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi. Email: hieulequoc@gmail.com

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/15905

Myth and mythological criticism have become a significant concern for literary studies. Mythological materials and thinking have been penetrated and regenerated in contemporary literary writings, forming unique creative writing against socialist realism aesthetics. The article explores some specific poetics of mythological spaces in Vietnamese narratives since 1986. Through the analysis of spatial aesthetics in some works written by Pham Thi Hoai, Nguyen Huy Thiep, Ta Duy Anh, Chau Dien, and Nguyen Xuan Khanh, the article points out the distinctions of mythological spaces, including the binary spaces, the spiritual and legendary spaces, and the symbolic spaces. Pages 976 to 983
 
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Job Satisfaction and Work Happiness as Mediating Variables Affecting the Working Environment and Performance of Medical Personnel in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand

Khemaree Rugchoochipa*, Sirapatsorn Wongthongdeeb, Suttipong Kiartivichc, Poonsak Sangsuntd and Yanapol Sangsunte, aFaculty of Political Science and Law, Burapha University, 169 Long-Hard Bangsaen Rd, Saensuk Sub-district, Mueang District, Chon Buri Province, Thailand 20131, bFaculty of Public Administration, Dhurakij Pundit University, 110/1-4 Prachachuen Rd, Laksi District, Bangkok, Thailand 10210, cFaculty of Humanities, Social Sciences and Arts, Stamford International University, 16, Motorway Road - Km2, Prawet Subdistrict, Prawet District, Bangkok, Thailand 10250, dFaculty of Business Administration, Ramkhamhaeng University, 2086 Soi Ramkhamhaeng 24, Hua Mak Subdistrict, Bang Kapi District, Bangkok, Thailand 10240, eFaculty of Business Administration for Society, Srinakharinwirot University, 114 Soi Sukhumvit 23, Watthana District, Bangkok, Thailand 10110, Email: a*khemaree2012@hotmail.co.th (*Corresponding author), bsirapatsorn.won@dpu.ac.th, ccontact.suttipong@gmail.com, dpoonsak.sangsunt@gmail.com, edr.yanapol@gmail.com

The objectives of this research are: (1) to study the levels of working environment, job satisfaction, work happiness and performance of the medical personnel in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand; and (2) to study the levels of job satisfaction and work happiness as the mediators affecting the working environment and work performance of the medical personnel in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand. This was a quantitative research that used a survey research method with populations. The sample used in this research wsa 500 medical personnel in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand. The research instrument was the questionnaire with the confidence value of Alpha's Cronbach coefficient at 0.986. The adopted research statistics were frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and analysis by the structural equation model by using the R program. It was found from the study results that work happiness had an overall average at a high level of 4.47, followed by the operational performance with an overall average of 4.46, job satisfaction with an overall average of 4.43 and working environment with an overall average of 4.39,. For the analysis results of the structural equations model and factors influencing the work performance, it was found that working environment, work happiness and job satisfaction had a direct influence on work performance with the direct effect (DE) values of 0.108, 0.045, and 0.774, respectively; the working environment had a direct influence on job happiness and job satisfaction with a DE of 0.882 and 0.863; and working environment had an indirect influence on performance with the indirect effect (IE) value of 0.040 indicating that working environment has an influence on work happiness, job satisfaction and work performance. In addition, work happiness and job satisfaction are the mediators resulting in an increase in work performance in the organisation. Pages 984 to 996
 
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Public Health Services and Medical Treatment for Elderly at the Local Level in Thailand: Success from Network Partners

Chompoonuch Hunnaka, Papavadee Montriwatb, aAsst. Prof. Ph.D., Master of Public Administration Program, Collage of Innovation Management, Rajamangala University of Technology Rattanakosin, 96 Mu 3 Phutthamonthon Sai 5, Salaya Phutthamonthon Nakorn Pathom 73170, bAssoc. Prof. M.M., Master of Public Administration Program, Collage of Innovation Management, Rajamangala University of Technology Rattanakosin, 96 Mu 3 Phutthamonthon Sai 5, Salaya Phutthamonthon Nakorn Pathom 73170, Email: achompoonuch.hun@rmutr.ac.th, bpapavadee@hotmail.com

