The scope of comparative literary studies: Review of schools of study

Adli Yaacoba*, Tami Sue Newberryb, aAssociate Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, bPost graduate student, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Email: a*adlihy@iium.edu.my

This paper provides a description of the development of the ‘Study of Comparative Literature’; its naming, origins, schools of study, and scope of study.  From the inception of Comparative Literature, ‘what is’ Comparative Literature and its study have been a matter of question,  both from inside the earliest schools of study in France and beyond its borders. De Certeau’s “Practice Theory” has been employed seeking to resolve the cultural and linguistic differences in the name of the field, as well as the subject of study. Then, the social and theoretical influences which differentiate the dominant French and rivalling American schools of Comparative Literature are outlined.  These serve as a background for the introduction of Post-Colonial Studies.  Examples of the expanding range of studies in Comparative Literature are presented, including remarks of their ‘acceptedness’ as Comparative Literature, or not. Pages 1 to 19




Morning Assembly in Forming State Civil Apparatus’ Character to Realize Bureaucratic Reform

Hidayata*, Tita Meirina Djuwitab, Budhi Slamet Saepudinc, a,b,cPostgraduate School of Universitas Nurtanio Bandung, Indonesia,

Corresponding Author E-mail: a*hidayat_dr@ymail.com

The essence of bureaucratic reform is to create good governance, which prioritizes the quality of public services, transparency, accountability, and it is driven by the government apparatus who have dedication, discipline, and character. The formation of superior and reliable apparatus character cannot be obtained instantly. It takes a coaching process that requires a long time. The coaching must be consistent, gradual, and continuous that is measured both in time and quality of each coaching material. Morning assembly is the beginning of a character development for the apparatus. It is a simple routine that actually has meaning. Morning assembly is the initial step of the devotion of a State Civil Apparatus to begin their work on that day. There is a commitment of each individual to be present on time, discipline themselves to stand in line according to the rules. There is also direct contact between subordinates and superiors who provide psychological content and inner attachment. There is a greeting between co-workers, delivering important information, checking attendance, and spiritually, there is also a procession of praying together to close the morning assembly event. So far, most people often prioritize bureaucratic reform in efforts to improve an organization, business process, and/or apparatus resources. The real emphasis of the improvement is on the operators (the man behind the gun). No matter how good the organizational format and the management of a system, if they are staffed by apparatus who lack dedication and discipline, the bureaucratic reform is only a dream. Pages 20 to 35




 The Factors Affecting the Employment Placement Policy in Cirebon City

Soleh Suryadia*, Thomas Bustomib, Hery Nariyahc, a,bPascasarjana Universitas Pasundan Indonesia, cUniversitas Swadaya Gunung Jati,

*Corresponding Author Email: a*suryadisoleh@gmail.com,bThomas_bustomi@yahoo.co.idcnariyahhery@yahoo.com,

This research aimed to analyse and find out the extent to which the implementation of the employment placement policy performed by Regional Office of Manpower of  Cirebon City and find out the factors affecting the employment placement policy effectively. This research used a qualitative descriptive method in which the data sources in this research were obtained through direct observation by the researcher and guided interview with the implementing officers or apparatus carrying out the policy in the Regional Office of Manpower of Cirebon City. The findings showed that the implementation of the employment placement policy in Cirebon City has not performed effectively. The factors which needed to be considered in the employment placement were: (1) Education: Public did not have the competence and the education quality was still at low level, (2) Occupational knowledge; Labour must still complete a series of Academic Achievement tests, (3) Occupational skill; Labour was not equipped with the skills needed by companies, (4) Work experience; Labour still needed to be undertake the Orientation Program and Human Resources Development Program provided by the Regional Office of Manpower. The factors affecting the implementation of the employment placement policy. From the five theoretical concepts of Rondonelli and Chabeer Cheema’s opinion, used in analysing this research, it could also be seen that they could test the implementation of the employment placement policy, namely: (1) Environmental conditions (the public did not possess complete adequate skills), (2) Employment relationship among organizations (Good coordination was needed between the Regional Office of Manpower and D.KISS related to valid data regarding the amount of labour), (3) Availability of Resources (Funds available in APBD of  Cirebon City for the Regional Office of Manpower had not reflected the existence of a budget leading to specific activities for the employment placement), (4) Characteristics of implementing agencies (It had not depicted the overall activities of the Regional Office of Manpower especially the job introductory officer and labour distributor were not clearly organized), (5) Performance and impact (Regional Office of Manpower had not fully had the authority in the employment placement, only limited to recommending labour with various dimensions). It turned out that the result was that the Regional Office of Manpower of Cirebon City had not been effective in its implementations, so it affected the minimum or only few labourers who had registered with labour users in companies or agencies that needed them. Based on the results of the discussion that had been stated, it could be said that the novelty of this research was it could found the weaknesses of Rondonelli and Chabeer Cheema’s theory used to analyse the implementation of the policy, namely: (1) Clarity of Regulation; there had been no Regional Regulation regulating Manpower, (2) Local wisdom, it had not considered the local culture, (3) Strategy; there had been no strategy, so it needed to be combined with a SWOT analysis formulating a strategy. Pages 36 to 57




