Issues and Challenges in Mobile Learning Usage for Technical and Vocational Education

Suhailiezanaa, A. Shahb*, Che Ghani Che Kobc, M. Khairudind

a,b,cFaculty of  Technical and Vocational, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia, dUniversitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: b*armanshah@ftv.upsi.edu.my

Mobile learning or m-learning is the latest learning technology to progress through various e-learning methods. M-learning is a mobile technology that assists in focusing attention and promoting self-study among students anywhere and anytime. This paper focuses on the need for the learning of mobile devices. This study addresses the advantages, issues and challenges of m-learning in the classroom based on the needs of users of Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET) for learners in three aspects; devices, users and social technologies. Consequently, this could improve the limitations of the application and advantages of m-learning in TVET. Notably, mobile learning is essential to enhance the performance of teaching and learning for the learner and simultaneously to diversify other techniques to enhance students’ performance on TVET. Pages 1 to 9




Validity and Reliability of the Soft Skills Psychoeducation Intervention Module

Alida Alia, Salleh Amatb*, Dharatun Nissa Puad Mohd Karic, a,b,cFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: b*sallehba@ukm.edu.my

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Soft Skills Psychoeducation Intervention Module (SSPIM). The content of SSPIM was based on the ten core life skills suggested by the World Health Organisation. To determine the validity, the MIPKI draft was submitted to eight expert panels in the field of counselling, psychology and module development. Improvements to this module were made based on reviews and feedback from the expert panels. A total of 36 students from two schools in the Klang Valley were involved in measuring module reliability. The Cronbach’s alpha validity for the entire module content was 0.803, while the validity of the session content was 0.837. The reliability of the alpha value of the Cronbach’s alpha module 0.904 indicates that this module is appropriate and achieves its stated objectives. This module is expected to help improve life skills among aggressive adolescents. This study is expected to develop more advanced modules of psychoeducation intervention to deal with aggressive behaviour among adolescents. Pages 10 to 27




 An Indigenous Approach: Positive Affect and Negative Affect Measurement for Subjective Well-Being Components

Alimatus Sahraha, Reny Yuniasantib, a,bFaculty of Psychology, Mercu Buana Yogyakarta University, Jl. Wates km 10 Yogyakarta 55753 Indonesia, Email: a*sahrah@mercubuana-yogya.ac.id  

It is important to have a measurement of positive and negative affect to know the level of someone happiness. However, indigenous approach in measuring affect is rarely found in Indonesia.  This study aims to develop a Positive Affect Scale (APOS) and a Negative Affect Scale (ANEG) with an indigenous psychology approach, which involves native Javanese Indonesian employees. This research consists of 3 studies; the first studies are (a) aiming at exploring Indonesians positive and negative affect expressions (b) involving 30 people (c) using interview method. The second study is (a) aiming at determining APOS and ANEG scale items based on respondents' judgment (b) involving 165 respondents (c) using Semantic Differential measurement as data collection method. The third study is (a) testing a psychometrically arranged scale (b) involving 293 respondents (c) using Likert scale model as the data collection method. From the first study, it can be concluded that there are 50 affect items consisting of 25 positive affect items and 25 negative affect items. The result of the second study was 15 positive affect items and 15 negative affect items that meet the standard item coefficient of more than 0.30, and Alpha Cronbach reliability coefficient of 0.970 for the APOS scale and 0.928 for the ANEG scale. The third study used Confirmatory Factor Analysis technique to prove that the 26 items on the Positive Affect Scale and the Negative Affect Scale have two opposing components, namely 12 APOS items and 14 ANEG items. The correlation between APOS and ANEG scale is -0,276 (p <0.01). Pages 28 to 39




Exploring the Learning Analytics of Teachers in Online Learning

Szarmilaa Dewiea, Helmi Normanb*, Melor Md Yunusc, a,b,cFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: b*helmi.norman@ukm.edu.my