This research has three main objectives: (1) to analyse public services for elderly in lower midland provinces, (2) to identify problems and obstacles incurred in delivering public services to elderly in lower midland provinces, and (3) to recommend a guideline for developing public services to elderly in lower midland provinces. The research used a qualitative approach of which 28 key informants were selected from (1) senior administrators and staff at the Municipality office, (2) elder community leaders who were involved in the process of delivering public services to elderly and/or receiving public services from the Municipality themselves. Data collection techniques include non-participative observation and in-depth interviews. The research revealed the findings as follows: Public services from four selected Municipalities emphasised on proactive collaborations between network partners from different sectors in order to deliver services to elderly; Problems and obstacles incurred in the process of delivering public services are a lack of adequate resources, low participation from elderly and low empowerment for local government organisation as well as rigid rules and regulations; Public services should allow more resources for operations, elderly care centers, and health care staffs to provide knowledge and training for elderly; and The central agencies should fully decentralise their administrative power to local government organisations whilst law regulations must allow flexible operations. Pages 997 to 1004
 
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Transformational Leadership Relationship with Employee Creativity: The Moderating Effect of Knowledge Sharing and Mediating Effect of Creative Self-Efficacy

Naveen Asada, Hammad Bin Azam Hashmib, Mishal Nasirc, Adeel Khalidd, Aftab Ahmade*, aDepartment of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan. bDepartment of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, ILMA University, Karachi, Pakistan. cDepartment of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan. dNUST Business School, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan. eDepartment of Electrical Engineering, NFC Institute of Engineering and Fertilizers Research (NFC-IEFR), Faisalabad, Pakistan. *Corresponding Author, Email: aNaveenasad05@gmail.com, bHammad.shah046@gmail.com, cMishal.nasir.13@gmail.com, dAdeel.khalid@nbs.nust.edu.pk, e*aftabahmadrao@gmail.com

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/15913

Sustainable competitive advantage is the ultimate goal of numerous creative oriented firms. Therefore, this study’s purpose is to investigate the relationship amongst transformational leadership and employee creative performance with the intervening mechanism of creative self-efficacy, furthermore, this study’s purpose is to examine the knowledge sharing culture moderating role amongst transformational leadership and creative self-efficacy. A quantitative survey methodology was used for data collection, and 150 questionnaires have been circulated to employees employed in the private banking sector situated within twin city premises. This study’s result indicated that transformational leadership and employee creative performance have significant relationships with each other, moreover, creative self-efficacy mediates amongst that relationship. Furthermore, knowledge sharing culture does not moderate amongst transformational leadership and creative self-efficacy. Practical implications and limitations have been discussed. Likewise, the future direction is also recommended in this study. Pages 1005 to 1029
 
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The Impact of Human Capital on Innovation: Empirical Evidence from South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

Syed Muhammad Imrana, Syed Mumtaz Ali Kazmib, Farva Jawadc, Iqra Ghousd, aLecturer, Government Degree College Yazman, Pakistan, bAssistant Professor of Economics, NCBA&E Sub-Campus Bahawalpur, Pakistan, c,dM.Phil Student, NCBA&E Sub-Campus Bahawalpur, Pakistan, Email: asyedimran.ravian@gmail.com, bkazmi.mumtaz@gmail.com, cfarwajawad4@gmail.com, diqrach9016@gmail.com

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is lagging behind in terms of human capital and innovation activities. The ability to innovate depends upon the knowledge, skills, training and experience of the worker. It is widely believed that innovation drives growth and play important role in firm survival. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of a firm’s level human capital on innovation activities in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) region using World Enterprise Survey data.  The study utilized the multilevel logistic regression model. The innovation is measured through the survey question “during the last three years, has this establishment introduced new or significantly improved products or services” and the human capital is measured by “proportion of skilled workers out of all production workers”.  The results of the multilevel logistic model indicate that human capital has positive impact on the innovation. Pages 1030 to 1039
 