Incurring Islamic Values in Character Education for the Secondary Schools in Indonesia

Sokipa, Akhyakb, Sulistyorinic, a,b,cIAIN Tulungagung, Indonesia, Email: asokip@iain-tulungagung.ac.idbakhyak@iain-tulungagung.ac.idcsulistyorini12@yahoo.com

This study aims to investigate the current pattern of Islamic values in character education for secondary schools in the region of Indonesia. To address this objective, primary data collection techniques were adopted and questionnaires were distributed among the teaching community in secondary schools. A final sample of 440 respondents was collected and analysed for the descriptive and regression analysis. It was found that there is a significant and positive influence of most of the items of Islamic values in character education (IVCE) on student behaviour (SB). However, some of the items have shown their negative influence too. Besides, this study is recommended to various researchers in the field of public policy for educational development and Islamic culture. However, this research is based on several limitations. First, study is conducted in one region of Indonesia with limited implications. Second, only the secondary schools are targeted to analyse the trends in Islamic values, character education, and student behaviour. Pages 58 to 72




 Cognitive Research Trust Implementation: Influencing Students’ Writing Skill in Elementary School

Isah Cahyania, aIndonesian Language Departement, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Email: aisahcahyani@upi.edu

The study resulted in products of reading-writing learning model to promote Indonesian language literacy competence at primary level. Indonesian literacy competence concerns reading-writing skill containing higher order thinking. This competence has been a centre of attention and even a crucial issue due to its relationship with human resources development (PIRLS, 2007). Literacy competence is the key of success in schools and active participation in the workplace, society and politics (Braunger & Lewis, 2005). There are six parts of CoRT: CoRT 1 is breadth (directed thinking/broadening perspective). CoRT 2 is organisation (thinking management), showing users how they can manage their thinking to be utilized intentionally and productively. CoRT 3 is interaction (interactive thinking), connecting to arguments, interaction and critical thinking. CoRT 4 is creativity (thinking design). Creativity is treated as a process of normal thinking which can be learnt, practiced, and applied with a particular intention. CoRT 5 is information and feeling. Norms and emotion determine our thinking output. CoRT 6 is action (operational thinking). It portrays thinking in acting. Thinking to act directs to active thinking. This study employed a quantitative approach using the experimental method. The result led to a conclusion that CoRT 1 breadth influenced 5th grade students’ writing skill in narrative. This was proved by statistical calculation of the data obtained. Mann-Whitney test of n-gain displayed smaller result of the significance level which brought about the hypothesis rejection. The students’ skill improved in many ways, covering organization aspect, content, information, mechanic and creativity. Pages 73 to 86




 Spirituality of Education in Interaction of Lecturer and Student in Learning Arabic Literature

Ruslana, Harifuddin Halimb, Abdul Malik Iskandarc, Rasyidah Zainuddind, aUniversitas Muslim Indonesian, Makassar, bUniversitas Bosowa, Makassar, Indonesia, cUniversitas Mega Rezki, Makassar, Indonesia, dSTKIP Cokroaminoto, Pinrang, Indonesia, Email: amajettaruslan@yahoo.combharifuddin.halim@universitasbosowa.ac.id, cabdul_malikiskandar@yahoo.com, dgeorgiana.aan07@gmail.com

This article intends to express spiritual aspects in the interaction of lecturers with students in learning the Arabic literature. This research is descriptive quantitative research with a survey approach. Selected respondents were 61 people through a stratified random sampling technique for all Arabic Literature students at the Muslim University of Indonesia. Data collection used a questionnaire and interviewed respondents and literature review. Data analysis techniques used tabulation frequency. The results of the study show that (1) the lecturer-student spiritual interaction in learning Arabic literature takes place in the form of (a) The lecturer speaks good words in Arabic, (b) Lecturers increase students’ self-awareness to be close to God, (c) Lecturer fosters enthusiasm using Arabic poetry about the importance of learning Arabic, (d) The lecturer admonished students' mistakes wisely when speaking Arabic incorrectly, (e) The lecturer creates a comfortable learning atmosphere because it is rewarding, (f) Lecturer gives praise for good deeds because they contain blessings, (2) the impact of spiritual interactions is (a) Increased students’ enthusiasm. (b) Increased students’ confidence. (c) Increased the students’ learning seriousness. (d) Increased students’ self-awareness. The conclusion is that the spiritual approach in teaching Arabic literature has a substantial connection, namely Islam. This approach is suitable to be applied to students so that they have develop a positive and productive behavior at a young age. Pages 87 to 101




Development of Early Childhood Education Teachers (Paud) Skills in Story Activities Using Natural Material Media Potential of Local Wisdom in Tulang Bawang District

Agung Cahya Karyadia, Uswatun Khasanahb, aUniversitas Trilogi, Indonesia, bUniversitas Nahdlatul Ulama Lampung, Indonesia

