Performance Measurements of Socio-Economic Impact for Waqf (Endowment) Institutions

Rosnia Masrukia*, Mustafa Mohd Hanefahb, Dwi Nita Aryanic, Bunyamind, a,bFaculty of Economics and Muamalat, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia, c,dSTIE Malangkuchecwara, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: a*rosnia@usim.edu.my

The absence of the bottom line in not-for-profit organisations (NPO) restrains the rendering of accounts. A waqf institution is no exception. It is one of the crucial components of Islamic social finance, which eventuates in social benefits. Therefore, accountability in such faith-based institution is crucial for achieving their socio-economic impact. The relevance of waqf institutions will be examined in relation to their socio-economic impact, focusing on the impact of programs and activities using waqf funds, rather than focusing merely on expenses and outputs. This impact is particularly pertinent as, in Malaysia, waqf matters are under the jurisdiction of State Islamic Religious Councils (SIRC) in the respective region.

This paper aims to develop the measurements for socio-economic impact of waqf institutions. An extensive literature review was carried out to identify the appropriate measurements for input, output, outcome, impact, effectiveness, and efficiency. The lack of performance disclosure found in this study indicates the need for comprehensive performance measurements concerning socio-economic impact. This study also conducted a benchmarking analysis to examine the presentation of performance measurement at Majlis Ugama Islam Singapora (MUIS). Reviewing their annual reports promoted the practicality of such reporting. The fact that it is similar with the mandatory disclosure on financial statements, socio-economic impact is also viewed as important since the primary focus of waqf itself is for social well-being. This study therefore proposes numerous indicators for socio-economic impact, specifically for waqf. This is to garner trust among the waqf givers (waqif), to enhance accountability and promote transparency toward sustainability of waqf institutions. Pages 1 to 16




Value of Moral Bounded: Portfolio Management with Shari'a Compliance Paradigm (Study of Indonesian Markets)

Nanda Karunia Amanaha, Budi Purwantob, Wita Juwita Ermawatic,

a,b,c Management Sciences Department, FEM, IPB Universiity (Bogor Agricultural University)

The Islamic Finance Compliant portfolio continues to receive special attention because of its enormous potential.  The increasing number of requests for Shari’a financial products in the global market is an indication that Shari’a Finance Compliant is not only attractive to Muslims, but has become part of the solution of international investors.  Reviewing the formation of counterparts based on Islamic principles provides an indication that products based on Shari’a Compliant can continuously reduce risk.  By specifically entering Shari’a shares as part of the portfolio, it will increase the value of the portfolio optimization.  Therefore, this study intends to analyze the level of compliance of Shari’a stocks which is then followed by a series of treatments including weighting, optimization with the Karush Kuhn Tucker method (KKT), and Ward’s Linkage method.  The results of this study are sufficient to prove that the better quality of moral bounded, have a better value at risk portfolio. Pages 17 to 38




 The Effect of Financial Reporting Quality, Debt Maturity, Political Connection, and Corporate Governance on Investment Efficiency: Evidence from Indonesia

Muhammad Panji Anugerah Al ‘Alama, Amrie Firmansyahb, a,bDepartment of Accounting Polytechnic of State Finance STAN Bintaro Main Street 5th Sector, Bintaro Jaya South Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia, 15222, Email:  apanji.alalam@gmail.combamrie.firmansyah@gmail.com

This study aims to examine the effect of financial reporting quality, debt maturity, political connection, and corporate governance on a firm’s investment efficiency. This study uses quantitative research with multiple linear regression models. The sample employed in this research includes manufacturing and infrastructure companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). The type of data used for this study is secondary data in the form of financial statements and annual reports from 2013 to 2016. The sample selection utilises a purposive sampling method with 86 samples of selected companies. This will be analysed over a four-year research period. Therefore, there are a total of 344 observations in the study. The results suggest that financial reporting quality, debt maturity, and corporate governance are positively associated with investment efficiency. However, the political connection is not associated with investment efficiency. This study can be beneficial for the Financial Services Authority, creditors, and investors to improve the efficiency of private sector investment in Indonesia. Pages 39 to 56




Does Audit Oversight Board matter for Governance? Evidence from Malaysia

Rahayu Abdul Rahmana*, Nur Farizan Mazhani Mahmudb, Siti Zalika Roslic, Normah Hj Omard, Erlane K Ghanie, aAccounting Research Institute and Faculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Tapah Campus, 35400, Tapah Road, Perak, Malaysia, bFaculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Tapah Campus, 35400, Tapah Road, Perak, Malaysia, c,eFaculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia, dAccounting Research Institute, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: a*rahay916@uitm.edu.my