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Factors Influencing Happiness of the Disabled Elderly in Khon Kaen Smart City

Wanichcha Narongchai, Assist. Prof. of the Labour and International Migration Service Centre, and Division of Sociology and Anthropology, Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand

This research aimed to study the factors that influence the happiness of the disabled elderly in Khon Kaen Smart City. The quantitative research method was used in order to obtain broad perspectives on the disabled elderly and the determinant factors influencing their happiness the assumption of which was then tested. The number of the disabled elderly under the study was 384, all being over 60 years of age. The structured interview was carried out prior to univariate and multivariate analyses, which were based on the Multiple Regression Analysis. The variables were selected by a normal approach before entering into the equation so as to explain the determinant factors of happiness. The results showed that the most common disability condition of more than half of the elderly in Khon Kaen related to their physical movement, followed by hearing disability or communication, visibility, and multiple disabilities. Their disabilities were caused by illness, accidents and old age, at 65.8, 17.5 and 8.1%, respectively. The highest average per total score related to the ways of living was found in surviving, at 63.0%, followed by choices in life, sustainability, struggling, and problem solutions. Nearly one third of the disabled elderly in Khon Kaen had a high degree of happiness in their lives (61.5%). The four elements of happiness receiving the highest averages from the total score were: 1) strong family (70.7%), 2) sense of belonging (67.0%), 3) social empowerment (63.6%), and 4) sufficient welfare assistance (61.3%). Hearing or communicating impairment and the ways of living of the elderly were the determinant factors of the elderly happiness at the significance levels of 0.01 and 0.05, respectively. All of the independent variables explained the variations of the disabled elderly happiness at 29.1 (R2 = 0.291). Pages 1040 to 1055
 
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Empowering Rural Women in the Hospitality Industry through Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises

Vikelwa Judith Nomnga, Walter Sisulu University, Buffalo City, South Africa, Email: vnomnga@wsu.ac.za

The purpose of this paper is to examine the strategies used to empower rural women in the hospitality industry through Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs). It focuses on the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. The paper focuses mainly on the Morgans Bay Bed and Breakfast, one of the vibrant SMMEs that employ many rural women. This paper adopts an interpretive paradigm that utilises a qualitative research approach to examine how Small and Medium Enterprises in the hospitality industry empower rural women. Purposive sampling was used to identify fifteen participants working at Morgans Bay Bed and Breakfast in the Eastern Cape province. The participants who responded to the semi-structured interview questions had detailed information on the hospitality industry. The findings of the study highlight various challenges experienced by the owners of Morgans Bay Bed and Breakfast in their effort to empower rural women. The challenges include low levels of education among rural women to venture into more vibrant SMMEs within the hospitality industry, limited financial support for women startups and limited business and managerial knowledge on how to drive SMMEs as part of promoting women empowerment and growth to curb rural poverty and vulnerabilities. The conclusions drawn from the study indicate the importance of rural development, hospitality management and SMMEs development in sustaining the livelihoods of rural people. The paper recommends that the government of South Africa and stakeholders should provide financial support to rural residents, which will enable them to kick start agribusinesses to sustain their families. Pages 1056 to 1067
 
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Impact of E-Service Quality on Customer Intention to Use through E-Satisfaction: Evidence from Online Food Ordering Applications

aIqra Sana, bAmir Ikram, cMuhammad Fiaz, dSaif UR Rehman, eMuhammad Naveed, a,b,eUniversity of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, cLahore College for Women University Lahore, dLahore Garrison University

The study explores the impact of online food ordering applications and e-services quality through e-satisfaction and intention to use, also to work on the contextual as well theoretical gap. Furthermore, the moderating role of brand trust on e-service quality dimensions and on customer e-satisfaction is investigated. Convenient sampling technique is used, and the sample size is 384. Hayes process is used for testing the moderating and mediating relationships of hypothesis and linear regression is used for test the direct relationships of hypothesis. Brand trust has not been acknowledged as moderators in the earlier researches. The integrated model based on the extended theory of customer satisfaction index (CSI) model is proposed. The result of the study provides valuable insights for future researchers, restaurant operators and application developers, to tackle the problems while they are facing to satisfy customers and grab their intention to use. Pages 1068 to 1093
 