The expansion of online learning has brought about a paradigm shift in language learning as it provides numerous opportunities to engage in language learning across time and space which is in tandem with the wave of technological innovations practiced widely across the globe. However, limited studies have been conducted to investigate teachers’ participation in this field. Thus, this study investigates the engagement and learning analytics exhibited by teachers in online learning. Participants were teachers taking an online language course. The study was conducted in a four-month period. Data was collected from LMS’s course analytical content.  The data was analysed using descriptive analysis. Data was analysed based on activity indulged, submission, and grades. As such, the study is to look into the patterns of online learning from studying analytics view and discover the relationships among factors such as activity by date, frequency of viewing times, and scores obtained. The study concerns investigating studying analytics of an online studying for teachers enhancing their proficiency with an enrolment of 29 teachers. The findings of the study display that high engagement of the teachers does not necessarily require a slower tempo of learning, while a decrease in engagement does not require a higher rate of learning. In a nutshell, the findings stated that the teachers’ engagement in an online learning and learning analytics can't be made the sole measure of learning, as it could be associated to pace of learning considering the learner’s autonomy. Pages 40 to 53




Teaching Writing in the 21st Century: An Overview of Theories and Practices

Melor Md Yunusa*, Vanitha Thambirajahb, Nur Ehsan Mohd Saidc, Charanjit Kaur Swaran Singhd, aFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, b,cEnglish Language and Literature Department, Faculty of Languages & Communication, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia, Email: a*melor@ukm.edu.my

Rote memorisation and dependent teaching approaches are still common among ESL teachers teaching writing. The lack of practicability of creative approaches to violate the ‘spoon-feeding’ trend among students needs attention. This paper aims to provide an overview of theories and how these theories govern the ESL practices to teach writing creatively, using integrated strategies for weak ESL students, in order to enhance their essay writing skills. Teaching of writing creatively refers to three of the 21st Century teaching and learning skills. The three elements which are essential in the 21stCentury are: creativity (C1), collaboration (C2) and communication (C3). Therefore, this paper suggests that the teachers be exposed to the 21st century teaching skills and theories needed to teach writing. It is vital to prepare the nation’s workforce for the Fourth Industrial Revolution and high performance to set a benchmark among other countries by international standard, thus, avoid unemployment. Pages 54 to 74




Accelerated Inquiry: Unification and Differentiation of the Procedural Forms

Sergey Girkoa, S.V. Kharchenkob, N.V.Rumyantsevc, M.A. Samelukd, S.A. Tsepinskiie, achief researcher of the PKU Research Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia, Doctor of Legal Sciences, Professor, Honored scientist of the Russian Federation, bdoctor of law, associate professor, professor of the Department of ORD IPD of the MOUTH, cFederal State Institution Research Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service Russia, Narvskaya St. 15А Moscow, 125130, Russia, ddoctor of historical Sciences, professor, head of the Department of operational-investigative activity of IAPS MOUTH, echief inspector on special assignments of the Main organizational Department of the ROS guard.

In the article, taking into account the positions of the researchers, the authors analyse the concepts of "unification" and "differentiation" of the procedural form used in scientific research on the problems of development and improvement of the criminal procedural form of pre-trial proceedings. Using the example of the evolution of the procedure of inquiry in a shortened form, it is concluded that the content of the term unification of the procedural form of pre-trial proceedings is  minimisation of the procedural terms, simplification and procedural economisation of pre-trial proceedings, and differentiation of those requiring a clear distinction close to their goals and algorithms of procedural activity to ensure the individualisation of their constituent procedures. Pages 75 to 81




The Relationship between Expatriation and Psychological Harmony among Arab expatriates in the UAE

Hussein Salem Al-Srehana*, Mohammad Salman Alkhazalehb, a,bAl-Ain University, Abu Dhabi, UAE, Email: a*hussein.alsrehan@aau.ac.ae

This study aimed at identifying the relationship of expatriation to psychological harmony among a sample of Arab expatriates in the UAE. The researchers used a measure of expatriation and psychological harmony after verification its psychometric properties. Furthermore, Pearson correlation and analysis of variance were used to analyse the data of the study. Results revealed that there is an inverse, statistically significant relationship between expatriation and psychological harmony, in which the Pearson correlation coefficient is 71%, that is, the greater the feelings of expatriation of the individual, the less psychological harmony and vice versa. The results also showed statistically significant differences due to social situation variable in favour of married persons, and the presence of statistically significant differences in the number of expatriation year variable in favour of persons who spent 1-5 years in expatriation. Further, the results showed the presence of the interaction between the social situation and the number of years of expatriation in the interaction was in favour of married people who spent more than 5 years and single individuals who spent from 1-5 years in expatriation. Pages 82 to 93