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of Audit Oversight Board (AOB) monitoring on real earnings management (REM) activities in Malaysia. This study uses three proxies to measure real earnings management; abnormal cash flow from operations (RCFO), abnormal production costs (RPC) and abnormal discretionary expenses (RDE). Using a final sample of 656 firm-year observations of Malaysian Top 100 companies listed on Bursa Malaysia from 2007 to 2014, this study finds that AOB has a significant and negative relation with RCFO. The findings suggest that AOB-inspection firms are less likely to manage their reported earnings using abnormal cash flows from operations. Further, this study segregates sample firms into three categories based on their block holdings: government-owned companies (GLC), family-owned companies (FAMOWN) and foreign-owned companies (FORGOWN). The results, however, show that AOB only has significant and negative relation to RCFO of GLCs. Overall, the findings suggest that AOB may not be enough to limit REM activities in Malaysia setting. Pages 57 to 78




 Elevating Academic Staff’s Customer Service Experience in Malaysian Public Universities

Hatinah Abu Bakara*, Mazlina Mamatb, Nik Sarina Nik Md Sallehc, Mariam Setapad, a,b,c,dUniversity Technology MARA Kelantan, Malaysia,

Competition between Malaysian public universities is rising making it imperative to understand the important role of customer service experience in today’s higher education service environment. As an integral part of a university, the Academic Affairs Department (AAD) is entrusted with meeting the needs and demands of its customers, particularly, the academic staff. In organisations operating in the service industry, such as public universities, the workplace experience of academic staff in directly affects students’ satisfaction and university performance. Thus, factors affecting the academic staff’s internal service experience is important to be recognised. Consequently, the focus of this research is to study the relationship between involvement and familiarity in affecting the experience of academic staff towards customer service among Malaysian public universities. The research model hypothesised that there is a significant relationship between customer involvement and familiarity on customer service experience. The researcher employed a quantitative methodology for this research,. For data collection, the survey method was used by constructing a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 454 academic staff of 20 Malaysian public universities. This study employed a proportionate stratified random sampling technique to differentiate the data. The collected data was analysed using SPSS and PLS 3.0. Findings from the Partial Least Squares revealed significant relationships between customer involvement, familiarity, and customer service experience. The findings have discovered some theoretical and practical implications for administrators of Malaysian public universities. In particular, the AAD as well as policy makers and other practitioners, mainly in planning strategies for acquiring effective customer service experience. Pages 79 to 95




 Intellectual Capital in Malaysian Non-Profit Organisations

Amrizah Kamaluddina, Siti Zafirah Baiza Abu Bakarb, aFaculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, bSchool of Accounting & Business Management, FTMS College, Persiaran Semarak Api, Cyber 4, Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia,

Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs) have received an increase in demand for services from the society responsible for the highly competitive environment in which they operate. This is due to the increasing competition in securing resources, less volunteers and limited government funding. It is suggested that the existence of intellectual capital can lead the NPO to become a leader in the social network. Intellectual capital can be a new lens for the NPO to increase and sustain its performance.  A review of existing literature demonstrates that most studies in the field of  intellectual capital literature have focused on profit organisations. This has left the link between intellectual capital and NPOs largely unexplored. This study aims to examine the relationship between intellectual capital and the performance of the Malaysian NPOs. Specifically, this study examines three components of intellectual capital, namely, human capital, organisational capital and relational capital. A quantitative approach using a questionnaire survey was applied to the study. Sixty-seven representatives from various NPOs in Malaysia were participants in this research. The results of this study demonstrate that intellectual capital provides a significant effect on the performance of the NPOs. The results indicate that organisational capital and relational capital significantly influence the performance of the NPOs, whereas, human capital does not stimulate the performance of the NPOs. Organisational Capital which includes organisation routines, structure, values and practices, proves to increase NPO’s performance. Relational capital focuses on both internal and external relationship and communication. When there is effective internal communication, it leads to a satisfaction and successful of external communication. Pages 96 to 113




