The Impact of Sellers’ Attitude on Buyers’ Intention in China

Dao Fenga, Mahadevan Supramaniamb, Faria Rabbic*, Ban Did, Wang Feie, a,b,dSEGi University, Malaysia, eJiangxi Police Institute, Jiangxi, China, cNorthern University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh, Email: c*faria22rabbi@gmail.com  

This study examines the relationship between website quality, selling systems, and seller’s attitude regarding to buyer’s intention.  There will be a specific focus on buyers and sellers in China for this study. The fast-economic development of China has established the country as a worldwide financial power. China has developed by 6.7% in 2016, which was a contrast to the 6.9% growth of the previous year. This was caused a slower development. Consequently, the rebalancing of the economic power will set China apart as the world's second greatest merchant in the field of merchandise and business administration. It is a common assessment to say that there is a major flow on effect towards monetary execution in China. It was found that the respondent rate from seller’s was 307 by using a non-probability sampling method.  The main result of this study showed dimensions of the independent variable ‘Website Quality’, ‘Selling System’ and the dependent variable of ‘Sellers Attitude’ to learn the attitude towards buyers’ intention in China. The disclosures showed that among the four components decided for this examination, the most affective part for online buyers is Website Design/Features, followed by support, lastly by security. The results of this study have demonstrated that these components are effective in eliciting responses among online clients. Pages 1 to 16




Can the New Fusion of Maslow and Maqasid Al Sharia Outlooks Explain the Linkage of Big Five Personality Traits on Job Satisfaction?

Hamdy Abdullaha, Noor Mizan Arifinb, Ahmad Munir Mohd Sallehc, a,bUniversity of Sultan Zainal Abidin, cUniversity of Malaysia Terengganu, Email: a*hamdy@unisza.edu.my

The study explicitly inspects the impact that the Big Five personality traits (i.e. openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and emotional stability) have on job satisfaction by adopting Maslow and Maqasid Al Sharia standpoints. For this study, a multiple regression analysis of a survey data set of 397 perceptions, gathered from the employees of Malaysian Islamic banks will be used to empirically examine the data. The outcome of this study indicates that the measurement of conscientiousness is the only significant predictor of job satisfaction. The bank management should give priority to encouragement and nurture an inclusive form of job satisfaction in terms of resource provision. It is advised that management employ and develop employees with high conscientiousness. This trait results for greater job satisfaction considering conventional and Islamic perceptions. Society is advised to appreciate the notion of holistic contentment, as the working environment is intermingled between conventional and Islamic motivating thoughts. The study is the first to inspect the inspiration of the Big Five personality and job satisfaction by taking into consideration the distinctive fusion of the Maslow’s Hierarchical Needs of Theory and Maqasid al Sharia. Pages 17 to 32




 Modeling Reflective Constructs in Generalized Structure Component Analysis: An Application to Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in UniSZA Library

Asyraf Afthanorhana, Hazimi Foziahb, Rosnorzaini Ruslic, Sofiah Khalidd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Economics and Management Sciences (FESM), UniSZA, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia,

This paper will discuss the estimation of the novel method as a Generalized Structure Component Analysis (GSCA) with first order constructs. Existing research has primarily focused on a reflective construct. This study will use an established model on Parasuraman service quality theory applied to UniSZA library. The estimated model examines the impact of quality of services on customer satisfaction in UniSZA library. The data was obtained through online questionnaires from a sample of 1,043 valid responses. The findings from the GSCA method shows that the measurement and structural model is adequate for composite based SEM. Several recommendations have been provided. Since most of the previous research has focused on composite based SEM, this paper provides useful guidelines for researchers to apply the GSCA method as an alternative to PLS-SEM. Pages 33 to 41




The Effect of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in Three Campuses of UniSZA

Asyraf Afthanorhana*, Hazimi Foziahb, Rosnorzaini Ruslic, Sofiah Khalidd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Economics and Management Sciences, 21300 Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) Library, UniSZA, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: a*asyrafafthanorhan@unisza.edu.my