New Technologies in Professional Mathematics Training of Technical University Students

Anatoly Kozlova*, Olga Tamerb, Svetlana Laptevac, Larisa Bondarovskayad, Tatyana Shevninae, a,b,c,d,eBranch of Tyumen Industrial University in Noyabrsk, Noyabrsk, Russian Federation, Email: a*k_anatoly@yahoo.com

The quality of professional training of technical university students has to be improved. This is due to the constant technical, socio-economic development and the growing demand for the engineering profession in the labour market. The purpose of this article is to develop an approach to improving the methodological support of disciplines for the professional mathematics education of technical students. In the course of the study, the main destructive factors of providing high-quality mathematics education for students in domestic technical universities are identified. Such destructive factors are also compared with foreign ones and as a result, ways to eliminate them were proposed. The hierarchy of interdisciplinary connections of the course “Mathematics” and other disciplines in all technical areas is determined. With the use of the method of expert assessments and the method of graphs. By the method of analysing hierarchies, the priority to the formation of students' mathematics competencies is substantiated according to their future professional activities and in the process of obtaining professional mathematics education. The pedagogical conditions for the development of methodological support for technical disciplines are presented based on the following: determined interdisciplinary connections of the mathematics course with other courses; the priority of forming the mathematics competencies of students and the analysis of technical education practices in Germany, the USA, the Great Britain, the Netherlands and Portugal. A pedagogical experiment was conducted to test the developed problem-developmental exercises where such exercises took into account the requirements and priorities of modern education and proved their practical effectiveness. The findings are useful for practical implementation. They can also serve as the basis for the effective use of competency-based and interdisciplinary approaches, which are needed in providing professional mathematics education for technical students in the CIS countries and abroad. Pages 94 to 110



Contentious Issues of Investment Arbitration: Arbitral Tribunal (Arbitrator) and Transparency, and Expropriation Related to the Influence of Investors on Public Policy

Taewook Kanga, aSchool of Law Far Eastern Federal University 690090, FEFU Campus D, 10 Ajax Bay, Russky Island, Vladivostok, Russian Federation, Email: atwkang3@hotmail.com

This article deals with the contentious topic of Investment Arbitration. The author especially focuses on the problems of arbitral tribunal (arbitrator) and transparency, and expropriation related to the influence of investors on public policy. This article discusses the key structure of the arbitration process in the parties and arbitral tribunal. Primarily, we must understand the problems of the arbitral tribunal (arbitrator). The second topic of this article, ‘expropriation and compensation’ ways to protect investors is explored. It is needed to understand that it is indeed fair and reasonable. Pages 111 to 120




 A Numerical Solution for Optimisation Diffraction Issues of Acoustic Waves

L.V. Illarionovaa, T.V. Kozhevnikovab, S.A. Pogorelovc, aCandidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, numerical methods of mathematical physics (NMMP) laboratory, Computing Center of Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science (CC FEB RAS), bresearch scientist, information technologies laboratory, Computing Center of Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science (CC FEB RAS), cjunior research assistant, numerical methods of mathematical physics (NMMP) laboratory, Computing Center of Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science (CC FEB RAS), Email: aillarionova_l@list.rubktvsl@mail.ru

This research is devoted to solving the optimal control problem for the equations of diffraction of acoustic waves by three-dimensional inclusion. It minimises the deviation of the pressure field in the inclusion from a specific interval, due to sound sources changes in the external environment. External boundary value problems for partial differential equations are the mathematical model of the process. In our research, we offer an algorithm for the numerical solution of the problem subject to a limited set of controls. Namely, it imposes a restriction on the power of sources with which one can control the acoustic field. The solution to the problem can be represented as a linear combination of the solutions of direct diffraction problems and unknown coefficients. We use the coordinate descent to find the required coefficients. If we solve direct problems by potential theory, the diffraction problem reduces to a mixed system of a weak singular boundary integral Fredholm equations of the first and second kind on the inclusion surface. The approximation of integral equations by a system of linear algebraic equations is carried out by dividing the unit on the surface, associated with a system of nodal points, and also consistent with the discretisation order of the method of averaging weak singular kernels of integral operators. Multiple integrals arising during discretisation are calculated analytically. This allows one to obtain explicit formulas for approximating boundary integral operators with singularities in kernels and using them to calculate the coefficients of systems of linear algebraic equations. At the same time, preliminary triangulation of the surface is not required. We ran numerical experiments and mathematical modelling of the diffraction process of acoustic waves. When solving a problem on a computer, parallel computations are used. Pages 121 to 136