Political Connections, Family Ownership and Firms’ Performance in Malaysia

Suhaily Hasnana, Ili Syahirah Kamaruzamanb, Zuraidah Mohd Sanusic, Mazurina Mohd Alid, aAccounting Research Institute/Faculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, b,cAccounting Research Institute, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, dFaculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: asuhaily77@gmail.com,   bilikamad@yahoo.comczuraidah@uitm.edu.mydmazurina@uitm.edu.my

This study examines two issues relating to the performance of firms in Malaysia. The first section of this paper examines the relationship between family firms and their performance. The second section investigates the moderating effect of political connection on the performance of those firms. Our sample consists of 644 companies, all of which were listed in 2016 on Bursa Malaysia. It is hypothesized that a high percentage of family ownership and the existence of founders on boards enhances the performance of the firms. It is further hypothesized that political connections multiply the firms’ performance. The findings of this study support the first hypothesis regarding family ownership and founders on boards in enhancing a firms performance. This study also found evidence that the existence of political connection within Malaysian companies does not appear to greatly enhance the performance due to the negative and insignificant relationships between the independent and dependent variables when the moderating variable was factored in. Pages 114 to 136




Audit Committee Characteristics and Financial Restatements: Evidence from Malaysia

Suhaily Hasnana, Nor Azlina A. Rahmanb Mazurina Mohd Alic, a,b,cFaculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: asuhaily77@gmail.combazlina.rahman@gmail.comcmazurina@uitm.edu.my

The purpose of this study is to examine whether the audit committee characteristics influence the financial restatement incidents that occurred in Malaysian Public Listed Companies (PLCs). The sample comprises of 208 PLCs on the Main Board of Bursa Malaysia for the years between 2003 and 2013. The data from the final sample are collected and analysed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The research hypotheses are developed based on the five characteristics of the audit committee. The findings show that the multiple directorships of audit committee members have significant negative impacts over the incidence of financial restatement in Malayisa. Other characteristics of the audit committee are not statistically significant. This study finds that multiple directorships influence financial restatements, conforming to the principles of Resource Dependence Theory. Pages 137 to 149




Development of Animation-Based Fairy Tales Learning Model for Elementary School Students

Sunartia*, Selly Rahmawatib, Setia Wardanic, Norwaliza Abdul Wahabd, aPostgraduate Department, Universitas PGRI Yogyakarta, bElementary school Teacher Education Department, Universitas PGRI Yogyakarta, cInformation Technology Department, Universitas PGRI Yogyakarta, dDepartment of Educational Studies, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia,

This research aims to develop an animation-based fairy tale and to determine its effectiveness as a teaching model for elementary students. For this study, a quantitative approach and inferential statistical analysis technique with t-test independent samples was used. Models were tested using a sample of 55 students from elementary schools to secondary schools in Yogjakarta. The result show that students achieved a higher learning interest (m=4.45) under the animation-based fairy tale model. Teachers are encouraged to use this model to cultivate  active and enthusiastic students who are engaged in the learning process. This model, in turn, promotes higher academic achievement. Pages 150 to 161




 Layout Tambaklorok Fisherman Village of Low-Income Housing: A Case Study of the Central Java, Indonesia

Lulut Indrianingruma, Mohamed Nor Azhari Azmanb*, Kevin John Downingc, aResearch Centre of Architecture and Built Environment, Engineering Faculty, State University of Semarang, INDONESIA, bFaculty of Technical and Vocational, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA, cInstitutional Research Office, City University of Hong Kong 83 Tat Chee Ave, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, Email: b*mnazhari@ftv.upsi.edu.my

Puddles are a common sight in the coastal fisherman villages located near the Java Sea. . One of these villages is Tambaklorok locatedin Semarang, Central Java. The village is in a slum area and is mostly populated by underprivileged people in Semarang with low quality of housing conditions. This paper identifies how the people of these fishing villages build their house on a low income. The research used a qualitative approach togain an in-depth discussion regarding the housing structure. The research relied on a series of interviews and field observations. It was determined that interviews could give a deeper insight into the housing structure. For this reason, interviewees were carefully chosen from the Tambaklorok population. The 11 heads of family that were involved in the interview process, were categorized as poor families with poor housing conditions. The house foundations, material of roof, walls, floors, and latrines were all included in the analysis. The result shows that the average size of the house is 30 m2, using conventional stone foundation, asbestos roof, unrefined bricks wall and contained bare earthen floors which were sometimes inundated by tidal floods. In addition, it was found that room height was 2.5 m and there was no toilet in the house. Most of families were using landfill or sand sacks to elevate the housing floor and used stilts structure. To overcome these matters, the government provided the public toilet and bath upgraded the infrastructure of the shipyard and road in order to bring up the better economic development wealth for the Tambaklorok fisherman village. Pages 162 to 178




