Split-Half Analysis: Measurement of Validity and Reliability of the Career Counselling Self-Efficacy Scale (CCSES) in Malaysian Public Universities

Aden, Ea*, Amat, S.b, Mahmud, M.I.c, Abu Bakar, A.Y.d, Ghazali, N.M.e, Annuar, A.f, a,b,c,dFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM, Bangi Selangor, Malaysia, a,e,fFaculty of Cognitive Science and Human Development, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia, Email: a*edrisadenukm@gmail.com

Self-efficacy is an important aspect in measuring counsellor’s abilities to conduct counselling processes. This study aims to assess the validity and reliability of self-efficacy using the Split-half technique. The Career Counselling Self-Efficacy Scale (SSES) aims to measure the level of counsellor’s readiness to provide career counselling services to clients that covers aspects of knowledge and skills. A quantitative approach was used and data analysed by using the SPSS. The instrument has been translated into Malay and involved a 25 items instrument consisting of five sub-scales related to the counsellor’s efficacy. The analysis using the Split-half approach reported the reliability value for the entire item of Part 1 (0.96) and Part 2 (0.97). The study has inferred that the instrument has a satisfactory level of reliability and can be used in the Malaysian context. The new version of instruments has an impact to the counsellor competency in practice. The counsellor will have a view in terms of their ability to handle career counselling. Aside from curriculum development, career counselling can be improved in line with current need.  There are a limited numbers of inventories translated into Malay. The new version of CCSES can minimise the cultural issues faced by counsellors in their practice. Pages 1 to 15




A Professional Learning Community Strategy Towards Students’ Achievements

Shamsudin Othmana*, Abdul Rasid Jamianb, Azhar Md. Sabilc, Rozita Radhiah Saidd, Rosmaria Omare, a,c,d,e Department of Language and Humanities Education, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia b Faculty of Languages ​​and Communication, Sultan Idris Education University, Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia, Email: a*s_shamsudin@upm.edu.my

Purpose of the study: This paper focuses on the theory and concept of Professional Learning Community (PLC/KPP) and its strategies on students’ achievement in public university and institutes of teacher education. Professional Learning Community has specific strategies to improve student achievement. PLC refers to the education institution’s culture that encourages continuous learning among educators in their institutions. The teaching culture is not considered as an individual’s job but it is more about obtaining criticism and performing improvements. Lecturers play an important role in ensuring that their students’ future is brighter and more outstanding. Thus, the effective strategies are: to emphasise a lecturer’s skills and knowledge, build quality relationships, arrange a very focused program, mobilise existing resources, and develop a shared leadership. Methodology: The understanding of PLC concepts and all related theories is derived from in-depth reading through primary sources, which are articles and journals. Through content analysis, the researcher explored types of strategies used in the implementation of PLC in higher institutions from previous studies. Main Findings: Consequently, Professional Learning Community (PLC) is a professional development program that has proven to be very successful abroad and become more popular in most countries. There are five Professional Learning Community (PLC) strategies: reflective dialogue, shared practice, collective focus on student learning, collaboration and shared norms. Applications of this study: In a nutshell, PLC could be one of the best models to help lecturers or educators improve their professionalism, whereby, clear ideas, concepts and efficient strategies will support educators with learning improvement as well as students’ achievement. Novelty/Originality of this study: The findings suggest that educators have to work together by writing common assessments, planning curriculum, identifying at-risk students, and problem solving to intervene for each student. During collaborative team meetings, educators share their concerns, reflect on their teaching strategies, and make decisions based on data so that the five proposed PLC strategies can be maximised for use in ensuring academic achievement will be implemented for all students. Pages 16 to 28




Developing a MOOC for Communicative English: A Battle of Instructional Designs

Karmila Rafiqah M. Rafiqa, Harwati Hashimb*, Melor Md Yunusc, Fetylyana Nor Pazilahd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: akarmilarafiqah@gmail.com,  b*harwati@ukm.edu.my,  cmelor@ukm.edu.my,  dfetylyananor@gmail.com

The Communicative English (CE) of workers is still worrying for employers. Many employers carry out face-to-face English for workplace training to curb the problem, but it is outdated, time-consuming and expensive. One of the solutions is to resort to online training in open online learning platforms such as a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). This paper aims to discuss the different instructional design (ID) models that can be used to develop a MOOC. The models are ADDIE and ASSURE, which serve as a guide in creating an online course and the winning model for developing MOOC is ADDIE. The discussion from this paper is sought to provide an overview for educators before developing MOOC for CE training and implied the importance of having suitable ID models as a guideline in designing a course. Future research can focus on combining ID models to create more comprehensive course content. Pages 29 to 39