Legal Control of Duty Support for Minor Children in Russia and the USA

Artemyeva Y.A.a, aRUDN University. Law Department. Ph.D., Associate Professor of Civil Law of the Department of Civil Procedural and Private International Law. Miklukho-Maklaya st., 6, 117198 Moscow, Russia, Email: a*artemyeva_yua@pruf.ru

Marriage crisis as a social phenomenon is a distinctive problem for many countries of the World. There were 4.34 cases of divorce per 1,000 people recorded in the United States in 2018, about 40 percent of first marriages and 60 percent of remarriages part away [H. F. Lewis. 10/9/2019]. There are no fewer depressing statistics in Russia. In 2017, according to the Federal State Statistics Service, there were 4.2 divorces per 1000 people; the first half of 2019 was 4.0. The seeming improvement is illusory. Decreasing of divorces occurs because of the significant decrease in the number of marriages. According to the state statistics, the number of marriages in 2018 decreased by almost twenty percent compared to the previous year. [Statistical data of the Federal State Statistics Service.] In this regard, the consequences of family breakdown, especially the protection of children, is becoming increasingly important. Parental divorce is not only a psychological trauma for a child; in many cases it’s a removing of one of the parents from participation in his\her life, which negatively affects the harmonious development of the child. As to United States Child Support Council (CSEC), the growing number of parents deliberately avoiding their responsibilities to their children has become a national problem. [GAO Report; 2019]. The key objective is to study the laws and judicial practice of the United States and Russia in order to determine an effective legal mechanism to ensure the well-being of minor children in the event of their parents' divorce. The research appeals not only from a theoretical point of view, but also from a practical one. Numerous marriages between citizens of Russia and the United States, and as a result no less numerous divorces, require a certain synchronisation of the legal and social system for the protection of minor children. The research objective is a comparative analysis of theoretical and practical problems, gaps in legal regulation, doctrinal definition and practical implementation of parents’ duty support for the maintenance of minor children in Russia and the USA. During the research, the authors used a combination of philosophical, general scientific, private scientific methods of cognition of theoretical and empirical material. The usage of these methods made it possible to create a comprehensive objective research of the legal regulation of child support for minors, taking into account the totality of factors ensuring the preservation of the level of well-being of children in the new conditions for the interaction of parents on their upbringing and content. Pages 137 to 152




 Organisation of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps Considering Real Parameters of Simulated Systems

V.F. Guzika, A.S. Gamisoniab, S.A. Chernyjc, A.V. Shestakovd, a,b,c,dSouthern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don – Taganrog,

This article explores cognitive modeling development aimed at expanding the scope of its application. The methods of organising cognitive structures that allow a combination of the processing of conceptual parameters and real parameters of simulated systems in a single model are considered. The implementation of these complex models, defined as mixed computational-cognitive maps (MCCC) is proposed based on appropriately alarmed neural networks. Neural networks for MCCC are formed based on specialised models of neurons - dynamic neurons with state memory. Pages 153 to 161




The Inadmissibility of the Use of the Polygraph in Criminal Proceedings

Lyudmila A. Spektora*, Pavel O. Mititanidib, Evgeniy V. Zatulivetrovc, Kirill S. Tsibartd, Rodion D. Zhmurkoe, Konstantin A. Aleksandrovef, a,b,c,d,e,fInstitute of the Service Sector and Entrepreneurship, DGTU in Shakhty, Russia Shakhty, 147, Shevchenko, 346500, Email: a*spektor2@yandex.ru

The Article is devoted to the issues of equating the "polygraph" to the legal and full forensic method. The topic of possible assignment of powers to conduct forensic examinations to the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation is raised. Pages 162 to 171




