Cooperation between Indonesia and Australia in Managing Refugees and Asylum Seekers

Sartika Soesilowatia, aFaculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: asartika.soesilowati@gmail.com

This article examines the policies and actions conducted between Indonesia and Australia in managing refugees and asylum seekers. It seeks to analyse the significant cooperation and conflict which existed in handling the problem of refugees and asylum seekers in Indonesia. This study therefore demonstrates both the differences in policies and the actions undertaken by them. It also evaluates the extent and the limits of Indonesia and Australia in handling the asylum seeker problems together. The research methodology employs primary and secondary data, and interviews. The necessary data is collected from several important transit areas of refugees in South Sulawesi and the East Java Province, Indonesia. Pages 1 to 20




Dealing With Violence against Neglected Children through Community-Based Support Systems in East Java, Indonesia

Sutinaha, aDepartment of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Airlangga, Email: asutinah@fisip.unair.ac.id

This study aims to examine the various forms of violence experienced by neglected children in the community, and the role of the surrounding social environments in providing the protection and handling of neglected children. The research was conducted in four locations in Indonesian. The results of the study showed that most of the neglected children who became respondents experienced violence, especially physical and psychological violence. The study also found that the existence of socio-religious institutions, besides being able to help neglected children and relieve the burden of the family, could also prevent the occurrence of violence and the neglect of children. Nonetheless, there were still some obstacles, since violence against children is considered an internal family affair and not a community matter. Efforts to prevent child violence should not only be based on the threat of punishment but should be more emphasised on the involvement of secondary groups, CBOs, and community groups at the local level. Pages 21 to 35




The Promotion of Multicultural Education in Schools: A study of Teaching Multidisciplinary Courses in Indonesian Schools

Tuti Budirahayua*, Muhammad Saudb, a,bDepartment of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Airlangga, Email: a*tutibudirahayu@fisip.unair.ac.id

In the era of globalisation expansion, the world is now focussing on multicultural discourse. The current study is conducted in Indonesia and aims to explore the benefits of multicultural education in schools. The present study uses quantitative research to gather the data. A structured questionnaire was prepared to obtain data from in the field. The total number of 400 respondents were selected through purposive random sampling techniques. The researcher visited three central regions in East Java to collect the data. The findings show that multicultural education is implementing a cultural education, religious harmony, and promoting tolerance in the subject. The study also shows that student pluralism is an excellent strategy to promote understanding and harmony among students in schools. Pages 36 to 47




The Role of the Adat Institution on Land Conflict Resolution in Tanimbar

Citra Hennidaa*, Yohanes William Santosob, Sri Endah Kinasihc, a,bDepartment of International Relation, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Airlangga, cDepartment of Anthropology, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Airlangga, Email: a*Citra.hennida@fisip.unair.ac.id

Land demand in the Tanimbar Islands Regency has increased in recent years. The causes are President Joko Widodo's decision to move the oil and gas exploration of the Masela block from offshore to onshore, and the Indonesian Government's policy to develop the periphery. There are five villages affected by these two policies, namely Bomaki Village, Latdalam Village, Lermatang Village, Adaut Village, and Kandar Village. Land in these five villages attracts many investors and most have been sold. However, in the negotiation process, the sale of the land caused many conflicts among the local people. Based on the in-depth interviews we conducted with the respondents, who consisted of traditional leaders, village officials, and residents, we found that the high and low intensity of the conflict was determined by the role of the Adat Institutions in each village. Adat institutions have a significant role because of the inherent legitimacy and the practice of the custom ‘Duan Lolat’, that has been practised so far. The custom’s role in conflict resolution is supported by its function as a communicator and mediator that connects village communities, village officials, and investors. Pages 48 to 61




Analysis of a Different Quality of Elderly Health Based on Independence in the Sleman District

Elva Zakiyatul Fikriaa*, Tri Winarni Soenarto Putrib, aMasters in Social Development and Welfare, Faculty of Social and Political Science, bUniversitas Gadjah Mada, Department of Social Development and Welfare, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Email: a*Elva.zetf@gmail.com

The increasing population and life expectancy of the elderly is accompanied by ageing problems that can affect their quality of life, such as physical and mental health. This research was conducted in the Sleman Regency, and aims to determine the differences in the quality of life of the elderly based on the level of their independence. This research is a quantitative study and uses the description research type with a non-probability sampling design. The results show that there is no difference in the quality of excellent and adverse physical and mental health based on the independence of the elderly in carrying out their activities. Further, there is a significant difference in the quality of physical health based on the independence of the elderly in carrying out activities in their environment. However, there is no significant difference in the quality of mental health in the elderly in carrying out activities in their environment. Pages 62 to 74




Rising from the Pitfalls of Life in the Liberated Areas from ISIS

Aseel Sabbar Mohammeda, aCollege of Education for Women,] University of Anbar -Iraq, Email: aaasseell1234@yahoo.com

The current research aims at identifying the level of advancement of the pitfalls of life in the demolished homes and their non-demolished peers, in the areas liberated from ISIS. Further, it aims at identifying the significance of the differences between them in the mentioned variable. It was applied to a sample of 150 individuals. The results show the individuals achieved a high level of advancement from the pitfalls. Whereas, there are statistically significant differences in favour of the owners of the destroyed houses. Pages 91 to 103




The Size of Extended and Nuclear Families in the Babylon Governorate for the Years 1997, 2010, and 2018: An Analytical Study in Population Geography

Lamyaa Filaih Ibrahima, Rafal Hussein Najmb, Ekhlas Mohammed Sadiqc, a,b,cCollege of Education for Humanities, Dept. of Geography, Babylon University –Iraq,

This study was prepared to show the image of the size of the extended and nuclear families in the Babylon Governorate during the years 1997, 2010, and 2018. Furthermore, it indicated the impact of the economic, social, and health factors on the size of families. The researchers mainly relied on the data of the Central Bureau of Statistics, and resorted to the field study, as they took a random sample of one per cent, choosing 2,932 families from the sample community. The results of the study showed the temporal change of nuclear families for the years 1997, 2010, and 2018. Furthermore, there was a remarkable change in the urban and rural areas of the study, as the lowest numbers and proportions of families were recorded in 1997; in urban areas there were 57,600, and the countryside had 56,143 families. The number of nuclear families increased slightly in 2010 from 1997, where it reached in urban areas 80,510 families, while in the countryside, it reached 66,816 families. In 2018, the proportions and number of nuclear families in the countryside and urban areas increased to 127,912, and 10,5442 families respectively, and they were characterised by variation and fluctuation between the administrative units for the three years. The proportions and the number of extended families decreased in the rural and urban areas between 2010–2018. As the results of the study showed that economic, social, and health factors are related to the size of extended and nuclear families, and in light of the results, the researchers have recommended several proposals. Pages 104 to 123




A Statistical Analysis of Experimental Data for the Adsorption Process of Cadmium by Watermelon Rinds in a Continuous Packed Bed Column

Mohammed Nsaif Abbasa, Taymoor Husham Nussratb, aEnvironmental Engineering Dept. College of Engineering- Mustansiriayh University -Iraq, bFinancial & Banking Dept.,  Baghdad College of Economic Science University-Iraq,

The aim of this research is to study the ability of cadmium removal from simulated synthetic aqueous solution (SSAS) by watermelon rinds residues, at different operating conditions and using the adsorption technique in a packed bed treatment unit of continuous mode. The results show that the maximum adsorption capacity of watermelon rind was increased with increasing the cadmium initial concentration (Co), flowrate (Q), and pH of the SSAS. Furthermore, it is decreased with increasing the adsorbent bed height (H), and feed temperature (T). The complete removal of cadmium was achieved at optimum operating conditions, which were Co=200 ppm, Q=0.5 l/min, pH=6, H=20 cm, and T=40°C, at t=231 minutes. The experimental results were analysed statistically using three mathematical models, namely the Adams-Bohart, Wang, and Thomas models to describe the adsorption breakthrough curve behaviour of the cadmium in the packed bed column, and also to determine the rate-limiting step depending on the statistical measurements (correlation coefficient R2). The results show that the Thomas model provides excellent identical with experimental data, followed by the Wang model, and lastly, the Adams-Bohart model. Thus, it can be considered that the watermelon rinds are an effective adsorbent to remove heavy metals generally, and cadmium especially, from aqueous solutions. It can also be used as an effective, cheap, and economic alternative substance for the expensive activated carbon used recently in wastewater treatment processes. Pages 124 to 138




The Techno-Strategy of the Management Information System and its Role in Enhancing Risk Management in the General Directorate of School and Sport Activity

Siham Hammood Sabita, Saba Qays Ghadhbanb, Rawaa Abdulameer Abbasc, aDept. of Specialized Supervision ,General Directorate of Basra Education-Iraq, bDept. of Human Resources, University of Baghdad -Iraq, cDept. of Students Activities University of Basra - Iraq, Email: at.woman2010@yahoo.com,  bsabakais75@gmail.com,  crawaa.ameer76@yahoo.com

The importance of this research lies in shedding light on the concept of techno-strategy for information management from vital and important topics that showed response for change in all areas of life. As this necessitates the updating and changing of it in order to achieve its strategic goals and enhance its technological advantage. The research problem looked at the role of the information technology system (ITS) in enhancing risk management in general directorates for sports and school activity from the viewpoint of its department heads. The research aimed at the relationship of information techno-strategy in risk management and the ratios of the contribution of information techno-strategy in risk management from the viewpoint of heads of sports and school activity departments to the general directorates in the Ministry of Education. The descriptive method was used in the survey method and relational relationships to solve the problem. The community and the research samples were from all heads of sports and school activity departments in the General Directorate of Sports Education and School Activity in the Ministry of Education. The research samples were chosen intentionally and the number of the research samples was 20 individuals, and after collecting the results and treating these reached the following conclusions: The General Directorate of Sports and School Activities gave clear attention to the requirements of techno-strategy in all its aspects. In addition, the strategic axes of strategic planning, the efficiency of information technology, skill, and experience of human resources have a relationship with and association with risk management. The recommendations implied the necessity for the sporting and school activities departments’ heads to adopt the concept of techno-strategy as it is a system that enhances their ability to achieve the vision and mission of the General Directorate and its goals and thus improve the adequacy of their performance. Pages 139 to 151




Special Education Contracts: Private Colleges as an Example

Yousif Saadoon Mohammed Al-Maamooria, aAl-Imam Al-Kadhum University College for Islamic Science, Email: ayosifsaadoon@gmail.com

Students’ need to learn results in him/her having a contract with special education as it relates to embodying a scientific renaissance for learning. It is known to everyone that the qualitative leap in the private sector related to universities, colleges, and private institutes became clear after 2003. This contract has become comparable to government education in its important position nowadays. It is necessary to organise this contract because of its great importance in terms of education in giving study opportunities for all and developing the scientific, cultural, and educational movement for everyone in society. This contract is defined as the legal relationship that links its parties to each other, based on the legislation on private higher education law and the instructions issued by the Ministry to organise the work of private colleges. The present study discusses characteristics that distinguish such contracts. The present study also tackles the effects of the contractual relationship of the parties on the private education contract by clarifying the obligations of each party and the relationship of the parties with the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research represented by the Department of Private University Education. Pages 152 to 165




Spiritual Leadership and Islamic Organisational Citizenship Behaviour: Examining Mediation-Moderated Process

Achmad Sani Supriyantoa*, Vivin Maharani Ekowatib*, a,bState Islamic University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*achmad_sani72@yahoo.com,  b*vivien.maharani@yahoo.com

This study aims to examine the effect of Spiritual Leadership on the Islamic Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (IOCB), to decide the Islamic Work Ethics as the mediator of Spiritual Leadership to the IOCB, and to inquire about political skills as a moderating variable. It is conducted in the State Islamic Religious Higher Education (PTKIN) around East Java. Data are directly collected from respondents through questionnaires. The study has employed the Partial Least Square (PLS) to analyse data collected from lecturers of State Islamic Religious Higher Education around East Java. The results suggest that Spiritual Leadership has a significant influence on the Islamic Organisational Citizenship Behaviour, that Islamic Work Ethics mediate Spiritual Leadership towards the Islamic Organisational Citizenship Behaviour, and that Political Skill is not a moderating variable. Leaders may influence the employee's work behaviour by fostering a conducive work environment and promoting spirituality in the workplace. Political skills can strengthen spiritual leadership relations with IOCB when it is supported by the motivation, confidence, and empowerment of the subordinates. Pages 166 to 185




Climate Risk Vulnerability Assessment: Basis for Decision Making Support for the Agriculture Sector in the Province of Iloilo

Jescel B. Bito-onona, aCollege of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Iloilo State College of Fisheries, Tiwi, Barotac Nuevo, Iloilo, 5007, Philippines, Email: abitoononjescel@gmail.com

This study was conducted to assess climate risks in the agri-fisheries sector of  Iloilo Province using Climate-Risks Vulnerability Assessment (CRVA) framework. Crop suitability, hazard exposure and adaptive capacity of each municipality were the three components obtained to obtain the climate risk vulnerability of the province. There were forty-two municipalities and two cities surveyed to collect data for adaptive capacity. Typhoons, floods and erosion are the prevalent hazards identified in Iloilo Province through reports and secondary data. Geospatial & climate modelling tools were used to obtain the sensitivity of five priority commodities: rice, corn, eggplant, cacao and milkfish. These five commodities are exposed to hazards that make these crops sensitive and affect the suitability of crops. A hazard map showed that the Fifth District of Iloilo has high exposure to typhoons and erosion, while the lower portion of the Fourth District is exposed to floods. Rice, corn, cacao and eggplant are sensitive crops in the Northern part of Iloilo and show low suitability when projected to 2050. Likewise, milkfish will be vulnerable in flood-prone areas of the Fourth District of Iloilo in 2050. Dumangas, Lambunao, Passi City, San Enrique and San Rafael have a very high adaptive capacity index and Iloilo City has a high adaptive capacity. The very high adaptive capacity is owed to strong institutional, natural, social, economic, physical and human capital. While the Municipality of Batad has the highest normalised result of 1.00 for CRVA, it implies that the municipality has a high sensitivity of crops to any changes in temperature and/or precipitation, which will lead to low suitability of crops in the area. It has moderate exposure to hazard; however, it's weak social, institutional and natural capital greatly influence its vulnerability. Thus, Batad is the municipality considered the most vulnerable to climate risk. It is recommended to have projects and programs for the agriculture sector in the most susceptible areas. Pages 186 to 202




The Influence of the Special Autonomy Policy of the Papua Province on the Welfare of its People

