Brand Equity and Loyalty in the Airline Industry: The Role of Perceived Value and Online Word of Mouth

Owais Barkat Al-Gharaibah, Taibah University, College of Business Administration, Marketing Department, Email: ograibah@taibahu.edu.sa

Brand loyalty is an important term in marketing studies. Its relationship with brand equity is fragmented and inconclusive. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of brand awareness, brand experience, and brand quality on brand equity. The study also aims to understand the relationship between brand equity and brand loyalty and the role of online word of mouth and perceived value between the variables. The population of this study is the customers of the airline industry in Jordan. The data of this study was collected using purposive sampling. A total of 213 respondents participated in this study. The findings were derived using Smart PLS. Brand quality, brand experience and brand awareness affected significantly the brand equity. Brand equity has a significant effect on brand loyalty. The findings also showed that online word of mouth partially mediated the effect of brand equity on brand loyalty. Perceived value did not moderate this relationship between brand equity and brand loyalty. Decision makers are advised to enhance the brand quality by offering additional services in the online and offline environment. Pages 1 to 18




The Role of Levers of Control to Manage Strategic Uncertainty and to Enhance Innovation and Performance

Dwi Ratmonoa, Department of Accounting, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia, Email: adwi.ratmono2@gmail.com

The findings provided by the management control system (MCS)-strategy stream of research remain ambiguous and sometimes contradictory (Henri, 2006a; Langfield-Smith, 2007; Tessier and Otley, 2012; Martyn et al, 2016). Thus,   Langfield-Smith  (2007) and Martyn et al. (2016) suggested  that future MCS-strategy research should focus on the empirical investigation of Simons’ levers of control (LOC) theory  to explain these inconclusive findings. In responding to this suggestion, this study was carried out to examine the role of LOC in managing strategic uncertainty and enhancing organisational innovation and performance. While prior studies treated Simon’s LOC separately, this study attempts to focus on the balanced use of mechanistic and organic MCS as ‘a control package’. Using a mail survey, data were collected from the manufacturing firms listed in the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX). The results show that there is no significant relationship between the level of strategic uncertainty and the intensive use of LOC. As expected, it was found that there is a positive effect of the use of LOC on organisational innovation and performance. Pages 19 to 40




Factors of Influence on School Literation Movement in Basic School: Evidence from Indonesia

Iskandar Agung1*, Novrian S. Perdana2, Etty Sofyatiningrum3, Lucia H. Winingsih4 and Ferdi Widiputera5**, 1,2,3,4,5Center for Policy Research, Research and Development and Books Agency - The Ministry of Education and Culture, The Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, Email: 1*safrusal.1958@gmail.com, 5**pompito2006@gmail.com

This paper aims to explain the influence of exogenous latent variables of government policy, local government, the role of teachers, parental participation, and community participation on school literacy movement programs as endogenous latent variables, as well as their impact on latent endogenous variables of reading culture, reading activities, reading creativity and reading writing, and learning achievement. This paper is the result of a study of 260 grade V elementary school students in three districts / cities, with data collection carried out through a questionnaire distribution that was previously tested to determine the validity and reliability of the question items asked. The analysis technique using SEM was processed with Lisrel version 8.70. This research results in the above exogenous latent variables having a positive effect on the endogenous latent variables of the school literacy movement, and subsequently the school literacy movement becomes an exogenous latent variable that also has a positive effect on the endogenous latent variables of reading culture, reading activity, reading-writing creativity, and achievement student learning. It is recommended that various related parties (the central government of the Ministry of Education and Culture, local government, teachers, parents, and the community) further enhance their roles and functions, and pay attention to strengthening the contribution of indicators in each variable that will support the implementation of the school literacy movement. Pages 41 to 64




Working Towards a Universal User Interface Design of Mobile Applications for Elderly Users: An Arabic Case Study

Ahmed Alsswey1, Khaled abuhmaidan2 1Multimedia Technology Department, AL-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, 2Department of Computing and IT, Global College for Engineering and Technology, Muscat, Oman, Email: 1Ahmad_suwwi@yahoo.com,  1a.alsswey@zuj.edu.jo, 2kabuhumaidan@yahoo.com

The rapid growth in the number of elderly people globally has inspired researchers in human-computer interaction (HCI) to design technologies that enhance their life. The present user interface (UI) of web pages, applications, systems and electronic devices have design issues concerning usability and accessibility for the elderly users which hinder them from using technology at an optimal level. This is particularly true for the elderly users utilising mobile applications for the first time or who have little experience in using them. As people need to access and use information at a much faster rate and at their fingertips, a user interface design that meets their demands and satisfies the concerns of all user groups is vital. This paper covers the limitations faced by elderly users associated with aging such as visual, cognitive and memory impairments and the required design for successful applications. It also describes the interface design elements for these users by suggesting guidelines for developers and interface designers to overcome these limitations. A total of 124 participants were recruited to generate the design guidelines for this study. The results showed colour, font, icons, language, button information architecture and multimedia are the most important UI elements. Pages 65 to 79




Psychological Effects of Peer Tutoring in Mathematics in Primary Education

Lidon Molinerª, Francisco Alegreb, Gil Lorenzoc a,b,cUniversitat Jaume I, Castellon, Spain, Email: ªmmoliner@uji.es , bfalegre@uji.es , cvalentin@uji.es

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/14906

In this work, a literature review of peer tutoring studies in Elementary Education Mathematics has been carried out. This review has focused only on those studies in which psychological variables are analysed. The main objectives of this work have been to compile these studies, to analyse the influence of peer tutoring at a psychological level on the students and to identify those variables that influence the results obtained (type of tutoring, ages of the participants, duration of the sessions...). The final review is made up of 22 studies. Among the main conclusions obtained from its analysis, it should be noted that 16 of these 22 studies reported important improvements in the psychological variables analysed (73% effectiveness), which is a sign of the potential of this methodology. The psychological variable on which the greatest improvements were detected was that of self-concept (89% of studies with evident improvements). Although the conclusions obtained can give a good sample of the potential of this methodology on a psychological level, a series of limitations are provided in this work to be taken into account. These limitations must be taken into account when analysing these conclusions from a critical perspective. Pages 80 to 95




Implication of Knowledge Management at Secondary Level in EFL Classrooms

Ushaque Ahmed1, Najmonnisa Khan2, Rabia Aslam3, Lubna Oad4, Victoria Joseph5, 1,3,4,5Department of Education, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Karachi Pakistan, 2Associate Professor, Department of Education, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Karachi Pakistan. Email: 3rabee_malik@hotmail.com

Knowledge management is a reaction to the emergent recognition of knowledge as the deliverer of institutional success. Knowledge activities such as knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, knowledge utilisation and knowledge storing are the important activities in education. The aim of conducting this study was to explore the EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners’ perception about knowledge management practices in the classroom at secondary level in Karachi, Pakistan. A quantitative approach with survey research design was used for the study. The population of the study was all the lower secondary (grade IX-X/ O-Level) and higher secondary (grade XI-XII/ A-Level) students of Karachi. Simple random sampling technique was used and 350 questionnaires were distributed. 298 questionnaires were returned so the response rate was 85.14%. An adapted “Students’ perception on KM practices in EFL classroom” scale was used. Results from the survey data were analysed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics including crosstabulation and inferential statistics including the Mann-Whitney test were selected for comparing student responses and for significant differences. Finding suggests that knowledge management practices need to be improved in both lower and higher secondary level. The finding also revealed that in higher secondary level (grade X-XI/ A-Level), there are better practices of knowledge management  activities i.e. creating, sharing, utilising and storing in EFL classrooms as compared with lower secondary level (grade IX-X/ O-Level). From the results it is recommended that teachers should be trained to implement KM in classrooms, furthermore the same study is suggested in subjects other than EFL. Pages 96 to 113




Factors Influencing the Decision Making for Cruise Tourism in Thailand: A Case Study of Laem Chabang Port of Call

Kunlasap Thongprasit, Lecturer, Faculty of Business and Industrial Development, Department of Manufacturing and Service Management, King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok, Email: kunlasap.t@bid.kmutnb.ac.th