Differences in Muslim Female Students Self-Concept between Engineering and Non-Engineering Courses in Polytechnic

Mohd Effendi Ewan Mohda*, Roziela Mohamed Sharibb, Siti Janariah Jantanc, Effa Rina Mohd Matored, aCentre of Educational Planning and Policy, Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, bDepartment of Electrical Engineering, Polytechnic of Sultan Azlan Shah, 35950 Behrang Ulu, Perak, Malaysia, cDepartment of Mathematics, Science and Computer (JMSK), Polytechnic of Sultan Azlan Shah, 35950 Behrang Ulu, Perak, Malaysia, dBatang Padang District Education Office, Jalan Pahang, Kampung Pahang, 35000 Tapah, Perak, Malaysia, Email: a*effendi@ukm.edu.my

This study aimed to see if there were differences in self-concept for 300 Muslim female students in one of the selected Southern polytechnics through simple random sampling. The Tennessee Self Concept Inventory (TSCS) been used to measure self-concept. Data were processed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 25.0 and analysed using a descriptive and independent sample t-test. Findings revealed that there were significant differences between Muslim female students in engineering courses and non-engineering courses in the seven self-concept categories: overall self-concept (p = 0.018), moral and ethical self (p = 0.002), self-criticism (p = 0.040), self-esteem (p = 0.028), family self (p = 0.026), self-satisfaction (p = 0.006), and self-esteem (p = 0.000). While there was no difference in the other three self-elements namely physical self (p = 0.837), social self (p = 0.681) and self-identity (p = 0.703). Respondents of non-engineering courses have better self-concept than respondents of engineering courses except for self-identity. Both courses show that the best elements of self-concepts are self-identity while the weakest elements are self-critical. This study is significant to the polytechnic especially in strengthening the content of more self-directed programs in an effort to enhance the self-concept of Muslim female students in polytechnics. Pages 40 to 53




 The Strategic Role of Firm Legitimacy in Small and Medium Enterprises

Sheerad Sahida, Radin Siti Aishah Radin A Rahmanb, a,bCentre of Educational Leadership & Policy, Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: asheerad@ukm.edu.my

Customers’ acceptance of a product or service is related to the customers’ beliefs and perceptions. The acceptance and marketability of a product would be improved if customers had a good perception or legitimacy on a business firm. Legitimacy refers to the social justification of the organisational action which can be accepted and verified by social rules. The firm legitimacy process involves social accreditation of the organisational competency or the role played by the organisation in providing the product or service. This article discusses the types of legitimacy and its strategic roles in enhancing the small medium enterprises’ competitiveness. Pages 54 to 62




 Managing School-Based Assessment: Challenges and Solutions for Educational Practice

Azlin Norhaini Mansora*, Sharmini Siva Vikaramanb, Nitce Isa Medinac, Bity Salwana Aliasd, a,dFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, bEnglish Language Teaching Centre, Ministry of Education Malaysia, Malaysia, cSMK Convent, Sentul, Selangor, Ministry of Education Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: a*azlinmansor@ukm.edu.my,  bshammyny@yahoo.com,  cnitce_mdn@yahoo.com,  dbity@ukm.edu.my

Student assessment is closely associated in the educational attempt to monitor student accomplishment and improve school performance. The research reported in this article examines the implementation of school-based assessment (SBA), exploring the practice and challenges upon which the framework is based, and educators’ efforts to overcome problems faced in using SBA information to monitor the effectiveness of their reform efforts. Through in-depth and focus group interviews involving twenty teachers, the findings highlight the challenges and implications surrounding the accountability of SBA implementation in 10 primary schools in Malaysia. The findings suggest that challenges in SBA implementation include administrative support, teacher readiness, technical support and professional support from the state education department. Revamping strategies on teacher training and professional development that inculcate SBA as the core culture in the school learning ecosystem is therefore necessary. Pages 63 to 84




Service-Learning as an Innovative Approach in ESL Teachers’ Training

Fetylyana Nor Pazilaha, Harwati Hashimb*, Melor Md Yunusc, Karmila Rafiqah M. Rafiqd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: afetylyananor@gmail.com,  b*harwati@ukm.edu.my,  cmelor@ukm.edu.my,  dkarmilarafiqah@gmail.com

Twenty-first century’s wave is demanding teachers to be more competent and committed towards their teachings than ever. However, current trainee teachers, or pre-service teachers, seem to be unprepared for the challenges that they might face as educators. Hence, this paper discusses the service-learning approach in teachers’ training among English as a Second Language (ESL) pre-service teachers. The service-learning approach offers an authentic experience and is an innovation for learning in teaching which they may not be able to achieve in a classroom environment. Service-learning encourages engagement that offers authentic experience as well as their understanding on the course content. Other than that, this paper also discussed the service-learning collaboration with audio-visual method. This study implies that pre-service teachers should be exposed to real-life experiences through service-learning as it can be beneficial. Future researches can look into the perceptions of trainee teachers on service-learning and its effectiveness in training programs. Pages 85 to 95