The main objective of this study is to adopt the existing model for assessing the effect of service quality on customer satisfaction and apply it to the UniSZA library. The data was collected through online surveys and quota sampling across three campuses: Gong Badak, Kuala Terengganu, and Tembila. This critical assessment has been conducted to increase the validity of the measurement model through common method variance method and various of discriminant validity using partial least squares path modeling (PLS-PM). The results from PLS-PM indicate that the service quality influenced the customer satisfaction in all campuses. Post-hoc analysis has been continued to make a comparison on PLS parameter estimates across groups. The analysis of this research revealed that all campuses significantly differ in customer satisfaction. The findings provided by this study will grant the policy makers a significant insight into how to boost the quality of service in the campus libraries. Pages 42 to 56




An Empirical Investigation into Malay Workers’ Intentions to Leave their Jobs

Mohd Ikhwan Aziza, Suchi Hassanb*, Ahmad Azrin Adnanc, Wan Khairyd, Hasannudiine, a,bFaculty of Entrepreneurship and Business, Unoveristy Malaysia Kelantan, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, c,d,eFaculty of Economics and Management Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, E-mail: b*suchi.hassan85@gmail.com

Investigating an employee’s motivation behind leaving a job is a fruitful pursuit that should be addressed by researchers and managers since it is a regular occurrence in all organizations. The average of employee turnover rates is varying among industries and types of organizations. It would therefore be beneficial for an organization to investigate its issue to help overcome the issue employee turnover. This paper aims to identify the relationship between job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and perceived organizational support in relation to the intention to leave a job. This study will analyse the impact that length of service has towards the relationship between JS, OC and POS with Intention to Leave. Using cluster sampling, this study sampled 452 respondents in nine manufacturing companies comprising of nine districts in Selangor, Malaysia. The findings show that JS, OC and POS significantly correlate with Intention to Leave. The length of service moderates the relationship between JS, OC and POS with Intention to Leave. This study contributes significantly towards theoretical improvement, especially concerning Malay workers’ behaviour. It is suggested that business leaders provide human capital development courses to encourage positive attitudes among Malay workers and foster a positive attitude towards their organization. Therefore, it can be said that the development of human capital can generate a prosperous society. Pages 57 to 75




The Implementation of Islamic Leadership Attributes in Malaysian Shariah Compliant Investment Organizations: A Case Study

Marlisa Abdul Rahima*, Nor Maizana Mat Nawib, Nurzehan Abu Bakarc, Wan Norhayate Wan Daudd, a,b,cFaculty of Hospitality, Tourism and Wellness, University Malaysia Kelantan, Kampus Kota, Locked Bag 36, Pengkalan Chepa, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, dFaculty of Economics and Management Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak Campus, 21300 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Email: a*marlisa@umk.edu.my

One of the most prominent corporate investments options is in organizations that comply with Shariah. Despite this growth, an analysis of the attributes of the leaders of organizations has become a major challenge for Shariah compliant investment organizations in Malaysia. In fact, little attention has been given to the role and attributes of Islamic leaders in enhancing their organization’s performance. This study attempts to achieve two objectives. First, to determine the Islamic leaders’ attributes in Shariah compliant investment organization. Second, this study intends to analyse the effect of Islamic leaders’ attributes towards the performance of an organization. To achieve the research objectives, this qualitative study focused on a single case study whereby ten employees of Shariah compliant investment organizations participated. Data from interviews was collected and analysed. From the research questions, three desired outcomes were revealed. First, this study demonstrated that Islamic leaders’ attributes consist of integrity the ability to lead by example, truthfulness, trust, knowledge, communication, justices, good relationship with other, power influence, charisma, and innovative ideas. Second, the implementation of Islamic leaders’ attributes does exist and creates a positive effect to the Shariah compliant investment organization as this correlates with the success the companies. The results of this study have been able to provide a significant contribution to Malaysian Shariah compliant investment organizations both theoretically and practically. Pages 76 to 101