The objective of this research is to analyse the confirmatory factors influencing the decision making for cruise tourism in Thailand, a case study: Laem Chabang Port of Call. The sample group used in this research consisted of 500 tourists who used the foreigner cruise to travel and stopped at Laem Chabang Port in Thailand as a port of call. The research instrument was a 5-scale rating questionnaire (highest, high, moderate, low and lowest) in 4 areas which are roles of the government, private sector service, tourist attractions and tourism activities. The statistics used for data analysis were frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and index values used to determine the conformity of the model to the empirical data by analysing the confirmatory elements using LISREL program. The results of the research revealed that factors in the decision making for cruise tourism in Thailand, using Laem Chabang Port of Call as a case study consisted of 20 indicators covering 4 areas, namely, 4 indicators for roles of the government, 4 indicators for private sector service, 5 indicators for tourist attractions, and 7 indicators for tourism activities. The analysis of the data by the structural equation model analysis of the 2nd confirmatory factor, found that the model of the confirmatory factors influencing the decision making for cruise travelling in Thailand using Laem Chabang Port of Call as a case study is consistent with the empirical data (c2 = 189.29, df = 166, p= 0.104, c2/df = 1.1403, GFI = 0.96, AGFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.017, SRMR = 0.016). The descending order of importance is: roles of the government, private sector service, tourist attractions and tourism activities. Pages 114 to 127



Marketing Innovation in Vietnam’s SMEs: The Confluence of Environmental Dynamism and Dynamic Capabilities

Dr. Nguyen Viet Anh, Dai Nam University, Hanoi, Vietnam

Literature has recognised marketing innovation as a strategic management tool which is used by managers of small, and medium enterprise (SMEs) to distinguish oneself in the dynamic marketplace, enhance competitiveness, and sustain profitability and business growth. However, studies are limited on the relationship between dynamic capabilities, and SMEs’ marketing innovation. Equally, the relationship between the three distinct dynamic capabilities and marketing innovation has not been empirically investigated. Nevertheless, the literature has yet to establish the moderating effect of environmental dynamism on the relationship between dynamic capabilities and the marketing innovation of SMEs. This study was designed to fill a gap in the dynamic capabilities and innovation literature by investigating the moderating effect of environmental dynamism upon the relationship between the three sets of dynamic capabilities, and the marketing innovation of Vietnam’s SMEs. Drawing support from the resource-based view (RBV), and the dynamic capabilities view (DCV), the study postulated six research hypotheses. A quantitative approach and a cross-sectional research design were adopted, and 411 research questionnaires were self-administered to owners and/or managers of Vietnam’s SMEs. A valid response of 226 questionnaires was achieved, and the data was analysed using the Smart Paritial Least Square 3 (Smart  PLS 3).  From the research outcome, H1, focussed on the direct relationship between marketing knowledge management capability and marketing innovation, as well as H2, on the direct relationship between innovation process management capability and marketing innovation, were supported. However, H3, regarding the relationship between organisational learning capability and marketing innovation, was not supported. Interestingly, H4, H5, and H6, concerning the moderating effect of environmental dynamism upon the relationship between the three dynamic capabilities and marketing innovation, were supported. The study contributes further to the current literature, both in theory, and practice. Future research may test the model in a different organisational or country setting to increase the generalisation of the findings. Pages 128 to 148

Driving Business Innovation and Sustainability through Internet of Things and Data Analytics: An Innovation Stage Model

Mohammad Kamel Daradkeh, Department of Information Technology, Faculty of Information Technology and Computer Sciences, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan

The ever-growing number of connected Internet of Things (IoT) devices, coupled with advances in data analytics, has created widespread opportunities for organizations to develop sustainable business and innovation solutions from the vast amounts of data generated by IoT devices. However, the innovation potential of IoT analytics to create sustainable business value out of IoT data remains largely unexplored, and organizations lack adequate support to determine the innovation stages of their IoT analytics solutions. Based on an analysis of various frameworks and maturity models of IoT analytics and interviews with practitioners, this article identifies four main dimensions that characterize the innovation potential of IoT analytics: 1) data source, 2) data target, 3) data analysis, and 4) data-based transformation. These dimensions are incorporated into an innovation stage model to help organizations identify the innovation stages of their IoT analytics solutions and realize the sustainability benefits offered by these solutions. The utility of this model is illustrated through two case studies from the energy and healthcare sectors. This article aims to bridge the conceptual gap with a model that provides insight into the value of IoT analytics to business innovation and sustainability. In addition, it provides a practical guidance to support management efforts in reorienting their businesses towards sustainable innovation and transformation driven by IoT analytics. Pages 149 to 179

The Destination Image - Behavioural Intention Relationship: Testing Potential Mediations

Nimit Soonsana*, Sasiwemon Sukahbotb, aPhuket Rajabhat University, Thailand, bPrince of Songkla University, Email: a*nimit.s@pkru.com, bsasiwemon.s@psu.ac.th

This study aims to examine a multiple mediation model in which behavioural intention is jointly influenced by interaction among destination image, perceived value and overall satisfaction. Data of 930 international tourists in Phuket was analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine the relationship between the constructs. This study improved the understanding of the role of the multiple mediation model. The results show that destination image did not affect behavioural intention, however, perceived value and overall satisfaction affected behavioural intention. Moreover, perceived valued and overall satisfaction mediated the relationship between destination image and behavioural intention. The study contributes to the literature by understanding direct effects and indirect effects on the relation between destination and behavioural intention. Moreover, it can also provide specific theoretical and managerial implications in the paper. Pages 180 to 199

The Bachelor of Science in Office Administration (BSOA) Graduates of Camarines Sur Polytechnic Colleges (CSPC): A Tracer Study

Jocelyn S. Ojeda-Jintalan, College of Management & Entrepreneurship, Camarines Sur Polytechnic Colleges, Nabua, Camarines Sur 4434, Philippines

This research is primarily a tracer study of the Bachelor of Science in Office Administration Graduates of Camarines Sur Polytechnic Colleges, Nabua, Camarines Sur from 2009 to 2013. Specifically, it sought to determine the personal, professional and employment profile, and the attributes that contribute to employability. It also identified reasons with regards to staying in the job, accepting jobs not related to the course and unemployment. Likewise, the study looks at the expectations met by the program that contributed in meeting the demands of the job and the assessment of the employer on the job performance of the graduates.  Furthermore, this research proposes recommendations to improve the employability of the BSOA graduates. Descriptive survey method was used in this study. The respondents were BSOA graduates and employers. The majority of the graduates are gainfully employed locally, in private organisations, with regular/permanent status, and holding clerical positions. Attributes such as socio-economic, academic and school factors contributed to their employability. Salaries and benefits play a big role in staying in the job and accepting jobs not related to course, while family concern is the main reason why people are not employed. The BSOA program has met the expectation of the graduates but needs to take necessary measures to address the issue of skills that was found out to be fairly met. Pages 200 to 216

Clustering Technology for Analysing Small and Medium Enterprises to Develop Strategies for Sustainable Development

Kaneez Fatima Sadriwalaa, Boumedyen Shannaqb, Lohani Ashraf Ali Khanc, aAssociate Professor, College of Economics Management and information System, University of Nizwa, Oman, bAssociate Professor, College of Business, University of Buraimi, cProfessor, College of Economics Management and information System, University of Nizwa, Oman, akaneez@unizwa.edu.om, bboumedyen@uob.edu.om, cashraf@unizwa.edu.om

The survival rate of Small and Medium Enterprises is decreasing despite several measures taken by governments all over the world. To apprehend the current scenario, this research uses qualitative content analysis to explore the core keywords ‘success’ and ‘failure’ embedded in the data to develop strategies for survival and growth of small and medium businesses. The researchers extracted factors from the case studies by using intelligence analytical tools data mining and SPSS 25, then reviewed the factors affecting the strategies by linking the factors which are either correlated or impact each other, thereafter a conceptual framework is built based on System Theory. Relation Patterns Discovery Process generates a set of principles that are indispensable for developing sustainable strategies for SMEs. All the resultant factors have been divided into three categories, external, internal and moral & ethical factors and their relationship with survival strategies has been developed. The generated new framework demonstrates innovative relationships over the most influential business factors. The obtained results from this work are accurate and will be of vital importance not only for small business owners but also for the potential businesses.  Pages 217 to 235