The Influence of Resilience on the Quality of Work Life for Special Education Teachers Specialising in the Learning Problems Context

Raidah Mahirah Abdullaha, Mohd Effendi Ewan Mohd Matoreb*, Norhashidah Md Ghanic, Rafidah Mohd Adnand, Jemahliah Mohd Sallehe, a,bCentre of Educational Planning and Policy, Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, cSekolah Kebangsaan Sungai Sam, Sungai Sam, 18000 Kuala Krai, Kelantan, Malaysia, dSekolah Kebangsaan Bangi, Bangi Lama, 43600 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia, eSekolah Kebangsaan Taman Seroja, Bandar Baru Salak Tinggi, 43900 Sepang, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: b*effendi@ukm.edu.my

The purpose of this paper is to understand how the quality of work life is influenced by resilience among special education teachers. Today's challenges demand high resilience teachers, especially in the special education context. Resilient teachers are essential to producing successful students. However, there are questions at the same time about the impact on the quality of work of the teachers’ lives. This study was conducted quantitatively using the survey method. The census sampling technique was used for 60 special education specialists in the Central Melaka District. The data collection was through questionnaire using two adapted instruments namely the Special Education Career Resilience Scale (SECRS) and Teachers' Work Quality Instrument. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 25.0 for linear regression analysis. The findings show that there is a significant relationship between resilience and the quality of work life. The results revealed that 50.9 percent of participants demonstrated that resilience contributed to the quality of work life. The limitations of this study is that it was only conducted using survey with questionnaire and the results could be developed through suggesting or implementing ideas about how to improve the quality of work life for the teacher other than through resilience. This paper explores ways to understand and further develop suitable resilience-oriented, development programs for special education teachers. The value of the study is that it explores resilience in different fields to improve the overall quality of work life (especially in the special education context). Pages 96 to 108




Promulgating Factors Influencing Students’ Academic Achievement: Unveiling the International High Schools Setting

Reem Ismeil Alnawasreha, Mohamad Yusoff Mohd Norb*, Ashairi Sulimanc, a,b,cCentre of Educational Leadership and Policy, Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: b*yusoff1963@ukm.edu.my

Academic achievement is an important item on the agenda for parents, schools, researchers, governments, and in particular, students. Academic achievement may determine the nations’ future and provide human and intellectual power for the nation to survive and thrive. Numerous studies have focused on the context of local university students while the international high school students have received less attention. To this end, this study aims to investigate the factors that affect the academic achievement of international high school students in Malaysia. Based on the literature, the study proposes that self-efficacy, peer support, teacher support, and future goals would affect academic achievement. There were 117 respondents involved in this study, all of whom were international students receiving formal education in Malaysia. By using a questionnaire, the data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and Partial Least Square (PLS). The findings indicate that the most important factor influencing academic achievement is future goals followed by peer support, teacher support and self-efficacy. To summarise, all these elements need to be given emphasis to ensure students’ academic achievement improves. Pages 109 to 127




 Bionomic Vector Anopheles SPP in Maribu Village, Sentani Barat District Jayapura Regency Papua - Indonesia 2018

Renold M. Mofua, Nawang Wulanb, Marlin M Jaronac, Bruce Mehued, Arwam Hermanuse, Jems KR Maayf*, a,b,c,d,e,fHealth Environment School, Nursing Program,  Health Polytechnic of Jayapura, Jalan Padang Bulan 2, Hedam, Districk Heram, Jayapura City, Papua, Indonesia, Email: f*jemskrmaay@yahoo.co.id

Anopheles mosquito is an important genus in the Anophelinae subfamily. Anopheles is the only type of mosquito that can transmit malaria to humans. There are about 80 species of Anopheles, while there are 24 species declared as malaria vectors. Papua Biomedical Research and Development Center (2006-2014) found species including: Anopheles farauti, Anopheles punctulatus, Anopheles koliensis, Anopheles bancrofti, Anopheles kochi, Anopheles tessellatus. The purpose of this determination is to describe the characteristics of breeding places (habitat), to know the activity of blood sucking and resting habits of Anopheles spp in Maribu Village, Sentani Barat District, Jayapura Regency in 2018. This research is undertaken quantitatively through with survey design and analysis. The results of the research analysis showed that the Anopheles spp larvae habitat in Maribu village consisted of 17 ponds (20.7%), temporary puddles of 37 animals (45.1%) and 28 animals (34.1% of former footing water). The blood-sucking activity of Anopheles spp mosquitoes in Maribu village began at 18:00 CET and reached its peak density at 21.00-22.00 CET, both outside the house and inside the house. Anopheles spp in Maribu village prefer to rest outside the house rather than inside the house after sucking blood or foraging for food. This research suggests that counselling about malaria and its transmission would improve the behaviour (knowledge, attitudes and actions) of the community in an effort to reduce contact between humans and mosquitoes, modification and manipulation of the environment and reduce the habit of being outdoors at night and wearing trousers when outside the house. Pages 128 to 137