Email: acahyo@trilogi.ac.idbuswatunkhasanah@unulampung.ac.id

The purpose of this study was to determine the process of developing the storytelling skills of Early Childhood Education teachers by utilizing the natural media potential of the local wisdom of Tulang Bawang District, Lampung Province, Indonesia. The research in this study used the method of research and development of Borg and Gall which adapted ‘The System Design of Instructional’ and called it the ‘Steps of System Approach Model of Educational Research and Development’. The results of this study include learning materials in the form of appropriate print modules for Early Childhood Education teachers. The data shows that the natural media potential of local wisdom can develop the storytelling skills of Early Childhood Education teachers. Storytelling skills that can be improved through the natural potential of local wisdom include: the appearance of the teacher in raising local cultural stories by using the natural potential of local wisdom whether being able to convince children, high self-confidence when telling stories, and interesting storytelling skills for children. Teachers can develop their skills in storytelling by understanding storytelling techniques which consist of the ability to practice volume, diction, tempo and mastery of the stage, and mastery of the material. In mastering the content of the story, the Teacher showed appreciation, improvisation and imagination that was integrated with the contents of the story so that the storytelling skills of Early Childhood Education teachers developed and improved well by utilizing the natural media potential of local wisdom. Pages 102 to 116




Effectiveness of Coordination and Agility Exercises on the Performance of Basic Fencing Skills amongst University of Baghdad Students

Syed Kamaruzaman Syed Alia, Mutasim Abdul Karim Fadhilb, Hutkemri Zulnaidic, aASyed Kamaruzaman Syed Ali, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, bMutasim Abdul Karim Fadhil,Faculty of Education, University of Malaya , cHutkemri Zulnaidi,Faculty of Education, University of Malaya

This study investigated the effectiveness of an intervention programme (agility and coordination exercises on the performance of basic fencing skills) amongst University of Baghdad students in Iraq. A total of 60 students participated in the study, which was conducted using a quasi-experimental research design with pre-test and post-test. Agility and coordination exercises were utilised as the independent variable, whilst basic fencing skills were the dependent variable. Fencing skill tests were administered to the students before and after a treatment process. The students were divided into two groups, namely, control and experimental. Each group consisted of 30 students who were taught by different lecturers. Results showed that after eight weeks of agility and coordination exercises, all the nine skills were significantly affected, with different effect sizes of small, moderate and large and in favour of the experimental group. This study is relevant as it presents substantial evidence that agility and coordination can significantly and positively affect the performance of basic fencing skills amongst University of Baghdad students. Pages 117 to 128




An Empirical Investigation of Regulatory Framework for Islamic Banking System in Saudi Arabia

Shafiqul Hassana, aPrince Sultan University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Email: ashassan@psu.edu.sa

Undoubtedly, less focus is given to an empirical exploration of standard regulatory framework (SRF) for the Islamic banking system in the Muslim countries in general and Saudi Arabia in particular. The primary objective of this paper is to empirically investigate indicators of regulatory framework for the Islamic banking system in Saudi Arabia. Quantitative research method was used in this paper. The population of the study involved promoters of Islamic banking and the researcher used convenient sampling in distributing 180 survey questionnaires online to the promoters of the Islamic banking system among Saudi Arabian indigenes in order to collect data for this research. Descriptive statistics by using frequencies, percentage, means and standard deviations were used via SPSS version 16.0 for data analysis. Three different dimensions namely: Interpretation of Shar’iah Principle (ISP); Interest-Free Scheme (IFS); and Mobilization of Investment Resources (MIR) of standard regulatory framework (SRF) were specifically identified in this paper. The findings showed that the majority of the respondents strongly agreed that different dimensions identified in this paper were regarded as standard regulatory frameworks in the context of Saudi Arabia. In conclusion, it is reiteratively noted that the triadic components of regulatory framework should serve as a benchmark in propelling and promoting Islamic banking in Saudi Arabia. It is thereby recommended that interpretation of Shari’ah principles by jurists or scholars should be harmonised in order to expand the scope of Interest-Free Scheme (IFS) and Mobilization of Investment Resources (MIR) as being practiced by Islamic banks in Saudi Arabia in particular and Muslim countries in general. Pages 129 to 142




 Analysis of Standard Regulatory Framework for the Islamic Banking System in  Muslim Countries: A Comparative Analysis between Bangladesh, Malaysia and Saudi Arabia

Shafiqul Hassana, aAssistant Professor Prince Sultan University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Email: ashassan@psu.edu.sa