Teaching Strategies to Develop Technical Entrepreneurs

Nurin Asykina, Mohamad Sattar Rasulb*, Norasmah Othmanc, a,b,cFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: b*drsattar@ukm.edu.my

Effective teaching strategies can enhance knowledge and nurture the entrepreneurial mind of Community College students. Specifically, educational institutions and lecturers play an important role in building productive, creative and innovative entrepreneurs in various fields, able to face future challenges. Although various entrepreneurship and training programs have been implemented, statistics and past studies do not show tremendous entrepreneurship, especially among technical and vocational education (TVET) students. This paper investigates the implications of teaching strategies, in entrepreneurial pedagogy on developing technical entrepreneurship. A method from past journals has been used to gain the research used in this paper. It was found that student-centred learning, through active learning such as problem-solving, collaborative and discussion, was an effective strategy that could develop technical entrepreneurship. Therefore, the lecturer needs both a strong pedagogical content knowledge, especially of entrepreneurship, and diverse teaching methods, to improve entrepreneurial intentions and skills among Community College students. Pages 179 to 185




 The Importance of Green Skills - from the Perspective of TVET Lecturers and Teacher Trainees

Syarina Ramlia, Mohamad Sattar Rasulb*, Haryanti Mohd Affandic, a,b,cFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Email: b*drsattar@ukm.edu.my

Education enhances sustainable development and improves humans’ capacity to address environmental, social and economic issues. Green skills will help keep Malaysia ahead of environmental challenges and opportunities in a fast-changing global and political landscape. Further, one ACET 2015 agenda is integrating green skills to help the TVET program achieve sustainable development, by curbing poverty and developing the economy, for example. This paper discusses green skills for TVET teacher trainees, to develop environmental sustainability. Data was collected through online questionnaires of 111 (99%) teacher trainees and 38 (86%) lecturers. The questionnaire was developed and adapted from the Theory of Ecological Modernisation and Model of Sustainable Development. A basic descriptive statistic reported the findings from the analysis. They show fourteen applications of green skills for TVET teacher trainees that invite consideration. They should be integrated into the TVET curriculum, learning contents, teaching-learning processes, and reflected in any educational institute policies and practices. Pages 186 to 199




The Role of Environmental Factors, Entrepreneurship Experiences and Entrepreneurship Orientation on Entrepreneurship Teaching Practices

Nik Hanis Zuraihan Rahimia, Mohamad Sattar Rasulb*, Ruhizan Mohammad Yassinc, a,b,c Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Email: b*drsattar@ukm.edu.my

Recent studies have shown the influence of environment, entrepreneurship experiences and entrepreneurship orientation on teaching entrepreneurship. However, there is scarce evidence about their relationship either to or among vocational college teachers. This study relates environmental factors, entrepreneurship experiences and entrepreneurship orientation to entrepreneurship practices. A cross-sectional survey involved 340 vocational college teachers in Malaysia through multi-stage cluster sampling. Data analysed occurred through descriptive and inferential analysis, while confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) determined the model’s validity, reliability and fitness. CFA analysis showed the model achieved good fit using established fitness indices. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed some effect from environmental factors, entrepreneurship experiences and entrepreneurship orientation on entrepreneurship practices. The findings emphasise environmental factors, entrepreneurship experiences and entrepreneurship orientation, about teaching entrepreneurship practices among vocational teachers. They appear to have important implications for entrepreneurship teaching models, and can be recommended for future research, to improve entrepreneurship education in vocational colleges. Pages 200 to 210




Using Nominal Group Technique to Identify Career Decision Elements for TVET Entrepreneurs

Natasha Dora Muridana, Mohamad Sattar Rasulb*, Ruhizan Mohamad Yasinc, Rose Amnah Abd. Raufd, Norhayati Yahayae, Ahmad Rosli Mohd Norf, a,b,c,eFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,  43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. dFaculty of Education, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. fKolej Komuniti Masjid Tanah Melaka, Kampung Paya Rumput, 78300 Masjid Tanah, Melaka, Malaysia. Email: b*drsattar@ukm.edu.my