The Knowledge and Attitude of a Post-Wife Mother Against Prevention of HIV Transmission in a New Born Baby in Jayapura Hospital

Ruth Yogia*, Marthina Moganb, Rosita Sumendac, Jems KR Maayd, Arwam Hermanuse, Marlin Jaronaf, a,b,c,d,e,fDepartment of Midwifery, Nursing Program, Environmental Health,  Health Polytechnic Jayapura, Street  Padang Bulan II Abepura, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia, Email: a*ruthyogi@yahoo.com

The risk of transmission of HIV from mother to child is due to lack of knowledge and attitudes of mothers with HIV. There are 36.9 million people living with HIV, of which 13 million women are housewives. They experience pregnancy and childbirth with HIV and as many as 180 thousand children (0-14 years) are infected with the HIV virus with a trend that has decreased by 35% from 270 thousand to 180 thousand HIV occurrences in children with efforts to prevent transmission from mother to child (UNAIDS, 2018; p.1). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of knowledge and attitudes of postpartum mothers to the prevention of HIV transmission in newborns in Jayapura Regional Hospital. This research is a quantitative descriptive study with a cross sectional study approach. The population is postpartum mothers in Jayapura Hospital Delivery Room and the total sample is the total population carried out from March to May 2019 by as many as 31 postpartum mothers. Data was obtained using a questionnaire and analysed using the chi square test. Results of the study obtained knowledge of postpartum HIV mothers in Jayapura Regional Hospital about the prevention of HIV transmission in newborn infants in the category of less than 6 people (19.4%), enough categories as many as 18 people (58.1%) and good categories as many as 7 people (22.6%). The attitude of HIV postnatal mothers in Jayapura Regional Hospital regarding the prevention of HIV transmission to newborn babies in the category of not supporting as many as 13 people (51.9%) and attitudes that support as many as 18 people (58.9%). There is no correlation between Ibu Nifas's knowledge on the prevention of HIV transmission in newborns in Jayapura Regional Hospital (p-value 0.654). There is a relationship between the attitude of Mother Nifas towards the prevention of HIV transmission in newborns in Jayapura Regional Hospital (p-value 0.008). Knowledge is not directly related to prevention of HIV transmission from mother to baby, but affects the attitude of mothers associated with preventing transmission of HIV from mother to baby, so it is recommended that more HIV counselling services for postpartum mothers with HIV be improved. Pages 138 to 148




The Effects of Pre-test and Post-Test Endorphin Massage on Reducing Intensity of Lower back pain in Pregnant Woman at Trimester III in Abepura Health Center

Flora Niua, Suryati Romaulib, Heni Voni Rereyc, James Maayd*, a,b,c,dDepartment of Midwifery, Nursing Program, Environmental Health,  Health Polytechnic Jayapura, Street  Padang Bulan II Abepura, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia, Email: d*jemskrmaay@yahoo.co.id

This study aims at determining the effect of pre-test and post-test endorphin massage on reducing the intensity of lower back pain in pregnant women at trimester III in Abepura Health Center in 2018. Endorphin massage is a non-pharmaceutical approach which appropriates at pregnancies women in isolated areas. The result of this study shows that most (50%) of pregnant women experienced moderate and severe lower back pain before being given endorphin massage and after doing endorphin massage, most (83.3%) of them had moderate and minor lower back pain. The result is a positive effect of pre-test and post-test endorphin massage in decreasing the intensity of lower back pain in pregnant women at trimester III (p-value was 0.000). Pages 149 to 160




Effect of Cork Fish Supplements on Improvement of CD4 and Albumin in People Living With HIV/AIDS in Papua

Arwam Hermanus MZa, Novi Warrouwb, Ester Rumasebc, Jems KR Maayd*, a,b,c,dHealth Environment School, Nursing Program, Health Polytechnic of Jayapura, Jalan Padang Bulan 2, Hedam, Districk Heram, Jayapura City, Papua, Indonesia, E-Mail : d*jemskrmaay@yahoo.co.id