Purwoko Aji Prabowoa*, Bambang Supriyonob, Irwan Noorc, M. Khairul Mulukd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Administrative Science, University of Brawijaya, Indonesia, Email: a*purwoko.aji.ub@gmail.com

This study is to find out the influence of the special autonomy policy of the Papua province on the welfare of the people of Papua province. This study will use a qualitative approach to the type of formative evaluation research that uses the approach of assessing program activities with primary and secondary data sources. Data collected from this study is data on Papua Province's Special Autonomy policy to improve the welfare of the people of Papua province. The location of this research was conducted in Papua province with a research site in Bapeda, Papua province. The results of this study indicate that the characteristics of the special autonomy of Papua province are identical to the characteristics of the asymmetric decentralisation model which has not yet led to success nor has yet shown the things that lead to better effectiveness. This can have an impact on the failure of the special autonomy of Papua province if no evaluation is carried out. This study discusses the evaluation of the special autonomy policy that was implemented in Papua province in order to improve the welfare of the people of Papua province. Special autonomy is part of special regional autonomy. Pages 203 to 223




Methods of Reducing the Presence of Heavy Metals and Rehabilitating Soil Polluted by Screen Printing Liquid Waste

I Putu Sujanaa*, Ni Gst. Ag. Eka Martiningsihb, a,bFaculty of Agriculture, University of Mahasarawati Denpasar, Bali, Email: a*sujana.umd.jp@gmail.com

The solution to rehabilitating land/rice fields that have been contaminated with garment liquid waste is by utilising organic matter such as biochar. This study was conducted in laboratories, in greenhouses and in the fields. Prior to this research, field observations were carried out to assess the distribution of garment sites; to take garment liquid waste which was found to be polluting agricultural land; to undertake  secondary data collection (rainfall and subak data); to make a site map; and to collect raw materials for biochar manufacturing. The chemical properties of soil contaminated with screen printing liquid waste contain heavy metals which consists of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr. Rice husk biochar shows better potential compared to chicken manure biochar and other organic matters in terms of improving soil properties and thus decreasing the availability of heavy metals. The application of rice husk biochar with a dosage of 12 tons ha-1 can reduce most of the availability of heavy metals in soil. Research which looks at the characteristics of biochar and organic matter and its effect on soil properties and the growth of maize on land degraded by garment liquid waste has never been done before. Therefore, this research has significant originality and its findings can importantly  be implemented as the basis for the improvement of soil that has been contaminated with garment liquid waste. Pages 224 to 250




Passenger Loyalty: Quality of Service and the Mediating Role of Customers’ Satisfaction

Anik Lestaria*, Isna Ayu Safitrib, a,bUniversitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: a*anik.unesa.jp@gmail.com

The aim of this study is to analyse and discuss the effect of service quality on the loyalty of Garuda Indonesia passengers with satisfaction as a mediation variable. The research design in this study was conclusive research with a causal research approach in order to produce evidence of a causal relationship. The research design was used in order to understand whether there was an influence of service quality on loyalty with satisfaction as a mediation variable. The population in this study was Garuda Indonesia passengers in Ciputra world, city of tomorrow, Graha Bumi Surabaya. The sample consisted of 110 respondents. This research used a path analysis technique. There is a significant influence of the service quality on satisfaction for passengers of the Garuda Indonesia aircraft. In addition, there is a significant relationship between satisfaction and the loyalty of the passengers of Garuda Indonesia and also a significant influence of service quality on loyalty in passengers of Garuda Indonesia. This study enriches the empirical research regarding customers’ satisfaction with the aviation industry. Pages 251 to 263




Profitability and Solvability Analysis in an Effort to Improve Dividend Distribution

Eni Wuryania, aFaculty of Economy, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Email: aeni.unesa@gmail.com

This research aims to analyse profitability and solvability in an effort to observe how dividend distribution may be increased. Quantitative data was used in this research. This study used a secondary data source; the data was collected from the Indonesian Stock Exchange (ISE) in the form of  annual financial reports from transportation companys shown to be distributing a dividend in the 2010-2016 period. The study used 32 transportation companies listed on the ISE for the sample.  The independent variable (X) of this research was that the profitability variable consisted of ROA (Return on Assets) and the solvability comprised DAR (Debt to Assets Ratio), while the dependent (Y)  variable was Dividend Payout Ratio (DPR). Profitability has an influence on dividend distribution. Profitability measured by an asset is the basic element representing an investor's benchmark for a company in managing profit. Solvability has an influence on dividend distribution since solvability, or debt to asset ratio, is an ideal indicator for a transportation company. The amount of company assets financed by debt will affect the company's debt payment and dividend distribution. The amount of dividend is also influenced by solvability. According to the previous research results, the influence of ROA on stock distribution results in a different finding, so this research can still be utilised to test the influence of ROA on dividend distribution. The originality of this paper is that it shows the comprehensive profitability, solvency, and dividend payouts  in Indonesia. Pages 264 to 286




The Relationship between Self Efficacy Knowledge and Organisational Justice in Attitudes toward Remuneration

Amir Mahmuda*, Nurdian Susilowatib, Jariyahc, a,b,cUniversitas Negeri Semarang, Email: a*amir.unnes@gmail.com

This study aims to determine the factors affecting attitudes towards remuneration in Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) employees with remuneration as an expected mediation variable. This research was conducted at Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) using the entire population of permanent lecturers and educational staff with the status of BLU and PNS. Using the Slovin formula, a sample of 323 respondents was found.  The inferential statistical analysis used to test the hypothesis of the research was AMOS. Results indicate that there is a direct effect of self-efficacy knowledge on expected remuneration and a direct impact of organisational justice on expected remuneration. However, there is an indirect effect of self-efficacy knowledge on attitudes toward remuneration through expected remuneration. In addition, there is an indirect effect of organisational justice on attitudes toward remuneration. Finally, it was found that expected remuneration has a direct effect on attitudes towards remuneration. Research on college remuneration is rarely researched. A remuneration system is a compensation that integrates the provisions of employees, and includes salary, incentives, bonuses on achievement, severance pay and/or pensions from non-bank financing and PNBP BLU UNNES. Therefore, originality is shown in the variables of self-efficacy knowledge, organisational justice, expected remuneration, and attitudes toward remuneration.  Furthermore, the method used in this research was AMOS, and the investigator sites were located at UNNES Semarang. Pages 287 to 300




The Law of Parties Shows a Characteristic Achievement

Cindawatia, aUiversitas Hasanuddin, Email: acindawati.unhas@gmail.com

The purpose of this research is to analyse and describe that the law of the parties shows a characteristic achievement. This research utilised normative juridical research methods in order to analyse and describe the laws of parties with characteristic achievements. There are two distinct types of legal information. Firstly, primary sources of law which are authoritative legal publications made by parliament and the courts. The parliament in each Australian jurisdiction makes legislation and the courts decide on legal issues. Secondly, secondary sources which are used to find and explain the primary sources of law. An international contract is a national contract with a foreign element meaning that the contract is subject to one of the national legal systems. In the field of international sales, the seller's law is applicable because it contains the most of these characteristics. It is logically evident that the seller faces many buyers so there must be more general provisions, otherwise there will be many claims from multiple buyers. This is one of the few studies which investigate the law of parties and their achievements, especially in Indonesia. Pages 301 to 311




Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying in Adolescents: The Roles of Cognitive Empathy and Affective Empathy

Kurniawan Dwi Madyo Utomoa, Fattah Hanurawanb, Muslihatic, M. Ramlid, a,c,dDepartment of Guidance and Counseling, Faculty of Education, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang 5, Malang 65145, Indonesia, bDepartment of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology Education, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang 5, Malang 65145, Indonesia, Email: fxiwancm@gmail.com

This research examined the relationship between traditional bullying and cyberbullying in adolescents based on the roles of cognitive and affective empathy among 975 Indonesian high school students. The data was analysed using an independent samples t-test, the Pearson product-moment test and multiple linear regression. The findings revealed that males are more likely to be involved in both traditional bullying and cyberbullying than females, and that the level of cognitive and affective empathy of males was lower than that of females. Bullying was negatively correlated with cognitive and affective empathy, while cyberbullying was negatively correlated with affective empathy. In addition, affective empathy significantly predicted traditional bullying; with each single unit increase in traditional bullying, affective empathy decreased by .357. Affective empathy also predicted cyberbullying; with each single unit increase in cyberbullying, affective empathy decreased by .028. The results emphasised the importance of considering affective empathy when designing intervention programs for the prevention of bullying. Pages 312 to 326




Applying Accounting Management for Small and Medium Construction Businesses: Empirical Evidence in Central Vietnam

Le Anh Tuana*, Nguyen Xuan Hungb, Phan Thanh Haic, Ho Tuan Vud, a,c,dFaculty of Accounting, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, 550000, Vietnam; Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, 550000, Vietnam, bUniversity of  Economics Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, Email: a*latuan0507@gmail.com

This study was conducted on the basis of collecting data from 270 managers from the head of accounting departments of 90 small and medium-sized construction companies. The study was designed to measure the factors influencing the application of management accounting in the companies. Descriptive statistical methods, Cronbach's Alpha test, impact factor analysis (EFA), and regression analysis were used in the study. Based on qualitative research and quantitative research, the empirical research results show that: firm size, competitive pressure, management perspective, and information technology application are factors that positively impact and affect the application of management accounting to varying degrees. The result of this study offers a scientific basis for managers to make appropriate decisions to improve the application of management accounting in enterprises in the future. Pages 327 to 344




Investigating the Effect of Employability on Work Productivity: Mediating by Stress

Nurhania*, Wibowob, Budi Santosoc, aDoctoral Student of Jakarta State University, Indonesia, b,cJakarta State University, Indonesia, Email: a*hanimuchtar70@gmail.com

This study aims to analyse the effect of employability on work productivity by mediating stress. This research uses a quantitative approach with a survey method. The sample used in this study is 303 people in the permanent workforce of the construction service sector who have a minimum of high school education equivalent that determines proportionate random sampling. The research data was obtained from distributing questionnaires and analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis supported by descriptive statistical analysis. The results of this study indicate  that employability and stress had a direct effect on work productivity; employability had a direct effect on stress, and employability had an indirect effect on work productivity with stress mediation. Therefore, improvements in employability and reduction of stress can increase work productivity. The novelty of this study is in the form of a research model of the effect of employability on work productivity with stress mediation developed from previous relevant studies with construction service research locations in Jabodetabek, 2019. Pages 345 to 356




Improving Productivity through Work Environment, Training, Health and Safety

Lia Avita Sari Siregara, Agus Ahmad Suhendrab, Anton Abdulbasah Kamilc*, a,bSchool of Industrial and System Engineering, Telkom University, Bandung, Indonesia, cFaculty of Economics, Administrative and Social Sciences, Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey, Email: aliaavitaa@gmail.com,  bagus@telkomuniversity.ac.id,  c*akamil@gelisim.edu.tr

Productivity is a measure of the achievement of a company’s set targets and goals. It is an important means of monitoring improvement so that the company's objectives can be obtained effectively and efficiently. This study aims to analyse i) the influence of the work environment on work safety, ii) the influence of the work environment on occupational health, iii) the effect of training on work safety, iv) the effect of job training on occupational health, v) the effect of work safety on work productivity and vi) the influence of work health on productivity. The object of this research was conducted in a bag manufacturing industry located in the Bandung Regency, Indonesia. The data used was derived from a questionnaire taken by 120 respondents employed in the production division. The data were analysed statistically using the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method. The results of the analysis, showed the indicator value for the relationship; the working environment variable for work safety, the training variable for occupational health, the work environment variable for occupational health, the job training variable for work safety, the work safety variable for work productivity, and the occupational health variable for work productivity. The highest indicator value for the work environment was 0.63 and was described as pleasantly coloured and decorated according to the needs of the employees. The highest score for job training was 0.81 which delivered training material that was easily understood. The highest value for the work safety variable was 0.74 with the provision of labour protection tools. The highest value for occupational health is 0.69 with the existence of adequate facilities. The highest value for work productivity is 0.75, which showed that employees were responsible for their work. The variable that most influenced work productivity was the work safety variable. Pages 357 to 370




The Influence of Internet on Financial Reporting Practices, Financial Secrecy and Firm Value of ASEAN Companies

Citra Sukmadilagaa*, Lastuti Abubakarb, Tri Handayanic, Erlane K Ghanid, Tri Utami Lestarie, aAccounting Department, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia, b,cFaculty of Law, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia, dFaculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia, eTelkom University, Indonesia, Email: a*citra.sukmadilaga@unpad.ac.id

This study aims to examine the factors influencing firm value in countries in the ASEAN region. Specifically, this study examines the effect of internet financial reporting practices and financial secrecy on form value in five countries namely: Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines. Using content analysis on 185 companies, this study shows that IFR does not influence firm value. On the other hand, this study shows that secrecy influences firm value. This study contributes to the existing literature by providing an empirical result of IFR in the ASEAN region. The findings in this study implicates that since secrecy has a significant negative effect on firm value, hence those countries that have high secrecy index must reduce the level of high secrecy index in order to increase firm value through levelling investor’s trust on the financial reporting practices of the firms in the ASEAN region. Pages 371 to 381




Management by Walking Around and Service Quality: The Moderating Role of Transformational Leadership – A Concept of the Arab Bank in Jordan

Bilal Khalaf Sakarneha, aFaculty of Business, Isra University, Jordan, Email: aBilal_sakarneh@iu.edu.jo

Service quality remains a challenging issue in the Arab Bank in Jordan in the area of managing its route operations. Management by walking around (MWA) is an effective established approach commonly employed to monitor the progress of activities and to checkmate and resolve impending problems in organisations. This is achieved through an effective transformational leadership approach used by Arab Bank managers to improve the service quality of their personnel. The moderating effect of transformational leadership on the relationship between MWA and service quality remains an area that lacks research focus, particularly in Jordan. In spite of contemporary progress in the research of transformational leadership and its implementation in banks such as the Arab bank in Jordan, improvement of service quality continued to be a challenging issue until this current research intervention. The findings revealed that transformational leadership has a strong potential to moderate the relationship between management by walking around and the quality of the Arab Bank services in Jordan. It also showed that this moderating effect of transformational leadership has significant and positive influence on personnel ability to improve performance, which in turn, influences service quality. It is projected that this moderating role of transformational leadership can substantially improve service quality by examining the strength of the relationship between MWA and service quality. Hence, this work, based on the relevant literature and theories, conceptualised that ‘transformational leadership moderates the relationship between communication power by uncovering facts, encouragement, feedback, and service quality in the Arab bank in Jordan. Pages 382 to 405