Determinants that Influence a Consumers Intention to Adopt Islamic Financial Products

Zainora Hayat Hudia, Mohd Zaki Izzuddin Nor Iskandarb, Roslan Mohd Rosec, a,cUNITAR International University, 47300 Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, bSecurities Industry Development Corporation, Bukit Kiara, 50490 Kuala Lumpur,

Islamic banking is the practice of banking based upon Shariah principles. This system disallows the existence of interest in its operations, while promoting profit-sharing. The purpose of Islamic banking is similar to conventional banking, albeit Islamic banking must comply with Shariah law. Although most of the population in Malaysia is Muslim, Islamic banking is not as competitive as conventional banking in terms of the number of users. The purpose of this study is to research the behaviour of Malaysian consumers towards their intention to adopt Islamic financial products. The findings of this study indicate that there is a positive relationship between beliefs regarding Islamic products and cost benefit. This includes the intention to adopt, knowledge and perceived behaviour, control with intention to adopt, and religiosity. There is no positive relationship between subjective norms and intention to adopt Islamic financing products. This study provides an insight into consumer’s behaviours on their intention to adopt Islamic financing products. The findings of this study may help Islamic bankers improve their products and policies to better accommodate consumer behaviours, resulting more individuals adopting Islamic financial products. Pages 102 to 124




An Analysis of the Literature Surrounding HRM Practices: Establishing a Direction for Future Research

Hamid Masuda, Wan Norhayate Wan Daudb*, a,bUniversity Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak, 21300 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Email: b*wnhayate@unisza.edu.my

This research paper aims to analyze the past literature on HPWPs and HPWS due to their importance in both an academic and professional context. A comprehensive comparison from various sectors has been conducted to generalize the findings. Relevant studies that were published over the last 25 years (1991-2015) have been included in this review. It is observed that HPWPs have been used at both an organizational and individual level. Positive outcomes have been observed between HPWPs and organizational outcomes.  Based on the findings of the study, various future directions have been proposed. A better understanding of HPWPs can help HR directors to develop the right policy for their organizations in order to achieve desired organizational outcomes. Pages 125 to 139




An Assessment of the Basic Savings of Retirees Conducted through a Mathematical Approach

Hazimi Foziaha, Asyraf Afthanorhanb, Puspa Liza Ghazalic, Wan Mohd Nazri Wan Daudd, Mohd Sadad Mahmude, Lazim Omarf,

This paper focuses on the issue of the ageing population which contributes towards the inadequacy of retirement savings. The research seeks to evaluate the Malaysian private sector workforce who mainly depend on Employee Provident Funds (EPF) to sustain their life during retirement age.  It must be acknowledged that the savings in the EPF fund cannot facilitate their expenditures for their entire life, following the projected life expectancy of the age 75 years old. Most of retirees spend their retirement funds within 3 to 5 years’ after reaching the age of retirement. The study attempts to look at the ideal basic savings by measuring the sustainability of the proposed amount to cover the expenditure costs during retirement age. This study found that the ideal basic savings amount of RM228,000 can extend the financial coverage of retirees up to the projected life expectancy. This is dependent on the retirees being disciplined enough to make a periodical withdrawal of RM950 per month based on minimum monthly pension rate. However, the basic savings has been developed by considering the minimum monthly pension rate amount of RM950 and ignored the impact of inflation, profit gains through accumulative retirement funds in calculating the ideal basic savings. Thus, it would is suggested that the government and authorities come up with the new basic savings by including additional elements to have a better idea of the basic savings which becomes the guideline for prospective retirees in Malaysia. Pages 140 to 150




 The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Employee Commitment in the Construction Industry