The Papua Provincial AIDS Commission (KPA) reports that as of 31st March 2016 the number of HIV sufferers in Papua Province was 25,233 cases of which 98% were approved by sex. The highest number of HIV / AIDS sufferers in Jayawijaya Regency was 5,293 cases and Mimika City had 4,524 cases. Based on age group, the highest number of HIV / AIDS sufferers in the 25-49 year age range was 5,333 cases and 9,211 AIDS cases (KPA, 2016). Data from the Health Service in 2018 shows the number of HIV-AIDS sufferers in Papua donating 39,978 people. Arwam's research results (2011) show how HIV-AIDS does not play a role using the "H" mode, so that in 2040 the prevalence of HIV-AIDS will increase to 19.6% (Arwam, 2011). The aim of this study is to examine the effect of cork fish capsule supplements on improving nutritional status, albumin levels, and CD4 counts in people living with HIV in Papua Province. The method is true experimental research with a non-randomized control group pre- and post-test design. The population were all People Living With HIV / AIDS (PLWHA) who came to visit the VCT clinic to receive antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. The measurement results of the weight of the study subjects show that the weight in the cork fish capsule treatment group before the intervention was 53 kg / bb and after the intervention for 30 days had increased to 58 kg / bb, which increased by 5 kg / bb. This showed a significant increase with a value of p = 0.025 <0.05. While in the placebo control group before BB intervention was 50 kg and after 30 days of intervention decreased by 49 kg with the difference being by -1.2 kg / bb, with a value of p = 0.109, p> 0.05. This study shows that the mean albumin levels of patients before the intervention was 2.5 mg / dl and after the intervention amounted to 3.2 mg / dl compared to the control group which experienced a slight increase from 3.68 mg / dl to 3.72 mg / dl, of only 0.04 mg / dl. This study shows that the average CD4 count of patients before the intervention was 222 mg / dl and after the intervention was 234 mg / dl, an increase of 12 mg / dl. This is compared to the control group which decreased from 475 mg / dl to 472 mg / dl, with a difference -3.2 mg / dl. The paired sample test results showed that there were significant differences in CD4 cell counts between before and after the intervention, in the cork fish meal preparation group (p = 0.025 <0.05), but differed in the control group (p = 0.306> 0.05). Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that PLWHA supplemented with cork fish capsules can improve the nutritional status of patients proven to increase body weight and after giving cork fish capsules for 1 month showed an increase compared to only being given antiretroviral therapy (ARV). PLWHA supplemented with cork fish capsules may experience an increase in albumin after one month of intervention rather than only taking ARV drugs. PLWHA supplemented with cork fish capsules can experience an increase in CD4 cell count, after being intervened for one month instead of only taking antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). Pages 160 to 172




Present and Past Turnover Literature: An integrated Approach

Hamid Masuda, Wan Norhayate Wan Daudb*, a,bUniversity Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak, 21300 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Email: b*wnhayate@unisza.edu.my

The purpose of the current review is to analyse the development in turnover literature. It is noted that several important developments in turnover literature have been published in the Journal of Applied Psychology since 1925. Since then, there have been a number of phases described, namely: formative phase (1920s-1960s), foundational models phase (1970s), theory testing (1980s), unfolding model (1990s) and 21st century research. Each phase presented significant developments in turnover research. It has been found that most of the turnover theories are applied on overall population rather than applying them differently on different set of populations. For example, decision-making models cannot be applied on both satisfied, education and dis-satisfied and poorly educated people. Also, the focus of turnover research remains limited to individuals rather than collectives (from individuals to industrial level). The review concludes by highlighting important practical implications which might help practitioners and policy makers to overcome turnover and to improve organisational efficiency. Several keynote recommendations have been suggested for future scholars. Pages 173 to 193




Developing and Validating Measures of Knowledge Management Effectiveness with CFA

Rania Jamal Altarwneha, Wan Norhayate Wan Daudb*, aFaculty of Economics & Management Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, bSchool of Finance and Banking Department, Faculty of Economics & Management Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, Email: b*wnhayate@unisza.edu.my