The Factors Affecting Smartphone Demand in Indonesia

Amir Macmuda*, Yusuf Murtadlo Hidayatb, a,bFaculty of Economic and Business Education. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia Jl. Dr.Setiabudhi No. 229, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: a*amir@upi.edu,  byusuf.murtadlo@upi.edu

This study aims to analyse the factors that affect mobile phone demand in Indonesia. The variables that are expected to affect the demand for smartphone are i) the price, ii) Product Features, iii) Brand Name, and iv) social influences. The study method used an explanatory survey with a data collecting technique gathered through interviews and questionnaires of 200 respondents who had purchased smartphone products in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Characteristics of respondents include  gender type, level of education, income level and brand of smartphone used. The collected data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling. The results show that smartphone demand in Indonesia is 68.3 percent influenced by product features and social influences, while the remaining 31.7 percent is influenced by price and brand name. This finding implies that consumers in Indonesia in choosing smartphones consider less price and brand as to which is the preferred product. This preference has implications the smartphone manufacturers should pay attention to regarding the importance of product features. Pages 406 to 418




Integration of Financial and Social Performance: Survey of Cooperatives in West Java, Indonesia

Eka Setiadjatnikaa, Rima Elya Dasukib, Ardi Nupi Hasyimc, a,b,cIndonesian Cooperative Management Institute (IKOPIN), Email: aekasetiajatnika@ikopin.ac.id,  brimadasuki@ikopin.ac.id,  c ardi.nupi@yahoo.com

The first issue in this research is to conduct studies that relate to the sustainability of cooperatives. Based on data obtained, 35.6% of cooperatives in West Java are not active. The second issue is to study the cooperatives’ financial performance related to capital structure and credit risk, given the challenges of today's needs for readiness of cooperatives in the era of the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015, which is the ultimate goal of economic integration as envisioned in the ASEAN Vision 2020. The third issue in this topic is a review of the social performance as based on factual conditions of cooperative life in Indonesia: up until today there is a gap between the concept of universal cooperatives and their practice. The fourth issue in this research conducted a study on the scale of business that may affect the sustainability of cooperatives. Analysing integrated cooperative models would involve many factors, both quantitative and qualitative. This study took a sample of 76 cooperatives with the data observed for the variables related to capital structure, credit risk, social performance, financial performance and sustainability of cooperatives, with the multi regression simultan recursive model panel data method, over a period of 72 months in the province of West Java. Based on the results, data processing obtained an adjusted R-square value of 0.716201, or 71.62 percent indicating that the performance of the financial and social performance simultaneously gives effect to a sustainability of 71.62% for small-scale cooperatives in West Java. Based on test results, simultaneously and partially also showed that there was integration between financial performance and social performance to achieve sustainability. Empirical findings indicate that there is significant influence either simultaneously or partial capital structure and credit risk on financial performance in the Cooperative in West Java, as well as the integration between social performance and financial performance in achieving sustainability of cooperatives. These studies have found a relationship between cooperative financial sustainability and achievement of social objectives, so that they should be considered cost-efficient capital funding functions. The relationship between the financial aspect and social aspect in an organisation will not provide conflict in achieving goals. Pages 419 to 435




Unique Taji Tuta Culture of Bima Regency for Sports Tourism Development

Khairul Amara, Sugihartob, Setya Rahayuc, Bambang Budi Raharjod, aDoctorate Program of Physical Education, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, bFaculty of Sport Education, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, Email: aAmarbima90@gmail.com,  bSugiharto.ikor@mail.unnes.ac.id,  cSetyarahayu@mail.unnes.ac.id,  dBambangbudir99@gmail.com

Bima Regency has a unique cultural community that can be developed into sports tourism. The development of sports tourism based on cultural uniqueness has a significant impact on regional development. This study aims to analyse the Bima Regency’s cultural uniqueness for the development of sports tourism. The method used in this research is a descriptive qualitative research approach to phenomenology and symbolic interaction. The sample involved in this study were nine people from various agencies, consisting of three from the tourism department, two from the cultural department, three from the community and one from the Regent of Bima Regency, West Nusa Tenggara Province. Data analysis techniques use the SWOT analysis model. The results of this study indicate that (1) there is the unique culture of Taji Tuta (Headfighting) owned by the people of Bima Regency, (2) the development of sports tourism based on cultural uniqueness is not comprehensively used as an asset for tourist attraction, (3) there is a low quality of human resources  in the management of Bima Regency tourism sites. Novelty in this study can be seen in that (1) Bima Regency has a unique tourist attraction namely spur tuta (headfighting), which can be recommended as a feature for the development of sports tourism, (2) the cultural uniqueness of the community of Bima District substantially shows a potential existence as a unique ancestral heritage, (3 ) the people of Bima Regency have the potential for quality human resources, and (4) the development of sports tourism based on cultural uniqueness as a strategic model in promoting the cultural uniqueness of the people of Bima Regency. Pages 436 to 454




The Unique Natural Water Tourism of Oi Marai, Regency Bima, for Sports Tourism Development

Rabwan Satriawana, Sugihartob, Setya Rahayuc, Nasukad, aDoctorate Program of Physical Education, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, bFaculty of Sport Education, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, Email: arabwansatriawan91@gmail.com,  bsugiharto.ikor@mail.unnes.ac.id,  csetyarahayu@mail.unnes.ac.id,  dnasuka@mail.unnes.ac.id

The rapid development of tourism in Bali, Lombok and Labuan Bajo has forced Bima Regency to find strategic tourism destinations to catch up with its neighbours. It is common knowledge that remote areas in Eastern Indonesia are very dependent on the tourism sector for encouraging economic development and creating jobs. The purpose of this study is to analyse the unique nature tourism of Oi Marai Waterfall for the development of sports tourism. The research method is descriptive qualitative, using a field observation approach and a series of in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders. The results showed that the uniqueness of natural tourism in Bima Regency consisted of the unique nature tourism of Oi Marai Waterfall. The waterfall consists of seven different waterfalls and water discharges, and throughout the year the water remains flowing, never dries up or lacks water discharge even through the dry season along the river. Its uniqueness can be developed for sports tourism, such as waterfall tracking, flying fox and river tubing, as a strategic development to leapfrog tourism stagnation in Bima and compete with other regions. Pages 455 to 466




Destination Image, Political Stability, Tourist Trust and Loyalty in Jerusalem, Palestine: A Review

Edais Shehaba, Ahmad Puad Mat Somb, a,bFaculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, Email: asharly@hotmail.co.il,  bpuadms@unisza.edu.my

Tourism is an extremely complex field and a highly competitive service sector in the world. Studies have shown that it is becoming more and more difficult for a destination to differentiate itself from competitors, relying solely on ‘hard’ as well as ‘soft’ factors. Based on the impressions, opinions and thoughts of tourists, many researchers have tried to determine to what extent the image of the destination they have visited has an impact on the loyalty they have towards that destination. The article also attempts to shed light on the importance of trust as a major contributor to repeat tourism, more specifically on the promulgation of trust as a composite of political stability and the perceived sense of security in the country under consideration. This article reviews previous studies related to destination image and tourist trust, and how political stability would influence tourist loyalty in Jerusalem, Palestine. This article offers an understanding of the process that determines tourists’ destination choices and loyalty, and provides insightful implications for the government, tourism organisations and tourism operators to come up with effective marketing and image building strategies. Pages 467 to 481




The Political Preference of Students in the Indonesian General Election, 2019

Sunartoa*, Iwan Hadi Saputrob, Puji Lestaric, a,b,cUniversitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, Email: a*sunarto@mail.unnes.ac.id

Election as an embodiment of democracy is expected to bring leaders who serve people’s interests, but what happens is often the opposite. Therefore, this research raises the issue of what consideration voters use when making choices in elections. The research was conducted on students at the State University of Semarang and it aims to uncover the things that are primarily considered in selecting when voting and how students responded to the result of the Indonesian general election 2019. The approach used is a qualitative approach and the data was collected by interviewing and documentation studies. The results showed that in choosing the president, the thing taken into consideration is the figure of the candidate pair, namely the track record of the candidate pair. In selecting legislative members, the main consideration is the non-involvement of party officials in corruption cases. The vision, mission and programs, which are usually reliable to attract voters' interests, are not really taken into consideration, nor are the parties nominating the president. Pages 482 to 499




The Model and the Arrangement of Rules of Engagement in Order to Face the Threats and Disturbances in the North Natuna Sea

M. Imam Chadhafia*, Zaenal Fananib, Setyo Widagdoc, Adi Kusumaningrumd, a,b,c,dPostgraduate Program, Brawijaya University Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*Chadhafi070918@gmail.com

The nine-dash line refers to demarcation line used by China to claim the South China Sea. This line covers the North Natuna Sea which is included in the jurisdiction waters related to Indonesia. There has been no agreement over the exclusive economic zone between Indonesia and other countries and this creates an un-delimited area. This condition causes foreign vessels and warship intrusion in the jurisdiction area of Indonesia which demands the government's special attention to take action in order to uphold Indonesian sovereignty over its territorial waters. The purposes of this study were to analyse threats and disturbances in the North Natuna Sea, to analyse the strategy in facing the threats and disturbances in the North Natuna Sea and to construct a model used to overcome the threats and disturbances. The method of the study was qualitative descriptive and the analysis was based on the data, facts and experience from the research site. The results of the study revealed the threats and disturbances in the North Natuna Sea which includes illegal fishing causing economic loss and damage to the marine ecosystem of Indonesia. A strategy to face the threats and disturbances in North Natuna Sea can be instigated by setting an operational plan and permanent procedure for maritime security with steps of chasing, arresting and investigating. However, this strategy still has weakness, and hence a new document is needed to analyse risks caused by threats and disturbances by making a risk resister and the rules of engagement. The strategy model used to overcome the threats was the model of Operational Risks Guidelines. Pages 500 to 512




The Relationship between Self-Employed Motivation and Individual Work Performance among Online Drivers in West Java, Indonesia

Lidia Mayangsaria, Triani Restiantib, Jumadil Saputrac*, Raden Aswin Rahadida,b,dSchool of Business and Management, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia, cFaculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: alidia.mayangsri@sbm-itb.ac.id, btriani.restianti@sbm-itb.ac.id,  c*jumadil.saputra@umt.edu.my, daswin.rahadi@sbm-itb.ac.id

As a self-employment, the online drivers have faced vulnerability with uncertain situations and over an every day extended period. The uncertain situation has an impact on the instability of their income. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relationship between self-employed motivation and individual work performance. A total of 387 online drivers have participated and selected from four regional areas of West Java, Indonesia through the self-administered questionnaire. The data was analysed using the descriptive statistics and simple linear regression analysis by assisting the SPSS-25. The results of analysis found that the self-employed motivation has a significant positive relationship on individual work performance. In conclusion, the self-employed motivation can increase the individual performance of online drivers in West Java, Indonesia.   This study is important for related parties that work on optimising the potential of the self-employment approach in facing the high uncertainty of the workplace environments. Pages 513 to 530




Investigating the Supply Chain Strategy for Enhancing Teacher Performance

Sahat Simbolona*, Zikri Muhammadb, Rico Nur Ilhamc, aProgram of Magister Management, Institut Teknologi dan Bisnis, Medan, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia, bFaculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Sumatra Utara, Medan, Sumatra Utara, Indonesia, Email: asahats_simbolon@yahoo.com,  bzikri@umt.edu.my,  criconurilham8@gmail.com

Education plays a vital role in ensuring the survival of the country. It aims to improve and develop the quality of human resources. Of these, the current study employs to investigate the supply chain strategy for enhancing teacher performance. This study uses motivation, discipline and communication as an independent variable. Meanwhile, the performance is the dependent variable. A total of 70 respondents participated in this study and collected by using a probability sampling. The data analysed using multiple linear regression model by assisting the statistical software, namely SPSS-25. In conclusion, the results of the analysis show that the variable of motivation, discipline and communication have a significant positive effect on teacher performance. Also, discipline is a determinant variable for enhancing teacher performance and followed by a communication variable. The variable of motivation only 5.5 per cent estimated the teacher performance. Pages 531 to 541




The Effects of Work-Family Conflict on Teachers’ Job Satisfaction: A Study in the East Coast of Malaysia

R Zirwatul Aida R Ibrahima, Jumadil Saputrab*, Nor Aizal Akmal Rohaizadc, Siti Sarawati Joharda,b,cFaculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, dCentre of General Studies and Co-curricular, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat Johor, Malaysia, Email: Email: azirwatul@umt.edu.my, b*jumadil.saputra@umt.edu.my, caizal@umt.edu.my, dsarawati@uthm@edu.my

The current study investigates the effects of work on family conflict (WFC) and family to work conflict (FWC) on job satisfaction among school teachers in Terengganu, Kelantan and Pahang, Malaysia. A questionnaire survey approach was used as a method of quantitative data collection involving 487 respondents through multistage random sampling. A Structural Equation Modelling were analysed using AMOS 25 and SPSS 25 software. The findings revealed that only FWC contributes significantly to job satisfaction. The result provides insights into the type of conflicts influencing teachers’ job satisfaction and contributes to the literature of work-family conflict, especially the study focusing on Eastern culture respondents. Pages 542 to 556




Predictors Analysis of Physical Activity Participation among Young Adults

Seong-Hui Koa, Chulhyeong Parkb*, aSpecial researcher, Educational Science Research Institute, Jeju National University, 102, Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, 63243, Korea, bAcademic research professor, Educational Science Research Institute, Jeju National University, 102, Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, 63243, Korea, Email: aonlycheer337@naver.com,  b*pch0629@jejunu.ac.kr

Background/Objectives: The objective of this paper was to analyse the predictors and level of physical activity (PA) participation according to demographics and health-related characteristics of young adults residing in Jeju, Korea. Methods/Statistical analysis: We used the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQL-BREF) and the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) statistical program and examined demographic characteristics (gender, age, occupation, economic level, etc.).  Findings: First, the level of PA participation was higher in males than in females, and the higher the economic status, subjective quality of life, physical factors, psychological factors, and environmental factors, the higher the rate of PA. Second, the predictors of medium-intensity activity were found to differ according to the level of physical factors. Third, the predictors of high-intensity activity differed according to gender and environmental factors. Fourth, the predictors of regular PA (600METs) were found to differ according to the economic condition, subjective quality of life, physical and environmental factors. Fifth, the predictors of health promotion physical activity (3,000 METs) differed according to gender, age, and subjective health status. Improvements/Applications: Therefore, it is necessary to establish a concrete strategy to improve the participation and accessibility of young adults according to PA-friendly environment and social and physical support. Pages 557 to 569