S.A. Mahfouza*,  Z. Awangb**, H. Mudac, a,b,cFaculty of Finance and Management, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia, Corresponding author: a*s.a_mahfouz@yahoo.comb**zainudinawang@unisza.edu.my

The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework and to model the causal relationship of Transformational Leadership on Employee Commitment. A comprehensive review of the literature on Transformational Leadership and Employee Commitment was conducted to accomplish the objectives of this examination. This empirical study employed a descriptive research design. The target population of this study are employees involved in the construction industry in Jordan. The sample size consisted of 240 people, determined using Slovin’s formula. All data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The respondents were selected using a simple random sampling technique to avoid bias in selection and to ensure there was an adequate representation of the population. The data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling procedures using IBM-SPSS-Amos 24.0. The study found Transformational Leadership contributed a positive and significant impact on Employee Commitment. The assessment of a conceptual model relating the effects of Transformational Leadership on Employee Commitment would support managers and people who are pioneering industrial change to better understanding the contribution of Transformational Leadership on Employee Commitment. This study contributed a new model to the existing literature, namely, an Employee-Directed Transformational Leadership Model. Pages 151 to 167




The Effectiveness of Micro Entrepreneurial Development: Program Input Assessment Analysis

Tengku Maaidah Binti Tengku A Razaka, Mohammad Hilmi bin Jalilb, Zelhuda Shamsuddinc*, Muhammad Sabri bin Harond, a,b,dHadhari Islamic Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, cFaculty of Economics and Management Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: c*zelhudasham@unisza.edu.my

Micro entrepreneurial development is an important process in producing competitive entrepreneurs who can be successful in business.   ‘Skilled instructors’ are an important factor in the process of forming entrepreneurs, or specifically, in the aspect of handling and providing an insight about entrepreneurship and business.   The assessment from micro entrepreneurs will be evalutated in this paper. The purpose of this research is to see if participants have the knowledge and skills of conducting business accurately and effectively.  This study will involve 6 participants using the method of interviews. 30 participating micro-entrepreneurs have answered questionnaires to find out about the program’s input level using the CIPP (Context, Input, Process and Product) assessment model approach. The findings of this project reveal that the micro-entrepreneurial participants agreed that skilled instructors are vital to help participants apply business practice. Pages 168 to 175




 Firm Level Self-Efficacy: Are Graduates Ready to Be Entrepreneurs?

Wan Nor Halimatul Syadiah Wan Yusofa, Fakhrul Anwar Zainolb, Wan Norhayate Wan Daudc, aFaculty of Economics and Management Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, b,cDepartment of Management Science, Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia,

Entrepreneurship is a key aspect that has often been stressed in the effort to turn Malaysia into a high-income and inclusive developed country. However, producing a successful entrepreneur is not an easy task. The current generation of students has not reached a firm level of self-efficacy. They sometimes waver when faced with various challenges including the instability of modernisation. This study will analyse the relationship between the sources of performance accomplishment, self-efficacy, and verbal persuasion based on Albert Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory. This theory will be applied to entrepreneurial intention among public university students in Malaysia. It is proposed that this theory is the best predictor variable that encourages public university students in Malaysia to venture into the entrepreneurial field. Using proportionate stratified random sampling, this study sampled 352 respondents from four universities, namely Universiti Utara Malaysia, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, and Universiti Putra Malaysia. The finding of this study shows that entrepreneurial intention is high when performance accomplishment, self-efficacy, and verbal persuasion efficacy are high. There is a significant relationship between entrepreneurial intention and self-efficacy. It is hoped that this study will be used to assist in outlining entrepreneurship programmes and activities to enhance students’ self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention. The implementation of effective teaching and learning methods is essential in nurturing entrepreneurial potential among public university students in Malaysia. Pages 176 to 192




Developing Entrepreneurship for Hausa People in Nigeria: The Paradox of Reality

Ibrahim Tijjani Sabiua, Fakhrul Anwar Zainolb, Abdul Aziz Abdullahc, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Management Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia,