The objective of this study is to examine the construct of Knowledge Management Effectiveness (KME) using two sub-constructs; knowledge infrastructure capability (KIC) and knowledge process capability (KPC). The construct of knowledge infrastructure capability consists of four dimensions: structural knowledge, cultural knowledge, technical knowledge, and human resource knowledge. The sub-construct of knowledge process capability consists of the acquisition process, conversion process, and application process. The research also attempts to measure and validate the main construct and sub-constructs using data collected from Jordanian banks. Adapted instruments were determined using a questionnaire research methodology approach on 316 employees working in Jordanian banks. A confirmatory factor analysis technique was implemented to verify and validate the measurement model of the knowledge infrastructure capability (KIC) and knowledge process capability (KPC) model to measure main construct knowledge management effectiveness. The research finding presents the revised measurement model for knowledge infrastructure capability (KIC) and knowledge process capability (KPC) to be involved in knowledge management effectiveness. All four variables of the knowledge infrastructure capability (KIC) and three variables of and knowledge process capability (KPC) emerged as significant and reliable measures for knowledge management effectiveness. The research contributed to a unique perspective of KM effectiveness, the confirmed and validated set of measurement items can be used to measure the extent to which knowledge infrastructure capability (KIC) and knowledge process capability (KPC) is involved in knowledge management effectiveness in the organisations. Through the validated tool, more research can be carried out to explore knowledge management effectiveness from the employee's perspective. Pages 194 to 211




How Does Employees’ Big Five Personality Traits Explain Innovative Work Behavior? An Original Needs Theory Approach from Mcclelland And Maqasid Al Shari’a

Hamdy Abdullaha*, Ahmad Azrin Adnanb, Ahmad Munir Mohd Sallehc, Mohd Shaladdin Mudad, Khatijah Omare, Fazida Karimf, Mohd Hilmi Hamzahg, a,b,fUniversiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, c,d,e,gUniversiti Malaysia Terengganu, Email: a*hamdyumt@yahoo.com

The aim of this study is to observe the impressions of an employees’ big five personality traits on their innovative work behaviour in the Malaysian Islamic banking environment by exploring the amalgamated approach of McClelland’s Needs Theory as well as Maqasid Al Shari’a. The survey questionnaire comprehended measurements of innovative work behaviour as well as the big five personality traits. Data were gathered from 397 employees of four Islamic banking clusters on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The outcomes show that only the dimension of openness to experience is a significant predictor to innovative work behaviour. The data in the present study were gathered from a single source through a common method. The use of a cross-sectional design limits the causal associations between the big five personality traits and innovative work behaviour only. Intermixed between conventional plus Islamic thinking, creativity could be nurtured in discovering the suitable approach to accomplish responsible innovation, which is anticipated to establish the influence of a Shari’a-compliant system. The current study does provide some suggestions that only certain dimensions of  big five personality are influential on innovative work behaviours. This study is one of the earliest attempts to rationalise employees’ innovative work behaviour by using a unique amalgam of McClelland’s Needs of Theory and Maqasid Al Shari’a. Pages 212 to 227




Parallel Mediators of Place Attachment and Tourist Satisfaction in Destination Attractiveness, Destination Loyalty and Service Quality

Mahadzirah Mohamada*, Muhamad Nasyat Muhamad Nasirb, Nur Izzati Ab Ghanic, Asyraf Afthanorhand, a,b,c,dFaculty of Economics and Management Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak Campus, 21300 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu Darul Iman, Malaysia, Email: a*mahadzirahmd@unisza.edu.my

Langkawi Island, Malaysia, is experiencing a sluggish and unstable growth rate pattern of international tourists’ arrival. The main aim of this research is to determine factors that could improve Langkawi Island’s destination loyalty to curb the situation from persisting by examining the relationships among service quality, destination attractiveness, tourist satisfaction, place attachment and destination loyalty. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed at the Langkawi International Airport to international tourists from three countries listed among the top 20 international market visiting Malaysia. Respondents were selected using a simple random sampling approach. A total of 365 usable questionnaires were analysed using a Structural Equation Modelling. The roles of parallel mediators were tested simultaneously using the Phantom Model approach. The study illustrated that destination attractiveness has an effect on destination loyalty if the relationship was intervened by place attachment and tourist satisfaction. Conversely, place attachment and tourist satisfaction are only responsible for a part of the service quality-destination loyalty relationship. Even if place attachment and tourist satisfaction were eliminated, the relationship between service quality and destination loyalty still exists, but not as strongly. Several suggestions were put forward as guides to improve Langkawi Island’s destination loyalty. Pages 228 to 257




Agricultural Technology Adoption in Indonesia: The Role of the Agriculture Extension Service, the Rural Financing and the Institutional Context of the Lender