Studies have examined the regulatory framework in some Muslim countries. Less attention is given to exploration of the standard regulatory framework in predominant Muslim countries, such as Bangladesh, Malaysia and Saudi Arabia.  The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the standard regulatory framework (SRF) for the Islamic banking system in Bangladesh, Malaysia and Saudi Arabia; by empirically employing a psychometric approach. A quantitative research method was employed. The population comprised promoters of Islamic banking and the researcher used convenient sampling in distributing 180 survey questionnaires online to the promoters of the Islamic banking system in the selected three countries (Bangladesh, Malaysia and Saudi Arabia) to collect data for this research. 169 questionnaires were used for final analysis. Analysis of variance were used via statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 16.0 for data analysis. Six different dimensions of standard regulatory framework (SRF) were identified in this research paper. The findings from analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the large F ratio obtained on each variable indicated that, there were more variances among promoters of Islamic banking in Bangladesh, Malaysia and Saudi Arabia. This implies that, the respondents are acquainted with factors of standard regulatory framework for Islamic banking. In conclusion, the effective and efficient provision of a framework for standard regulation would promote the Islamic banking system in the selected three countries in particular and in the Muslim countries in general. It is therefore recommended that, the provision of standard framework for the operation of the Islamic banking system (expected to be Shar’iah-Compliant) must be constantly reviewed in order to promote best practices specifically in demonstrating the viability of the Islamic banking system across the Muslim countries. Pages 143 to 158




Tapping Waqf (Endowment) Property Financing into Agribusiness in Nigeria

Yusuff Jelili Amudaa, Nor Azizan Binti Che Embib, Oladapo, Hakeem BabatundecaAssociate Professor at College of Law, Prince Sultan University Riyadh Saudi Arabia, bSenior Lecturer at Department of Finance, Kulliyyah of Economics and Management Sciences, IIUM, cLecturer, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Southwestern University Nigeria, Email: ayusuffja@psu.edu.sabizanebbm@iium.edu.mycsilifat.oladapo@gmail.com

The Nigeria agricultural sector is faced with many predicaments, such as insufficient modern agricultural tools and facilities, loss of focus, abandonment, and inadequate motivation of farmers. In the history of Nigeria, agriculture contributed significantly to national development and poverty reduction. Such was the case before Nigeria found petroleum. The majority of Nigerian tribes were focused, committed and invested in agriculture. Poverty is rampant and common among Muslims in Nigeria especially in the northern parts of the country. Inequality and low productivity have contributed to poor standards of living in the country. The large number of Muslims in Africa, specifically the Nigeria populace, lives below $2 a day due to their abject and absolute poverty (World Bank Development Report, 2013). The Muslim community accounts for a significant number of poor and less privileged in Nigeria. Waqf assets comprise of movable and immovable properties such as cash and land. Waqf is a form of Islamic endowment that has enormous unexplored potential for its application in fulfilling social needs of the poor. One such need is for the establishment of more effective schemes to alleviate poverty among the less privileged Muslims through agribusiness that would provide enormous advantages. The objective of this paper is to examine how waqf properties can be channelled into agribusiness on cocoa, palm tree oil and cotton farm projects that will assist in empowering the needy Nigerian Muslims. The research applied both qualitative and quantitative to examine the applicability of Cash Waqf funds coupled with land for the aforementioned purpose. The study proposes strategies through which waqf properties can be used for the generation of income and reduction of poverty in Nigeria a highly populated nation. It is believed that employment opportunities will be enhanced through the proper management of such projects. Pages 159 to 172




 A Conceptual Framework on Moderating Effect of Frontline Service Employees on Factors Leading to Strong Branding of Small Islamic Banks

Azihan Othmana, Putri Rozita Tahirb, a,bFaculty of Business and Management, DRB-Hicom University of Automotive Malaysia (DRB-HICOM U), Malaysia, Email : a403180017@student.dhu.edu.mybputri@dhu.edu.my

Islamic finance presently grows at a rate of 13 – 15% per annum. More banks are either opening Islamic windows or converting into Islamic financial institutions in order to tap into the growing market. However, small Islamic banks are facing challenges to remain profitable due to lack of economies of scale and inefficiencies associated with being small. Small banks have to reinvent themselves in order to survive in the challenging environment. They have to create their own value and brand themselves well. Small Islamic banks, with their lack of resources, need to effectively connect with customers on an emotional level to a degree that is so strong that customers would want and are proud to forge a strong alliance with the banks. The paper illustrates how having a strong and purposeful brand can positively influence customers’ decision to patronage a small Islamic bank. It is designed to guide stakeholders to transform the bank through establishing a higher purpose vision and to effectively communicate their purpose, culture and image to consumers. Nevertheless, despite effort to develop a strong brand, failure to hire, train, motivate, communicate and track performance of frontline service employees who have strong influence on customers’ perception and purchasing decision, could moderate the impact on banks’ branding effort. Pages 173 to 185




Rohingya Crises: Mapping the Peer-reviewed Literature

Saghir Munir Mehara, Emna Chikhaouib, Yasir Javedc, Shakil Ahmadd, aSenior Lecturer, College of Law, Prince Sultan University, bVice Dean College of Law, Prince Sultan University, cLecturer, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Prince Sultan University, dResearch Services Librarian, Prince Sultan University, Email: asmehar@psu.edu.sabechikhaoui@psu.edu.sacyjaved@psu.edu.sadshakil@psu.edu.sa