Comparison of Village Microfinance Institution Performance: The Case of Indonesia

Made Aristia Prayudia, M. Rudi Irwansyahb, Diota Prameswari Vijayac, a,b,cFaculty of Economics, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, Bali, Indonesia, Email: aprayudi.acc@undiksha.ac.id, brudi.irwansyah@undiksha.ac.id, cdiota.pv@undiksha.ac.id  

This study had two-fold purpose; the first objective is to verify the effect of the level of internal control implementation and the degree of institutional environment on loan performance of Village-Owned Enterprises (Badan Usaha Milik Desa—BUMDes) and of Village Credit Institutions (Lembaga Perkreditan Desa—LPD). The second objective is to determine whether or not there is a difference between BUMDes and LPD on its level of internal control implementation, degree of institutional environment and loan performance quality. The 82 respondents were managers of BUMDes and LPD in 40 villages of Buleleng, Bali, Indonesia. Data collected through questionnaires were analyzed using ordinal regression analysis. The results give indication of a positive influence on the level of internal control implementation and the degree of the institutional environment on BUMDes and LPD loan performance quality. In addition, it was found that the degree of the institutional environment perceived by managers in LPDs was higher than in BUMDes, while BUMDes loan performance was higher than LPDs. However, this study failed to find evidence of differences in the level of internal control implemented by BUMDes and LPD. Pages 236 to 256

The Impact of Electronic Service Quality Dimensions on Customers’ E-Shopping and E-Loyalty via the Impact of E-satisfaction and E-Trust: A Qualitative Approach

Ahlam Al-Khayyala, Muhammad Alshuridehb, Barween Al Kurdic, Ahmad Aburayyad,a,b Department of Management, College of Business Administration, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE. bMarketing Department, School of Business, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, cDepartment of Management, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan. d Quality and Excellence Officer, Quality & Corporate Development Office, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, UAE Emails: aaalkhayyal@sharjah.ac.ae, bmalshurideh@sharjah.ac.ae,bm.alshurideh@ju.edu.jo,cbarween@hu.edu.jo, dAmaburayya@dha.gov.ae.

The importance of studying electronic service quality phenomena has been raised especially when a large number of customers are turning to buy online especially during COVID 19 pandemic. Thus, additional research efforts should be exerted to study electronic service quality indicators. Accordingly, this research is planned to examine the influence of electronic service quality indicators on the customers' electronic satisfaction and electronic trust, then exploring the effects of those two factors on customers' electronic shopping and electronic loyalty within the UAE online buying context. A qualitative approach was used to collect the primary data by conducting semi-structured phone interviews and analyze the collected data using a summative content analytical approach. The process of conducting the phone interviews and the ways followed in transcript, code, and analyses the interviews’ contents were described in detail. This study finding indicates that customers’ electronic satisfaction and electronic trust came because of the electronic service quality dimensions effect.  In addition, results indicate that customers' online shopping and loyalty came because of the effect of electronic satisfaction and electronic trust. A set of limitations was mentioned, and some theoretical and managerial implications were briefed at last. Pages 257 to 281

Engagement with Involuntary Clients - A Systematic Literature Review

Dr. Omar Alia, Dr. Faheem Bukharib, Rashed Al Ketbic, aAssistant professor, The American University of the Middle East, Kuwait City -  Kuwait, bAssistant professor - Department of Business and Administration, IQRA University, Karachi Pakistan, cSchool of Management and Enterprise, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba Australia,

Email: aOmar.Ali@aum.edu.kw, bfaheemhasanphd@gmail.com, cyesuae1@hotmail.com

Engagement with involuntary clients has always been challenging and social workers are constantly developing strategies to bridge the gap between themselves and these clients. Involuntary clients, i.e. clients who are legally instructed to seek treatment but often struggle with engagement and are viewed as being resistant. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the literature review analysis with regard to theoretical and practical perspectives in the context of dealing with involuntary clients. Moreover, the authors followed the planning, execution and summarising stage to filter the required data. To achieve the paper’s objective, 582 journal articles were considered and shortlisted to 62 of the most relevant articles to present the analysis. This research review reveals the importance of engagement with involuntary clients and how social workers can cope with this challenge to offer a conducive environment for such clients. This review is also a value addition in the role of a social worker at the workplace in dealing with involuntary clients by following the practical understanding of the subject matter. Lastly, an opportunity for future researchers to understand global studies and future direction with regard to involuntary client management. Pages 282 to 297

Tense in Modern Standard Arabic

Yasir Alotaibi1, Abdel Fattah Daw2Muhammad Alzaidi3 1Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia, 2Department of Arabic Language, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia. 3Department of English, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Email: y.alotaibi@psau.edu.sa

The main aim of this paper is to describe the system of tense in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). It follows some linguists in distinguishing between three points of tense: the speech time, the event time and the reference time. We describe the past tense in MSA and argue that there are four types of past in this language and they should contain the perfective form, which indicates the past tense in neutral context. In addition, this paper discusses the present tense, which is indicated by the imperfective form. We argue that the imperfective form is ambiguous between two aspects of present: habitual and continuous. Finally, we describe the future tense in MSA and show that it is indicated by the imperfective form, following the prefix sa, which is used for near future, or the particle sawfa, which is used for far future. Pages 298 to 306


Voter Participation in the 2019 Concurrent General Elections in Indonesia

Husnul Isa Harahapa, T. Irmayanib, a,bDepartment of Political Science, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia, Email: a*husnul.harahap@usu.ac.id

The background of this research is the general election that was held on April 17th  2019. This election was conducted to elect a president and vice-president as well as legislative members (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah/DPD, Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat/DPR, Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah/DPRD  for Provincial and City/Regency). This study aims to describe the number of active voters (voters who participated in the voting) as a result of general elections in Indonesia, and also in Deli Serdang Regency. Data collection methods in this study include document study, observation, and in-depth interviews in which the informants in this study were election organisers. The findings of this study are that participation data in general elections in Indonesia reached more than 81 percent. In Deli Serdang District, the data on election participation is more than 68 percent. This data explains that the national voter turnout rate in general in the election does not necessarily reflect the election participation rate at the district/city level. This study recommends that mapping of election participation is needed nationally in Indonesia and at the city district level to obtain further tangible data on the 2019 simultaneous election participation rate. Pages 307 to 319

Does Ethical Leadership and Employees’ Personality Effect  Employees Performance: Regional Government in Indonesia

Ade Jaya Sutisnaa, Wawan Ruswandib, Juliansyah Noorc, a,b,cManagement Department, School of Economic and Management La Tansa Mashiro, Soekarno-Hatta, bypass Lebak, Banten 42317, Indonesia. Email:cprofjul.noor@gmail.com 

This paper examines what ethical leadership influences employee performance by focusing on the mediating effects of employee personality. This study used a questionnaire survey. Findings from 287 regional governments argue “that ethical leadership is linked to employee performance” “which is mediated by employee personality. These results likewise prove that ethical leadership has an effect on employee personality. The findings further prove that employee personality significantly mediates the relationship. This study results have several implications for those involved in ethical leadership practices and employee personality. In contrast, Indonesia's focus is unique and contributes to the generalisation of previous studies on the influence of ethical leadership on employee performance. Pages 320 to 333

Accounting Students' Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility: Evidence from Kuwait

Abdullah Almutawa1, Aly M Hewaidy,1Department of Accounting, College of Business Studies, The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (PAAET), Kuwait City, Kuwait, 2Accounting Department, College of business Administration, Kuwait University, Kuwait, Email: 1abdullahalmutawa@yahoo.com, 2ali.hewaidy@ku.edu.kw

This study aims to explore the perceptions and knowledge of accounting students in Kuwait regarding corporate social responsibility (CSR). It further investigates whether sociodemographic factors, such as gender, academic phase and working during study, influence the students’ perceptions of CSR. To examine the differences in CSR’s level of attention and importance among accounting students, a survey questionnaire was developed and distributed in various accounting students’ classes. The results of analyzing revealed that accounting students in Kuwait have a reasonable knowledge about key components of CSR. The analysis further indicated that improving public image, increasing customer loyalty and satisfaction, and increasing support from community are the most important motivations for a company to be a socially responsible entity. Moreover, the results provide some support for the three research hypotheses. Pages 334 to 356