Christina Whidya Utamia*, Agoes Tinus Lis Indriantob, Ikbar Pratamac, aSchool of Management and Business, Universitas Ciputra, Surabaya, Indonesia, bSchool of Tourism, Universitas Ciputra, Surabaya, Indonesia, cSchool of Accounting, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia, Email: a*whidyautami@ciputra.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to assess the role of the Agriculture Extension Service (AES), Rural Financing and Institutional Context of Lender (ICL) in the agricultural technology adoption (ATA). For this purpose, the current study examined the impact of AES, rural financial and ICL on ATA by collecting data for Indonesia. The time series approach was adopted to complete the study because the relationships were examined over the time period of thirty years. The secondary data about the macroeconomic variables included in this study was collected from official databases and archival. The key tests applied in the current study include the descriptive test, unit root test, co-integration test, heteroscedasticity, and regression equation. The findings of this research revealed that AES has significant positive impact on ATA at first lag while the other two independent variables showed significant impact on ATA at that level. Rural financing has significant positive impact on ATA however, the ICL has significant negative impact on ATA. It means that all hypotheses of the current study are true. The results further revealed that RF and ICL have significant and positive long-term impacts on ATA while the AES has no significant impact on ATA in long-term. Furthermore, it is indicated that AES and RF have significant short-term impacts on ATA while ICL does not show significant impact on ATA in the short-term. The present research will provide different implications for theory and practice by emphasising the role of AES, rural financing and ICL in technology adoption in agriculture. Pages 258 to 276




Learning English Informally Through Educational Facebook Pages

Mohammad Rakibul Hasana, Radzuwan Ab Rashidb, Md. Hasan Mahmadun Nubyc, Md Rabiul Alamd, a,b,cFaculty of Languages and Communication, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, dDepartment of Language & Literacy Education Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia, Email: b*radzuwanrashid@unisza.edu.my

This study aimed to scrutinise how learners learn English language informally on Facebook. Employing an ethnographic qualitative approach, data for the study were generated from participant observations for a period of six-months involving 275 participants. Three verified Educational Facebook Pages (EFPs) with the highest number of users were chosen to be observed. Data from participant observation were analysed using a thematic approach. The findings of this study revealed that the EFP users focused on grammar and new vocabulary when learning English informally on the site. They exchanged information, and sought for advice and clarification as part of their learning process. This paper argued that Social Networking Sites (SNS), especially Facebook, are a potential online affinity space to learn English language informally. At the same time, the findings of the research are hoped to be useful to educational technology system developers and curriculum makers, especially for the design of web-based learning processes which would be more reachable to the learners of twenty-first century. Pages 277 to 290




 The Perception of TEFL Students on the Use of Facebook Groups in Teaching EFL Writing

Ibrahim Hasan Ahmad Alkurdia, Radzuwan Ab Rashidb, Amaal Fadhlini Mohamedc, a,bCentre of English Language Studies, Faculty of Languages and Communication, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, cEnglish Language Department, Centre for Language Studies and Generic Development, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 16300 Bachok, Kelantan, Malaysia, Email: a*ibrahim.hasan1977@yahoo.com

This paper aims to investigate the perception of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) students on the use of Facebook groups in teaching English Foreign Language (EFL) writing. This research involved 40 TEFL participants at the Faculty of Arts in Philadelphia University in Jordan. They were engaged in a Facebook group for two months where they learnt how to write from each other whilst being facilitated by their teacher. Towards the end of their engagement with the Facebook group, they were asked to complete a set of questionnaires comprising of 10 closed-ended questions to measure their perceptions about using a Facebook group as a tool in improving writing skill. The findings of the research showed that students acquired new vocabulary through reviewing the comments of others in Facebook groups. Also, the findings of the study indicated that the spell-checker is a great toll for decreasing spelling mistakes. This paper recommends that further research be conducted to investigate further into the use Facebook group as a tool in teaching writing in EFL context. Pages 291 to 304




The Development of a Financial Literacy Questionnaire for Early Childhood

Pujiyanti Fauziaha, Ratna Candra Sarib, aDepartment of Nonformal Education Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia bDepartment of Accounting Education Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia

*Corresponding Email: apujiyanti@uny.ac.id,  bratna_candrasari@uny.ac.id

Literacy is one of the skills needed to face challenges in the industrial revolution because of the ease of access in obtaining various information and data. One of the basic literacy needs that cannot be separated from everyday life is financial literacy. However, the level of financial literacy in Indonesian people is the lowest of all the ASEAN countries. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the learning of the executive function for improving the financial literacy abilities in early childhood. Through a qualitative approach, data analysis in this research was carried out using interactive analysis based on expert testing of instruments that have been arranged. So that each question in the instrument can already be said to be valid and reliable. Pages 305 to 315




CEO Compensation and Firm Performance

Gholamreza Zandia, Shafi Mohamadb, Ooi Chee Keongc, Syed Ehsanullahd, aUniversiti Kuala Lumpur Business School, Malaysia, b,cSchool of Accounting & Finance, Faculty of Business & Law, Taylors University, Malaysia, dTunku Puteri Intan Safinaz School of Accountancy, Universiti Utara Malaysia,