The research uses the bibliometric method and approach to investigate the literature written by researchers on the Rohingya crises. Rohingyas are a Muslim minority in Burma who have been subjected to persecution for a long time. The results of the study showed a clear lack of publications on Rohingya related problems. It also showed that the researchers are geographically confined to some locations and institutions. The research on Rohingya related issues is trivial compared to other related issues such as Syria. This research was both quantitative and qualitative in nature and the research concludes with indications of need for further qualitative study that may unearth much deeper reasons for this shortfall of literature on Rohingya related issues. Pages 186 to 199




The Human Philosophy behind Criminalization in Ancient legislations (Pharaonic, Babylonian, Roman)

Sanaa EL Shaarawya, aAssistant Professor-  Prince Sultan University, Email: assharaway@psu.edu.sa/hekal2005@hotmail.com

This study deals with the Philosophy of the Human Nature of Criminalization in ancient legal systems and aims to discuss this subject through presenting and analysing the crimes and penalties in the ancient legal systems following the descriptive inductive analytical comparative approach. This study revealed the highness and development of the ancient Egyptian Civilization that tuned the ancient Egyptian taste, disciplined its sense and developed its feelings. This reflected on the ancient Pharaonic legislations and in turn nourished the incrimination and penalization philosophy with a humanitarian characteristic unlike the Roman and Babylonian systems, which did not recognize any humanitarian principles in incrimination and penalization; they rather showed atrocity and cruelty at their ugliest shape especially when executing the penalty. Pages 200 to 215




The Study of Systemic Method to Achieve Learning Performance - The Case of Core Competencies of C University

Je-Hyun Baea, Do-Young Leeb*, aDepartment of Early Childhood Education, Changshin University, 262, Palyongro, Masanhoewon-gu, Changwon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, 51352, Korea, bDepartment of Nursing, Changshin University, 262, Palyongro, Masanhoewon-gu, Changwon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, 51352, Korea, Email: abjh@cs.ac.krb*shine@cs.ac.kr

Background/Objectives: Recently, there has been active research on how to achieve learning performance, and this research tried to search for a systematic method of achieving learning Performance. Methods/Statistical analysis: This research aims to prepare the basis of achievement of learning performance using the case of C University. It is a descriptive survey research to improve university education. Findings: This research did a total inspection of freshmen at C University. It was found that the degree of targeted capacity and achievement of learning performance differ depending on departments. Therefore, it is necessary to share them with students, and have policies and ideas students themselves can manage and systematically plan. Improvements/Applications: This research found that goals and degree of achievements of learning performance vary depending on colleges and departments. It’s necessary to do various research to improve the learning performance of students. Pages 216 to 229




The Effect of Sports Activity of Regional Child Center's on Emotion Regulation, Peer Status and Physical Self-Efficacy

Young-Mee Kima , Soo-Jin Seob*, aProfessor, Dept. of Leisure Sport, Seowon Univ., Cheongju, 28674, Republic of Korea, b*Professor, Dept. of Physical Education, Seowon Univ., Cheongju, 28674, Republic of Korea, Email: akimym@seowon.ac.kr,   b*ssj7525@empas.com

Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study is to find the effects of personal characteristics and sports activity on emotion regulation and peer status of the regional center's children. Methods/Statistical analysis: In order to accomplish the purpose of this study, the children using the regional child center were selected as the population, a total 46 children were tested by pre and post test. For the sports activity, the test was performed every Saturday for 120 minutes for 9 times each quarter. The control group was randomly selected from 35 normal children and low-income children who did not participate in the sports activity, and a total of 81 children were sampled. In order to solve the research question, the t-test and the independent t-test were performed using SPSS Ver20.0 statistical program. Findings: As a result, first, the analysis of pre-test and post-test through sports activity of regional center's children showed that cognitive level, behavioural level, and experience level of emotion regulation was higher after sports activity than those before sports activity. Especially, there was a significant difference in behavioural level of emotion regulation. For the peer status, sociality and popularity / leadership were higher than those before activity but they were not significantly different. For physical self-efficacy, there was a significant difference in running capacity, sports participation efficacy, appearance efficacy, and muscular strength efficacy after sports activity. Second, Experiment groups that engaged in sport activities at local children's centers were found to have higher average levels, than control groups, in their emotional regulation, peer status and physical self-efficiency. Improvements/Applications: The sports activity of the regional center's children seems to be significantly related to emotion regulation, peer status, and physical self-efficacy. Pages 230 to 243




The Differences in Executive Function according to the Experience of Full-time and Part-time Early English Education of Children

Young-Sik Kanga, Rae-Eun Kimb*, aProfessor, Dept. of Early Childhood Education, Chungnam National University, Daegen, 34148, Republic of Korea, b*Professor, Dept. of Gifted Child Care and Education, U1 University, Chungbuk, 29131, Republic of Korea, Email: Email: ayskang@cnu.ac.krb*versus486@u1.ac.kr

Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in the executive function (attention control, cognitive flexibility, information processing, and goal setting) between children with full-time early English education experience and children with part-time early English education experience. Methods/Statistical analysis: The subjects of this study were 40 7-year-old children who had full-time and part-time early English education experience during their early childhood. The measurement tools were Stroop task, card classification task (DCCST), pattern fluency, and maze. We conducted covariance analysis (ANCOVA) with total intelligence as a covariate in order to investigate the difference in executive function between children with full-time and part-time English education experience. Findings: First, attention control didn’t show any difference in full-time or part-time early English education in early childhood. Second, children who experienced full-time early English education showed more favourable cognitive flexibility than children who experienced part-time early English education. Third, children with full-time early English education were found to have lower information processing scores than children with part-time early English education. Fourth, the goal setting was more favourable for children who experienced full-time early English education than those who experienced part-time early English education. Improvements/Applications: In conclusion, the experience of early English education in EFL situations, that is, learning both languages at the same time in early childhood, positively affects cognitive flexibility and goal setting, but negatively affects information processing. Pages 244 to 256




Influence of Cooking Programs Utilizing Smart Devices on Young Children’s Inquiry Ability and Attitude

Rae-Eun Kima, Soon-Ock Hongb, Myung-Hee Kimc*, aProfessor, Dept. of Gifted Child Care and Education, U1 University, Chungbuk, 29131, Republic of Korea , bProfessor, Dept. of Early Childhood Education, Kyungsung University, Busan, 48434, Republic of Korea, cDoctoral candidate, Dept. of Early Childhood Education, Kyungsung University, Busan, 48434, Republic of Korea, Email: aversus486@u1.ac.krbhong@ks.ac.krc*hee0605k@naver.com

Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study is to develop a cooking program utilizing smart devices to facilitate young children’s scientific inquiry ability and attitude, and to verify the effect of the program after applying this to 5-year-old young children. This study aims to analyse the influence of the cooking programs utilizing smart devices on young children’s inquiry ability and attitude. Methods/Statistical analysis: The research participants of this study were 36 young children who were 4 or 6 years old. They were recruited from ‘K’ preschool located in Busan city (Republic of Korea). The experimental group consists of 18 young children (8 males and 10 females) in class A, while the control group consists of 18 young children (9 males and 9 females) in class B. For the experimental group, 11 sessions of the cooking programs utilizing smart devices. For the control group, 11 sessions of the cooking activities based on the Nuri curriculum were given. As test measures, the scientific inquiry ability test developed by Seo (2003) and the scientific attitude test developed by Lee (2000) were employed. Data analysis was performed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), which compares the post-test scores with the pre-test scores as covariates. Findings: First, the scientific inquiry ability of the experimental group using the smart device-based cooking program was statistically higher than that of the control group using the cooking activities based on the Nuri curriculum.  Second, the scientific inquiry attitude of the experimental group using the smart device-based cooking program was statistically higher than that of the control group using the cooking activities based on the Nuri curriculum. Improvements/Applications: The cooking program utilizing smart devices developed in this study has a positive effect on the scientific inquiry ability and inquiry attitude of 5-year-old young children.  In particular, this study implies the smart devices employed in the cooking program developed in this study are suitable for 5-year-old young children and of great value as schooling media in the field of early childhood education. Pages 257 to 274




A Study on Korean Young Children's Writing Development and Parents' Perception of Writing Education

Sook-Young Parka, aDepartment of Early Childhood Education, Baek-Seok University, Republic of Korea, Email: asyp@bu.ac.kr

This study aims to examine writing development in young children aged 2-6 years and investigate the parents' perceptions of their children's writing education and inspect cultural differences in their writing. The participants were five young children and their parents living in Seoul. Based on writing development stages suggested by Sulzby, children's writing outcomes were analysed, as well as data collected from parents' questionnaires. First, in accordance with age, Sulzby’s developmental stage of children's writing was noticed. Second, parents' perception of their children's writing development provided insights into the role of the parents in children's writing development. All parents who participated in this study did not provide formal education for their children; nevertheless, the young children participated in this study demonstrated the development phase of writing education appropriate for their age group. Third, a cultural influence in the writing of young children was underlined. Pages 275 to 285




 A Study on the Improvement of Self-Directed Learning: The Jigsaw Model in the Digital Convergence Age

Young-Hee Janga, aProfessor, Department of General Education, Namseoul University, 91, Daehak-ro, Seonghwan-eup, Seobuk-gu, Cheonan, Chungcheongnam-do, 31020, Korea, Email: ahyejo@nsu.ac.kr

Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cooperative learning methods on comprehensive thinking ability, interpersonal relationship and communication competence in communication related courses offered to engineering students. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study includes thirty engineering students who were taking a “writing” class, which is a compulsory liberal arts course. The students were divided into six small groups and two Jigsaw classes were conducted during the second half of the semester, from after the midterm exam to before the final exam. Analysis was performed on responses from 28 participants, excluding insincere responses from two participants. Data was analysed using independent t-test. Findings: The effects of cooperative learning can be summarized as follows. First, students' learning motivation was naturally induced by their increased interest and satisfaction. This teaching method induced cooperation through interdependence, thus creating close peer relationships, and encouraged all members to actively participate in the process of solving the task with responsibility. Second, as members acquire the knowledge necessary to solve problems through interactions with other members, they become more focused on class, resulting in increased satisfaction. Ultimately, this student-centered learning attitude improved learning achievement. Third, students developed confidence in verbal expression and presentation skills by engaging in presentation and discussion. Fourth, students were able to broaden their thinking as they shared a variety of information with many people, and thus they acquired the ability to write more substantially and illustratively without difficulty. Improvements/Applications: The significance of the present study lies in identifying significant effects of cooperative learning on students’ learning attitude and academic achievement in relation to communication area subjects. Pages 286 to 295




The Effect of Satisfaction with Sports of High School Taekwondo Players on Their Willingness to Enter College

Jong-Sik Lima, Yeong-Gwon Job, Chun-Ho Yangb*, aPh.D. Student, Dept. of Physical Education, Kunsan University,  Kunsan, 54150, Korea, bProfessor Dept. of Physical Education, Gwangju University of Education, Gwangju, 61204, Korea, c*Professor, Dept. of Leisure Marine Sports, Hanseo University, Seosan, 31962, Korea, Email: asik1009@hanmail.netbjo3309@gnue.ac.krc*healthyang@hanseo.ac.kr

Background/Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of satisfaction with sports on willingness to enter college among high school taekwondo players.

Methods/Statistical analysis: The study conducted a survey on 371 high school taekwondo players and the data was analyzed using SPSS 21.0 statistical program. Through frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability test, correlation analysis, multi-variate regression analysis, the results of the study were as follows.

Findings: First, in the relationship between satisfaction with sports and willingness to enter college and willingness to continue to play taekwondo, all the sub-variables of satisfaction with sports have positive relationships with all the sub-variables of willingness to enter college. Second, in the analysis of effect of satisfaction with sports on willingness to enter college, satisfaction with project performance and satisfaction with leadership of coach have positive effects on willingness to register, and that satisfaction with project performance and satisfaction with mutual interaction have positive effects on willingness to orally spread the news.

Improvements/Applications: Satisfaction with sports has positive effect on willingness to enter college among high school taekwondo players. Pages 296 to 306




What is the motivation of learning and satisfaction level of the academic credit bank system learners?

Seung-gil Leea, aProfessor, Tourism Management Department, Namseoul University, 91 Daehakro, Seonghwan-eup, Cheonan City, Chungnam, Korea, Email: adongbang0120@hanmail.net

Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study is to estimate motivation of learning using offline Academic Credit Bank System carried out as part of lifetime education and to assume causal relationships among the motivation of learning, demographic variables and satisfaction levels. Methods/Statistical analysis: In the process of analysis, motivation of learners was analysed through factor analysis and variables affecting satisfaction levels of learners, using Academic Credit Bank System, were explored based on ordered Probit. The satisfaction level of learners was divided into four areas, qualitative level of teachers and instructors, education process, education cost and overall satisfaction. Findings: Based on the analysis, motivations of learners included factors like ‘familial relationships’, ‘occupational affairs’, ‘pursuit of knowledge’, ‘others' recommendation, ‘capacity building’, ‘use of leisure time’ and ‘acquisition of degrees and licenses. Qualitative level of teachers and instructors were positively affected by familial relationships, pursuit of knowledge, capacity building and use of leisure time while satisfaction with education courses were positively affected by pursuit of knowledge and capacity building. Also, as for satisfaction with education cost, positive (+) relationships covered those in their 30s, pursuit of knowledge and capacity building. Finally, overall satisfaction positively affected (by those aged in their 30s and 50s or older) familial relationships, pursuit of knowledge, capacity building and use of leisure time. Improvements/Applications: Results will be able to be used as basic data by government agencies promoting the Academic Credit Bank System and institutions attended by learners. Pages 307 to 319




The Effect of Adult Social Anxiety on Shopping Addiction in Relation to Self-Control and Public Awareness

Ok-Hee Parka, Jo-Hee Jeongb, Seok-Kee Leec*, aDoctoral Student, Dept. Of Smart Convergence Consulting, Hansung University, 02876, Korea, bDept. of Army Counselor, Republic of Korea Army, 32800, Korea , cProfessor, Dept. Of Computer Engineering, Hansung University, 02876, Korea, Email: aokino2@naver.combj2joy@hanmail.netc*seelee@hansung.ac.kr