Actual Participation Status in Occupational Education and Training by Korean Middle Aged Workers and Factors Determining Occupational Education and Training

Jung-Ae Hwanga, Yun-Jeong Kimb*, Hyun-Jung Kangc, aMaster, Dept. of Elderly Welfare, Hanseo University, Republic of Korea, bProfessor, Dept. of Health, Counseling and Welfare, Hanseo University, Republic of Korea, cTeam manager, Chungcheongnam-do Institute for Lifelong Education, Republic of Korea, Email: achamja56@hanmail.net,  b*twoyun21@hanmail.net,  chj-cs@hanmail.net

Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify the actual status of participation in vocational education and training and the variables of determining the participation of middle aged workers. Methods/Statistical analysis: The data of 4,921 middle aged workers born from 1954 to 1978 whose age was 40 to 64 years old at the time of survey in 2017 was used for analysis out of a total of 14,477 respondents to the 20th Wave (2017) of Korea Labour & Income Panel Study. The frequency analysis, descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were performed using SPSS 21.0. Findings: Firstly, out of the middle aged workers, the proportion of paid workers was higher and the proportion of regular workers reached 70% showing the stability of employment structure. The job satisfaction was also high. Secondly, out of the middle aged workers, the workers who received the vocational education and training was 6.4% of the total showing that it is significantly low. Thirdly, in the results of analysing the factors of determining the participation in the vocational education and training, gender, health levels, form of employment, acquisition of certificate and  earned income had significant influence. Among them, the influence of earned income was the highest. In the case of females, the better the health level the more likely they were to participate in the vocational education and training. In the case of paid workers, acquiring the certificate within the past year combined with the higher the earned income meant they were more likely to participate in the vocational education and training. It also implies that the vocational education course is needs to be developed. Improvements/Applications: There is the need to encourage the workers to improve job performance and to prepare for the golden age through the vocational education in the company and governmental level. Pages 570 to 581




The Relationship between Self-identity and Career Preparation Behaviour among College Sports Players

Jong-Sik Lima, Kyung-Seok Hanb, Chun-Ho Yangc*, aPh.D. Student, Dept. of Physical Education, Kunsan University,  Kunsan, 54150, Korea, bDirector, Research Institute of Hans Marine, Anyang, 14059, Korea, cProfessor, Dept. of Marine Sports, Hanseo University, Seosan 31962, Korea, Email: asik1009@hanmail.net,    bhanstrd@empal.com,  c*healthyang@hanseo.ac.kr

Background/Objectives: This study was performed to examine the relationship between self-identity and career preparation behaviour among college sports players.

Methods/Statistical analysis: To examine the relationship among variables this research did correlation analysis, and to examine causal relationships among variables, it did multiple regression analysis.  The significance level was set at α=.05.

Findings: This study has come to the following results:  firstly, there is a positive relationship between self-identity and career preparation behaviour among college sports players. Secondly, self-identity has a statistically significant effect on career exploration. Thirdly, self-identity has a statistically significant effect on career exploration. Lastly, self-identity has a statistically significant effect on career consultation.

Improvements/Applications: In conclusion, such findings seem to demonstrate that the more confidently college sports players evaluate themselves, the more apparent their plans are and the more actively they seek information on future jobs, the more effort they make in their career preparation. Pages 582 to 594




Keyword Network Analysis on the Integrated Research Trends of Early Childhood Education and Childcare

Byung-Man Kima, Kang-Hoon Leeb*, aProfessor, Dept. of Early childhood education, Kyungnam University, Changwon, 51767, Republic of Korea, bDoctoral Candidate, Dept. of Early childhood education, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241 Republic of Korea, Email: abmkim@kyungnam.ac.kr,  b*darkengal@nate.com

Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study is to provide basic data on preparing a soft landing plan for the integration of early childhood education and childcare policies by exploring research trends of the integration of early childhood education and childcare through keyword network analysis. Methods/Statistical analysis: Based on the data provided by the National Research Foundation of Korea, we collected raw DATA on the keyword ‘integration early childhood education and childcare’. The collected data was subjected to a first and second refinement process, and 104 keywords were selected based on the extracted word frequency. A 1-mode matrix was created and a keyword network analysis was conducted. Findings: According to the needs of the times and the global trends, the number of papers in 2 periods than 1 period increased significantly. In addition, as a result of examining the research trend by periods, ‘teacher’, ‘certificate’, ‘perception’, ‘system’, and ‘teacher preparation program’ were important during period 1, while ‘In Jung children’s centers’, ‘policy’, ‘unification’, ‘infant’, ‘analysis’, ‘Nuri curriculum’ and young children’ were important during period 2. Based on these results, we suggested implications for integration early childhood education and childcare. Improvements/Applications: In the future, It is suggested not only to investigating the perception of integration early childhood education and childcare and to express opinions, but also to provide a place for regular discussion where all stakeholders participate in in-depth discussions on the soft landing plan of integration early childhood education and childcare policy do.Pages 595 to 607




The Acceptance of the eRezeki Digital Platform in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia

Nurhaiyyu Abdull Hamida, Noor Hasniza Haronb, Nik Anis Idayu Nik Abdullahc, Mazurina Mohd Alid, Nadiah Abd. Hamide, Norfadzilah Abdul Razakf, a,b,c,d,e,fUniversiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Selangor Selangor, Malaysia, Email: anurhaiyyu1854@uitm.edu.my,  bhasniza330@uitm.edu.my,  cnikanis0209@uitm.edu.my,  dmazurina@uitm.edu.my,  enadiah201@uitm.edu.my,  fnorfadzilah0438@uitm.edu.my

This paper presents the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in determining the acceptance of the eRezeki digital workforce platform among eRezeki trainees. The eRezeki Program was launched by the Malaysian government to support the Bottom 40 (B40) group by increasing their quality of life through the leveraging of digital economies. A group of 166 respondents in Kuala Selangor have taken part in the survey and joined the eRezeki training program in November 2019. The proposed model, which consists of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and behavioural intention, has been developed to measure the acceptance among eRezeki trainees in using the eRezeki digital platform to generate extra income. Pages 608 to 621




The Role of Mediation on Product Innovation and Market Orientation Related to both Entrepreneurial Orientation and Competitive Advantage

Margono Setiawana, Widi Dewi Ruspitasarib, Ifa Khoiria Ningrumc, aLecturer, Department of Management, University of Brawijaya, bLecturer, Department of Management, Institute Asia Malang, cIKIP PGRI, Bojonegoro,

The purpose of this study is to know and analyse the role of an entrepreneurial orientation towards competitive advantage of small and medium enterprise (UKM) through product innovation and market orientation. Entrepreneurial orientation is the character of entrepreneurship that is attached to an individual or an organisation. In this study, this character is either innovative, proactive or risk taker. The innovative character is the ability of the UKM to create products that are not only good quality but also provide more valuable products to its consumers. The proactive character is related to the UKM’s ability in responding to market phenomenon and adapting in the competitive atmosphere. The last, the risk taker, is related to the bravery and ability of the UKM in facing business risks as well as taking advantage of its opportunities. This study was conducted in UKMs that produce batik in the Malang Regency area. By utilising the quantitative explanatory research method and saturated sampling, the entire population of UKM batik producers in the Malang Regency area were used as the research sample. There are 66. The analytical tool is PLS. The research findings showed that an entrepreneurial orientation has a significant effect on competitive advantage. Product innovation and a market orientation also significantly affect competitive advantage. A market orientation partly mediates the effect of entrepreneurial orientation to competitive advantage. Pages 622 to 639




Economic Analysis of Local Day-Old Chicken Products at Cianjur District-West Java

Taslim Dawana*, Sjafril Daranab, Wendry Setiyadi Putrantoc, a,b,cFaculty of Animal Husbandry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jalan Raya Bandung- Sumedang KM. 21, 45363, Sumedang-West Java, Indonesia, Email: a*taslim.dawan@yahoo.com

This research aims to analyse local Day Old Chicken (DOC) products and the impact of production factors at Jimmy’s farm hatchery in Cianjur district, West Java. The method employed in this research is case study, conducted through direct interviews. The research location was intentionally selected through purposive sampling. The collected data was analysed by using Output Unit Cobb-Douglas Production Function (OU-CDPF) technique via multiple regression (Econometric Views/Eviews software tool), and then followed by f-test and t-test. The results showed that the average local sales of the DOC product were 38,908 head/month, with an income of Rp 93,606,002.00 per month. Based on multiple linear regression analysis, the equation obtained is Ŷ =7.813+2.742X1-0.641X2-1.793X3+0.023X4+0.004X5+0.050X6. The determination coefficient value (R2) is 0.930. The business economic analysis of DOC hatching products was able to be explained by the number of fertile eggs, labour costs, electricity costs, cost of vaccines/drugs, fumigation costs and packing fees by as much as 93%, while the remaining 7% was influenced by outside variables. Through f-test, the independent variables (the number of fertile eggs, labour costs, electricity costs, cost of vaccines/medicine, fumigation costs and packaging costs) significantly impact the dependent variables at 0.05. Based on t-test of DOC, the hatching production factor was significantly influenced by the number of fertile eggs and electricity costs, while the other costs (labour costs, vaccine/medicine, fumigation and packaging costs) were not significant on the hatchery business. The more fertile eggs that were incubated, the more DOC were produced. Nevertheless, the electricity using was involved give expenditure cost determine. Pages 640 to 651




The Effect of Entrepreneurial Orientation and Organisational Culture on Firm Performance: The Mediating Role of Innovation

Waris Ali Khana*, Ramraini Ali Hassana, Muhammad Zulqarnain Arshadb, Muhammad Ali Arshadc, Umair Kashifd, Farhan Aslame, Syed Azizi Wafaa, a Faculty of Business, Economics and Accountancy, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia, b Department of Management Sciences, Lahore Garrison University, Pakistan, c School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, d College of Economics and Management, Northeast Forestry University, China, e School of Management, Wuhan University of Technology, China, Email: a*warissalikhan@gmail.com

This study is concerned with conceptual model development, which examines the innovation influence on the relationship of organisational culture, entrepreneurial orientation and performance of large manufacturing firms in Pakistan. A total of 399 questionnaires were distributed to large manufacturing firms in Pakistan to assess the relationships between organisational culture, entrepreneurial orientation, innovation, and firm performance. The findings reveal that entrepreneurial orientation significantly influences the performance of large manufacturing firms in Pakistan. Meanwhile, the results also indicated that other factors such as organisational culture do not significantly relate to the manufacturing firm’s performance. Interestingly, the results had shown that the factor of innovation significantly mediated the relationships between organisational culture, entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance. Based on the results, it can be summarised that the mechanism used to enhance the innovative culture in the organisation will also contribute to the introduction, adoption and diffusion of innovations. Additionally, these factors would contribute to increased performance and achievement in the near future. Indeed, this statement is supported by numerous current and past studies conducted in Pakistan, where scholars found that innovation is the primary impetus of firm performance. However, there exists a very limited number of studies regarding the impact of innovation on organisational culture and entrepreneurial orientation in manufacturing firms in Pakistan. This study would lead to a significant contribution to the prevailing literature by empirically examining the relationship between organisational culture, entrepreneurial orientation, innovation and firm performance. Pages 652 to 677




An Ideal Leadership Concept to Reach Good and Clean Governance

Kobalena*, A. Juli Andi Ganib, Andi Fefta Wijayac, aPostgraduate Doctoral Program Student, Faculty of Administrative Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia, b,cLecturer, Faculty of Administration and Post-Graduate, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*kobalenfia@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is to analyse and interpret whether Asta Brata is an ideal leadership concept in realising good and clean governance. The research methodology uses a qualitative approach. The results of the study revealed Asta Brata is an ideal leadership concept in realising good and clean governance and gave birth to an ideal leader. This is evidenced by the principles of good and clean governance contained in the Asta Brata leadership concept. Every Brata in the concept of Asta Brata leadership is interrelated between saru and the others, so that in the context of simultaneous application it will produce perfect leadership and give birth to an ideal leader. , so that it can only realize 3 principles of Good and clean governance. This proves that if a leader adopts the overall concept of Asta Brata leadership, with wise and appropriate application, a good and clean form of government will be produced, and will produce an ideal leader. Pages 678 to 697




Enlivening Pedagogical Practices in EFL Grammar Classrooms Based on Kolb’s Four- Facet- Model

Iman El-Nabawi Abdel Wahed Shaalana,b, a College of Science and Humanities, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, KSA, b College of Humanities, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt, Email: ai.shalaan@psau.edu.sa, iman.nabawi40@gmail.com

Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) is one among several theories and models that have been raised in order to understand students’ various learning styles. This theory postulates creating a learning environment that makes it easier for students to link their prior knowledge to real-life situations; allowing them to transfer what they learned in one context to another by applying their new experiences to real-life situations. The present study investigated the impact of Kolb’s experiential learning theory to enliven pedagogical practices in EFL grammar classrooms at the English Language Department, College of Humanities, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, KSA. A need has been felt to adopt such pedagogical practices and suitable teaching methodologies that might motivate students to learn according to their different individual learning styles. This objective was implemented in this study by exploring learners’ different learning styles that facilitated the modeling of the content in a way that created a creative, live and authentic relationship between learners and the learning environment. The study sampled a total of sixty EFL students who were divided equally between control and experimental groups. The experimental group received teaching through Kolb’s four facet cycle, while the control group was taught according to the conventional teaching method. A t-test was used to measure the difference between the mean scores of both the control and experimental groups. Significance of the difference between the mean of both groups was tested at a 0.05 level. Results of the post-test proved the improvement of the experimental group class interaction in grammar skills due to the application of the experiential learning as an innovative teaching/learning method, taking into consideration the learners’ learning preferences. Pages 698 to 717




The Digital Comic Tantri Kamandaka: A Discovery for National Character Education

I Wayan Swandia, Arya Pageh Wibawab, Gede Yoga Kharisma Pradanac, I Nyoman Suarkad  Department of Visual Communication Design, Faculty of Fine Arts and Design, Denpasar Institute of Indonesian Artsa,b, Hotel Management, International Institute of Tourism and Businessc, Ancient Javanese Literature, Udayana Universityd; Email: yoga@stpbi.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to uncover aspects of the national character education from a digital comic titled Tantri Kamandaka. Tantri Kamandaka is known as a traditional story that is conveyed orally in the context of informal education. However, Tantri Kamandaka is developing in the form of digital comics. The problems are 1) What is the Tantri Kamandaka story in the form of digital comics?; 2) Are digital comics with Tantri Kamandaka able to educate? This research was completed by using the qualitative method. Qualitative methods became a major part of the search mechanism and data analysis of this applied research. All research data was collected using library studies, observations and interviews with interview guidelines. All data was analysed qualitatively using symbol theory and the power of knowledge theory. The results showed that: 1) The form of the Tantri Kamandaka story in digital comics is delivered with illustrations of animals and colorful cartoon characters in several short story segments. It can be read and obtained through electronic media connected to the internet network; 2) There is a reflection of the strengthening of national character in the Tantri Kamandaka story in digital comics as education.Pages 718 to 732