This study aims to identify and assess the psychological, social and economic determinants for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) entrepreneurs making career decisions. The formation of these elements is based on expert panel views and agreements using Nominal Group Technique (NGT). A total of 10 experts involved in full-time entrepreneurship career were identified. The process of voting in the NGT session for career decisions is intended to determine the priority level of each element according to the preferences of each individual panel based on scale interpretation. NGT requires five stages: study briefings, idea generation, sharing and discussion ideas, voting for the best ideas, and the presentation of research findings. Therefore, the findings of this study will be the most important point of reference in the construction of career path models for TVET entrepreneurs. Pages 211 to 226




Learning Environmental Issues Through Documentaries: Exploring the Perceptions of University Students

Hidayah Mohd Fadzila, Rose Amnah Abd Raufb*, a,bFaculty of Education, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Email: b*rose_amnah@um.edu.my

Documentaries are a dominant media that can create an awareness of environmental issues. Despite existing studies on the use of media such as documentaries in tertiary education, there is limited scholarly literature on the use of documentaries, specifically for an educational setting. By employing a qualitative study, the researcher attempts to explore the students’ perception of the use of documentaries in engaging them with environmental issues. This research involved an in-class research project with 37 third-year and fourth-year undergraduate students from various faculties in a university in Kuala Lumpur. The findings indicated that students expressed positive viewpoints about the use of the “Home” documentary in this assignment. Three themes emerged: (i) documentaries evoke students’ environmental awareness, (ii) documentaries connect students to current environmental issues, and (iii) documentaries may enhance students’ learning experience. The study also suggests that using documentaries to expose students to real issues develops the students’ pro-environmental disposition. Pages 227 to 242




An Evaluation of Teachers Opinions about the Servant Leadership Behaviours of School Principals: A Critical Review

Silllalee S. Kandasamya, Rajantheran Muniandyb, Matana Kandasamyc, Bharathi Muttyd, Samikkanu Jabamoney Ishak Samuele, aDepartment of Modern Languages, Faculty of Creative Industries, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia, bDepartment of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, cMasters Studies Scholar, Johor Learning Centre, Cluster of Education and Social Sciences, Open University Malaysia, 80300 Johor Bahru, Malaysia, dDepartment of Language and Linguistics, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 31900 Kampar, Perak, Malaysia, eTamil Language Programme, Sultan Idris Education University, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia, Email: b*rajanmun@um.edu.my 

This is a review of ‘An Evaluation of Teachers’ Opinions about the Servant Leadership Behaviours of School Principals’ published in Educational Process: International Journal. That article delves into how school teachers perceive the implementation of the ‘Servant Leadership Behaviours’ concept by school principals, where teachers serve under these principals’ supervision. It also identifies the level of this concept’s application in primary and secondary schools. The article has strengths and weaknesses. The concept of servant leadership by school principals is well-explained and it effectively employs methodology (snowball sampling and content analysis). It systematises data, succeeds in answering the research questions, and its references are compatible with bibliographic rules. But the article lacks a research problem statement or review of past studies, has a shallow and unorganised introduction, and only vaguely distinguishes data analysis from its overall conclusion. Finally, the current review identifies the article’s positives for readers despite its few weaknesses. Pages 243 to 256




Influence of Lecturers’ Motivations in Entrepreneurship Course Teaching

Anuar Shaaria, A. Shahb*, Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawic, Md Fauzi Ahmadd, a,bFaculty of Technical and Vocational, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia, cSchool of Technology Management and Logistics, University Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia, dFaculty of Technology Management, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Batu Pahat, Parit Raja, Johor, Malaysia, Email: barmanshah@ftv.upsi.edu.my 

This study identifies the level of motivation of polytechnic lecturers who teach entrepreneurship courses through the encouragement perspectives obtained by each lecturer to teach entrepreneurship courses. Purposive sampling was used. Thirty lecturers from five departments responded. A questionnaire contained eight items about improving lecturer motivation. A pilot study investigated 15 entrepreneurship course lecturers with entrepreneurship experience over five years of experience at the Sultan Azlan Shah Polytechnic (PSAS). Motivation was found to be one contributor to increasing lecturers’ professionalism. Lecturers’ motivation in improving professionalism in teaching entrepreneurship courses is high, when the overall mean for teaching and learning indicators is 4.17. In a nutshell, the study suggests that the level of motivation plays an important role in improving the professionalism of lecturers teaching entrepreneurship to polytechnic students. The study implies that lecturer motivation can be enhanced by encouragement and initiative from employers, as well as good training to such lecturers. Pages 257 to 269