Legal Regulation of Seizure of Electronic Media in Investigative Action

Lyudmila A. Spektora*, Pavel O. Mititanidib, Evgeniy V. Zatulivetrovc, Kirill S. Tsibartd, Rodion D. Zhmurkoe, Konstantin A. Aleksandrovf, a,b,c,d,e,fInstitute of the Service Sector and Entrepreneurship, DGTU in Shakhty, Russia Shakhty, 147, Shevchenko, 346500, Email: a*spektor2@yandex.ru

This article discusses the legal nature and significance of seizure as a procedural action aimed at state-power withdrawal of electronic media, objects or documents relevant to a criminal case. Pages 172 to 180




Household and Trade Vocabulary of the Kamchatka Dialect as a Result of Interlingual and Intercultural Interaction

Grigorenko Natalya Alexandrovnaa, Kargina Anna Petrovnab, Malozemlina Oksana Vladimirovnac, a,b,cPhD in Philology, Associate Professor of the Department of Russian Philology FSBEI HE "Vitus Bering Kamchatka State University", Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Email: akamgulib@mail.rubannakarg@mail.rucmalozemlina_ov@mail.ru

The relevance of the study is due to the increased interest of linguists in studying the concept of language as a cultural-historical environment. This was advanced by ancient thinkers, which was further substantiated in the works of Humbolt, according to whom the study of language should be made subordinate to the highest principle; comprehension of ‘the people’s spirit’. The lexicon of the Kamchadal language (a special ethnic group formed as a result of interethnic assimilation of the peoples of the Kamchatka Peninsula with the Russians) is the history of the peoples of Kamchatka, not only linguistic, but also every day and cultural history, which is of interest to the researcher due to the exclusivity of the material recorded from living witnesses of the era. In this regard, this paper is aimed at revealing the uniqueness of the lexicon of the Kamchatka dialect based on the material of trade and household vocabulary, which has certain specifics due to the peculiarities of climatic and geographical living conditions of the Kamchadals, as well as due to special historical conditions for the formation of their language. The leading method to the study this problem is a method of scientific description, implemented in the techniques of a component, word-formation, and etymological analysis. The paper presents the results of the study of household and trade vocabulary functioning in the Kamchatka dialect. Through the dialect word, the specifics of the language representation of the surrounding reality by dialect speakers are revealed. A large volume of dialect vocabulary that has not been previously noted in regional dictionaries is analysed. The materials of the paper are of practical value for linguists, historians, ethnographers, and cultural scientists. Pages 181 to 196




The Motivation of Political Elite Communities in the Context of Global Transformations

Кarabushenko Pavel Leonidovicha, Gainutdinova Ekaterina Valerievnab, Remizova Irina Vladimirovnac, aDoctor of Philosophy, Professor of the Department of political science and international relations. Astrakhan State University. 414056, Russia, Astrakhan, Tatishchev street, 20A, bCandidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor. Astrakhan State Technical University. 414025, Russia, Astrakhan, Tatishchev street,16, csenior lecturer of the Foreign Language Department. Astrakhan State Technical University. 414025, Russia, Astrakhan, Tatishchev street, 16, Email: apavel_karabushenko@mail.rubgainutdinova.ekaterina@mail.rucvremizov55@mail.ru

The relevance of this research is that it analyses the crisis state of modern political elite communities facing the transformation of industrialisation in post-industrial structures in the face of growing global trends. The purpose of the article is to analyse changes in the motivation of political elite communities in the context of increasing post-industrial trends and global transformations. The leading approach in the study of this problem is to experience the elite science which allows the identification of the informal (meaningful) problems of the elite. The main methods of such deep penetration into the psychology of behaviour of the elites are methods, such as dialectics, hermeneutics, comparative studies, psychoanalysis, historicism, structural-functional method, etc. It becomes possible to reveal the motivation of behaviour of the subjects of elite communities and their leaders with their help. Among the main and basic motives of the behaviours of the modern political elites are those related to safeguarding, proof of superiority and confirmation of cogency of their professionalism. But the main problem of the elites is that they are most often connected with the positive statement of these tasks and the solution to these problems which depends on how the elite is able to respond to the challenge of their historical era. Political elites and their leaders are very serious toward the limits of their freedom and do not allow any revision. Any infringement of their privileges is regarded by them as a violation of state sovereignty. The data presented in the article can be used in system diagnostics and axiological assessment of professional competences of political elites and their leaders. Pages 197 to 206