Cyberbullying on the Internet and Mobile Phones among Thai Youth

Penchan Pradubmook-Sherera, Engchuan Karansupamasb, aDepartment of Society and Health, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities Mahidol University, Salaya campus, Nakornchaisri, Nakornpathom  73170 Thailand, bLanguage Center,Faculty of Graduate Studies, Mahidol University, Salaya campus, Nakornchaisri, Nakornpathom  73170 Thailand, Email: a*penchan.she@mahidol.ac.th,  bfujianmanster@gmail.com

This study deals with Thai youths’ use of the internet and mobile phones. Parameters included interests, duration of use, and abuse by means of the Internet and mobile phone, involving both cyberbullying perpetration and victimisation, in the form of threats, sexual solicitation, and harassment. We draw the random sample from three main geographical areas of Thailand: The West (rural area), Bangkok (metropolitan area) and the South (Muslim area). Two schools in each area were randomly sampled, which together included 1305 participants; 763 were female (58.5%). The main results indicate that Thai youths’ use of the internet is moderate compared with international figures. While females use the internet and mobile phones to a higher extent than males, males are more likely to be cyberbullies and be cyberbullied on the net. Even though the participants from the Southern Muslim area use the internet and mobile phones less than in the other two regions, they experience abuse much more frequently. The theoretical contribution of this article to the field is the recognition of the family characteristics’ influence on the cyberbullying of youth, and the strengthening of the ecological theory applicable to the explanation of the cyberbullying phenomenon. Pages 733 to 756



The Role of Relationship Marketing to Achieve Customer Satisfaction: An Exploratory Study at the General Company for Vegetable Oils

Hassan Jabur Alwana, aDept. of Materials Management, Technical Institute of Babylon, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University-Iraq

Companies seek to excel in the use of the concept of relationship marketing. Through it, companies can provide products that meet the needs of customers and satisfy their desires. It is an important marketing strategy for companies, which builds long relationships with its customers, attracts them, meets their requirements, and establishes long-term relationships with them, thus retaining them. This helps companies achieve a distinct level of performance to achieve more in profits. Through it, a sustainable competitive advantage is achieved, and the General Company for the Vegetable Oil Industry was chosen to conduct the study, test its hypotheses, and extract the results using a computer program. A group of conclusions were reached, the most important were: the company's study showed a failure to provide products of good quality; and the company does not have the modern means of communication to contact its customers and provide them with full information about its products. Pages 757 to 779

The Effectiveness of Teaching According to the Integrative Model in the Subject Achievement of Rhetoric for Fifth Literary Students

Ihab Ibrahim Zaidan AL- Saadia, HayderDiekan Darweeshb, aCollege of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Babylon, Iraq, bThe open educational college, Babylon Academic Center, Ministry of Education, Iraq.

The current study aims at seeking for the effectiveness of teaching according to the integrative model in the achievement of the rhetoric subject for fifth-grade literary students. To achieve the goal of the research, the researchers randomly chose the Al-Thawra Preparatory School for Boys, by the random drafting method. They chose section ‘B’ to represent the experimental group that studies the rhetoric subject according to the contrary knowledge strategy. Meanwhile, section ‘A’ represents the control group that studies the rhetoric subject in the traditional way. The research sample reached 60 students, consisting of 30 students in each group. The researchers conducted parity between the students of the two groups, depending on the following variables: the chronological age of the students, which was accounted by months; the academic achievement of the parents; and the academic achievement of the mothers. The researchers identified the study topics that are studied during the experiment period after presenting it to an elite group of experts and specialists. The researchers prepared teaching plans for the subjects to be taught during the experiment period. These plans were presented to a group of specialists in teaching methods to demonstrate their validity, and they all agreed upon them. One of the researchers taught the students of the two study groups during the experiment period. After the end of the experiment, the same researcher applied the achievement test to the students of both groups. The researchers used the following statistical methods: T-test for two independent samples, Kay square and Pearson correlation coefficient. After analysing the results, the researchers determined the surpassing of the experimental group students who studied the rhetoric subject according to the integrative model over the control group students who studied the rhetoric subject by using the traditional method of testing achievement in the rhetoric subject. The researchers concluded that the students have responded to the cognitive integration model in teaching and they interacted with it by the indication of the results. The researchers suggested a number of recommendations, including the necessity of using the integrative model in teaching the rhetoric subject because of its role in the achievement of the students. Pages 780 to 794

The Social Exclusion of Women in Society: A Socio-Anthropological Study: Al-Khalidiya as a Model

Muayad Manfi Mohammeda, aCollege of Arts / Dept. of Sociology / University of Anbar -Iraq, Email: amumnmom@yahoo.com

The topic of social exclusion of women in the community of the Khalidiya region is one of the important topics that attracts attention at all levels and in all societies. That is, to know the social, cultural, psychological and economic problems and obstacles accompanying this social phenomenon of gender discrimination and the marginalisation of women. This has led to instances of poverty and unemployment for the female segment of society. The domination of Masculinity has the clear effect of establishing discrimination against women, which is reflected in preventing women from having educational opportunities. It is one of the effects that contribute to the process of excluding women in society. It is a type of exclusion and marginalisation of women, which is called  “The social exclusion of women”. The aim of the current study is to know the effects that contribute to the process of excluding women in the society of Al Khalidiya. The current study relies on the socio-anthropological approach and what is called the integrated approach to sociology and anthropology. It depends on the means of collecting information, the most prominent of which are: observation by participation, interview, records and informants, while the sample is a random sample with a size of 200 researched to obtain basic information and data, which is impossible to get by other means. Pages 795 to 810

Teacher Competency and Perception in Lesson Planning using a Software Prototype

Dasrieny Pratiwi1, Herawati Susilo2, Fatchur Rohman3, 1Doctoral Student of Postgraduate Program, Biology Education, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, 1Department of Biology Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Kota Metro, Sumatera, Indonesia, 2Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, 3Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Email: 1dasrienyp.1703419@students.um.ac.id, 2herawati.susilo.fmipa@um.ac.id, 3fatchur.rohman.fmipa@um.ac.id

The use of software technology in lesson planning for teachers is explored in this research. The purpose of this study is to determine the competence of teachers in creating lesson plans and their relevant perceptions when using a software prototype as the learning medium. The subjects of the research are biology teachers with at least four semesters of teaching experience (n=32) and NVivo 12 Plus was used to analyse collected data. Results indicate that teachers had a spread of competence and that the current efforts in training teachers to achieve lesson planning competence do not meet contemporary learning needs which are characterized by technology integration. Further, tertiary education courses must embed digital pedagogy as essential practice for prospective teachers (Sendurur, 2018), as the quality of the learning process for the teacher candidates predicts the quality of education provided by these undergraduates  when they become teachers (Baaki & Luo, 2019). Pages 811 to 827

The Illusion of Financial Stability between Different Concepts and Measurement Methodology: An Applied Study on the Banking Sector in Iraq

Maha Mezher Mohsin Al-Rubayea, aAL-Mustansiriyah University/ College of Economics and Administration/ Department of Finance and Banking Sciences, Email: amaha_alrbaay@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Financial stability in the banking sector is the way in which various banking risks are dealt with and are ways of avoiding them. The concept of financial stability remains restricted with the indications of those risks and the methods used in managing them. The present study focuses on a new concept which assumes that financial stability does not necessarily mean that banks, the banking system, or the financial sector as a whole are not exposed to risks. It may be in a state of stagnation and not stability, but financial stability is a special case of balance between the basic goals of achieving profits and effective contribution to economic and social development, without prejudice to the work of the mechanisms related to reducing banking risks. An important part of the indicators used reflects stagnation and not stability as the financial stability in the Iraqi banking sector does not reflect a state of stability. It rather denotes a state of apparent stagnation; the banking sector abandons its real role in the effective contribution to development. Pages 828 to 850

The Wisdom of Indigenous People on Eco-Based Management for Forestry and Mining in Indonesia

Wahyu Nugrohoa, Wendra Yunaldib, aLecturer Faculty of Law Sahid University Jakarta Indonesia, bLecturer Faculty of Law Muhammadiyah University West Sumatra Indonesia, Email: awahyulaw86@yahoo.combwendrayunaldi78@gmail.com

In addition to basing itself on the provisions of existing regulations, it is equally important for the resources management of forestry and mining to respect the wisdom of adat law communities (Indonesian legal term for its indigenous people, in Dutch: rechtsgemeenschap) in the region. Indigenous people use this wisdom in managing the natural resources with their aim to maintain cosmic (nature) balance and environmental sustainability. Forestry and mining policies in the context of legal pluralism should integrate these local values with an eco-based perspective. The paper focused on two issues, firstly, the philosophy of indigenous people in environmental management based on their wisdom, and secondly, the wisdom of indigenous people managing their communal rights on forestry and mining resources in Indonesia. The research used qualitative research methods that focused on the wisdom of indigenous people in forestry and mining management in Indonesia based on forestry and mining regulations, as well as the eco-based perspective. The approach of Indonesian legal pluralism on eco-based management of forestry and mining resulted interaction between the state law over the control on natural resources and the non-state law by applying the principles of eco-based perspective. Pages 851 to 861

Indonesian Criminal Justice System for Human Rights Perpetrators in Indonesia

Marthen Napanga, aInternational Law Department, Faculty of Law, Hasanuddin University, Email: anapang.unhas@gmail.com

This study examines conceptually and thoroughly examines the International Criminal Justice System to be applied in the Indonesian Criminal Justice System which examines and prosecutes perpetrators of human rights crimes in Indonesia. This research is empirical law research, the study that sees the law as reality which covers social reality, cultural reality and others. This study examines conceptually and thoroughly the International Criminal Justice System for application in the Indonesian Criminal Justice System which examines and prosecutes perpetrators of human rights crimes in Indonesia. (1) Crime aggression where the definition of crime has not been formulated can be tried in the established Ad Hoc International Criminal Tribunal and the Ad Hoc Human Rights Court, (2) The Principles of the International Criminal Justice System-ICC can be applied in the Indonesian criminal justice system, including the crime of aggression, especially the application of procedural law and decision-making through the method of legal discovery. (3) Perpetrators of war crimes and crime aggression may be subject to criminal liability in Indonesia, even though the jurisdiction of the Indonesian Human Rights Court covers only serious crimes of genocide and human rights violations. This criminal prosecution can be done through the Ad Hoc Human Rights Court. The originality of the research can be accounted for by the researchers. So far, the researchers have not found any paper or research on the topic above. Pages 862 to 881

Degradability of Concentrate in Goats

Niel L. Ningala, Vincent Joseph M. San Miguelb, aUniversity of the Philippines, Los Baños, College of Agriculture and Food, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, bDela Salle Araneta University, Victoneta Avenue, Malabon City, Metro Manila, Philippines, Email: anielningal.qualipeak@gmail.combvincentjosephsanmiguel@yahoo.com

Three (3) female rumen-cannulated goats, weighing 27.33±1.53 kg, were housed in individual elevated metabolism stalls, used to evaluate the ruminal degradability of concentrate, using a nylon bag technique with respect to incubation time. The study utilised concentrate composed of rice bran, 35%; corn grits, 14%; copra meal, 34%; soybean oil meal, 5%; molasses, 10%; salt, 1%; and monocalcium phosphate, 1%, with ad libitum feeding of Napier grass. Drinking water was available at all times. Approximately, 3.0 to 5.0 g of feed concentrates was weighed into nylon bags (between 20-40 µ pore size). The nylon bags (total of 48) were labelled accordingly. These were incubated ruminally at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hour exposures to determine the percentage (%) of ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) of the formulated concentrate. The results showed that degradability of the dry matter (DM) content of the concentrate was found to be 82.30% at 48 hours of incubation. The 68% potentially degradable fraction has a rate of degradation (disappearance) of 49%. It was also observed that the percentage degradability (% loss) of DM was noticed exponentially on the first twelve hours of incubation and then slowed down until it reached 48 hours. However, the crude protein (CP) degradability resulted at 78.50% of the 15.30% CP content of the concentrate, a 12% breakdown of protein components after 48 hours of incubation. The digestibility of crude fibres based on NDF and ADF were calculated at 75.72% and 70.47%, respectively, i.e. approximately, 31.5% degradability of NDF and 9.5% of ADF (crude fibre contents) after 48 hours. The data gathered have demonstrated significant differences in the rate of degradability of DM, CP, NDF and ADF of the concentrate fed to goats. This simple, easy and basic technique could also be applied to other animal species in pursuit of finding ways to formulate indigenous feedstuff materials that have potential nutritive values. Given the limitations such as the climatic and environmental constraints, this particular study could serve as a benchmark in conducting related research in optimising the conditions with respect to animal nutrition and feedstuff utilisation. Thus, this study was conducted to augment productivity and to provide new opportunities for achieving enhanced growth performance in a way that alleviates poverty, improves food security and nutrition, and promotes the sustainable use of natural resources. Pages 882 to 895

Early Marriage and Women’s Empowerment in Rural Areas

Sudarsoa*, Siti Mas’udahb, Tuti Budirahayuc, a,b,cDepartment of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: a*sudarso@fisip.unair.ac.id

Early marriage is a persistent problem in Indonesia, especially in rural areas. This study aimed to uncover how early marriage occurs and its causal factors in rural communities. This research was conducted in a village community in East Java which has both Javanese and Madura cultures. This study employed a qualitative approach. The study found that in Madurese and Javanese cultures, girls were always associated with economic value for the family. Madura and Javanese girls experience cultural and structural pressure in the phenomenon of early marriage, especially girls who come from poor families. Empowerment to reduce early marriage in rural communities can be done through existing social institutions in rural areas. Pages 896 to 912

Consumer Dispute Settlements through the Consumer Dispute Settlement Body (BPSK) in Relation to Trade Transactions in Indonesia

Susilowati Supartoa, Deviana Yuanitasarib, Efa Laela Fakhriahc, a,b,cFaculty of Law Universitas Padjadjaran,