Factors that inhibit science teachers’ implementation of learner autonomy after a professional development collaboration

Renuka V. Sathasivama, Rose Amnah Abd Raufb*, Dhesegaan Bala Krishnanc, Mohamad Sattar Rasuld, Leong Kwan Eue, a,b,eFaculty of Education, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, cAsia-Europe Institute, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, dFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: b*rose_amnah@um.edu.my

Developing learner autonomy can improve learners’ outcomes. Teaching students autonomy is a cultural endeavour. Therefore teachers operating from an Asian heritage may struggle to implement learner autonomy. Teachers face several pressures when implementing learner autonomy, and require development. This paper investigates what prevented science teachers from implementing autonomy-supportive strategies after a Collaborative Professional Development Programme (CPDP). CPDP guides science teachers to implement learner autonomy, with Assessment for Learning (AfL) principles. It flexibly and expertly encourages teachers to strategise their autonomy. This study is part of a more extensive study. Three primary science teachers participated in the CPDP. They were interviewed afterwards to elicit inhibiting factors, which included lack of time to prepare students for examinations and resources (pressure from above); non-cooperative students (pressure from below) and teachers’ beliefs that students were unable to become autonomous (pressure from within). Detailed recommendations are given, with implications for professional programme developers and policymakers. Pages 270 to 283




The Influence of Social Media on Spelling Skills among Primary School Students

Lee Yi Roua,  Melor Md. Yunusb*, Ashairi Sulimanc, aSJKC Serdang Baru 1, Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia, b,cFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: b*melor@ukm.edu.my

Social media is the platform for communication or sharing information on the internet through the medium of gadgets like computers, tablets and mobile phones. It enables people to share ideas, articles, information and news just a button press away. However, social media has replaced face-to-face communications with texting via smart phones or technology gadgets. It is found that students who frequently use social media sites as a medium of communication are easily exposed to the overuse of abbreviations or slang. Hence, this study aimed to explore the influence of social media on spelling skills among primary school students. A survey was conducted on 50 randomly selected Year 5 students from urban areas, with a high chance of exposure to technology devices as well as familiarity with social media. The results of the study showed that social media has a positive influence on students’ spelling skills. Pages 284 to 297




 Local Socio-Cultural Wisdom as a Basis of Character Education in Primary Schools

Sukadaria*, Buchory Muh. Sukemib, Sunartic, aUniversity of PGRI Yogyakarta, 55753 Indonesia, bUniversity of PGRI Yogyakarta, 55753 Indonesia, cHead of Post Graduate of Social Science, University of PGRI Yogyakarta, 55753 Indonesia, Email: a*sukadariupy@gmail.com

Purpose: To examine the implementation of character education, based on local socio-cultural wisdom for primary school students, in Yogyakarta. Methodology: Interviews, observations, and documentation of students and teachers in five primary schools, by integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches. The first year of research was conducted in May - October 2018. Main Findings: (1) Traditional games can train children’s character through their socialising or associating with others; (2) a total of eight UPY of students in this study can complete a specifically approved thesis draft; (3) a prototype design or some models for developing character education. Applications: Research results can be a module for teaching character. Novelty/Originality: Proposed scientific reports in nationally and internationally accredited journals, textbooks on character education based on local socio-cultural wisdom in primary schools, and HAKI’s design of cultural costumes for ‘angguk’ culture with batik clothing ‘geblek renteng’ motifs, a distinct characteristic of the Kulon Progo region. Pages 298 to 311




Relationship between Work Stress and Burnout among High School Special Education Teachers

Siti Nasuha Zainudina, Mohd Effendi Ewan Mohd Matoreb*, Norhashidah Md Ghanic, Rafidah Mohd Adnand, Jemahliah Mohd Sallehe, a,bCentre of Educational Planning and Policy, Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, cSekolah Kebangsaan Sungai Sam, Sungai Sam, 18000 Kuala Krai, Kelantan, Malaysia, dSekolah Kebangsaan Bangi, Bangi Lama, 43600 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia, eSekolah Kebangsaan Taman Seroja, Bandar Baru Salak Tinggi, 43900 Sepang, Selangor, Malaysia. Email:b*effendi@ukm.edu.my