This paper is about identifying the issues which have hindered the Hausa people achieving optimal entrepreneurial development as a society. Hence the corresponding economic growth, poverty eradication, income generation and distribution, as well as socio-economic development. Specifically, the contentious issue which serves as the primary motivation for this study is why the Hausas are not as sophisticated in business as the other tribes in Nigeria despite having had a longer tradition of trade and merchandise with the rest of the world. This presents a paradox for the Hausa people as they seem to be entrepreneurially weaker than other tribes who are more economically buoyant. Earlier studies examining the possible factors responsible for the underdevelopment of Hausa entrepreneurship had explored causes such as culture, politics, and, colonialism. However, additional factors need to be identified to elaborate on the reasons that are hindering the growth and development of the Hausa entrepreneurs in Nigeria. That is why it is imperative for a study to be conducted to find out the issues that are associated with Hausa entrepreneurship development. Hence, a literature review was conducted deducing from journal articles, books, online sources as well as facts to extract extensively on the factors responsible for the underdevelopment of the Hausa entrepreneurship. Eventually, several significant issues were discovered through the review. The paper thus offers some recommendations to stakeholders for the way forward in ameliorating the state of the Hausa entrepreneurship. Further research, both empirical and non-empirical, must be done in order to uncover more issues by adopting more rigorous scientific methods. Pages 193 to 208




Developing a Co-Operative Sustainability Model (CSM) in Malaysia: What’s driving them?

Mohammad Ismaila, Fakhrul Anwar Zainolb, Mohd Nor Hakimin Yusoffc, Joseph Owusud, Wan Khairy Wan Ibrahime, a,c,d,eUniversiti Malaysia Kelantan, City Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia, bUniversiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia,

This research explores, proposes, and develops a co-operative sustainability business model (CSM) in exploring the sustainability orientation of the Malaysian co-operative industry. Despite numerous studies that have explored sustainability development of businesses from different perspectives, this study provides a new model which can be served as strategic tool for a sustainability strategy. Based on the extant literature coupled with interviews conducted, we developed a comprehensive business model for co-operatives. This study considers five co-operatives emanating from two states in the east coast of Malaysia. The researchers conducted extensive interviews with board members and managers of the five selected co-operatives. Results of the study indicate that five major drivers account for the co-operative’s sustainability:- namely, strong members’ support, a better support system, effective management, an established business strategy and direction, and good knowledge required of the board members. Eventually, the study proposed a model serving as a guide for all co-operatives in sustaining their businesses. Pages 209 to 218




Political Concern and Idealism as Mediators for Determining Political Leadership Styles

Andries Lionardoa, Alfitri Ab, Mohd Mahzan Awangc*, Abdul Razaq Ahmadd, Khairul Farhah Khairuddine, a,bFaculty of Social and Political Studies, University of Sriwijaya, Indonesia, c,d,eFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: c*mahzan@ukm.edu.my

The current study surveyed multi-ethnic youth aspirations on credibility of political leadership with regards to the integrity in leadership, political concern, political idealism and political leadership styles. This study utilised a survey research design involving 800 Indonesian youth aged between 19 and 25, using a questionnaire that has been developed based on several past studies on youth and political leadership. Results revealed that there is a significant relationship between the elements of integrity, political concern and political idealism towards the inspired leadership style. This means that these three factors are interrelated and they are important factors for youth in selecting political leaders. Inferential statistics using Structural Equation Models (SEM) AMOS 18 found that political concern and idealism are mediators for determining political leadership styles. Surprisingly, the element of political concern and idealism are stronger that the element of integrity for political leadership inspired by youth. This informs the priorities for multi-ethnic youth in selecting the future political leaders are how political leaders exhibit their political concern and their political idealism. However, please bear in mind that the element of integrity is also significant and important for political leadership. The implications of this study are that political leadership must be aware of these factors as young people have specific characteristics for their future leaders. Pages 219 to 230