Consumer protection law is closely related to the trade and industrial globalisation of a country’s economic activities. In this context, consumer protection requires more attention since foreign investment has become a part of Indonesian economic development, which vis-à-vis relates to the world’s economic situation. With the growth of Indonesian business, numerous new businessmen are establishing themselves in various market segments. Foreign investors have started to notice Indonesia. Business segments which were underdeveloped prior to the reformation era have now become a new gold mine. However, this causes problems in terms of consumer disputes. Generally, consumer disputes can be settled through court adjudication or alternative settlements based on the parties’ own accord, including settlement through the Consumer Dispute Settlement Body (Badan Penyelesaian Sengketa Konsumen, BPSK). In the last resort, the parties have to choose one of the settlement methods applied by BPSK: conciliation, mediation, or arbitration. If conciliation is chosen and it is still impossible to resolve the dispute, it cannot be settled in another way (through mediation or arbitration). In conciliation or mediation methods the dispute settlements are fully in the parties’ hands with regard to the form and amount of compensation paid to the losing party. The role of BPSK is limited as a facilitator obligated to advise and reassert the rules contained in Consumer Protection Law. If the parties agree to settle the dispute through arbitration under BPSK, the form and amount of settlement compensation is fully handled by BPSK. In order to be final and binding, BPSK judgements need to request a recognition (fiat execution) by local courts. Furthermore, the judgement itself can be appealed before the district court. Subsequent to achieving BPSK’s settlement, to attain legal certainty and to ensure strong enforcement, there should be a regulation concerning the implementation of BPSK settlement. In this way, BPSK would no longer be required to ask for court recognition or even be subject to appeal before the district court. BPSK would have more influence and binding legal power as a consumer dispute settlement body, which would create greater legal certainty. Pages 913 to 922

Impact of Management of Knowledge Standards on the Institutional Excellence of Banks: A Study of Iraqi Private Banks

Huda Mohammed saleem M. Al-Sahrawardeea, Amel Mahmood Ali Al-Obaidib, Israa Shanan Thabitc, a,b,cAl Mustansiriya University /College of Administration  and Economics/ Financial and Banking sciences, Email: aalsahrawardee_Huda@uomustansiriya.edu.iqbamel_mang@uomustansiriya.edu.iqcisraa_adm@uomustansiriya.edu.iq

The financial and banking institutions have been able to increase and generate wealth based on information and data at the outset. This has contributed to the development of the traditional economy to an unconventional economy based on how to manage knowledge and the vast amount of information on how to use this; this, in turn, leading to the increase and generation of wealth. This study demonstrates that the results of relations and influence between the management of knowledge standards and institutional excellence comes from increased attention to raising the level of management of knowledge standards. Further to this, is an increase in the level of efficiency of production processes, and to achieve higher levels of customer satisfaction, and institutional growth from the point of view of the sample of the investigated banks, which causes the overall improvement in institutional excellence. This study recommends the need to increase the interest of the investigated banks in developing their use of information technology and internal and external electronic communication networks to facilitate the transfer of ideas and knowledge among all departments and individuals working within the bank on the one hand, and between customers at the local and international level on the other hand. Pages 923 to 945

Process of Investigation and Provision of Criminal Sanctions on the Activities of Money Laundering Related to Illegal Forest Damage Activities

Yuliana Yuli Wa*, Satinob, Sulastric, Dwi Desi Yayi Tarinad, a,b,c,dFaculty of Law Pembangunan Nasional “Jakarta” University, Indonesia, Email: a*yuli080706@gmail.com

The investigation is the gate to find useful law enforcement and gather evidence to make light of an event when it occurs. But, the terms of the explanation to section 74 act 8 2010 about the prevention and eradication of criminal acts of money laundering has clearly limited investigators authorised to investigate crimes, including money laundering. This requirement has given rise to uncertainty and “ketidaktertiban”, law, for if there is a crime of this deforestation as a crime article, money laundering, the investigation by Civil Servant Investigators (PPNS) of the environment and forestry, being illegitimate because it is not recognised. To solve the problem there was needed an in-depth study theoretically related to the process of the investigation by the environment and forestry. PPNS of the environment and forestry, has the right to propose a review on the state judicial the provisions of article and as explanations from the article 74 of the act no.8 / 2010 about prevention and elimination of money laundering to the constitutional court, besides, it can also use the multidoor so they do not hinder the process of law enforcement. Pages 946 to 966

Effects of Activity in the Wholeness Program on Gait, Balance, and Orthostatic Hypotension of the Demented Elderly

Hye-Jeon Honga, aVice Director, Culture & Arts Education Center, Seowon University, 379-1 Musimseoro Seowon-gu Cheongju Chungbuk, 28673, KOREA, Email: aHyejeon007@hanmail.net

Background/Objectives: This study has validated the effects on gait and balancing capability and orthostatic hypotension by applying a low and medium intensity wholeness program for fall prevention of elderly dementia patients. Methods/Statistical analysis: As the participants in this study, 43 elderly dementia patients, with MMSE-K scores of 15-23 points, aged 70 or older and using day care centres of nursing facilities for senior citizens, were classified into a low intensity group (N = 21) and a medium intensity (N = 17), after which the low and medium intensity wholeness program was conducted for 16 weeks, twice a week, for 60 minutes each time. Gait, balancing capability, and orthostatic hypotension were measured before and after the experiment. Findings: And consequently, the application of a low and medium intensity wholeness program for the fall prevention of elderly dementia patients was found to be effective for gait, balancing capability and orthostatic hypotension. Improvements/Applications: Therefore, the medium intensity wholeness program was found to be effective in preventing falls in elderly dementia patients. Pages 967 to 977

The Development Measures of “School-Family-Society Integration” in the Context of the Healthy China Program and the Theoretical Basis of Lifelong Physical Education

Li Jinga, Seung-Yong Kimb*, aDoctoral student, Dept. of Physical Education, Graduate School, Dong-A University, Busan, 49315, South Korea, bProfessor, Major in PE, Graduate School of Education, Kyonggi University, Suwon, 16227, South Korea, Email: aLijing1003china@naver.comb*dragonkim@kyonggi.ac.kr

Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the development measures of school-family-society integration in the context of the healthy China program and the theoretical basis of lifelong physical education. Methods/Statistical analysis: This paper adopts the methods of literature review, logical analysis and comparative analysis to analyse the necessity of developing the school-family-society integrated lifelong physical education ideology. Moreover, by adopting the sports development models in developed countries, especially the Japanese family school model (PTA model), the "trinity” integrated education model, the community school model, the PE club model and other sports development models, it expounds the necessity and measures of school-family-society integration of lifelong sports development. Findings: First and foremost, people's understanding of lifelong sports should be changed; college physical education should appropriately add related professional courses on community sports direction and mass fitness direction. The corresponding integrated teaching system of lifelong physical education will help export professional social sports instructors to society and solve the current situation of a shortage of social sports instructors. In addition, more funding should be allocated towards the sharing of sports resources, improving basic sports facilities and extending sports activities to the winter and summer vacations. A family-school convergence, an information-sharing network platform and a diverse evaluation system should also be established. Improvements/Applications: Due to the situation of physical education in China, they should reform physical education in schools, extend it to families and society and there is also a need to strengthen the integration of school, family and social physical education, making them an interconnected whole unit. Pages 978 to 992

Educational Habitus and Student Pragmatism in Blog Use

Rahma Sugihartatia, aDepartment of Library Information Science, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences Universitas Airlangga, Email: arsugihartati@yahoo.com

This study discusses the experience and habitus of students at higher educational institutions, in their use of blogs for academic purposes since their senior high school period. This study also examines how the blog use habitus at senior high school affected the practice and shift of blog use when they were studying at institutes of higher education. This study was conducted in the cities of Surabaya and Malang, through a survey of 400 students at institutes of higher education and in-depth interviews with selected students and 10 teachers. The results of this study indicate that the usefulness of blogs shifted to a mere source of information for students at higher educational institutions, and this was influenced by their experiences at senior high school, that formed a counterproductive blog use habitus. Pages 1015 to 1031

Community-Based Efforts to Combat Family Violence: Evidence from Sorong, West Papua, Indonesia

Tri Winarni Soenarto Putria, aDepartment of Social Development and Welfare, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Email: atriwinarnifisipol@yahoo.com

This article discusses community-based resolution to domestic violence in Sorong Regency, West Papua, Indonesia. Drawing on primary data, including results of in-depth interviews with 20 key persons, of whom two are victims of family violence, this article argues that the community can be a more effective institution in resolving cases of domestic violence compared to the state. Results of this study indicate that customary and religious institutions in Sorong play crucial roles in resolving family violence, which range from planning to build family, supporting family life, resolving family problems to managing the births and deaths of family members. It is expected that this study can contribute to enriching literature on the study of family at community level in Indonesia which thus far, only a few researchers have investigated it. Pages 1032 to 1039

Development of Scientific Concepts for Students of Special Education Classes and Their Peers in Regular Classes: A Comparative Study

Ibrahim Muhi Nasera*, Madyan Noori Talakb, aCollege of  Education for Pure Sciences, Department of Physics, University of Babylon-Iraq, bCollege  of Education for Humanities, Department of Educational and Psychological Sciences, University of Babylon-Iraq, Email: a*ibrahimmuhy@gmail.com

The science curricula are considered among the most important curricula taught in schools in Iraq. There is a growing interest in those curricula. One form of development is building and designing scientific curricula in a manner that absorbs the largest number of scientific concepts, which have become a cornerstone in the development processes. Teachers have begun practising the art of teaching and assimilation of the great number of scientific concepts. The growth and development of these concepts has become a matter of urgency for all teachers. It is worth noting that the science curricula in Iraqi schools are subjects both in the mainstream and the special classes. Hence, the idea of the present study is to tackle the growth of these concepts and compare the mainstream classes and special needs pupils’ classes. The test is applied twice to measure the extent of development of these concepts among pupils, to compare them with the extent of development and learning of scientific concepts. The statistical means for comparisons between the arithmetic circles of elements of the general concept are used. Pages 1040 to 1050

Calculation of Trip Generation of Industrial Activities Around Legok Street in Tangerang District

Ken Martina Kasikoena, Syafwandib, Rahmi Hardiyanic, Siti Lisnawatid, Email: aken.martina@esaunggul.ac.id,  bh.syafwandi13@gmail.com,  crahmihrdyni14@gmail.com,  dsitilisnawati12@gmail.com

Currently the industrial activities are the main sector in supporting the Indonesian economy. The trend of development of industrial estates is very high in Indonesia, and has been responded to positively by respective local governments who have provided locations for the industrial estates. However, there are still many industrial estates that have locations mixed with other activities, even those located on the main road. As a consequence, not only does it impact the surrounding economy and environment, but it also impacts the surrounding traffic. Considering industrial activities are trip generators, they cause traffic jams, delays, air pollution and noise. To date there has not been any reference for trip generation or the overall land usage for various types of activities, including trip generation of industrial activities in which their locations are mixed with other activities such as industrial activities located on Legok Street. Based on the results of traffic counting analysis in the busy hours, the level of service (LOS) of  Legok Street is in the D classification (bad) with the value of 0.89 marked by unstable traffic. One of the causes of the bad level of service is the very high number of vehicles of the industrial activities e.g. 239 pcu/hour. That number is far above Industrial Ministry predictions as written in the Minister of Industry Regulation No. 40, 2016 regarding Technical Guidance for Industrial Estate Development. Therefore, supporting road services is required. Although the research survey was during peak hours, the results can be used as consideration in spatial planning. Results of this research in general may be used as reference in planning an industrial estate in other locations with similar characteristics, and may also be used to solve the transportation problems in the Legok main road.  Pages 1051 to 1070

Determinant Factors of UiTM Graduates’ Performance

Azizah Abdullaha, Roziah Mohd Janorb, Tuan Zainun Tuan Matc*, Norhasnida Mohamadd, Zainab Mohd Noore, a,b,dInstitute of Quality and Knowledge Advancement, Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam, cFaculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (Puncak Alam Campus), eFaculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam, Email: c*tuanz693@uitm.edu.my

Graduates performance has become main agenda not only by higher learning institutions, but also among the employers. As a supplier to the job market, all higher learning institutions in Malaysia have continuously revised their academic programs to meet the requirement of the industry. UiTM, as one of the major contributors of graduates in the job market, has ensured that the academic programs offered are at the highest standard possible to meet the needs of the industry. However, offering high quality academic programs alone is not sufficient. It is crucial to ensure the performance of the graduates meet the employers’ expectation. Thus, understanding the determinants factors that contributes to the graduates’ performance are important as part of the continuous improvement in academic management. The purpose of this study is to explore the factors that contribute to UiTM graduates’ performance. The determinants factors investigated in this study, includes both the students’ demographic profile (gender, household income level, residing location) and the institutional factor (campus region). 13,589 samples were selected from “Data Pelajar Tamat UiTM” bachelor degree students from 2006 to 2016. Data was analysed using Descriptive Statistics, Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis analysis. Descriptive statistics showed that majority of the graduates were from the B40 group (78.9%) and 64.2% of the graduates earned CGPA more than 3.00. Findings showed the performance between male and female graduates differs and the graduates residing in the urban areas outperformed those from rural. Findings also revealed similar performance among graduates in the group of M40 and T20. Comparing B40 group against M40 and T20, the results showed statistically significant differences in CGPA of the graduates. These findings provide evidence on the ability of the university in transforming the bumiputeras society to a higher platform, in-line with UiTM’s mission to enhance the knowledge and expertise of bumiputeras. Pages 1071 to 1089

Success of SMEs through Electronic Commerce Learning

Inayatulloha, aInformation System Department School of Information System Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta, Indonesia 11480, Email: ainay@binus.ac.id

The improvement of SMEs Indonesia has started to change. This can be noticed from the present progress of SMEs, growing from a small number of SMEs to a large number. In previous times, SMEs’ sales plans and strategies were static; no one used information technology. SMEs still used traditional or conventional commercials and flyers in their sales strategy, although they did use technology in the sales procedure for transactions. Information technology and computers can help SMEs sell goods and/or services. Some of the capabilities of information technology can increase the sales of SMEs, such as electronic commerce websites that can be used by SMEs to offer goods or services with price specifications, discounts, product details and other relevant information. It stands to reason then that applying electronic commerce, such as by developing websites as a means of advertising and selling, is a desired sales strategy, but there are still several SMEs that have not used electronic commerce as their commercial strategy. This condition is caused by SMEs' privation of understanding about the use of electronic commerce to support their business processes. Therefore the purpose of this study is to develop an Electronic Commerce Information Technology Level (ECITIL) model for SMEs. Pages 1090 to 1100