Assignments, role conflicts, role ambiguity and student discipline problems can cause job stress and lead to burnout among teachers. This study was conducted to identify the relationship between work stress and burnout for a high school Special Education Teacher in Malacca. A total of 145 respondents in Central Malacca were selected using simple random sampling technique. Quantitative approach with survey design and written questionnaire were used. The instruments are adapted from the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI). Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 25.0 using the Pearson Product Moment correlation parametric test. The findings indicated that work stress has a significant positive relationship with two burnout subdivisions namely emotional exhaustion (r = 0.397, p <.05) and depersonalization (r = 0.494, p <.05). However, work stress was negatively associated with the third subdivision of personal achievement (r = -0.253, p <.05). This finding has provided the Ministry with an opportunity to understand the pattern between work stress and burnout among Special Education Teachers by incorporating appropriate content into their teacher training programs. This issue of work stress among Special Education Teachers should be given attention in ensuring a balanced ratio in their work environment and their lives. Pages 312 to 324




Relationship between Resilience and Quality of Life (QOL) of Special Education Teachers

Raidah Mahirah Abdullaha, Mohd Effendi @Ewan Mohd Matoreb*, Jemahliah Mohamed Sallehc, Rafidah Mohd Adnand, a,bCentre of Educational Planning and Policy, Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, cSekolah Kebangsaan Taman Seroja, Bandar Baru Salak Tinggi, 43900 Sepang, Selangor, Malaysia,  dSekolah Kebangsaan Bangi, Bangi Lama, 43600 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. Email: b*effendi@ukm.edu.my

The resilience of the teacher will be tested when faced with conflicts, challenges and problems that occur in the education system. To stay in the teaching profession, teachers’ resilience is the most important element that needs to be addressed well. A teacher’s ability to control the situation by continuing professionalism and teaching ethics is said to have good endurance. However, the relationship between teacher resilience and the quality of work life of teachers is still underestimated, especially involving special education teachers working with students with learning problems. Therefore, this study is conducted to determine the relationship between the durability and the quality of work life of a special education teacher learning problem. The study was conducted quantitatively using survey as the method. The census sampling technique was used for 60 special education specialists in the Central Melaka District. The data collection was through the questionnaire using two adapted instruments namely the Special Education Career Resilience Scale (SECRS) and Teachers' Work Quality Instrument. Items have been analysed using Pearson product-moment correlation. The findings show that there is a significant relationship (r = 0.713) between resilience and the quality of working life of special education teachers. For resilience, the theme acceptance construct reported significant correlation with resilience (r = +0.714) followed by support of self-awareness (r = +0.657), conversion (r = +0.631) and the connectedness (r = +0.547) with resilience. For relationship between quality of working life constructs with resilience, the significant highest correlation is psychological need (r = +0.720), followed by social need (r = +0.691), political need (r = +0.515) and the lowest is economical need (r = +0.505). The findings suggest that there is a critical need for teachers to understand certain elements that enhance teachers' resilience. Future research using qualitative approaches are expected to provide information that the Ministry can use as a guide in identifying improvements to boost resilience among special education teachers especially when working with students with learning problems. Pages 325 to 335




Gender and Family Background as Antecedents on the Social Entrepreneurial Strategic Domain of University Students

Radin Siti Aishah Radin A Rahmana, Faridah Mydin Kuttyb*, Norasmah Othmanc, a,b,cCentre of Educational Leadership and Policy, Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor,  Malaysia, Email: b*faridah_mydin@ukm.edu.my

Social entrepreneurial orientation strategically consists of entrepreneurial personality, human capital, and social capital domains to ensure the effectiveness of social entrepreneurial activities. Early exposure towards social entrepreneurial orientation among university students will be able to show their interest to become social entrepreneur and also close the gaps between marginalised communities with the creation of social enterprise. In addition, empirical research regarding the antecedent factors that influence the social entrepreneurial strategic domain has relevance. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the social entrepreneurial strategic domains namely entrepreneurial personality, human capital and social capital among students of different gender and family background. The specific objectives of this study are i) to identify the level of strategic domains of social entrepreneurship among university students; and ii) to determine the differences in the strategic domains of social entrepreneurship based on students’ gender and family background. The survey research design was used on total 742 samples using proportionate stratified random sampling technique according to university category in Malaysia. The findings show that the level of female students from the self-own business family background were higher than the male students. However, the level of human capital and social capital domains for male students from self-own business family background were higher than the female students. Moreover, there was an existence of difference for human capital domain based on the gender and family background. The findings also showed that male and female students from self-own business family background provided positive feedback on human capital domain from the aspect of knowledge, skills, and efficacy of social entrepreneurship. Whereby, the male students from the family that earns from their self-own business possess higher level of social entrepreneurial orientation compared to the female students. The implication of the study supported the usefulness of Entrepreneurial Event Theory (Shapero, 1982) and strengthened the existing literature in the entrepreneurial field especially the influence of trigger factors that affect the interest of students getting involved in social entrepreneurial activities. Additionally, the findings supported a system that from all universities will be able to grab the attention and motivation of students to participate in social entrepreneurial activities. Pages 336 to 346