Self-Care Experiences of Mellitus Diabetes in Jayapura City

Korinus Suwenia, Yunita  Kristinab, Graselia J Lelaparyc, Jems KR Maayd, a,b,c,dNursing Program, Health Polytechnic of Jayapura, Jalan Padang Bulan 2, Hedam, Districk Heram, Jayapura City, Papua, Indonesia, Email: a*gunkozas@gmail.com

Diabetes mellitus is a disease marked by hyperglycemia and metabolic disorder of carbohydrates, fats and proteins that are associated with absolute or relative deficiencies of insulin activity and secretion. There are many practices that can be implemented to increase the health levels of diabetics and to prevent them from complications with self-care application. A diabetic health problem is accessible if diabetic routines in the exercise of self-care. This research uses qualitative methods with the phenomenology description approach with 5 diabetics in the city of Jayapura. The data analysis is done with the colaizy analysis technique. The results obtained are described in six themes, that are: diet arrangement, activity, foot care, drug approved, family support and the role of medicine. The self-care component has been used but still needs medical support and family support as a supporting system that is more important.  Pages 231 to 243




The Effect of Instructional Quality on Vocational Students’ Academic Achievement and Career Optimism

Sudiyatnoa*, Mingchang Wub, Agus Budimanc, Didik Purwantorod, Tuatul Mahfude, Ibnu Siswantof,g, a,c,dAssociate Professor, Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia, bProfessor, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, eAssistant Professor, Politeknik Negeri Balikpapan, Indonesia, fPostdoctoral Researcher, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, gAssistant Professor, Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia, Email: a*sudiyatno@uny.ac.idbwumc@yuntech.edu.twcagusbudiman@uny.a.cid, ddidik_purwantoro@uny.ac.idetuatul.mahfud@poltekba.ac.idfibnusiswanto@uny.ac.id

Indonesian governments give greater attention to vocational education in the secondary and tertiary levels because of their crucial role in economic and infrastructure sustainability development. Therefore, this study purported to identify the correlation and causal effects of instructional quality for the vocational school student’s self-efficacy, academic achievement, and career optimism. Data were collected using three validated instruments and student’s academic achievement report from 253 students of a public vocational school in Indonesia. A Pearson’ correlation and structural equation modelling were conducted to analyse the four variables relationships and causal effects. The findings revealed that students’ perceptions on the teaching quality positively and significantly related to their self-efficacy, academic achievement, and career optimism. Furthermore, the better vocational teachers deliver their material in the classroom activities, the higher students’ belief to perform a specific task which simultaneously facilitates them to reach higher academic achievement and career optimism. Based on the findings of this study, several practical implications and suggestions were proposed. Pages 244 to 260




“VLOG”: An Innovation in Collaborative ESL Learning

Haida Umiera Hashima, Rusreena Ruslib, Melor Md Yunusc*, Harwati Hashimd, Helmi Normane, Charanjit Kaur Swaran Singhf, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, fEnglish Language and Literature Department, Faculty of Languages & Communication, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia, E-mail:  c*melor@ukm.edu.my

Technology has always been an important part of the teaching and learning environment. Today’s era of digital technology has provided teachers and educators with more chances to be innovative with their teaching sessions in the classroom. However, regardless of the waves of technology flooded into the education, teachers still have trouble getting learners interested in learning English language. Learners tend to be unmotivated and not fond of learning English language in the classroom. Thus, it is believed that there is a need for an innovation on the type of materials used in the classroom. One such material is the video blog or ‘vlog’ and is developed to provide learners with more meaningful and authentic materials and help learners to be more interested in learning English language in the classroom. It is hoped this innovation will be able to assist both learners and educators in their future. Pages 261 to 276