Effective User Authentication System in an E-Learning Platform

Aeri Leea, Jin-young Hanb*, aProfessor, Department of Computer Education, Catholic Kwandong University, 24 Beomil-ro 579beon-gil Gangneung-si Gangwon-do, 25601, Korea, bProfessor, Department of Hotel Management, Catholic Kwandong University, 24 Beomil-ro 579beon-gil Gangneung-si Gangwon-do, 25601, Korea, Email: aallee@cku.ac.krb*jyhan@cku.ac.kr

E-learning is a system which provides personalised learning services for anyone, anywhere and anytime with the use of information and communication technology. It is very important in e-learning that a legitimate user should access the learning system for learning and assessment purposes. Therefore, the authentication process is one of the most crucial parts in an e-learning platform. For the authentication, universities or institutions operating the e-learning system are either using the user ID and password authentication or applying ways to strengthen user authentication through a public key certificate and media access control address authentication. However, there are some issues associated with the ID/password-based authentication, namely ID and password leakage or hiring proxy exam takers or proxy attendance by accessing users’ own information provided by the user. MAC address authentication contains problems such as allowing an act of cheating through a bypass and having a complicated authentication process in the case of a public key certificate. To resolve these problems, complementary measures need to be sought for the authentication system through secured authentication methods. Thereby, this paper has proposed how to determine whether the user is a legitimate user by using FIDO. As a result of comparison and analysis, it was revealed that security levels remained higher than the existing method, enough to prevent an act of cheating from occurring. In particular, the paper identified the fact that this method promotes a convenient use by users in either a mobile or web environment. The utilisation of this study is expected to serve as a good method for user authentication in the growing e-learning market. A perfect method is expected through further study to restrict proxy attendance by tightening user authentication. Pages 1101 to 1113

The Novelist Iman Mutar Al-Sultani’s  Critical Approach

Souad Shaker Shnawaaa, aCollege of Education For Humanities - Department of Arabic Language - Al-Muthanna University - Iraq, Email: asoadshakeer@gmail.com

The critical approach of the critic Dr. Iman Mattar Al-Sultani relies on the narrative semiotics approach, especially Grimas theory. This approach is clearly reflected in her book “The tale in the letters of ikhwan alsafa”. Chapter one is devoted to the functional structure using dichotomies between sender and addressee, subject and object, and auxiliary and opponent. The critic honestly tried to discover the process of narration in those stories. Chapter two is devoted to the study of the structure of continuation and separation, temporal and spatial structures, including  aspects of narrative techniques in general. Chapter three is devoted to the functions dealt with by Grimas. She then moved to the interpretation of the texts by describing the approach as an introduction to that interpretation. She found a field for multiple readings including interpretive reading, ideological reading, aesthetic reading, and cultural reading. As for her successive research, she adopted the theory of reading. In “the reader in the contemporary Arab novel”, she analyses the novel “The Coming Man” by Dr. Abdul Hadi Al-Fartousi adopting a number of readings of the novel, including psychological and social readings. She comes to the conclusion that the narration has expressed the era of dictatorship in Iraq, with prisons in the novel identical to what is seen in the Iraqi reality, and there is a  large correspondence between the character of Ibrahim Al-Sunobari in “the coming man” and the dictator of Iraq. Pages 1114 to 1124

The Metamorphosis in Jean Dubuffet's Artworks

Mohsen Reda Al-kizwinia*, Hassanein Abdulameer Rashedb, Bahaa A. Al-Saadic, a,b,cCollege of Fine Arts, University of Babylon-Iraq, Email: a*fine.mohsenalkizwini@uobabylon.edu.iq

This study presents the metamorphosis in the works of art by Jean Dubuffet, as a concept focussed on structuralism in its propositions. The study was interested in theorists of postmodernism art because of its strategic importance in the design process, in the aesthetics of modern art. The concept is discussed in different branches of knowledge, such as linguistics, philosophy, and art. Therefore, the syntactic structures stated that each cognitive system is made up of infrastructures called deep structures. The deep structure establishes the main bases of transformation that is referred to as generative grammar by Noam Chomsky. Meanwhile, in the branch of philosophy, Kevin Vanhoozer distinguished pre- and post-modernism by referring to what each of them considered, ‘the first philosophy’. The first pre-modernism philosophy was metaphysical, but everything in modernism turned towards epistemology. Then, in post-modernism, philosophy turned into a breakup and dismantling of epistemology. Jean Dubuffet's artworks have presented the formal transformations of elements and relationships at the aesthetic level. He created numerous artworks in different methods and using different technical experiences in drawing. He also knew how to use his tools and yield his tools to be obedient with his ideas, taking advantage of casual, emergency, and fondness of children's arts, and the insane arts. This study aims at investigating the metamorphosis in Jean Dubuffet's artworks. Pages 1125 to 1140

Christ-Figure Technique in J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: A Case Study

Muntadher A. Mohammed a, aAl-Imam Al-Kadhum University College for Islamic Sciences, Sections of Babil / Iraq, Email: amuntadhera08@gmail.com

The current study tackles the image of Jesus Christ as a literary technique in J. K. Rowling’s novel Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. The novelist deliberately draws allusions between the fictional young protagonist Harry Potter, and Jesus Christ in several aspects including death and resurrection. Despite all that might be said about children’s literature, it reflects a very important social aspect in our life, and floats into a prominent horizon nowadays. The novel Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows concentrates on prominent virtues such as sacrificing oneself for the sake of others. Actually, none misses the fact that children have so vital role in building and developing any society. Children are the target of any developmental system at all times and in all communities. Building and developing any society cannot be obtained without granting children their freedom to think and innovate. Such issues are reflected in many literary works and masterpieces. The article falls into several viewpoints explicated profoundly to manifest such an entity. Pages 1141 to 1152

Measurement and Analysis of Income Smoothing using the Eckel’s Model and Analytical Procedures

Emad. Kendorya, Wasan Yahya Ahmedb, Laith Jawad Kadhimc, aAccounting Department Faculty of administration and Economics Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, b,cFinance and Banking Science Faculty of administration and Economics Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, Email: aemad@uomustansiriyah.edu.iqbwasan_savini@uomustansiriyah.edu.iqclaith_gawad@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

As a result of the gaps in the checking methods, multiple alternatives are available in accounting policies and accounting standards which are used in the areas of measurement and disclosure of the preparation of financial statements. Sometimes, these alternatives allow the economic units to improve the competitive position or the profitability of the company in the market to where it is not true in real life, which negatively affects the quality of declared earnings. The researchers conclude that some companies smooth their profit to improve their competitive position in the market. Therefore, the accounting information users needed to know the companies that smooth their income, and Eckel’s model can determine which company is smoothing its income. If Eckel’s indicators were less than one that means the company smooths its income, therefore there is a requirement for another procedure to detect income smoothing practices. The researcher concluded that one of the research samples (Ishtar Hotel) smoothes its profits, as the Eckel’s index showed less than one, which then required using the analytical procedures to know the details of income smoothing by this hotel, and the study indicates there are some distortions in the revenue side. Pages 1153 to 1171

Exploring Loan Applications by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES): The Loan Provider’s Perspective

Mazurina Mohd Alia*, Noor Hasniza Haronb, Nik Anis Idayu Nik Abdullahc, Nurhaiyyu Abdull Hamidd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Malaysia, Email: a*mazurina@uitm.edu.my

The purpose of this study is to explore loan applications by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) from the loan providers’ perspectives. The samples are comprised of  the banks that offer the services of financing loans to SMEs. A content analysis of the banks’ websites in regards to the criteria required for the loan application process and interviews are used in this study. This study covers three important elements loan providers need to consider before approving a business loan. These elements include collateral, the applicant’s characteristics and the business plan. It was found that applicants’ characteristics, which include the age of the applicants and the credit history, are important factors for the bank to consider. The business plan of the SMEs is another important element for the loan application as it shows how committed the SMEs are in their business and how they could sustain in the long term. To overcome information asymmetry between loan provider and loan applicants, this study sheds light on the important criteria needed so that SMEs could prepare themselves to ensure a positive outcome in loan application. Pages 1172 to 1183

Public Policy on Human Resources, Physical Education, Sports and Health

Irfana, Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayanib, Heny Setyawatic, Sulaimand, aSchool of Teacher Training and Educational Science (STKIP) Taman Siswa Bima, Indonesia, bDoctorate Program of Physical Education, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, cFaculty of Sport Education, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia.

Email: aIrfanhmt05@gmail.com, boktia2016@gmail.unnes.ac.id,  chenysetyawati@mail.unnes.ac.id,  dsulaiman@mail.innes.ac.id

This study aims to analyse government policy regarding data on the implementation of physical and sports physical education teachers in the education unit, and the quality of teachers in the sports education and health education system in Bima Regency. The method used in this research is a qualitative approach, aiming for descriptive analysis. Data collection techniques are interviews, observation, examining documents and focus group discussion (FGD). The research result shows: (1) only 80% of physical health and sports education teachers in educational units are qualified to teach undergraduate (S1) physical education and get assigned as education personnel, while 20% of teachers who teach physical education subjects have not yet qualified for their undergraduate education (S1); (2) the quality of education in elementary, junior high, high school / vocational high school level related to education staff in the district of Bima only gets a figure below 5.00 (50%), while at the NTB Province level, the quality of education, especially human resources, is ranked second from the bottom of the ten districts / cities in the NTB province. Conclusions and suggestions from this research involve improving undergraduate education qualifications (S1). Physical education departments and physical education teachers need to map the needs of teachers, and encourage teachers who have not yet qualified for their undergraduate level (S1) to continue their studies to the undergraduate level. The role of public policy needs to be directed towards increasing seminar activities, workshops, (MGMP is Teacher Subject Meeting) and training involving universities and educational institutions, to help improve teacher competencies in the form of reasoning (thinking) and skills (skills). Government policies should also provide support for the issuance of Regents or Regional Regulations for the implementation of physical education in sports and health, to encourage the acceleration of educational development while improving the quality of education in Bima Regency. Pages 1183 to 1201

The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Leverage, Firm Size, and Profitability Toward Earnings Response Coefficient

Inung Wijayantia, Rizal Mawardib, Jasmanc, Amri Baso Halimd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Economy and Business, Perbanas Institute,

The purpose of this research is to analyse the effect of corporate social responsibility disclosure, leverage, firm size, and profitability towards the earnings response coefficient. This research uses data from 2013-2017. The result shows that corporate social responsibility has a negative and significant effect towards the earnings response coefficient. Leverage has a negative and significant effect towards the earnings response coefficient. Firm size has a positive and significant influence towards the earnings response coefficient. Finally, profitability does not have an influence on the earnings response coefficient. Pages 1202 to 1216

Technology Use in Fabel Text Teaching Materials and its Use in Secondary Schools

Jajaa, Suherli Kusmanab*, Nasir Asmanc, Dharliana Hardjowikartod, Lili Amaliyahe, a,b,c,dUniversitas Swadaya Gunung Jati, eSMP Al Shighor Cirebon, Email: b*suherlikusmana1@gmail.com

This study aims to overcome teacher difficulties in combining character education activities with Indonesian language learning. One material that can be used to conduct character education is the text of folklore. Material that is appropriate to the students' cultural background and has local wisdom is fable text material. To increase students' interest in fable text material, learning activities are presented using digital technology. The research method used is research and development. The research conducted is collecting, selecting and analysing fable texts from students' cultural environments that are appropriate to the psychological development of students. Development of teaching materials is done from selected fable texts combined with basic competencies contained in the curriculum and assisted with the use of digital technology. Teaching materials are validated by experts and practitioners before being tested on students. The results of this study are the structure of fable text that is loaded with local wisdom as character education material, the mind map of fable text material in accordance with the curriculum for Indonesian language lessons in junior high schools, and the effectiveness of learning outcomes presented using digital technology. Pages 1217 to 1233

The Victim of Fraudulent Financial Service Investments: A Case Study of Fraud Victims in Surabaya, Gresik, and Sidoarjo

Mustaina, aFaculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Airlangga, Email: amustain@fisip.unair.ac.id

Although the Financial Services Authority or Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK) has undertaken socialisation about financial service literacy, a significant proportion of  the  society  is  still attracted and has become victim to scam and fraud. Up until now, the extensive socialisation done by the OJK has not been able to eradicate the illegal smaller investment firms. Often, such firms are in the forms of a business proposal, company, savings and loan business, MLM scheme, but never in the form of an individual. Currently, almost all investment fraud is in the form of a Ponzi scheme or pyramid scheme. Theoretically, a lack of literacy in financial investment, poverty, and suggestions by personal references, are the main causes of fraud victimhood. This research was completed with people who have been a victim (selected via purposive sampling) in Surabaya, Sidoarjo, and Gresik. This research shows that the knowledge about investment and poverty is not always the cause of how some people are tricked into trusting the abovementioned frauds. In some cases, some people are financially literate and financially secure, but are still trapped in the financial service scam. Although, indeed, most victims come from an illiterate and/or a poor background. In a society with an agricultural  background  that  is  in  the  middle  of  a transition towards becoming an industrial society, the adapting capability of its individuals is not always in approaching their goals by conforming to the standard procedures. Hence, they are prone to illegitimate means, deviance, and anomaly. These people prioritise achieving their purpose without first understanding the process needed. Pages 1234 to 1248

An Analysis of Transformational and Transactional Leadership on Employee Performance

Yani Restiani Widjajaa*, Nanang Fattahb, Dismanc, Syamsul Hadi Senend, aUniversitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Universitas Adhirajasa Reswara Sanjaya (ARS) Bandung, b,c,dUniversitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Email: a*restianiwidjaja@gmail.com

Leadership is one of the most important things in an organisation. The development of a construction project will succeed if it is well managed by a leader. The success in completing a construction project with good leadership is that it can improve the performance of its employees. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of transformational and transactional leadership styles partially on employee performance, and whether the transformational leadership style has a more dominant influence compared to transactional leadership style to employee performance. This research was conducted at a state-owned company engaged in the construction services industry, namely PT Waskita Karya (Persero) Tbk West Java branch office. The type of research used is quantitative by using descriptive and explanatory methods. Pages 1249 to 1261

Assessing Operating Risk Impacts on Business Operation from the Micro and Small Entrepreneurs’ Perspective

Rina Fadhilah Ismaila*, Noreena Md Yusoffb, Nur Hayati Ab Samadc, Emmarelda Maswesi Ahmadd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Accountancy Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: a*rinafadhilah@uitm.edu.my