Rural-Urban Segregation: A Special Case of Researching Monetary Income of the Population

Agibalova Viktoriaa, Buntovskiy Sergeyb, Khachirov Askhatc, Osipova Annad, Drannikova Elenae, a,bKuban State Agrarian University named after I.T. Trubilin, Krasnodar. Russian Federation, cInstitute of Service, Tourism and Design. Branch of the North Caucasus Federal University in the city of Pyatigorsk, dDon State Agrarian University. Rostov region. Russian Federation, eThe Branch of Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education “MIREA – Russian Technological University” in Stavropol. Stavropol. Russian Federation.Email:aagibalovavic@yandex.ru, bbuntovsk23@gmail.com, cKhachirov011@gmail.com, dosipova777@gmail.com, edrannikova@gmail.com

Differences in the level of socio-economic development of certain territory types (rural and urban) impact the level of monetary income of the population. This article raises the issue of social asymmetry of the population income depending on the settlement type. The research hypothesis includes several assumptions about the causes of the rural income backwardness due to ascribing factors, as well as several micro and macroeconomic factors. Another important point is the author’s pry into the possible differences of the impact of these factors on the monetary incomes of rural and urban inhabitants. As a result of the analysis, the authors identified differences in distributing the social strata of the rural and urban population according to the level of monetary income, categorised the labour market possibilities depending on the territory types and identified gender and age proportions in the composition of the employed population. The regression analysis revealed differences in the list of factors influencing the income level of the population, which led to the conclusion on the high vulnerability of the rural population in the matter of revenue generation. Pages 367 to 377

Effect of Company Resources and Products Innovation of the Performance SMEs in East Java Batik

Andrias Dwimahendrawana,  Djoko Poernomob, aSTIA Pembangunan Jember, Indonesia, bUniversity of Jember, Indonesia, Email: aandreadvio86@gmail.com , bdjoko-poernomo.fisip@unej.ac.id

This research aims to clarify the effect of company resources, and product innovation on the performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in East Java Batik. his study uses a quantitative approach with a sample of 92 (SMEs) in Banyuwangi district, Bangkalan district, Sumenep district, and Tuban district. The data analysis was performed by using a regression technique. The results showed that company resources, and product innovations significantly influence the company's performance. The originality of this study is found in valuable and rare indicators of company resource variables that affect the performance of batik SMEs in East Java. Pages 378 to 385

Legal Protection of the Academic Staff’s Innovations According to the Jordanian Legislation

Dr. Mohammad Ashraf Khalid Ali Al-Qheiwi, Dr. Abdulwahab Abdullah Ahmed Al-Maamari, Faculty of Law, Isra University

The innovations of the academic staff are parts of the intellectual property which should be legally protected by the legislator as part of the private property. It is a legitimate human intellectual production that includes the abstract and material aspects, through national legislation and international conventions. The material value of any scientific production is not only the direct financial income but can take different forms such as a research paper, book, software program or an invention in any field including medical, engineering, technical, humanitarian and social.  Given the nature of work in universities that goes beyond mere teaching to scientific research and innovation, and due to the significance of research in providing legal protection for academic staff’s innovations, the researchers implement the descriptive analytical approach in the light of legislations and judicial rulings related to the subject of research. The paper concludes some findings and recommendations including that the protection of academic staff’s innovations has to obtain special care and be explicitly included in the relevant legislation. Pages 386 to 410

The Authority of the Indonesian Public Prosecutor to Propose A Judicial Review

Abdul Jamil, Faculty of Law, Universitas Islam Indonesia, E-mail: abdul.jamil@uii.ac.id

Generally, in the practice of the Indonesian judiciary system, court proceedings will finally be finished at the Supreme Court level. However, Indonesian law permits the extraordinary legal effort of judicial review (peninjauan Kembali or herziening) with some circumstances. Article 263 of Indonesian Criminal Procedure Code (KUHAP) regulates that merely the convicted person or his/her heirs can request the judicial review to the Supreme Court. Therefore, two problem formulations are presented in this study: what is the legal basis of submitting a judicial review before the Court? and do the public prosecutors have the chance to request the judicial review before the Court? With normative legal research this study analysed the juridical basis of the judicial review under the Indonesian law. This study also applied the statutory approach and conceptual approach to provide comprehensive result analysis. This study also analysed the possibility of the public prosecutor’s authority in submitting judicial review under Indonesian law. Pages 411 to 418

Empowerment Role of School Principals in the Republic of Maldives

Hashim, M. H. Ma, Hassan, F. Mb, Ibrahim, Ac, aUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Email: amhisyam@uthm.edu.my, bmfahmyhassan@gmail.com, cgreenabdullah@hotmail.com

The school principal plays a crucial role in ensuring the continuous improvement of school education. The responsibilities of the school principal lie not only in the management of the school as an institution but also in the development of the school as a learning institution, in student achievement and also in the motivation of positive changes. The school principal must strive to bring positive changes in their school environment. It is a responsibility for the school principal to practice possible ways to empower and promote leadership qualities within teachers in their school. Such practices of empowerment will allow the school principal to manage their school more effectively. In order to address the challenges confronted by the Ministry of Education in the Republic of Maldives in preparing a new generation of school leaders, it is important to explore the empowerment role of school principals in the Republic of Maldives. This study used a qualitative method to explore the empowerment role of school principals in the Republic of Maldives. Data was gained from unstructured interviews to explore more detailed phenomena and to get rich data. Ten participants from three different schools in the Republic of the Maldives that consist of school principals, school teachers and students, have been interviewed. The findings show that the empowerment of school principals can be displayed by organisation structure, which reflects the culture in a school organisation. This study concludes that a school principal should be focused on organisational culture, specifically the organisational structure, in order to empower school organisational members. Thus, the study suggests that school principals should identify the interest and skills of teachers, and assign tasks and responsibilities to them in line with their skills and interest. Pages 419 to 436

The Development of Political Dynasty: Increasing the Number of Women Holding Political Office in Indonesia

Ali Yusria, Adlinb, a,b Lecturer at the Government Study, University of Riau, Indonesia, Email : a*aliyusri@lecturer.unri.ac.id

Indonesia has a strong patriarchal culture, and many Indonesians believe that political offices are better filled by men than by women. This, however, has begun to change as political dynasties throughout Indonesia have begun to push their female members to occupy political office. This paper seeks to describe, first, the type of women who have, with the backing of particular political dynasties, contested legislative offices (i.e. in the Indonesian Parliament, House of Regions, and local parliament); second, the type of women who have, with the backing of particular political dynasties, gained executive office at the regional level. This study uses a qualitative approach, with descriptive analytical methods; data were collected from documents, then analysed qualitatively. This article concludes that the women who contest legislative offices are the wives and children of dynasty founders, as are the women who hold regional leadership. At the practical level, this article helps explain the increased number of women holding political office in Indonesia. At the theoretical level, this article shows that, owing to their dynastic background, women's political representation in Indonesia remains anomalous. Pages 437 to 446

Development of the Business Model of Hyacinth Crafts Industry to Improve Competitive Advantage and Performance in a Wetland Environment

Nuril Hudaa, Siti Aliyati Albushairib, Ahmad Alim Bachric, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia, cProfessor of Economics, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia, Email: anurilhuda@ulm.ac.id, bsaabushairi@ulm.ac.id, caalimbachri@ulm.ac.id  

In the era of industrial revolution 4.0, the development of the water hyacinth handicrafts industry requires a new business model. This study investigates the influence of marketing strategies, market orientation, entrepreneurial orientation, government policies, competitive advantage and performance. This study was conducted in Hulu Sungai Utara district, South Kalimantan, a province in Indonesia that is a wetland area. Nearly 90 percent of the area is covered with water hyacinth plants. Water hyacinth handicrafts have the potential to develop in that area. The samples taken were as many as 158 respondents. Data collection technique was done through observation and interviews using questionnaires. Partial Least Square was used in this study. The results show marketing strategies, government policies, and competitive advantage influence performance. Market orientation influences competitive advantage. The indications are marketing strategies, government policy, and competitive advantage play a role in improving performance. Market orientation plays a role in improving competitive advantage.  This study suggests the business model that needs to be developed in this industry are business models that are suited to the tastes of the customers, such as conducting digital promotion, market-oriented, positioning quality-based products (unique), adopting government policies, and encouraging the governments to establish a Special Vocational Training Centre for craftsmen. Pages 447 to 465