Hikayat Seri Rama: Establishing the Source

M. Rajantherana*, Krishanan Maniamb, Silllalee S Kandasamyc, Samikkanu Jabamoney Ishak Samueld, aDepartment of Indian Studies, University of Malaya 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, b Department of Indian Studies, University of Malaya 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, c Department of Modern Languages, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 43000 Kajang, Malaysia, d Tamil Language Programme, Sultan Idris Education University, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Malaysia, Email: a*rajanmun@um.edu.my

Purpose of the study: The main aim of this paper is to establish the Tamil literary sources of the Hikayat Seri Rama. Various recensions of the Hikayat Seri Rama demonstrate the close identity between one text and the other which would seem to indicate that all these texts were apparently derived from some older versions of the Rama story, which was the common source of all the recensions. Methodology: The methodology employed in this article is qualitative in nature. It is library research based on the existing published materials. Four steps of Hermeneutics approaches have been employed to produce findings which are objective in nature. This research is aimed to contribute to the existing body of knowledge about the sources of Hikayat Seri Rama. Main findings: This study would enable us to appreciate the close similarity of motifs and episodes between HSR and the Rama story in Tamil tradition. The Rama story in Tamil folklore itself stands out as a great proof to manifest that the Tamil sources are predominant in Hikayat Seri Rama compared to any other sources.  Applications of this study: This study will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and will enable one to appreciate the close cultural relationship between the Tamil and the Malay literary traditions. Hence, it provides a platform for the positive cultural as well as civilizational dialog between the two communities. Additionally, this article can also contribute to the comparative studies involving Indian and Malay literature. Novelty/Originality of this study: Literature reviews clearly show that there is no other similar study to this work conducted elsewhere. Hence, the originality of this study is established. Previous studies failed establish the source for the Hikayat Seri Rama as most of those studies ignored Tamil literary sources. This study managed to prove the source of Hikayat Seri Rama based on Tamil literary sources. Pages 347 to 359




Initial Development and Validation of the Career Readiness Cognitive Information Processing Module Among University Students

Mohd Izwan Mahmuda*, Sidek Mohd Noahb, Jamaludin Ahmadc, Wan Marzuki Wan Jaafard, Salleh Amate, Abu Yazid Abu Bakarf, a,e,fThe National University of Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, b,c,dUniversiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: a*izwan@ukm.edu.my

The career development of university students is a transition process from education to career that needs them to be ready to plan, explore, make choices and make career decisions appropriate with one’s interest, talent and ability. Career readiness can be enhanced through involvement of the students in suitable career development programs. Thus, the Career Readiness Cognitive Information Processing Module (CRCIPM) was developed as an intervention aimed to increase the students’ career readiness. This module consists of three sub-modules, which are knowledge sub-module, decision making sub-module and information processing sub-module; and thirteen activities that were developed based on Cognitive Information Processing (CIP) theory. The research aim to analysis the content validity and reliability of CRCIPM. This research used the descriptive research design, where the expert consensus percentage value and module’s content validity coefficient as well as reliability coefficient were obtained using the Alpha Cronbach coefficient internal validity. Meanwhile, a total of 28 students were used as the samples of the pilot test in order to obtain the reliability coefficient value of the modules. The questionnaire consisted of four items which were: the module content is suitable for the targeted population, the module content can be implemented successfully, the module content can increase career readiness and the module content can modify the career thoughts. The research findings showed that the value of content validity coefficient was .955 and based on the sub-modules and activities was .934. The findings of the pilot test showed that the module’s Alpha Cronbach value of reliability was .945. This proves that the CRCIPM has high content validity and reliability, and therefore is suitable to be implemented on the university students that have low or moderate level of career readiness. Further research needs to be done in order to test the effectiveness of the module on the population. This research contributes to the development of the module in career counselling for higher education students. Pages 360 to 374


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