In this study, we investigate the relationship between CEO compensation and firm performance. The variables used for firm performance are ROA, ROE and profit margin. Sample data consists of 96 companies belonging to different business sectors in Malaysia. Our results are consistent with previous studies. ROA and ROE have a strong positive significant relationship with CEO compensation whereas profit margins also have a positive significant relationship but weaker than CEO compensation. We also discuss the role of corporate governance in reducing agency conflicts between higher management and shareholders. Pages 316 to 334




Quality of Services and the Impact on Students’ Satisfaction in Universities

Venkata Sai Srinivasa Rao Muramallaa*, Hassan Ali Alqahtanib, a,bCollege of Business Administration, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia, Email: a*s.muramalla@psau.edu.sa

This paper examined whether the quality of services in educational institutions affects the students’ satisfaction. This study hypothesised that the quality of services measured through the five independent variables of: teaching methods, learning environments, core curriculum, assessment practices, and infrastructure, have an impact on students’ satisfaction. The study randomly surveyed the chosen sample of 316 undergraduate students in ten Saudi universities using a questionnaire. The results disclose that the quality of services in teaching methods, learning environment, and core curriculum had a significant impact on students’ satisfaction but not the quality of services in student assessment practices and infrastructure. These views of students are also significantly correlated. However, their views are positive towards the quality of services in all the study variables. Further research on services of universities like student research fellowships for higher studies, training of students for employability skills, career guidance, and campus placements may prompt more insights into this study topic. Pages 335 to 350




Arabic Schools in Negara Brunei Darussalam (1941 – 2005): Development and Challenges

Awg Haji Asbol bin Haji Maila, Ampuan Dr Haji Brahim bin Ampuan Hj Tengahb, Haji Tassim bin Haji Abu Bakarc, a,b,cAkademi Pengajian Brunei Universiti Brunei Darussalam Negara Brunei Darussalam,

Arabic schools were introduced in 1941 and since then have undergone vast development in terms of enrolment, academic achievement, and the number of schools and buildings; especially after 1966. Despite these developments, they have also faced various challenges. Not long after their establishment, Arabic schools abruptly ceased to operate because Second World War took place, in which Brunei was also involved. After the re-establishment of these schools in 1966, they continued to grow. The development can be seen as illustrated by the annually increasing student numbers because of growing demand from parents to enrol their children into Arabic school. It became a challenge for the government to cater to the demand. Towards the 1990s, Arabic schools in Brunei Darussalam continued to face hurdles when it was found that the proficiency of Arabic language amongst their students was still low, to the extent that it affected their examination results in school and also, when they later attended Al-Azhar University. Despite all challenges, in terms of academics, a revision of the curriculum was implemented in these schools. To illustrate, science stream classes were introduced in 1981, and was followed by the Al-Azhar curriculum in 1993. Nevertheless, the science stream plan came to an end after it failed to continue. On the other end, the implementation of the Al-Azhar curriculum faced its own set of challenges, when students found it difficult to understand the lessons and text books. All in all, in observation of the development of Bruneian Arabic schools from 1941 until 2005, it is undeniable that these schools largely contributed to provide skilled manpower, especially in the field of religion in Brunei Darussalam. Pages 351 to 370



Social Tolerance in Multi-Religious States: A Case Study in Cigugur Society, Indonesia

Muhammad Japara, Komarudin Sahidb, Dini Nur Fadhillahc, Pancasila and Civic Education, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Email: amjapar@unj.ac.id,  bkomarudin@unj.ac.id,  cdinurfa@gmail.com

The existence of six recognised religions, nine unofficial religious communities and 300 different tribes is the biggest challenge for people in Indonesia in the context of maintaining social tolerance. Indonesia is a country made up of diverse culture, races and religions. The use of "Bhineka Tunggal Ika" as the national motto means unity in diversity and it is representative of the Cigugur region in the province of West Java that has shown a social tolerance lifestyle. This study aimed to demonstrate the condition of social tolerance in Indonesia through an investigation of Cigugur society local culture tradition. This qualitative research was conducted in collaboration with the Cigugur society by collecting data through interviews with five religious leaders and ten citizens between the ages of 20-50 years old. Data was collected through documentations and observations during the three months spent in Cigugur. The results showed social tolerance in Cigugur society is based on the local culture of the Seren Taun ceremony, respect to each other and also harmonious interaction in multi-religious contexts is embedded.  It is expected that the results of this research can be used as a model of social tolerance as proactive policy against intolerance and could also be used as a form of social tolerance implementation in civic education learning. Pages 371 to 392
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