Background/Objectives: In this study, we checked whether social anxiety, which is a negative sentiment in social situations, and public self-consciousness, which values one's appearance as being shown to others, affects the disposition of shopping addiction. Based on the anxiety exposed to social situations and the level of perception toward one's own self, we want to look at the relationship with shopping addiction and find out its implications. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study included 330 adults in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, and was conducted through a survey on social anxiety, public self-consciousness, self-control and shopping addiction. The data was analyzed using the SPSS Amos 22.0 program, frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, and exploratory factor analysis. In addition, to verify the structural equation model, confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify unidimensionality. Further, the validity of the measurement model was tested, and then the hypothesis of the proposed model was verified. Findings: This study examined the influence of public self-consciousness and self-control in social anxiety and shopping addiction. In addition, this study examined whether public awareness and self-control influenced shopping addiction respectively. First, shopping addiction tendency was high when social anxiety was high, and self-control was low. Second, shopping addiction increased when social anxiety was high and public self-consciousness was high. It has been found that the addictive tendency has increased in order to maintain avoidance and temporary satisfaction. In addition, it can be seen that social anxiety is sensitive to the eyes and judgments of others and increases psychological discomfort. Improvements/Applications: This study confirmed that excessive immersion in other people's interests and recognition can lead to negative emotions, which can lead to addiction. This seems to indicate that shopping addiction is unplanned and requires therapeutic intervention to prevent self-display purchases. Therefore, it is considered that various studies and support will be needed to recognize addiction as a social problem. Pages 320 to 331




A Study on Priority in Application of Smart City Elements

Dae-Bong Kima, Jong-Jin Kimb*, Jung-A Parkc, aProfessor, Department of Construction, U1 University, 29131, South Korea, bProfessor, Department of Real Estate, Jeonju University, 55069, South Korea, cResearch Scholar, Department of Real Estate, Jeonju University, 55069, South Korea, Email: abong2028@hanmail.netb*jongjink66@naver.comchera7654@naver.com

Background/Objectives: The application of a smart city system in old cities requires massive financial input. Accordingly, it is necessary to apply in sequence highly efficient smart city elements preferred by consumers. The present study aimed to propose ways for the efficient application of a smart city by conducting a survey among smart city consumers. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study employed Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a tool of identifying knowledge, experiences and intuitive of evaluating participants by ways of judgment resulting from pairwise comparison of elements that constitute the hierarchical structure of decision-making. In the first phase, the elements were classified into a hierarchy by means of brainstorming by eight experts in the field of smart city and from this a decision hierarchy was established. In the second phase, judgment data was collected by means of pairwise comparison of smart city elements on the basis of nine-score scale among 30 those who want to reside in smart cities. In the final phase, the author used an eigenvalue method by which relative weights of decision-making elements were estimated and results were obtained. Findings: An analysis of large classification revealed that consumers preferred smart life convenience facilities the most. An analysis of complex significance showed that consumers preferred smart CCTV followed by real-time parking information and public transportation services, smart logistics and delivery system, smart traffic control system, car sharing and public electric bicycle, smart waste sorting system, automatic home clean-net system and waste-turning-resources system. In other words, the results showed that those who want to live in smart cities highly preferred systems capable of saving time as well as the use of efficient and low-cost transportation services. Furthermore, with the significance of smart life environment being considered important, consumers showed high preference for environmental smart elements that can directly affect health amid rising attention to the issue of health.  Improvements/Applications: In order to turn existing cities into smart ones, it is necessary to identify preferential elements of smart cities by urban residents such as safety and environment that may vary depending on the characteristics of such cities in advance and then establish long-term and efficient plans and system. Pages 332 to 347




The Influence of Art Infusion in Advertising on the Effectiveness of Advertisements

Minkwan Kima, aInstructor, Department of Photography, ChungAng University, 4726, Seodong-daero, Daedeok-myeon, Anseong-si, Gyeonggi-do, 17546, Korea, Email: aminphotography@gmail.com

Background/Objectives: This study aims to empirically investigate the influence of art infusion in advertisement on memory and judgment, from the consumer’s information processing perspective. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study empirically analyzed the difference in recall and diagnosis related to memory according to the usage of famous painting and frequency of exposure. The results were verified through experimental studies, and two-way MANOVA analysis was conducted using factorial design between 3 artwork utilization methods and 2 artwork exposure frequencies. The experiment of this study was conducted through an online questionnaire. Findings: In the case of recall according to the artwork exposure frequency, the recall of advertisement with low-exposure artwork was higher than that of high-exposure artwork. Furthermore, the high-exposure artworks showed more positive results than the low-exposure artworks for the product diagnosticity and the advertisement attitude toward a product. For the advertisement diagnosticity, however, the low-exposure artworks showed more positive results than the high-exposure artworks. When the interaction effects were compared for the advertisement diagnosticity, the results of product diagnosticity of advertisement were completely opposite to the results of recall effect. The advertisement with simply-infused high-exposure artwork showed the most positive product diagnosticity. On the other hand, the advertisement with the reinterpreted low-exposure artwork showed relatively low product diagnosticity. This implies that an advertisement with high recall is not always helpful for assessment of a product. Improvements/Applications: The analysis of implicit results of this study shows that an advertisement with reinterpreted artwork has a high advertisement recall value. Pages 348 to 359


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