Agrarian Transformation through Technical and Institutional Reforms: A Case Study of Madhya Pradesh

Dr. S. Lingamurthya, Dr. Anish Guptab, aAssistant Professor, Department of Economic Studies and Planning, School of Business Studies, Central University of Karnataka, Kadaganchi, Kalaburagi, Karnataka (India), bAssistant Professor, DR. BRA College, Delhi University, New Delhi, Email: asathulingamurthy@gmail.com, banish.brac11@gmail.com

The state of Madhya Pradesh is the only state of the Union of India where Agricultural growth has consistently been between 15-20 % in the last quinquennial (2010-15). Year 2010 can be marked as structural break for agrarian development, which coincides with high priority given to agriculture by the current regime. As a result, the state of Madhya Pradesh has become the only state in the country where agricultural growth has been consistently higher than GSDP growth for last few years (very rare to be found) especially when GSDP growth is also at a moderate level. Agricultural development is more remarkable given the fact that the state is comparatively less naturally bestowed from the point of view of agriculture than all other agriculturally forward states of the country. Despite natural constraints, better management in the implementation centrally sponsored schemes and newly initiated state schemes, along with transparency and equity were the key factors to take agriculture forward. These are the policy lessons, other states can learn from the state. The paper studies how Madhya Pradesh implemented game-changing policies in agriculture within a short span of time. In doing so, the state has bagged Krishi Karman Award for Agriculture for four consecutive years. Pages 466 to 489

The Low Birth Weight in Indonesia: Does Antenatal Care Matter?

Sri Supadmia, Ina Kusrinib*, Noviati Fuadac, Agung Dwi Laksonod, a,b,cUnit of Health Research and Development Magelang, Indonesia Ministry of Health, Central Java, Indonesia, dCenter of Research and Development of Humanities and Health Management, Indonesia Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia. Email: b*dyy_syg@yahoo.com

Antenatal care is an effort to monitor pregnancy to provide the best output for mothers and their babies. This study aimed to analyse the determinants of low birth weight in Indonesia. The samples used were women aged 15-49 years old who had given birth in the last 5 years in Indonesia. The sample size was 36,548 women. The variables analysed included antenatal care visits, type of place of residence, age group, marital status, education level, employment status, and wealth status. The final stage uses binary logistic regression to determine predictors. The results of the study found that women who gave birth in the last five years who had complete antenatal care visits were 0.630 times more likely than women who did not complete antenatal care visits to give birth to a low birth weight baby (OR 0.630; 95% CI 0.556-0.715). This means that women who do not complete antenatal care visits have a higher likelihood of having low birth weight babies. Apart from antenatal care visits, the analysis also found 3 other variables that were also proven to be statistically significant predictors of low birth weight in Indonesia, namely age group, education level, and wealth status. It was concluded that antenatal care visits are a predictor of the incidence of women giving birth to low birth weight babies. Complete antenatal care visits reduce a woman's risk of having a low birth weight baby. Pages 490 to 500

The Strengthening of Human Resources in Private Universities During the Covid-19 Pandemic in Banjarmasin, Indonesia

Agustinus Herminoa, Dwi Sogi Sri Redjekib, Imron Arifinc, a,bSari Mulia University, Banjarmasin, Indonesia, cState University of Malang, Indonesia, Email: aagustinushermino@unism.ac.id, agustinus_hermino@yahoo.com, bdwisogi@yahoo.com, cimron.arifin.fip@um.ac.id

The purpose of this research to explore information from 4 private universities in Banjamasin, Indonesia regarding how to strengthen human resources during the Covid-19 pandemic so that students can still utilise their right to gain knowledge from lecturers even though students study from home and lecturers work from home. Sources of data from this qualitative research are lecturers, students, educational staff, parents and the Head of the Higher Education Services Region-11 Kalimantan. Focus of the research includes: 1) impact of the pandemic on the private universities; 2) obstacles in the learning process strategy; and 3) policies in managing resources. The result of this research are: 1) the leaders in private universities and the head of the foundations work together to optimise the role of all lecturers and educational staff to continue working, even from home; 2) private universities collaborate with telecommunications offices in the regions to provide free internet to lecturers and students so that the learning process can continue to run well; and 3) private higher educational institutions work together with the government to provide health information updates to parents of students so that parents can continue to follow the development process of handling Covid-19. Pages 501 to 518

Factors Leading the Investor to Price Securities in the Emerging Financial Market: A Survey Study in Oman

Dr. Arshed Fouad Altameemi, Professor of Finance, Business Administration and Accounting Department, Al Buraimi University College, Sultanate of Oman, Email: Arshad_altemimi@yahoo.com

This study adopts the extensively utilised methods, the precisely fundamental and technical analysis indicators, to survey investor opinion regarding securities pricing. The main objective of this paper is to explore the factors guiding the Omani investor to price the securities. A questionnaire was designed to collect the primary data, which includes 25 questions that cover most of the fundamental and technical analysis indicators relevant to securities pricing. The questionnaire was distributed on a simple random sample comprised of 100 Omani investors in the Muscat Securities Market, for two periods, December 2019 and January 2020. The study uses factor analysis to test two hypotheses. The first is regarding the fundamental and technical analysis indicators that may lead to the best mechanism to price the common stocks. In contrast, the second hypothesis concerns finding the significance level of the correlation coefficient between these indicators. Two key factors are highly involved with the Omani investors in the outcome of the study; every factor included indicators with statistically relevant correlation coefficients below 0.05. This study will help the Omani investor to understand the factors of pricing securities and to avoid overreactions toward price movements. Pages 519 to 532

Impact of Diversity & Work Cognition Inventory on Team Satisfaction

Syeda Urooj Babara*, Dr. Hafiz Mushtaq Ahmadb, aPh.D. Scholar, Bahria University Islamabad, Pakistan, & Lecturer University of Swabi, bProfessor, Bahria University Islamabad, Pakistan, Email: a*urooj_sayyed@hotmail.com, a*urooj@uoswabi.edu.pk, bh.mushtaqahmad@gmail.com

This study investigated the impact of team diversity and work cognition inventory on health professionals’ team satisfaction and team performance. The study adopted a realism paradigm in which a total of eighteen interviews were taken from health care sector staff, that is, doctors, nurses and the administrative staff of private sector hospitals in Pakistan. This study aids in exploring the effect of multi-dimensional backgrounds of team members –  their generational, learning, practical, task-relevant, opinion, personality and behavioural backgrounds – on team satisfaction and performance. The study also explains the low level of social affiliations and coordination among diversified team members and its worsening effect on team performance, plus   possible solutions for overcoming it. Thus this study helps in understanding diversified teams and creating optimum performance from health sector staff members by increasing their social connections and coordination within the team for enhancing their satisfaction with the team. Pages 533 to 552

Board of Directors Characteristics and Firm Performance: Evidence from the Insurance Sector in Bahrain

Dr Abdulqawi A. Hezabr1, Dr Mohammed Helmy Qeshta2, Dr Ghassan F. Abu Alsoud3, 1,2Department of accounting and finance, Applied science University- Bahrain, 3Banking and Finance Program, Bahrain Polytechnic, Email: 1Abdulqawi.hezabr@asu.edu.bh, 2Mohammed.qeshta@asu.edu.bh, 3Ghassan.alsoud@polytechnic.bh

This paper aims to examine the relationship between the board of directors’ characteristics and insurance firms’ performance. The study focused on an important sector, insurance companies in Bahraini Bourse for the past eight years (2012-2019). Data were obtained from annual reports issued by the firm’s sites of both the characteristic of boards of directors that were considered as the independent variable and the firm's performance that was regarded as the dependent variable. The research analysed how the board of directors’ characteristics relates to return on equity (ROE), return on assets (ROA) and earnings-per-share (EPS), which measure company performance. The analysis used the Panel regression approach. The study found a positive and significant relationship between the frequency of boards meeting and insurance performance. Other characteristics are found insignificant, specifically, the board size, independent directors, and board attendance. Pages 553 to 573