Women as the ‘Other’ in Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises

Marwan Harb Alqaryoutia, Hanita Hanim Ismailb, aDepartment of English Language, Literature and Translation, Zarqa University, Zarqa,  Jordan, bCentre of English Language Studies Faculty of Languages and Communication Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: amalqaryouti@gmail.combhanitaismail@unisza.edu.my

This paper examines Hemingway's depiction of Brett Ashley and Jake Barnes in his The Sun Also Rises (1926) by using Simone de Beauvoir’s existentialist feminism. De Beauvoir's theory is employed to decide if the female character is depicted as ‘other’ or not? It is also used to analyse these characters from a gender-based point of view. This analysis showed evidence of female empowerment against male dominance and orientates the readers to examine the two characters on the aspect of subversion of gender roles. In doing so, this paper maintains the essence of de Beauvoir’s idea within the novel where women have to focus on themselves and should have their own choices, regardless of any external forces that subdue these women into performing an assigned, stereotypical gender role. Accordingly, women have to follow their inner personal desire to achieve this goal and make their own decisions.  This can be achieved only if they neglect the external forces that limit their choices.  The paper found out that Brett is depicted as a powerful subject, which enables her to have sufficiency of power at deciding her own way of living. Whereas Jake is portrayed as an impotent man who is powerless and accordingly neglected as the ‘other’.  Pages 207 to 217




Measuring Creativity and Risk-Taking Levels in an English Language Camp

Hanita Hanim bt Ismaila, Zurina Khairuddinb*, Jamal Ahmed Bashier Badic, a,bCentre of English Language Studies, Faculty of Languages and Communication, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) Malaysia, cKulliyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Email: b*zkzurina@unisza.edu.my

Second language camps are popular among campers for first-hand experiences with language. This study identifies levels of risk-taking among Diploma of Teaching English as Second Language (TESL) students across gender and creativity. Ninety-three students participated in a twelve-day language camp, and by the end of the camp, they were required to perform a sketch, assessing their creativity in language learning. A modified version of DOSPERT (2003) consisting of 40 items including two items on demographic details, were used to analyse the data through SPSS and presented it in the form of frequency, means, and standard deviation. Results showed that these students were not likely to take risks to do high-risk activities. Neither is there any significant difference in taking risks based on gender nor creativity. As such, it is suggested that language camps should conduct activities which help develop students’ higher levels of risk-taking and creativity.  Pages 218 to 236




The Development of Critical Thinking Skills in Vocational High School Students in Indonesia

Johar Maknuna, aUniversitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung,  Indonesia, Email: ajoharmaknun@upi.edu

This research was conducted at a vocational high school in the City of Bandung, Indonesia. It involved 68 students aged 15 to 17 years old, 27 of whom were female and 42 were male. The purpose of this research was to measure the critical thinking skills of vocational high school students. Critical thinking skills were measured by a Physics test concerning the kinematics concept in the form of a 5- (five) answer-option multiple-choice test. The results showed that the critical thinking skills of the vocational high school students applying the multiple representations approach in their Physics learning are better than those using the conventional approach. The critical thinking skill aspects investigated included elementary clarification, basic support, inference, advanced clarification, and strategies and tactics. The critical thinking skills of the vocational high school students engaged in the Physics learning activity applying the multiple representations approach indicate that this approach to Physics learning is able to improve higher-order thinking skills. Pages 237 to 258




 The Effect of Financial Performance, Service and Product Innovation on the Survival of Small Businesses Mediated by TAM

Assed Lussaka, Edi Abdurachmanb, Idris Gautama Soc, Rini Setiowatid, aPhD Candidate,DRM Programme at Bina Nusantara University, bGraduate Program Director at Bina Nusantara University, cBekasi Campus Director at Bina Nusantara University, dDean of Business School Master Program at Bina Nusantara University, Email: aassedlussakbinus@gmail.combedia@binus.educigautama@binus.edudrsetiowati@binus.edu