A Comprehensive and Conceptual Framework of Graduates Meta-Competencies

Nadia Hairia, Nurfaradilla Mohamad Nasrib*, Haryanti Mohd Affandic, a,bFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia cCentre of Engineering and Built Environment Education Research (PeKA), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Email: anadiabintihairi@gmail.comb*nurfaradilla@ukm.edu.mycharyantima@ukm.edu.my

Recently, graduate employability received greater emphasis as universities strive to the meet one of the critical components of a university’s reputation and ranking: graduate outcomes and the ability for graduates to find a job after graduating. Most past studies have explicitly identified various competencies that can enhance the level of employability of graduates which relates to meta competencies. Therefore, this study sets to explore the domains and elements that form the competency-based learning objectives which focuses on enhancing a graduate’s employability. Besides describing an authors’ understanding of current literature on graduates’ competency through critical comparison of dominant views presented in research literature, this paper also highlights the key domain of intercultural competency which could advance the employability of graduates. Finally, this paper proposes a comprehensive conceptual framework for graduate employability, competency-based learning objectives which could potentially guide universities in devising curriculum approaches that prepares graduates for employability. Pages 277 to 288




 Effectuation Network Relationship Vis-A-Vis Causation Network Relationship:  A Study from High-Tech SMES in Malaysia

Sathiswaran Uthamaputhrana, Ian Robsonb, Avanti Nisha Pintoc, Ikhwan Azizd, a,dUniversity Malaysia Kelantan, b,cUniversity of Aberdeen,

The aim of this paper is to enhance the understanding of high technology Small and Medium (SME) internationalisation by looking at initial international opportunity discovery process using effectuation theory. Drawing from the effectuation theory, we examine the extent to which different types of network relationships and individual cultural differences impacts the process of international opportunity discovery in Malaysia. Multiple case analysis were used to explore to see the effectiveness of different forms of network relationships and compare the effectuation approach with the causation approach. The result shows that the SMEs entrepreneurs tend to follow effectuation rather than causation at the initial stage of their internationalisation particularly in their opportunity discovery process. Their initial relationship with co-partners such as friends and local communities allowed them to enter the international market in a short time. This study contributes to the field in several ways. First, it provides an empirical research from developing country perspective which remained unexplored. Second, it provides a clear explanation about key antecedents under the effectuation theoretical lens and adequate investigation for the rise of the phenomenon.  Pages 289 to 306




Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Safety Climate in the Small Manufacturing Enterprises: Translation, Validation and Application of the Generic Safety Climate Questionnaire

Nor Azma Rahlina, Zainudin Awangb*, Asyraf Afthanorhanc, Nazim Aimrand, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Management Sciences, UniSZA, Malaysia, dFaculty of Computer and Mathematics, UiTM Shah Alam, Malaysia, Email: b*zainudinawang@unisza.edu.my

Safety climate evaluation is increasingly recognized as an important factor in the Small Medium Enterprise improvement. One of the most frequently used and rigorously validated instruments to measure safety climate is the generic safety climate questionnaire. This study presents the validation of the small manufacturing enterprise version of the generic safety climate questionnaire for use in Malaysian Small Manufacturing Enterprises. The original English version of the generic safety climate questionnaires was translated and adapted to the Bahasa Malaysia. A number of experts have been used to assess the content validity, face validity and criterion validity and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) applied for construct validity.  The EFA and its Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test is significant, Total variance explained, indicated items in every construct explained more than 60% of the construct. Orthogonal Variance Rotation Matric found that factor loading every item of respective construct was more than 0.6 which is satisfying good measurement.  The results of internal reliability reveal that construct representing test yielded values above than 0.8 shows great internal consistency. Conclusion: The Bahasa Malaysia version of generic employee safety climate reveals good psychometric properties for studying the employee safety climate. Like other studies, this measurement seems to be an acceptable tool to evaluate the antecedent and consequence of employee safety climate in Malaysian small manufacturing enterprise. Pages 307 to 328