Landfill Liner: A Review of Materials and Enhancement Potential

Qays Kadhim Redhwa1*,  Dr. Jathwa Abd-Alkareem Al-Ameen2, 1PhD Student, Environmental Engineering Department, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq, 2Assist Prof., Environmental Engineering Department, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq, Email: 1kais11111@yahoo.com, 2jathwa58@yahoo.com

Liner is the most known name in the field of landfill innovation and has gotten enormous consideration from various research groups. Being an interdisciplinary zone of research, there have been testing different materials to find the best liners material. This review unveils the improvement of liners from their origin, the significant achievements in the materials utilised and as well as incredible varieties. Beginning from the traditional single layer (clay), multilayer layer utilisation of materials mixes are discussed. Endeavours have been made to reveal insight into the selection of alternate materials depending on changes in thickness.  This is capable of noticing how much the soil will only be reasonable for the development of the liner depending on its acquired hydraulic conductivity, despite the financial benefits decided by using the combinations of treated soil-various materials, the utilisation of this industrial result rather than removal will help in enhancing related environmental problems. During this review paper, a thorough study on research by scientists on the utility of various materials as liners for landfills is completed by experimenting to find appropriate material. Pages 574 to 583

Computer-Assisted Instruction in the Teaching and Learning of History: A Systematic Review in Africa

Nana Osei Bonsu (Mr.)a*, Brandford Bervell (Ph.D.)b, Emelia Kpodo (Ms.)c, Valentina Arkorful (Ph.D.)d, John K. E. Edumadze (Mr.)e, aAburaman Senior High School, Ghana, bCollege of Distance Education, University of Cape Coast, Ghana, cIndependent Researcher, Ghana, dE-learning and Technology Unit, College of Distance Education, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. eDeputy Director, Directorate of ICT's, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. Email: a*nanseezy@gmail.com, bb.bervell@ucc.edu.gh, ckpodo.mily@gmail.com, dvalentina.arkorful@ucc.edu.gh, ejedumadze@ucc.edu.gh

More than a decade has passed since the introduction of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) within schools in Africa. Computer-assisted instruction has enhanced teaching and learning at all levels of education in Africa. However, many aspects of the issues facing CAI implementation, as well as its effects on students’ performance in the history classroom are unclear. This necessitated the systematic review into two aspects. Firstly, the effects of CAI on students’ performance in the teaching and learning of history in Africa, and secondly, the various challenges facing CAI’s implementation in Africa. Furthermore, to facilitate future research, the researchers summarised several research methodologies used in the studies reviewed. The results from a systematic review of 11 studies revealed that CAI has a positive effect on students’ academic performance in history. The challenges to CAI implementation that were identified included: a lack of funding, training of teachers, and of motivation on the part of teachers; inadequate technological infrastructure; a lack of Internet; an unstable power supply; a lack of technological support; the poor information communication technology (ICT) skills of history and social studies teachers; a lack of school-based policies; and a digital divide between male and female students. Moreover, a quantitative approach was the preferred design with both descriptive and inferential statistics as the main statistical tools used for the data analysis. Additionally, there is a scarcity in research studies that employ an experimental design to test for the effect of CAI upon academic performance in history teaching. Lastly, the studies that use a questionnaire tool for data analysis can take a progressive step further by conducting structural equation modelling, which is an advanced quantitative analysis. Pages 584 to 605

Microclimate Analysis of Forest Management on Small Island

Christophil S. Medellu, Physics Department, Manado State University, Indonesia, Email: chrismedellu@yahoo.co.id

This article describes the results of forest microclimate analysis, to evaluate forest conditions and forest functions for water availability in the dry season. The results of the microclimate analysis are also used to reflect the socio-cultural aspects of the community in the preservation of forest functions, especially for the availability of clean water. The study was conducted on Kahakitang Island, which often experiences water shortages in the dry season. Microclimate variables studied included air temperature, air humidity and soil temperature. Microclimate analysis includes vertical profiles of air temperature and horizontal thermal diffusion. The results show that the condition of the forest in Behongang village is at a critical limit. The results of study recommend the planting trees and land cover vegetation in a buffer location that is currently used by the community for planting spices and vegetables. Inputs from research results include: making biopores in forests and buffer zones; diverting the cultivation of spices and vegetables from buffer zones by utilising home yards; utilising waste for compost; and the community are responding well to them. The limitation of this study is that the feedback has a long positive impact and is not immediately felt by the community. Pages 606 to 623

Influence of Brand Equity on Intentions to Visit Tourist Destinations: The Case of United Arab Emirates Outbound Travellers

Asad Abruruman1, Tafazal Kumail2, Farah Sadiq3, Syed Mudasser Abbas4, 1University of Sharjah, UAE, 2College of Tourism and Service Management, Nankai University, Tianjin, China, 3Department of Tourism Management, Guangxi University, Nanning China, 4School of Management, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.  Email: 2tafazalkumail@yahoo.com

Understanding the factors influencing the tourist visiting destination is very important for policy-makers to ensure the tourism sector grows and attracts particular groups of tourists. This study empirically tests the influence of brand equity, for example perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association and brand loyalty to determine tourists’ intentions to visit destinations. This study is conducted on the United Arab Emirates (UAE) outbound travellers because as rich tourists they are the target customers for many tourist countries. This study collected primary data in Sep-Nov 2019 based on a questionnaire survey among 286 usable respondents and utilised Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with PLS software. The findings display a vivid demographic profile of UAE tourists and their destination visit intention which is found to be statistically significant with all of the four tested dimensions of brand equity. The findings will help tourism agencies and the industry to develop tourism packages, especially when targeting UAE tourists. This study will also help policy-makers to improve the tourism sector by understanding the nature and interests of UAE tourists. Pages 624 to 644

The Customer Satisfaction of Co-Working Space by Service Marketing Mix: A Case Study of Dummy Co-Working Space Provider at Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand

Adisak Suvittawat, School of Management Technology, Suranaree University of Technology

With the advent of the internet and virtual computing, co-working space has become a buzz word of our time.  The objective of this study is to find out the parameters of customers’ satisfaction of co-working spaces, using the service marketing mix model. The researchers set up a dummy co-working space in Nakhonrachasima (Korat), Thailand, to test consumer reactions firsthand. We followed the service marketing mix model and studied product perspective, price perspective, place perspective, promotion perspective, people perspective, physical evidence perspective and process perspective of a modern co-working space that follows the switch to the digital economy in which companies leverage new forms of employment and social structure. Merchants and consumers become more digital at the same time and new solutions for creative workspaces have to be conceptualised. The four hundred participants provided valuable insights into the needs and wants of customers and their level of customer satisfaction. It is hoped to replicate this study at other co-working spaces in Thailand and around the world. Pages 645 to 662

The Effect of Using Edmodo in Teaching English Courses on Developing the Trend Towards 21st Century Skills Among English Courses’ Learners

Rami Aljamaeena, Radwan Abusaifb, Mohammed Mahmoud Humiedanc, Mozaffar Mansoord, Ahmed B. Metwallye, and Hayah M. Abouelnagaf, aComputer Department, Deanship of Preparatory Year and Supporting Studies, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, b,c,d,e,fCollege of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

This study examined the Effect of Using Edmodo in Teaching English Courses on Developing the Trend Towards 21st Century Skills among English courses’ learners. The perceptions of students towards using Edmodo in teaching was examined using an experimental design of online tests and a scale following the interventions. The study sample comprised 60 randomly selected Jordanian students who study English courses in the English language centre. The results show noteworthy academic performance and 21st century skills of students after the interventions. This study proposes the examination of the impact of other learning platforms on teaching other courses in future studies. Pages 663 to 676

Perception of and Satisfaction with Video Assistant Refereeing in Soccer

Petronella Joncka, Jhalukpreya Surujlalb, Manilall Dhurupc, aFaculty of Economic and Management Sciences, North-West University, bFaculty of Economic and Management Sciences, North-West University, cFaculty of Management Sciences, Vaal University of Technology, Email: apetrojonck@hotmail.com, bBabs.Surujlal@nwu.ac.za, croyd@vut.ac.za