Small businesses in the food and beverage sector are currently experiencing rapid development, including in Indonesia. Unfortunately, many of these small businesses cannot survive for long. In Indonesia alone, a three and a half year survival rate is set by the Ministry of Cooperatives and Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) (KUKM) for someone to be called an entrepreneur. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of financial performance and service and product innovation on the survival of small businesses mediated by TAM. The method of this research is a quantitative approach using SEM Lisrel. The sample of this research is food and beverage SMEs in Jabotabek by selecting purposive samples obtained from 200 respondents. The results of this study are based on the results of the analysis and discussion found that the variable Financial Performance proved to have a positive effect on Business Survival. Variable Service and Product Innovations proved to have a positive effect on Survival Enterprises and TAM has a moderate effect on the performance of finance and product innovation and services to survive SMEs. Pages 259 to 275




Arrest as a Form of Punishment: Criminal Law and Criminal Executive Aspects Prosecutor Supervision

Dalmatov Kanataya, Maxatov Nurzhanb, Akimbekova Saidac, Userova Aiguld, aDoctoral student of the Central Asian University, bDoctoral student of the Caspian University, cDoctor of Law, Associate Professor of the Caspian University, dDoctor PhD., Associate Professor of the Central Asian University, Email: adalkanatay@mail.rubnureke259@mail.rucasaida74@mail.rudaiguluser@mail.ru

The relevance of the topic of the article is determined by the imperfection of the legal regulation of the appointment and execution of punishment in the form of arrest in the criminal and criminal-executive legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the novelty of the said legislation. In this connection, there is a need for a comprehensive assessment of public relations arising in the process of setting and executing punishment in the form of arrest and determining the legal nature of this punishment, which forms the basis for the emergence of legal relations on the fact of criminal offense committed by the guilty. The authors of this article came to the conclusion that arrest, as a new type of punishment, which is hardly applicable in practice due to a number of circumstances, requires more detailed regulation in the criminal and criminal-executive legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Further improvement of these types of legislation will allow the use of this type of punishment in preventing criminal offenses and increasing the effectiveness of the correction of the convicted person. Pages 276 to 291



Ultimate Product of Society

Viktor I. Kulika*, Ivan V. Kulikb, a,bPacific National University, Khabarovsk, Russia, E-mail: a*Kulik.36@mail.ru

Problem statement: Nowadays, there is a search at all levels for a new path of economic development in Russia. We hope that our research will help it. Research objective: To show the main productive forces of society: capital and labour, workers and peasants. To recall that "the concept of value is the secret of capital", and the "concept of product is the secret of wealth", and to attract the attention of economists to this problem. Research methods: The research method is heuristic. We rely on the experience of our predecessors and the “labour theory of value and surplus value”, “namely – basis” theory (K. Marx), built on the development of the economic process, driven by its own energy”. Research results: The structure of a work day is considered from the point of “necessary and surplus product and its cost”, two sections of social production, productive capital and social income, and the concepts of “productive force” and “labour productivity” are defined. “Profit law” and “Social production efficiency law” were given in details. Formulated the unknown “law of the proportional development of social production on the example of changing the structure of the final product of society”. Practical implications: Considered: mediator between the natural world and humanity - the means of labour or "fixed capital" of society, as the productive force of social labour, and the mediator within society - value in the form of money, explaining labour productivity and structural changes in society. Pages 292 to 311


The Russian Government Resettlement Policy and Development Features of Russian-German Relations in the 19th – Early 20th Centuries

Elena Vladimirovna Malyshkinaa, Natalia Yurievna Klimovab, Olga Vasilevna Antselevichc, Irina Alekseevna Bondard, Marianna Viktorovna Dahrendorfe, a,b,cFederal Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education “North-Caucasus Federal University, d,eThe Branch of the State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education, Email: asoft_25@mail.ru,  bnazar11081@mail.ru,  cancelevich@mail.ru,  dSloikin89@rambler.ru,  ehistory-yesspi@mail.ru

Polyethnicity is a distinctive feature of the population in the south of Russia. It has been forming for several centuries. Representatives of Russian ethnos, Indigenous people, and people from eastern and western countries settled in this territory as a result of colonisation processes. They took part in the development of this territory and the realisation of its potential. The relocation to this territory was not accompanied for everyone by a transition to Russian citizenship. The nationality of the German immigrants, as well as ethnicity, was not unified but still foreigners became its integral element in the process of forming its population. Pages 312 to 326
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