By addressing risks at every stage of the business life cycle, both entrepreneurs and authorities may gain many benefits. The micro and small enterprises have become one of the most important sectors and have contributed significantly to the country’s economic growth; thus, assessing the probability of risk occurrences in their enterprises should be a regular practice among entrepreneurs. Operational risks occurring in businesses may impede the business survivability, and hence, entrepreneurs are expected to have the ability to identify, manage and mitigate these potential risks. This paper reports on a study conducted to assess the factors determining the entrepreneurs’ perception towards the impacts of operational risks on business operations among micro and small enterprises in Kuala Selangor, Selangor, Malaysia. Questionnaires were distributed in order to obtain the entrepreneurs’ background information; the motives for a business start-up; and the entrepreneurial orientation to gauge entrepreneurs’ perception towards the impacts of operational risks on business operations. The results of the descriptive analysis indicated that the majority of the entrepreneurs were aged between 30 and 49 years old, with a monthly income of less than RM5,000. The necessity motive is a reason why most of the entrepreneurs started up their businesses. Further analysis indicated that proactive entrepreneurs significantly influenced the assessment of the impacts of operational risks on business operations. The results also reflected the self-initiation of the proactive entrepreneurs who took appropriate actions to minimise the risk impacts in ensuring the survival of their businesses. The limitations and recommendations for future research are addressed in the final section of the paper. Pages 1262 to 1280

Financial Statement Fraud: Evidence from Prospective Accounting Practitioners

Noreena Md Yusoffa*, Rina Fadhilah Ismailb, Nur Hayati Ab Samadc, Nurulhuda Abd Rahmand, a,b,c,dFaculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia, Email: a*noree692@uitm.edu.my

Prevention is better than cure. Past actions with adverse effects could be used as guidance for future generations. The occurrences of the Enron scandal and the WorldCom scandal are two examples of financial statement fraud cases that involved accounting professionals. Such events inflict the companies with substantial financial losses and give the accounting profession a bad reputation.  Thus, this study was carried out to identify the determinants that drive accounting practitioners to commit such frauds by using the Theory of Planned Behaviour, which explains three factors of human behaviour that could influence someone’s intention in doing something. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data among potential accounting practitioners in a public university in Selangor. The results showed a significant positive relationship between subjective norms and perceived behavioural control towards behavioural intentions to commit financial statement fraud. Based on the findings, it is suggested that preventive measures against fraud in financial statements can be done by providing potential accounting practitioners with suitable knowledge and instilling awareness among them about the importance of focussing on ethical considerations when making decisions. Pages 1281 to 1297

Analyzing the Effect of Regional Economic Factors on Maternal Mortality Rate: Evidence of Indonesia

Arlaydaa, Said Muhammadb, Abd. Jamalc, Muhammad Nasird, Jumadil Saputrae*a,b,c.dFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, Indonesia, eFaculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: aarlaydaarief1963@gmail.com, bsaid_194912@yahoo.com, cabdjamal@unsyiah.ac.iddnasirmsi@unsyiah.ac.id , e*jumadil.saputra@umt.edu.my  

The maternal mortality rate (MMR) is a barometer that used for measuring the pregnancy death rate. The MMR of Aceh is categorised as high compared to national MMR. Of these, the purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of regional economic factors (e.g. human development index, health budget and economic growth) on MMR. This panel data study was conducted for 23 districts in the year of 2010 to 2017 at Aceh province, Indonesia. It collected from the Central Bureau of Statistics, Aceh, Indonesia. By using the panel data regression analysis, this study found that the Fixed Effect Model is an appropriate or the best model chosen for this study. Also, the result of the analysis indicated that the variable of the Human Development Index has a significant negative effect on MMR. Meanwhile, the Gross Domestic Product and Health Budget do not significantly effect MMR. In conclusion, an increase in the Human Development Index means it will be decreasing the MMR. Pages 1298 to 1311

Inspiring a Fractal Approach in Higher Education Institutes’ Information Systems in  Kurdistan: A Review

Bareen Shams AldeenTahira, Nawzat Sadiq Ahmedb, aInformation Technology Department, Akre Technical College of Informatics Duhok Polytechnic University, Duhok, Iraq, bInformation Systems, PhD, Directorate of General Registration, Duhok Polytechnic University Duhok, Iraq, Email: abareenshushy@gmail.combnawzat.ahmed@dpu.edu.krd

The structure of student registration systems in higher education institutes in the Kurdistan Region needs more flexibility to overcome system requirements in a quick manner. This is due to the increasing demand of students whom would like to complete their study and also due to the increasing the number of universities (i.e. public and private). Also, the requirements of the aforementioned systems require accurately circulating and updated productive information among system units. Hence, this paper seeks to incorporate fractal features in higher education institute systems. Fractal features can provide best solutions for the aforementioned requirements. Therefore, this paper reviews several works that present different fractal-based methods for improving the structure of information systems in different administration sectors. Indeed, a fractal-based method to connect Kurdistan Higher Education Institutes Systems (FKHEIS) is proposed in order to improve the cooperation among system units and provide a more flexible system. Pages 1312 to 1330

Secret Service of the World: A Comparison of Three Intelligence Agencies - ISI, CIA and RAW

Dildar F Zebaria, aDuhok Polytechnic University Legal Affairs Department, Email: adildar.f@dpu.edu.krd

Secret service refers to a service which kept in secrecy. Secret services consist of many activities including protection of top officials of a country, finding out the thefts and criminal in the country and abroad. This paper attempts to study the secret services of the world, including three intelligence agencies. The structure of the article is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the definition of secret service; its kinds, elements, and how they are executed. The second section deals with world top three intelligence agencies discussing their backgrounds, structures, capabilities and services they are engaged in. The concluding part of the article is used to compare and contrast the secret services of the three intelligence agencies as well as matters related to them. The findings show that each intelligence agency is out of a war syndrome, well-structured. ISI has the power that can surpass the government, while the CIA and RAW are relatively in the control of the government. CIA is technologically well advance; ISI is least funded still competitive, and RAW is well managed. World's three top 10 intelligence agencies discussed in the paper are presented on five indicators, namely their background, objectives, structure, capabilities and examples of secret services. If we look to reason for initiating these agencies of all three countries is the issue of war. Pakistan created due to the 1947 war with India. The USA created due to the issue of Japan's attack, and India created due to its failure in war with China. However, the year of creation ISI and CIA is similar while India has created RAW after 20 years from them. Another similarity found among these three intelligence agencies are they get engaged with other world agencies and offer their services.  Pages 1331 to 1341

The Significance of Maqasid Syariah Principles in Improving Islamic Economics and Finance

Nur Kholisha, Muhammad Roy Purwantob*, Supriadic, Tamyiz Mukharromd, Hamidullah Marazie, aUniversitas Islam Indonesia, Jl. Kaliurang Km. 14.5 Sleman Yogyakarta 55584 Indonesia, b,c,dUniversitas Islam Indonesia, Fakultas Ilmu Agama Islam, Gd. K.H.A Wahid Hasyim UII, Jl. Kaliurang KM 14,5 Yogyakarta, Indonesia, eSchool of Social Sciences and Department of Religious Studies, Central University of Kashmir, India, Email: anurkholish@uii.ac.id,  b*muhammadroy@uii.ac.id,  csupriadiofficial13@gmail.com,  dtamyiz.mukharrom@uii.ac.id,  ehamidnaseem@gmail.com

One of the ultimate concepts in Islamic teaching is Maqasid Syariah; it summarises the overall purpose of Sharia in an easy and simple way. Maqāṣid Syariah was classified into three ‘levels of necessity,’ which are necessities (ḍarūrāt), needs (ḥājīyāt) and luxuries (taḥsīnīyāt). In the beginning, necessities are further classified into what preserves one’s faith, soul, wealth, mind and offspring. Maqasid Syariah principles can be designed as a tool in solving contemporary problems and challenges, which further indicates its significance. One tool in using maqasid Syariah is called al-fikr al-maqasidy, namely a pattern of thought inspired by maqasid Syariah, held on its principles and benefits, for solving contemporary challenges, such as challenges in economics and finance, and other fields of life. Maqasid Syariah will bring the result of ijtihad to the true goal of Islamic law with a steady heart. Implementing the Maqasid Syariah concept in solving contemporary economic and financial challenges and problems will help to develop and improve them and make them always in line with syariah principles. Pages 1342 to 1353

Tax and Zakat in an Islamic History Review Based on Arkoun’s Critical Thoughts

Umaimaha, Moh. Agung Suriantob, Muminatus Sholichahc, Suwarnod, Tumirine, a,c,d,eAccounting Department, University of Muhammadiyah Gresik, Indonesia, bManagement Department, University of Muhammadiyah Gresik, Indonesia, Email: aumaimah@umg.ac.idbcakagung@umg.ac.idcmukminatus@umg.ac.iddsuwarno@umg.ac.idetumirin@umg.ac.id

Corresponding Author: aumaimah@umg.ac.id

Tax and zakat are two important aspects of Indonesian social life and are connected to social justice. The researcher will examine the tax and zakat review in Islamic history based on Arkoun's thoughts. This research approach is qualitative using Arkoun's thinking as a methodology. The study of zakat needs to be contextualized within the current situation. Zakat is combined with tax. Tax is the body with the spirit of zakat. Tariffs and objects of taxation refer to zakat by contextualizing the present while still referring to its designation in QS. At-Taubah: 60. This study focuses on the unification of zakat with tax in Indonesia. Pages 1354 to 1366

A Study on the Creativity and Personality Education of Elementary School Students: Focused on Big Data Analysis

Su-Jeong Jeonga, Jeong-Jin Younb, Byung-Man Kimc, aResearch Professor, Creativity & Personality Laboratory, Tongmyong University, Pusan, 48570, Republic of Korea, bProfessor, Dept. of Early Childhood Education, Tongmyong University, Pusan, 48570, Republic of Korea, cProfessor, Dept. of Early childhood education, Kyungnam University, Changwon, 51767, Republic of Korea, Email: ajsjs@tu.ac.krbjjy@tu.ac.krcbmkim@kyungnam.ac.kr

Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explore the concept of creativity and personality education of elementary school students through big data. For the purpose of this research, rawDATA was collected using keyword “elementary creativity” using big data provided by Textom. Methods/Statistical analysis: The collected data were selected from 50 key words based on the word frequency after the primary and secondary text mining and the semantic network analysis was performed by converting the data into matrix data. Findings: As a result, 'education', 'program' and 'play' were the key keywords in the social awareness of creative personality education of elementary school students. In addition, educational method related factors (play, fairy tales, books, reading, forest, imagination, life, thought, integration), educational content related factors (creativity education, art, science, society, mathematics, leadership, creativity, emotion), educational subjects related factors (kindergarten, school, teacher, elementary school, student, school board, centre) and educational principles related factors (experience, activity, utilization) were shown to be closely related to each other. Improvements/Applications: Preschoolers' creativity was especially related to education, programs and play. This was meaningful to examine the relationship between concepts related to preschoolers’ creativity in real data network, and suggested implications for preschoolers’ creativity education based on these results. Pages 1367 to 1378

Chinese FDIs and Indonesia’s Foreign Policy on China

Citra Hennidaa*, Ali Sahabb, aDepartment of International Relations, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Airlangga, bDepartment of Political Science, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Airlangga, Email: a*Citra.hennida@fisip.unair.ac.id

Based on data from the Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM), Chinese investment in Indonesia has increased significantly in recent years. The number of Chinese investments increased by 12 percent in 2017 and shifted Japan's position as the second-largest investor in Indonesia. Indonesia's foreign debt to China also increased. Between 2010 and 2016, Indonesia's debt to China increased six times. This situation raises concerns that Indonesia's foreign policy will benefit China significantly. From this issue, this research discusses whether the level of investment and an enormous debt to China will affect the independence of Indonesia's foreign policy. The study was conducted from 2014 to 2018, during Joko Widodo’s presidency. Pages 1379 to 1395

Improving Employee Performance through Emotional Intelligence and Intellectual Intelligence

Tontowi, University of Sunan Giri, Faculty of Social and Politic Science, Jl. Brigdjen Katamso II Waru Sidoarjo, Surabaya. Email: tontowi_34@yahoo.com

This study aims to determine the effect of emotional intelligence and intellectual intelligence on performance mediated by communication ability. The population was employees at PT Petrokimia Gresik. The number of samples was 125 employees. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analysed by path analysis techniques. The results showed that emotional intelligence directly had a positive and significant effect on performance. Intellectual intelligence directly has a positive and significant effect on performance. Emotional intelligence directly has a positive but insignificant effect on communication ability. Intellectual intelligence directly has a positive and significant effect on communication abilities. Communication abilities directly have a positive and significant effect on performance. Communication ability mediates the effect of emotional intelligence on performance. Communication ability mediates the effect of intellectual intelligence on performance. Pages 1396 to 1408

Women Employees’ Performance at Conventional Banks and Sharia Banks

Rahmiwati Habibu, Syahir Natsir, Idris, Elimawaty Rombe, Postgraduate Program of Tadulako University

The aim of this research is to examine the performance of women employees at conventional banks and Sharia banks : characteristic competencies, work motivation, individual commitment and career development. The samples are 146 female employees from BNI 46 Bank, Mandiri Bank, Bank Rakyat Indonesia, Tabungan Negara Bank, BNI Syariah, BTN Syariah, BRI Syariah, and Mandiri syariah in Palu City. The research uses qualitative and quantitative method with data analysis which uses Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results showed that individual characteristics, work motivation and individual commitment have a significant effect on career development. Likewise, individual characteristics and career development have a significant effect on performance. Meanwhile, work motivation and individual commitment do not have a significant effect on performance. Pages 1409 to 1419

The Significance of Knowledge Management in the Knowledge Economy of the 21st Century

Dr. Alex Jones, Roozbeh Shideh, College of Business Administration, American University in the Emirates, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Loosing knowledgeable and experienced employees is on the rise across the world and in many organisations. The later is on the search for multiple solutions. The economy we live in has become a knowledge economy. The later concept focuses on getting knowledge to as many working professionals and employees in their organisations using multiple channels. All of which should focus on making information and knowledge accessible to many and all. That contributes significantly to the percentage of turn over in organisations. That itself makes the concept of knowledge management even more on demand than ever. Therefore, a systematic well-developed approach should be drafted in place to achieve the desired purpose. Each of which should have two integrates components as part of the process: evaluation and implementation. There isn’t a standard format for such but rather a developed framework that suits the purpose of organisations. In this article, and after a thorough analysis in the field backed with professional experiences, we provide a well-developed model of framework in the field of knowledge management that is going to contribute significantly in the field to many organisations and across multiple disciplines. Pages 1420 to 1431
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