The recent introduction of Video Assistant Referee (VAR) in soccer yielded mixed responses from soccer enthusiasts. This study primarily aimed at determining how much variance in satisfaction with VAR could be explained by the perceptions thereof. The secondary aim was to determine the effect of selected demographic variables on perception and satisfaction with VAR in a South African sample. A cross-sectional quantitative survey entailing a non-probability sample consisting of 140 (n = 140) respondents was used to measure perception and satisfaction with VAR at soccer matches. Inferential statistical analyses were performed viz. multiple regression analysis, independent sample t-tests and MANOVA to analyse the dataset. Results indicated that perception of VAR statistically significantly predicted satisfaction with the stated. It was determined that 22.2% of the variance in satisfaction with Video Assistant Refereeing could be attributed to the perception thereof. Additionally, as perception increased there was a concurrent increase in satisfaction with VAR. Results relating to the demographic variables and the impact thereof on perception of and satisfaction with VAR yielded mixed results. The application of VAR, in conclusion, has to be improved considerably for it to placate soccer enthusiasts as evident from the results presented. Pages 677 to 691

ACT as a Proposed Modality for Medical Students' Performance Anxiety

Nicholas Pang1, Farhana H.M. Bahar2, Fatimah Ahmedy2*, Eugene Koh3, 1Department of Community & Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia, Email: 2*fatimahmedy@ums.edu.my

Performance anxiety is similar in both sports and clinical medical examinations. Frequent practising for autopilot skills performance and psychological endurance are present in a sporting environment and clinical examination setting. Hence, performance anxiety is a modifiable factor that should be targeted for psychological preparation. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), a psychological intervention promoting mindfulness and awareness of thoughts, is proven to enhance performance among sportspeople and musicians. This concept paper highlights conceptual similarities on performance anxiety between sporting and clinical examinations and proposed ACT as a treatment modality to enhance performance among medical candidates, as well as methods for measuring the improvement. Pages 692 to 701

Reconstructing the Border: Social Integration in Reyna Grande’s The Distance Between Us

Elisabeth Ngestirosa Endang Woro Kasih1, John Evar Strid2,

1Universitas Gadjah Mada & Universitas Teknokrat Indonesia, 2Northern Illinois University. Email: 1e.ngestirosa.e@mail.ugm.ac.id, 2jstrid@niu.edu

Chicano literature emerged as a part U.S. literature, an example of a minority literature or an immigration literature. This literature has been a vehicle for Chicanos to express their voices relating to crossing the border and the differences they found on the other side, including their experiences with prejudice from the native-born. This article aims to examine Reyna Grande’s The Distance Between Us with the goal of offering a new perspective on the border in Chicano literature and from this perspective to suggest a remedy for collective justice in the twenty-first century. David José Saldívar (1997) and Ramon Saldívar (1979) discuss the arrival of Chicano literature as a new form within U.S. letters. Grande’s memoir tells the story of an immigrant’s life on the U.S.-Mexico border with the dialectics of difference a fundamental truth in her life. Her experience with the border gives Grande the chance to give voice to life changes for Chicanos living in the U.S. This article proposes that the dialectics of difference generates significant individual change, starting first as dreams and then leading to individual fulfillment and integration into the host country. Pages 702 to 715

Business Licensing Issues Under the Indonesian Omnibus Law Bill

Dr. Mailinda Eka Yuniza, S.H., LL.M.1, Melodia Puji Inggarwati2, I Wayan Bhayu Eka Pratama3, 1,2,3Faculty of Law, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: 1mailinda@ugm.ac.id, 2melodia.puji.inggarwati@mail.ugm.ac.id, 3wayanbhayu2017@mail.ugm.ac.id

This writing aims to analytically study the licensing and administrative aspects of the drafting plan of the omnibus law inside the Job Creation Bill. It also aims to find legal issues and the legality of the formation of the bill. Considering that there are still many controversial issues related to this bill. This study uses normative-legal research methods. The type of data used is qualitative data. The data used is secondary data, mainly legal materials and sources. The approach used in problem analysis is the conceptual approach and statutory approach. The authors found that the Job Creation Bill is exclusively economically-oriented and is lacking in legal certainty. Further adjustments within the Job Creation Bill must be conducted, as to anticipate its existing disadvantages. The findings can be useful as a source or as study material for the government and parliament in refining the Job Creation Bill. The novelty in this study is to compare various legal issues, both the advantages and disadvantages of the Job Creation Bill so that a comprehensive conclusion can be reached. Pages 716 to 733

The degradation of Notarial deed in the aspect of Law on evidence

Rahmida Erliyani, Faculty of Law, Lambung Mangkurat University, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, Email:rahmidaerliyani@ulm.ac.id 

The purposes of this study are to analyse the cause of the degradation of notarial deed; analyse the juridical implications in the proving process, if the Notarial deed is degraded from its position as an authentic deed; and analyse the responsibility of a Notary to the event of degradation to the deed he or she made. This study is legal research, which uses statute, case, and conceptual approaches. The legal material analysis was performed through the descriptive perspective. The results showed that the degradation of Notarial deed can occur if the process in creating a Notarial deed is not exhaustive, and does not fulfil the formal and material requirements of a deed, as stated in the provisions of the Law on the Notary office. The position of a Notarial deed as an authentic deed, and in the law upon proving, occupies the position as a strong evidence because it has a perfect and binding evidentiary value. Pages 734 to 745

The Development of Local Authority Personnel for Vision Forming and Sustainable Conservation Strategic Planning in Bangpakong River, Thailand

Phussadee Phummaraa, Supaporn Songprachab, a,bFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand. Email: aultra7white@hotmail.com, bsupaporn.sog@mahidol.ac.th

This study aims to develop the local authority personnel for visionary forming and strategic planning on Bangpakong River’s sustainable conservation. The mixed-method research was used, both qualitative method – in-depth interview, focus group discussion and future search conference (FSC) – and quantitative method – survey research through the questionnaires. Data were analysed through descriptive statistics including percentage, mean, standard deviation, paired T-test and content analysis. According to the results of this research, it is found that the procedural model can develop local authority personnel to create visions and strategy plan on the Bangpakong River’s sustainable conservation. Furthermore, the procedural model consists of the three significant components to be connected together: the first component - the current situations and the Bangpakong River’s conservation problem; the second component – the knowledge and understanding about Bangpakong river’s conservation; and the third component – the potential of local government organisations. Based on the results, these three significant components are the factors affecting the development of a local authority personnel to create visions and strategy plan on Bangpakong River’s sustainable conservation. Considering the aforementioned factors, the research and development on environmental education was used to mobilize the local authority personnel in order to create visions and strategy plan on Bangpakong River’s sustainable conservation. Pages 746 to 764

The Contingency Analysis of Factors Influencing the Application of the Target Costing Method

Abdussalam Mahmoud Abu-Tapanjeha*, Miss, Baida’a Naser Al Tarawnehb, aDean of the School of Business, Department of Accounting, School of Business, Mutah University, Karak, Jordan,  

Email: a*tapanjeh@mutah.edu.jo, bbaida.tarawneh@yahoo.com

This study aims to analyse the contingency factors affecting the application of the target costing method. These factors were divided into external contingency factors, namely, competition and environmental uncertainty, whereas the internal contingency factors included company size and manufacturing technology. The study adopted a survey strategy and a questionnaire was developed as the data collection method to gather primary data from a simple random sample. The sample were accountants working in Jordanian industrial public shareholding companies, including all the financial managers of these companies. The statistical analysis program (SPSS) was used to analyse the collected data, utilising descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The results of this study show that there is a significant impact of contingency factors on applying the target costing method in Jordanian industrial public shareholding companies. Also, the study shows that increased competition, environmental uncertainty and the application of industrial technology have a significant influence on the target costing method, while company size does not significantly affect the target costing method. This study provides a set of recommendations that were drawn from the primary data analysis. The study recommends that companies should rely on the manufacturing systems that help in reducing the cost of the product, and companies should have ongoing monitoring of the competitors' products in terms of their prices and quality. In addition to this, companies should pay considerable attention to effectively identify and satisfy their clients' needs and wants, as well as the after-sale services that should be offered by companies. Pages 765 to 781

The Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment and its Implication upon Non-Oil Export in Indonesia Using SmartPLS

Arkas Viddy1, Rafiqoh2, Besse Asniwati3, 1Business Administration Study Program Politeknik Negeri Samarinda, 2Financial and Banking Study Program of Politeknik Negeri Samarinda, 3Marketing Managerial Study Program of Politeknik Negeri Samarinda, Email: 1viddy.arkas@yahoo.com, 2fiqopolnes@yahoo.com, 3besse317@gmail.com.