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The Impact of Public Opinion About Crime in The Light of Media Criminal Law

Amir Samavati Pirouz1*,Yalda Ghofrani2, 1A member of the scientific board and Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law and Political Science, criminal law and criminology department, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran *Corresponding Author, 2Master of criminal law and criminology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran, Email: 1*a.samavati7@gmail.com

There is a tendency to see the media as something that is relatively new phenomenon, but the media has been around for a long time. This article provides an overview of crime as portrayed on cable television. Specifically we attend both fictional and nonfictional representation of crime including crime dramas, crime-oriented reality shows and new magazines. The relationship between crime and media is a complex one. Since, media outlets become one of the primary sources by which the public learns about crime, offendors, victims and criminal justice system. Too often the media introduce people of color as criminal offendors and reinforcing generalizations that certain groups of people can and should be considered threats to public safety. Pages 1094 to 1108
 
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Examining the Free-Riding Behaviors of Iranian EFL Learners: Effects of Learning Background and Personality Traits

Leila Ahmadpoura, Hassan Asadollahfamb*, Davud Kuhic, aPh.D. Candidate of TEFL, Department of English Language, Bonab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bonab, Iran, bAssistant Professor of TEFL, Department of English Language, Bonab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bonab, Iran, Corresponding Author*, cAssistant Professor of TEFL, Department of English Language, Maragheh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maragheh, Iran, Email: aLeila.Ahmadpour1@gmail.com, bAsadollahfam@gmail.com, cdavudkuhi@yahoo.com

This study intended to examine the significant issue of free-riding in group work activities in the second language classroom. To better understand the learners’ free-riding tendencies, their learning background and their personality traits were also investigated. For this purpose, a total of 140 Iranian EFL learners agreed to take part in this study. Participants were grouped into three learning backgrounds: (1) private institute (N = 34), (2) public school (N = 62), and (3) both private institute and public school (N = 44). All participants carried out a number of picture-cued oral narrative tasks through group work and after their task completion they were asked to provide responses to Big Five Factor Questionnaire. Results of statistical analyses revealed significant difference among the three groups based on their learning backgrounds in terms of the free-riding behaviors. It was found that those learners from solely a language institute background had the least amount of free-riding compared to their counterparts in the other two groups. And, those learners with the experience of both public school and private institute were less inclined to free-riding than those in the public school group. Results also pinpointed significant and negative relationships between free-riding and agreeable, conscientiousness, extroversion and openness personality dimensions. Results for neuroticism, on the other hand, revealed a positive and significant relationship with free-riding. Pages 1109 to 1128
 
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Phonemic Variation of Urdu Loanwords in Standard British English

Wasim Hasan1*, Gulraiz Qadir Gulfam2, 1Assistant Professor, Department of English, National University of Modern Languages (NUML), Lahore Campus, Pakistan, 2Lecturer, Department of English, National University of Modern Languages (NUML), Lahore Campus, Pakistan, *Corresponding Author, Email: 1*whasan@numl.edu.pk

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/15870

Borrowing is one of the most common sources of new words in languages and loanwords are one of the types of borrowings across language boundaries. The English language has adopted many words from other languages throughout history. In this process, loanwords sometimes undergo certain variations. The present study is about phonemic variation of Urdu loanwords in standard British English. A list of 135 Urdu words of daily use that English has borrowed was compiled purposively from Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary, 10th ed. (2020) for analysis. All words in the list were transcribed into IPA. Urdu pronunciation was checked from ("Urdu Lughat," 2017) and Farhang-e-Talaffuz (2017) whereas English pronunciation was checked from Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary 10th ed. (2020) and a comparison was made to highlight phonemic variation. Analysis of data indicates that almost one third loanwords retain their pronunciation and among the rest, the majority of words undergo change of vowel sounds whereas others either change a consonant sound or vowel and consonant both in some cases. Pages 1129 to 1148
 
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