The Use of Political Skills by Academic Leaders as Strategies to Overcome Challenges in Indonesian Higher Education Institutions (HEIs)

Mingchang Wua, Albertb*, a,bCollege of Humanities and Applied Science, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123, University Road, Section 3 Douliou, Yunlin County, 64002, Taiwan, R.O.C, Email: b*albertekonomiusm@gmail.com

This study aims to explore how political skills are performed by university leaders while pursuing for high achievement and quality in this competitive era. Political skill is the ability to strategically plan a beneficial move to achieve organizational missions and work effectiveness. A qualitative method approach was used by employing interviews as a data collection method to university leaders in Semarang city, Indonesia. Drawn from the collected data, it can be concluded that: (1) there are eighteen political skills explored in this research that have been implemented by respondents and (2) There are seven strategies carried out by academic leaders to fulfil university missions. In doing so, each strategy utilizes different groups of political skills. Finally, it is suggested that further research on the political skills of academic leaders in several different academic settings are required to illustrate a bigger picture of politically skilled leaders in higher education institution. Pages 329 to 350

The Art of Covariance Based Analysis in Behaviour-Based Safety Performance Study Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Evidence from SMES

Nor Azma Rahlina, Zainudin Awangb*, Asyraf Afthanorhanc, Nazim Aimrand, a,bFaculty of Economics and Management Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia, cFaculty of Business and Accountancy, University of Malaysia, Malaysia, dFaculty Computer and Mathematics,UiTM Shah Alam, Malaysia, Email: b*zainudinawang@unisza.edu.my

Assessing behaviour-based safety performance measurement validity using the confirmatory factor analysis is viewed as an important approach in developing a highly reliable measurement tool in order to resolve a high number of the industrial accidents in small-medium enterprise (SME). The current study aims to examine how the extension of emergency climate factors (work ownership, Islamic work ethic and management commitment) affects behaviour-based safety performance (safety compliance and safety participation) in Malaysian SMEs. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to the respondents using a stratified random sampling. A quantitative method was employed for data collection and data were analysed with AMOS 22.0. The assessment of the measurement model was made through the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) procedure, carried out in a sample of 500 employees drawn from SME manufacturing companies. The goodness-of-fit indices RMSEA = 0.058, Comparative fit index = 0.911, and parsimony goodness of fit index = 1.953 are satisfactory fit. The results of the behaviour-based safety performance of SME employees reported that work ownership (0.83) and Islamic work ethic (0.919) achieved a good fit with a high composite reliability. The underlying constructs of the employee behaviour-based safety performance measurement model can be used as an effective safety evaluation tool in various SME industries in future studies. Pages 351 to 370

The Social Value Creation Process in Social Business Models: The Similarity Benefits of Shared Blended Values

Nik Fakrulhazri Nik Hassana, Wan Norhayate Wan Daudb, aFaculty of Business and Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA Terengganu Malaysia, bFaculty of Economics & Management Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) Malaysia,

This case study successfully clarifies the main sources of shared values in the Social Value Creation (SVC) process in both Social Enterprise A (SE A) and Social Enterprise B (SE B). Applying leadership approach and skills is a key source of shared values for SE A and is followed by networking. Meanwhile, SE B places more stress on human values and qualities, especially with the special knowledge owned by social entrepreneurs and their teams, followed by the capacity and resources provided by the company. This case study also successfully identifies a set of similarity values in order to strengthen the Social Business Model (SBM). All those sources of benefits, values under social values and economic values highlighted by both types of SE provided theoretically positives impacts, such as efficient operation, sufficient resources (tangible or intangible), and motivation for both sides. Meanwhile, the benefits of economic values come from the impact of managing the cost, risks, and maximising the profits as well as creating opportunities for both sides. This case study uses Nvivo12 to manage the data. The significance of the study is that it is expected to promote “social enterprise” in this country by strengthening SBM in Social Enterprise. Pages 371 to 389
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