The research objectives are to analyse the structural model of the financial risk, interest rate, and exchange rate upon foreign direct investment and its implication upon non-oil exports in Indonesia. The independent variables are financial risk, interest rates, and exchange rates. The intervening variable is foreign direct investment, while the dependent variable is non-oil export, and it will be supported by data from 1999 to 2018. The method of this research is a path analysis, where Partial Least Square software was used as the instrument to estimate the data. The study found that none of the independent variables have a significant influence upon foreign direct investment. However, the result proved that the financial risk, and foreign direct investment have significant influences upon non-oil export. Pages 782 to 796

Innovations of Islamic Personal Financing Mechanisms in Malaysia

Amir Fazlim Jusoh Yusoffa, Mohammad Zaini Yahayab, Research Centre for Shariah, Faculty of Islamic Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia, Email: aamiry@ukm.edu.my

Since the emergence of Islamic banking in Malaysia in 1984, Islamic personal financing mechanisms have been continuously realised through innovative products. Innovations are essential to maintain Shariah compliant status. Malaysia has its own regulatory framework concerning Islamic finance. Nonetheless, influential institutions in Sharia such as the Islamic Fiqh Academy of OIC, the Muslim World League and the Accounting and Auditing Organisation for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) are considered giants in international standards providers in Islamic finance. Some controversial products do not comply with the international standards, even though they are considered Shariah compliant in Malaysia. This research analyses Islamic personal financing mechanisms in Malaysia, their conformity with world standards, and current innovations. The paper concludes that Islamic personal financing mechanisms have evolved over time because of disputes concerning the legality of the products. Contemporary Islamic financing mechanisms are anticipated to solve the problems of current applications. Pages 797 to 813

The Morphological Term in Ibn 'Usfour al-Ishbili`s Book "Almomti' Alkabeer Fi Altasreef" Between Tradition and Facilitation

Dr. Mustafa Taher Al-Haidrah, Yarmouk University-Jordan, Email: hydr12@yahoo.com

Terminology is the basic tool through which scientists and researchers access different sciences. If different sciences need the term, linguistic sciences are the mainstay of scientists in other sciences to address their terminology. Ibn 'Usfour al-Eshbili represents one of the most important scientists who contributed to the construction of the Andalusian linguistic lesson; for his inspiration from the language sciences in the Levant, he reformulated in a way that the Moroccans can communicate with them easily. This was represented in a series of books he wrote in various language sciences, including morphology. This paper seeks to identify the efforts made by Ibn 'Usfour al-Eshbili in dealing with the linguistic term in general and the morphological term in particular, to identify the places that he committed to what he found among the orientalists, and the areas of renewal at the level of pronunciation and definition in the provision of terms in a convenient way. Pages 814 to 831

Effect of Academic Distress on Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students

Dr. Bibi Asia Naza, Dr. Javed Iqbalb, Dr. Khuda Bakhshc, Khurram Ilahid, a,bAssistant professor, Department of Education, Hazara University Mansehra, cAssistant Professor, Department of Education, GC University Faisalabad, Pakistan, dM.Phil Scholar, Department of Education, Hazara University Mansehra, Email: aasianaz@hu.edu.pk, bjavediqbal73@hu.edu.pk, ckhudabakhsh@gcuf.edu.pk, dkhurramelahikhan@gmail.com

This study examined academic distress and its effect on academic performance of male and female undergraduate students studying in Natural and Social Sciences disciplines. For this purpose the data was collected from 480 students selected through simple random sampling from public sector universities of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan. Data was collected through a questionnaire. The data was analysed through mean score and regression. The findings showed that university students experience moderate academic distress and it is affecting their academic performance. It was suggested that students be encouraged to engage in a variety of social activities and advised to consult with the students’ counselling centre to overcome academic distress related problems and issues. Pages 832 to 843

A Critical analysis of the hurdles in the way of Peace and Stability in Afghanistan

Dr. Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Sohail Khan2, Altaf Hussain3, Mubarak Zeb4, Asif Ali Shah5, Dr. Muhammad Rizwan6, Huma Qayum7, 1Lecturer, Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 2,4,5, M. Phil Scholar, Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra, 3Lecturer in Political Science, Government Degree College Buner, Khyber Pakhutnkhwa, 6Associate Professor & Chairman, Department of Pakistan Studies AUST, 7Ph.D. Scholar (Political Science) and Visiting lecturer International Islamic University Islamabad IIUI, Emails: 1muhammadtariq@hu.edu.pk, 2muhammadsohailkhan55@gmail.com,  3altafhussain3631@mail.com, 4mubarakzeb82@gmail.com,  5asifkhan25927@gmail.com, 6drmuhammadrizwanausr@.edu.pk7humamdn@gmail.com,

This paper analyzes the most burning and significant issue of the future of Afghanistan and the role of various dynamics in the security and political stability of the country. Taliban are going to ascend the throne of Kabul though coercive means and has become a headache for the government of Afghanistan, the United States and allied partners and the regional powers. The paper takes into account the significance of the trilateral group that got them united to act as defensive regional group for maintaining the security of the region. Research questions of the study include the role of trilateral groups in defending their frontiers, the issue of two governments in Afghanistan, implications of keeping the Pak-Afghan border open and the implications of the US airstrikes on the Taliban that may further complicate the Afghan peace process. Methodology for the study is based on the qualitative approach using secondary sources of data including books, research articles, web pages and newspapers.  The study is very significant for focusing on a very important issue of the security paradigm and political stability of the country. Pages 844 to 856

The Holy Prophet as a Statesman and as an Administrator from the Pages of William Watt Montgomery’s Book Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman

Saad jaffar1, Dr Nasir Ali Khan, Marvah Iqbal3, Muhammad Waseem Mukhtar4, Waqar Ahmad5, Asia Mukhtar6, 1Lecturer Islamic Studies, Department of Pakistan Studies, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology, Abbottabad, 2Assistant Professor Comsats University Islamabad, Abbottabad campus, Pakistan, 3Lecturer in Islamic studies, Govt Associate college (w)Rukh chabeel Manawan Lahore Pakistan, 4 PhD Scholar, Department of Islamic Studies, The Islamia University Bahawalpur, 5Mphil Scholar, Institute of Islamic Studies, Mirpur University of Science & Technology (MUST), Mirpur AJK, 6Phd scholar, Department of Islamic Studies, The University of Lahore. Corresponding Author Email: 1Saadjaffar@aust.edu.pk

The lifetime period of Holy Prophet (PBUH) is the best example for the whole Muslim Ummah not only for Muslims but also for the western countries. The Last Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is holding such a great responsibility to create justice, equality, freedom and good moral values which implemented during their rule and he (SAW) is the Great Leader of the world which from a exemplary state of Madina and the administrative rule of Madinate period is today followed by mostly west countries which are developed and well organised. Prophet (PBUH) remained the chief justice of army as well as supervisor of economic department he established the rules of justice and equality and mange the system of Government according the commandment of Quran. As the messenger of Allah the work of Prophet and attainments is fabulous. Many rules and regulations which attained by Prophet (PBUH) today was followed in Western countries like United Nations and if the whole rules followed by the Muslims the Muslim countries not faced any difficulty and found the solution of their problems and set out according to the principles of Quran and Sunnah. Holy Prophet (PBUH) worked as the administrator of the Madina State and formed the human society and organised it as Islamic level. The life of Prophet (SAW) was cleared all the principles for the Muslims while the last sermon of Prophet (PBHU) was finally enlighten and declared all the basic principles for the Muslims of the whole to follow they live their life according to the principles which set out for us by our great law givers. This papers aims to analyze the life period of Holy Prophet (PBUH) as statesmen according to the view points of William Watt Montgomery Historian. Pages 857 to 879     
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